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# E.

P
Geometrical Considerations

Cumulative frequency
distribution of measured
Parts of a bench bench face angles (Call, 1986).

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Geometrical Considerations

## Functioning of catch benches.

Section through a working bench.

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Geometrical Considerations

Double benches at final pit limits. Catch bench geometry (Call, 1986).

## Typical catch bench design dimensions (Call, 1986).

Bench height Impact zone Berm height Berm width Minimum bench width
(m) (m) (m) (m) (m)
15 3.5 1.5 4 7.5
30 4.5 2 5.5 10
45 5 3 8 13

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Geometrical Considerations

## Safety berms at bench edge

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Geometrical Considerations

Height of reach as a
function of bucket
size.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Blast design for

the ramp
excavation.

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Shovel Working Range

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Geometrical Considerations

## Minimum width drop cut

geometry with shovel
alternating from side to side.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Minimum width drop cut

geometry with shovel
alternating from side to side.

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Geometrical Considerations

Diagrammatic
representation of the
expanding mining front.

## Isometric view of the ramp in

waste approaching the
orebody.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Dropcut / ramp placement in ore. Expansion of the mining front.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Plan view of an actual pit bottom

Showing drop cut and mining
Expansion (McWilliams, 1959).

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Geometrical Considerations

## Extension of the current

Ramp close to the pit wall
(McWilliams, 1959).

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Geometrical Considerations

benches.

## Shovel cut sequence when

initiating benching in a hilly
Sidehill cut with a shovel. terrain (Nichols, 1956).
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Geometrical Considerations

## Detailed steps in the

development of a
new production level.

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Geometrical Considerations

Parallel cut
with drive by.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Parallel cut with

the double
spotting of trucks.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Parallel cut with

the single spotting
of trucks.

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Geometrical Considerations

Time sequence
showing shovel
spotting.

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Geometrical Considerations

Time sequence
showing shovel
spotting.

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Geometrical Considerations

(Continued).
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Geometrical Considerations

(Continued).
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Geometrical Considerations

## Simplified presentation of a safety berm.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Cut mining from bench 2.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Safety bench geometry

showing bench face angle.

## Overall slope angle.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Interramp slope angles.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Overall slope angle with

Working bench included.

## Interramp angles associated with

the working bench.
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Geometrical Considerations

## Overall slope angle with

one working bench an a ramp section.

## Interramp slope angles for a slope containing

a working bench and a ramp.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Overall slope angle for a

slope containing two
working benches.

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Geometrical Considerations

## Slopes for each working group.

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Geometrical Considerations

Final overall
pit slope.

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THANKS