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Process Systems

Process System – Introduction


A machine working in a mineral process flow cannot perform better then the
process environment will allow it to.
Parameters like type, size and amount of feed, % solids in slurries, additives,
discharge conditions etc. will always guide equipment performance and operation
economy.
There is a strong trend amongst both suppliers and users to work in terms of
systems, meaning solutions to various operation problems more than installing
equipment. This will effectively increase the operation values as presented in
section 2.9
Examples covering systems levels and system modules are shown in this section.

System Levels in Ore / Minerals Processing

Mineral concentrate production


Complete
systems

Added operation values


Comminution circuits Separation circuits Dewatering circuits
Process
systems

Crushing Grinding Separation Thickening Filtration


Product
systems

Crushers Grinding mills Separators Thickeners Filters


Products

System Levels in Rock Processing (Quarrying)

Aggregate production
Complete systems
Added operation values

Crushing and screening circuits


Process systems
Process System

Crushing Screening Conveying

Product
systems

Crushers Screens Conveyors


Products

BASICS IN MINERAL PROCESSING Product Handbook 11:1


Process Systems

System Modules – Aggregates


A good way to understand and work with process systems is to use system
modules in various combinations.

Primary crushing module Intermediate crushing module


From rock front Closed 1

Screening
Feeding
7:5 4:2 Closed II

Crushing
II, III or IV
3:8
Crushing
Screening
Scalping 3:3 Open
4:2

Final products module Slurry handling module


Recycled
process
Classification water
Washing 4:6
5:1
Sedimentation
Sand
6:2
Product Filtration
To slurry screening
circuit 4:2 6:19

System Modules – Sand and Gravel


Sand and gravel module Sand and gravel module

Water
Coarse Washing
Screening
Process System

(Aquamator)
4:2 Medium
coarse 5:1
Washing
(Aquamator) Classifiying
Fines 5:1 4:6
Washing Sandtrap
(Log washer)
5:1
To sand
module Slurry module
To slurry handling

= option or alternative

7:5 = refering to actual chapters and pages

11:2 Product Handbook BASICS IN MINERAL PROCESSING


Process Systems
System Modules – Ore and Minerals
Crushing module
Options
ROM
Primary Secondary Grinding
crushing crushing Screening
3:3 3:8 4:2

Grinding module

Primary Secondary Tertiary


grinding grinding Classification grinding
3:13 3:3 4:6 3:13

Enrichment module Upgrading module

Wet Tailings
Primary Sedimentation
separation Sedimentation
5:5 6:2
6:2

Secondary Dewatering
separaton
5:5 Tailings Tailings 6:2
dry disposal

Final Drying
separation Wet Concentrate

5:5 6:47
Optional

Dry conc. Dry tailings Conc.

= option or alternative

7:5 = refering to actual chapters and pages


Process System

BASICS IN MINERAL PROCESSING Product Handbook 11:3


Process Systems
Process system – Railway Ballast

Primary crushing module Secondary crushing module

Feeder Primary Screen Secondary Screen


(Grizzly) crusher 18 mm crusher 35 - 64 mm
7:6 3:3 4:2 3:8 4:2

Scalping

0 - 18 mm 0 - 35 mm

Primary crushing module


35 - 64 mm
Water recovery

Washing Wash Slurry


screen handling
water
5:2 5:4
Chips &
fines

RW-ballast Washing module

Process Systems – Asphalt / Concrete Ballast


Primary crushing module Secondary crushing module

Feeder Primary Screen Secondary Screen


(Grizzly) crusher crusher
7:6 3:3 4:2 3:8 4:2

Scalping
Process System

Tertiary Screen Screen


crusher Final products Final products
3:10 4:2 4:2

12 - 16 mm 0 - 2 mm
2 - 4 mm
16 - 22 mm 4 - 8 mm
+ 22 mm 8 - 12 mm

Tertiary crushing Final products module


module

= option or alternative

7:5 = referring to actual chapters and pages

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Process Systems
Process System – Ferrous Ore (hosting apatite)

SIZE REDUCTION
Optional

ROM
Primary Secondary Screening Primary Secondary Classification
crushing crushing grinding grinding
3:3 3:8 4:2 3:13 3:13 4:6
Gyr. jaw Cone AG, SAG, Rod Ball, Pebble Spiral/Cyclone

ENRICHMENT & UPGRADING

Tailings
LIMS wet HGMS Sedimentation
5:24 5:31 6:3 Tailing
Fe conc. Fe conc. Conventional. disposal
Flotation Flotation Sedimentation Dewatering
Apatite
removal 5:13 5:18 6:11 6:30 Apatite conc.
Fe conc. final Fe conc. final Inclined plate Pressure filtration
Conventional Sedimentation Sedimentation
6:2 6:2

Pressure Dewatering Dewatering


filtration
6:30 6:30
Pelletizing (optional)
6:55
Iron conc.

Process System – Base Metal Ore


SIZE REDUCTION
Optional

ROM
Primary Secondary Screening Primary Secondary Classification
crushing crushing grinding grinding
3:3 3:8 4:2 3:13 3:13 4:6
Gyr. jaw Cone AG, SAG, Rod Ball, Pebble Spiral/Cyclone

ENRICHMENT & UPGRADING


Primary Cu flot.
Tailings
5:13
Fe conc.
Primary Pb flot.
Regrind 5:13
Primary Zn flot
3:13
Process System

Fe conc. final
Regrind 5:13
Final flotation
3:13
Sedimentation
Regrind Conventional
5:17 6:3
Final flotation 3:13
Sedimentation 5:13
Conventional Tailings disposal
Pb conc. final Final flotation
5:3
Sedimentation 5:13
Pressure Dewatering 6:3 Zn conc. final Dewatering
filtration Sedimentation 6:30
6:30
Dewatering 6:3 Pressure filtration Zn conc.
6:30 Conventional.
Cu conc. Pressure filtration Pb conc.

= option or alternative ’ :5 = referring to actual chapters and pages


BASICS IN MINERAL PROCESSING Product Handbook 11:5
Process Systems
Process System – Gold Bearing Ore
SIZE REDUCTION
Optional

ROM
Primary Secondary Screening Primary Secondary Classification
crushing crushing grinding grinding
3:3 3:8 4:2 3:13 3:13 4:6
Gyr. jaw Cone AG, SAG, Rod Ball, Pebble Spiral/Cyclone

Gravity
Coarse separation
ENRICHMENT & UPGRADING free gold 5:8
Recovery by flotation Recovery by flotation
Lime
Carbon
Tailings Cyanide
Primary flot.
5:13
Sedimentation Leaching stages Gold contained
in loaded carbon
Regrind 6:3 5:43
3:13 Mixers
Disposal
Adsorption stages
Final flot. 5:43
5:13 Mixers Tailings
Conc. final Final
Sedimentation Dewatering tailings
Sedimentation Dewatering
6:3 6:30 6:11 6:23
Pressure filter Gold contained Inclined plate
in bulk concentre

Process System – Coal


ROM
Separation Float
Media Screen Sizing Screen 12 - 125 mm
Dense Media
5:6 5:12 4:2
Sink 0 - 12 mm

Media Screen Dewatering 0.5 - 12 mm


Screen
Coarse
tailings 5:12 6:21
- 0.5 mm
Heavy media recovery Blending
and
storage

Recycle
Process System

water Fine tailings


Flotation

5:13
Dewatering
Sedimentation - 0.5 clean coal
6:23
6:3 Vacuum filter

Drying
Tailings
- 0.5 mm
6:48
Indirect

= option or alternative

7:5 = referring to actual chapters and pages

11:6 Product Handbook BASICS IN MINERAL PROCESSING


Process Systems
Process System – Industrial Mineral Fillers
SIZE REDUCTION
Fine grinding (small tonnages)

ROM Primary Secondary Screening 2 - 6 mm Grinding Classifying


crushing crushing 4:2
3:8 3:3 4:17
3:3
Jaw Cone AG, SAG, Ball, Rod
15 30 mm VTM, SAM; VBM
Dry processing Wet processing

Grinding
ENRICHMENT & UPGRADING tumbling
Optional 3:13
Grinding
tumbling
3:13 Classification
4:6
Classification
4:17
Magnetic Sep. Flotation
HGMS
Fe 5:31 5:13 Other
Fe rejects Magnetic rejects rejects
separation
5:28
Optional
Sedimentation
5:3

Dewatering
6:38
Tube press

Process System – Glass Sand


SIZE REDUCTION

Primary Secondary Screening Grinding Screening


Silica
rock crushing crushing
3:3 3:8 3:2 3:13 3:2
AG, SAG, Rod, Ball -750
Jaw Cone micron
Silica Dry processing
sand

ENRICHMENT & UPGRADING

Classification Polishing Classification Magnetic Flotation


spiral scrubber spiral separation
4:6 5:3 4:6 5:22 5:13
Process System

Slime Slime
-100 micron -100 micron Iron removal

Fe, Al, Cr bearing with minerals

Reject water Dewatering

6:21
Sedimentation

6:3 Clean sand


100-750 micron

Tilings disposal

= option or alternative

7:5 = referring to actual chapters and pages

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Process Systems
Process System – Diamonds (Kimberlite)

Primary Scrubber Screen Secondary


crushing crusher
3:3 5:3 4:2 3:8
Jaw Tumbling Cone

Screen Sink Gravity sep. Float Screen


Dense media
2-3%
5:12 5:10 5:12
Diamond After
sorting treatment
Drying Recovery of heavy media

6:48
Screen
Magnetic Iron reject
4:12
separation Fines
5:22 1-6 mm

Recrushing
X-ray Non iron reject VSI
separation 3:10
Alternatively - AG milling - no crushing

Diamonds

Process System – Kaolin


H20

Dry Scrubbing
mining (blunging)
5:3

Wet hydraulic Classification Classification Thickening


mining spiral cyclones
4:6 4:6 6:2
Coarse waste
sand, mica a.o.
Medium waste
sand, mica a.o.

Optional for
Fine waste Flotation Ultra fine increasing the
grinding percentage
sand, mica a.o. 5:13 3:17 of -2 micron
Process System

material
Tailings
17% H2O

Dewatering
tube press
6:38

Products: Kaolin “Filler”, 45% -2 micron


Kaolin “Coating”, 90% -2 micron 17% H2O

= option or alternative

7:5 = referring to actual chapters and pages

11:8 Product Handbook BASICS IN MINERAL PROCESSING


Process Systems
Mobile Systems
In modern quarrying, mining, tunnelling and recycling operations the use of mobile
process systems is increasing dramatically.
Particularly at rock front operations the technique of “moving the process equip-
ment closer to the front end” using mobile crushing and screening units in many
cases gives remarkable cost savings.
These mobile units represent one or more complete machine functions including
materials handling, power supply etc. Advanced process control secures the
“intelligence” of the system.

Mobile Crushing and Conveying System

Key arguments for mobile equipment vs stationary equipment and damp truck
haulage are:
• Less hauling – less costs
Process System

• Less front road maintenance


• Less exhaust gas and dust emissions
• Improved working safety
• Improved flexibility

BASICS IN MINERAL PROCESSING Product Handbook 11:9


Process Systems
Primary Jaw Crusher + Grizzly (typical)

Type* Max feed/product size Cap. tph H/W/L m (ft) Weight ton
mm (in)
LT110 670 / 250 (26/10) 700 4.4/3.0/17.4 (14.5/9.1/57.0) 60
LT125 800 / 300 (31/12) 800 5.7/4.0/15.8(18.6/15.2/51.1) 86
LT140 900 / 350 (35/14) 1200 6.3/4.3/16.4(20.8/14.1/53.1) 110
LT160 1040/ 400 (41/16) 2000 7.6/5.9/20.2(25.0/19.3/66.7) 220

*LT110 refers to Jaw crusher type C110, LT125 to Jaw crusher type C125 etc. see further section 3.

Primary Impact Crusher + Grizzly (typical)


Process System

Type* Max feed/product size Cap. thp H/W/L m (ft) Weight ton
mm (in)
LT1415 1000/200 (40/8) 800 5.4/4.0/15.8 (17.7/13.1/51.1) 73
LT1620 1300/200 (52/8) 1200 6.5/4.8/18.5 (21.3/15.7/60.7) 170

*LT 1415 refers to Impact crusher type NP1415, LT 1620 to Impact crusher type NP1620 etc. see further
section 3.

11:10 Product Handbook BASICS IN MINERAL PROCESSING


Process Systems
Caravan Mill – A pre-assembled Ore Concentrating Plant

1
5 4
3
2

Typical units at approx. 10 t/h capacity


1.Crushing unit
Jaw- and cone crusher in closed circuit with a double deck screen
Weight app. 19 ton, transportation measures W= 2,6m, H= 4.2m

2. Grinding unit
Grinding mill (ball or rod), pump and hydrocyclone
Weight app. 25 ton, transportation measures W= 3,0m, H= 3,8m

3.Separation unit (flotation)


Rougher, scavenger and cleaner cells together with conditioners, reagent
Process System

feeding systems and air blower.


Weight app.14ton, transportation measures W= 2,5m, H= 4.2m
Units for leaching and gravity separation (dense media, tables and spirals) also
available

4.Dewatering unit
Compact sedimentation (lamella unit) and vacuum filter with auxiliary equipment

5. Power unit
Diesel driven generator including connection terminal
Transportation measures W= 2,5m, H= 3.8m

BASICS IN MINERAL PROCESSING Product Handbook 11:11