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ST.THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES. AUGUSTINE. DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Kirk Woo Chong 809003758 Group: J CVNG 2005 – MECHANICS OF FLUIDS II – EXPERIMENT 1: HYDRAULIC JUMP .

.............3 Equipment.......................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents OBJECTIVES.....................3 Method...............................................................................................................................................................................................................5 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS.............................................................................11 GRAPH 1 ..9 DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS.........................................11 Hydraulic Jump Classification and Stability...........................................................................................................3 PROCEDURE....................................................................................................................................11 GRAPH 2 ........................11 Practical Applications of Hydraulic Jumps.............................13 REFERENCES .........3 INTRODUCTION.....................................................4 RESULTS................................................13 REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................................ΔE vs Upstream Froude Number Analysis......................................4 THEORY...............................................................................................................................................Jump Length vs Upstream Froude Number Analysis.........................................12 Errors & Precautions......................................................13 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................

Demonstrate that hydraulic jumps are difficult to stabilize in a fixed flume length. in which case the wave velocity.OBJECTIVES I. Observe that energy dissipation is a function of the upstream and downstream depths and hence Froude numbers. through which the depth of flow increases. Essentially. a sluice gate and a weir so that a shallow and rapid supercritical flow develops upstream as well as subcritical flow due to the back up of flow. 2006). c may be zero. is known as a hydraulic jump (Massey. the experiment involves simulating a hydraulic jump in a hydraulic channel by adjusting the flow rate. INTRODUCTION For a positive wave travelling upstream in a horizontal channel the wave may be stationary relative to the bed of the channel. IV. This stationary surge wave. III. PROCEDURE Equipment ○ Hydraulic Channel ○ Depth Gauge ○ Flowmeter ○ Stopwatch . Qualitatively understand and observe translations in the location of a hydraulic jump. A hydraulic jump would then form at the transition where measurements can thus be taken. II. Experience taking experimental measurements and appreciate the inherent error in comparison to theoretical calculations.

2. FIGURE 1 . Because of this. THEORY The hydraulic jump itself is caused by a sudden dissipation of energy as a result of a change from supercritical to subcritical or from very fast to slow flow. The time taken for two revolutions on the flowmeter was noted. Hence. there is significant turbulence and eddy formation causing the mechanical energy in the system to be reduced. hydraulic jumps are used in the reduction of unwanted energy to reduce scour of channels. Hence for the upstream flow the Froude number is greater than 1 and for the downstream flow the Froude number is less than 1. and an average of two readings was taken.Method 1. 3. 5. The flow rate and tailgate elevation was set so that a stable hydraulic jump occurred about midway through the channel. The depth of flow in front of and behind the hydraulic jump as well as the corresponding length of the jump was measured. This phenomenon may be observed when the liquid passes through a flood gate or entering a channel through a spillway. there is a decrease in both the specific energy and total energy after the jump. All relevant dimensions of the flume equipment were measured. This would occur when the depth of the liquid is less than the critical depth before the jump and greater than critical depth after it. 4. As a result of the jump. Steps 1 to 4 were then repeated for three other discharge values.

0113 Upstrea m Velocity.38 TABLE 1 showing the data obtained from the experiment Jump Number 1 2 3 4 Discharge.040 1. 1 2 3 4 Upstream Cross Sectional Area / m2 0.1009 0.8692 0.RESULTS Time for 2 Jump Number 1 2 3 4 Upstream Depth.1401 0. Q / m3s-1 0.0504 Downstream Depth.0955 0.67 20.6127 0.1607 0.0173 0.0050 0.740 1.406 0.0492 0.0175 0.Energy / 1 J 0.0142 0.2121 0. q / m2s-1 0.0102 0.0163 0. V Length / m / m3 0.330 0.0185 TABLE 3 showing velocity and energy data .178 0. Dc / m 0. t/s 19.0068 Specific Discharge.1111 Jump Volume.0907 0.2 0.0770 TABLE 2 showing calculated values for depth and discharges Jum p No.0492 0. vu / ms-1 2.865 1.2 0. vd / ms-1 0.9782 0.0906 Downstrea m Kinetic Energy / J 0.0669 Critical Depth.5829 0.9950 0.0050 0.1726 0. Dd / m 0.0052 0.333 Downstrea m Velocity.1004 0.6018 Critical Upstrea Velocity m Kinetic .1543 0. Du / m 0.08 29.0514 0.0191 0.1773 0.508 0.0856 0.2 0.5951 0.0051 Downstrea m Cross Sectional Area / m2 0. vc / ms.67 23.9441 0.0087 0.0097 0.2 Revolutions.0181 0.0976 0.

2 4 12. Mu / kgms-2 20.747 4. Esu / J 0. Esd / J 0.772 5.064 Downstrea m Momentum . Esu / J 0.14 9.6 2 15.0395 0.16 17.214 5.81 18.Jump Numbe r 1 2 3 4 Specific Energy Upstream.1395 0. ΔE / J 0.4480 0.158 Critic al Force .100 2.4 0 16. Fc / kgms2 Upstream Momentu m.09 15.311 1. Fu / kgms-2 1.261 Force Downstrea m.2035 0. Ec / J 0.2287 0.82 12.505 Energy Loss.05 9.2613 0.626 2.86 6 TABLE 5 showing the forces and momentum Jump Number 1 2 3 Upstream Froude Number 2.489 8.955 5.0553 0.074 4.1155 Energy Loss.626 2.1592 0.936 2.0100 Froude Number Upstream 2.1410 Specific Energy Downstream.2287 0.1780 0.27 13.1899 0.0272 0.3 1 8. Mc / kgms-2 10.0 2 19. Fd / kgms-2 14.1 6 10.37 Classificatio n Oscillating Jump Oscillating Jump Weak Jump .5764 TABLE 4 showing energy and energy loss as well as the Froude numbers Jum p 1 2 3 4 Force Upstrea m.0395 0.0553 0.330 4.207 1.2 5 15.092 22.505 1.207 1. Md / kgms2 Critical Momentu m.1464 0.5226 0.7 7 18.1 2 14.946 5.896 Froude Number Downstream 0. ΔE / J 0.3 5 10.1514 0.85 9.911 Fu + Fd + Fc + Mu / Md / Mc / kgms kgms kgms -2 -2 -2 5.1296 Critical Specific Energy.827 6.2613 0.0272 Specific Energy Upstream.4740 0.936 2.2035 Energy Dissipation / % 21.3 3 20.

04 ms-1 .1004 m2s-1 Critical depth.2 m3 Discharge. therefore they were multiplied by 0. q = Qb = 0.0102 / 0. A = width of channel x depth of flow = 0. Dc = 3q2g = 30.0254 to convert it to meters. Jump 1 = measured height of water – measured height of channel = 0.0100 0.0102 / 0. Q = Vt = 0.1670 m = 0.2 / 19.0492 = 0.0492 m Volume.100429.1016 = 0.212 m – 0.1410 7.67 = 0.81 = 0. V = 100 L per revolution.896 0. v = QA = 0.1009 m Cross sectional area.09 Weak Jump TABLE 6 showing the Hydraulic Jump Classification SAMPLE CALCULATIONS All values obtained were in inches.005 = 2.1016 x 0.GRAPH 3 4 1.0102 m3s-1 Specific discharge. 2 revolutions would be equal to 200 L = 0.005 m2 Velocity. Depth of water for eg.

0492) = 2.0492 x 0.1009 = 0.81 kgms-2 Measured height of channel = 0.62 = 0.01020. M = ρQv = 1000 x 0. E = D + V22g = 0.0492 + 4. ke = v22g = 2.2613 J Energy Loss.9950 ms-1 Kinetic energy.042 x 9.2121 J Specific Energy.1016 m .04 / √(9. vc = Qb x Dc = 0.1670 m Measured width of channel = 0.1016 x 0.10092 / 2 = 5.16219.Critical velocity.074 N Momentum. F = ρgbD2 / 2 = 1000 x 9.81 x 0.0553 J Froude Number = vgD = 2.04 = 20.0492)3 / (4 x 0.1726 – 0.1016 x 0.0102 x 2.81 = 0.81 x 0. ΔE = (Dd-Du)34DuDd = (0.936 Force.1726) = 0.

Jump Length vs Upstream Froude Number Analysis This graph showed that there was a linear increase of the jump length as the upstream Froude number increased. This may have been due to the method of measurement for the experiment which relies greatly on human averaging and good sense. Theoretically the increased velocity would cause the Froude number to increase making the flow more critical.0 – 1. so did the energy loss associated with the system. the theory and experimental data is supportive of each other. Hydraulic Jump Classification and Stability Name Undular jump F1 1. and thus may be considered erroneous since it does not fit the recognized trend of the results. This would influence the distance the liquid would travel since velocity is also a function of the displacement. the second point showed a greater deviation to the line of best fit than the others. GRAPH 2 . For both graphs. Hence the experimental data held true to the theory. Theory suggests that both the Froude number and specific energy are a function of the velocity in the system as seen in the equations Fr = vgh and E = h+v22g.DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS GRAPH 1 . Also.7 Energy Dissipitation < 5% . Again. there was more energy dissipated as the jumps got more energetic (both total and specific energy). leaving a greater allowance for human error. since the Froude number increased. Increased velocities caused both the Froude number and specific energy to increase.ΔE vs Upstream Froude Number Analysis The graph plotted from the experimental data showed that as the upstream Froude number increased.

5 – 4.0 > 9.505 (oscillating jump) but the energy dissipation 13. To maintain high water levels in channels for irrigation purposes. To remove air pockets from water supply lines. Since the upstream Froude number was marginally close to a weak jump and the energy dissipation was well within weak jump criteria. There were difficulties in obtaining a stable hydraulic jump in the centre of the channel since slight variations in the flow rate would have a delayed effect on the position of the jump and obtaining the right conditions for the jump were tricky.0 5 – 15% 15 – 45% 45 – 70% 70 – 85% TABLE 6 showing the characteristics of hydraulic jump (USBR 1995) [1] Table 6 shows the criteria to which the results of the hydraulic jump were classified.5 2. Factors affecting the stability of the jump included the flow rate. dams and other hydraulic structures by dissipating the energy.5 – 9. Jump 4 was easily classified as a weak jump however jump 3 there was some debate since the upstream Froude number was 2. FIGURE 2 .Weak jump Oscillating jump Steady jump Strong jump 1. Practical Applications of Hydraulic Jumps • • • • • As a measure to reduce scour downstream of weirs. To aerate water for city water supplies.7 – 2.37% fitted a weak jump.5 4. To mix chemicals used for water purification. Jumps 1 and 2 clearly fitted the characteristics of an oscillating jump in both upstream Froude number and energy dissipation. position of the sluice gate as well as the friction due to the hydraulic channel. it was classified as a weak jump.

It was assumed that the density was for pure water however it should be noted the water in the experiment was brown indicating it may have contained other substances and impurities which may have caused erroneous momentum and energy values.One such example is at St. inclusive of stabilizing the jump in a fixed flume length. the Froude number increased and more energy was dissipated. Errors & Precautions • In determining the actual positions of the beginning and end of the jump as well as the length of the jump there was no specific methodology used except “good judgement”. It was also observed that as the depth decreased upstream. • • • • • Error due to parallax in reading the vernier scale and flow guage. • There were addition energy losses (however minor) due to friction. Reaction time error in obtaining the time for flow rate. This may have contributed to human errors. The flow may not have been fully stabilized when the readings were taken. Anthony Falls on the Mississippi River where the hydraulic jump is used to prevent scour on the channel bed. . however was comparable to theoretical calculations. the method of obtaining the jump parameters and not being able to account for additional energy losses. Inserting of the depth gauge into the flow may have caused the jump to shift along the channel. CONCLUSION Within the limits of experimental error. it was found that the experimental approach to the hydraulic jump phenomenon was not without errors and difficulties.

Taylor & Francis . Taylor & Francis. 2004.REFERENCES • • Borthwick. 2006.. Hydraulics in Civil and Environmental Engineering. Massey. Mechanics of Fluids. Chadwick. J. Morfett. M. Bernard. A..

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