University of Central Oklahoma | College of Liberal Arts
Internetworked Social Media and Campaign Fundraising: A Review of Literature and Case Study
Citizen Use of Internetworked Social Media to Increase Social Capital and Foster Cooperative and Collaborative Democratic Systems of Governance
Amanda Snipes | firstname.lastname@example.org 12/6/2010
Be not the slave of your own past. Plunge into the sublime seas, Dive deep and swim far, So you shall come back with self-respect, With new power, With an advanced experience that shall explain and overlook the old. -Ralph Waldo Emerson
No words can express my gratitude for the experiences I have gained through my career at UCO. Granddad, thank you for instilling the virtues of discipline and determination in me as well as the vision to make the world a better place for everyone by getting involved in my community – you will always be an inspiration. To you I dedicate this work. Dad, your unwavering faith in my capabilities taught me the value of having confidence in those you love even when they do not have the confidence themselves. Mom, your compassion helps me to keep in mind others and avoid selfishness – from you I get my inherent outspokenness and determination for social justice. To my brothers, thank you for seeing my potential and telling me you expected better out of me when I was willing to settle for less than I am capable of doing with my life. Katelyn, your support and contribution to my life has always been inexpressible in words. My appreciation of our relationship grows deeper each day as we look forward to the future together. Dr. Mohamad, you ignited in me a zeal for international relations that I will never let go of again. Your passion for knowledge and understanding of the world we live in is contagious. Dr. Gatch, you were able to rekindle in me the motivation to finish my education by always keeping an open door and an open mind. Your sense of humor and enthusiasm with which you present yourself has made my time at UCO greatly rewarding. Dr. Hardt, I appreciate the diligence, dedication, and care with which you approach your work. You deserve a raise and a vacation. To Brittany Novotny, thank you for the opportunity of a lifetime and experiences that will shape the rest of my life.
Overcome evil with good, falsehood with truth, and hatred with love. Peace Pilgrim
With Love and Gratitude, Amanda Snipes, 2010
3 Introduction Under the assumptions of liberal democracy, society frames government institutions to address shared fundamental needs thereby guaranteeing each individual the ability to pursue a better life. Constitutionally mandated procedures of governance determine which strategies will be practiced and manifest through policies of government institutions. These approaches maintain an intention of alleviating shared burdens and problems which confront all citizens. Recognizing the vast differences of individuals' morals, ethics, and personalities, social contract theorists such as Locke, Rousseau, and Montesquieu discussed the necessity of codifying a just society under a value system where all individuals are inherently free, equal, and within the same degree punishable by law enforcement mechanisms (Nye 2002). In order to maintain justice, liberal democracies govern society by creating a process of equalization and ensuring freedoms amongst all people under the rule of law. The fundamental questions to those who study democratic methods of governance are inquiries seeking to answer how, which, and why certain practices expedite or hinder a society's evolution to utilize a governance system where all people are free and equal in practice (Norris 2003). Efforts to achieve an utmost democratic society are of vital importance to investigate as the analysis will inform people how to improve processes of governance in the future. Thus far, the most flourishing democratic strategies pursue policies and practices by government institutions which empower individual citizens (Newton 2001). If the end goal of academia is promotion of democratic governance, then an understanding must be reached in relation to how government institutions can best achieve the ideal of a self-governing organization of authority. Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) has changed how people interact with each other in the 21st century. There is meaning in the existence of civil society's expression of empathy and reciprocity through CMC as a means of enhancing democratic
4 methods of governance by enabling participation in the governance process. These participation metrics can be measured through online contributions to political candidates and the frequency of involvement with Internetworked Social Media (ISM) as carried out through CMC. Understanding that progress toward just ideals are a series of small bold steps in practice, the American Founding Fathers (Jefferson, Madison, Adams, etc.) set up a representative democratic system of governance in America assuring majority rule, while at the same time protecting minority rights. Democratic systems work and are the most stable when they embrace diversity and enable protection and participation of all citizens in getting their voices heard by those in power. Government administrative bodies through which liberal democracies are formed must be inclusive to all persons to ensure they maintain legitimacy. When citizens see unequal treatment without protection from injustice under the rule of law, then resistance to the system begins and citizens make their thoughts known by defecting and no longer granting legitimacy to the government (Huntington 1996). The social strife during the civil rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is a prime model of how injustice perpetrated by authority figures can cause disorder in the self-governing process and American culture at large. The separation of government power in America makes certain the protection of citizens as the main duties of government are divided into three federal branches; legislative (Congress), judicial (U.S. Supreme Court), and executive (the Presidency). These three branches are interdependent and accountable to each other through various legal mechanisms. For example, a U.S. soldier who tortures a detainee could be punished for violating human rights of the detainee if there is a ban on torture, which the soldier is subject to under law. This example proves even those tasked to ensure the public's safety are also subject to the rule of law to prevent abuses of power from occurring. The separation of powers and checks and balances ensure accountability
5 for the system of government. By creating a structure with accountable actors, no matter their station in life, democratic processes of governance gain credibility and thus are seen as more legitimate authorities by citizens (Keohane 2005). Legitimacy derives from the ability to hold accountable those who act outside of government standards of conduct, which incentivizes compliance with the societal structure. There a various methods to incentivize compliance with societal norms through the offering of benefits. Married couples are often given tax breaks as the institution of marriage is seen as a stabilizing force that binds people in obligation to each other. The state punishes can defection by utilizing law enforcement procedures since criminal activity upsets societal structure through institutions such as the department of corrections to house people found to be violators of laws. Politicians are elected through a voting system whereby citizens cast ballots electing those people viewed as upholding democratic values. If a politician behaves in a way found to be dissatisfying by the population, the politician runs the risk of not being reelected or can be prone to investigation or censure and even removal from office. Critical to vigorous representation of the population's agenda is the necessity of clear communication amongst citizens, civil society, and public servants. Enabling means of communication is the first priority to bring the community together as a whole and determine the shared needs of the collective. By cultivating the shared experiences of the population, policymakers can craft and direct processes of governance that enhance democratic virtues of freedom, equality, and liberty. On an individual level, each American is granted rights through the Constitution and more specifically, the Bill of Rights which are the first 10 amendments of the United States Constitution. The Constitution serves as a sounding board for the citizens' expectations of government behavior. The framers' intentions were to be incredibly clear in what types of behaviors were acceptable by
6 governments and by the people. Trust between citizens and government is created as the citizens see the government behaving in ways that meet the expectations outlined in the Constitution (Martin and Varmey 2003). It functions as a roadmap and a means of verification. Communication provides the transparency mechanisms necessary for individuals to verify the conduct and behavior of others. If the administrative bodies of authority are seen as untrustworthy because their actions violate Constitutional values, citizens' lose trust in the ability of governance processes to uphold democratic values and virtues. However, there is recourse for trust to be regained. If there is an executive branch breach of trust, the judiciary or legislative branches must to step in and curtail the abuses of the executive. Only by correcting bad behavior through a verifiable means can the citizens restore their trust to a tarnished branch of government (Gilpin 2001). Trust is of importance because it enables people to cooperate with each other. In a society where defection runs rampant democratic values are cast aside and priorities of selfsufficiency are held paramount. Democratic thinkers realized the exponential potential of production when populations worked together and determined a system of governance must be created that incentivizes cooperation while simultaneously punishing defection. Without trust though, people lose their will to consensually hallucinate the identity of being Americans because they no longer see the benefits from working together and coming back to the table once their trust has been violated (Huntington 1996). They feel as though they are being manipulated and exploited instead of empowered by their mutual investment in innovative cooperation in American identity. The ability to trust and buy into the system is of central urgency to the materialization of cooperation and individuals will not consent to be governed by a system of state power they cannot participate in or if they feel as though they would gain more by working
7 alone (Holbert, et al 2004). Trust catalyzes the mutually cooperative construction of a shared identity under which citizens unite. Connection Through Empathic Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) Trustworthiness in representing the citizens' agenda requires a means of open and clear communication between policymakers and citizens. The media has often been referred to as the fourth branch of government because through the media, citizens have been able to give their feedback about the methods of governance practiced by the current administration (Ostry and Nelson 1995). There are many methods of communication media occurs including; telegraph, telephone, radio, newspapers, magazines, email, SMS (text messaging by cellular phone), etc. Recently, with the massive growth of the use of the Internet, a transformation in the nature of media has occurred (Barthel and Harrison 2009). Developments such as 'vloging' (video blogging), Twitter, Facebook, microblogging, etc. mark a new area of Internetworked Social Media (ISM) which consists of users generating and sharing their own content with each other in dynamic and innovative ways (Barthel and Harrison 2009). Media has always enabled individuals to construct a reality of shared experiences (Norris 2003). Now the producers and directors have expanded leading to new trends in communication not studied before (Barthel and Harrison 2009). Those interested in practices of governance are obligated to evaluate means of communication as these mechanisms are central to how individuals interact with each other and indicate the nature of systems they will create. In order to understand governance, one must be deliberative with their analytical approach. Since democracies are a representation of those people who are involved in the governance process, it is necessary to evaluate how these individuals interact and thus sway the system of governance established (Bernhagen 2009, 182).
8 Evaluation of the Internet as a means of communication is a great foundation for understanding how communication has shifted in the 21st century (Collins 2008). Changes in interaction imply retroactive shifts in behaviors of politicians and governance procedure. The recent exposure of confidential U.S. State Department cables by the website WikiLeaks clearly shows why information management needs to be rethought by those trusted with the most important state secrets of America. There are many features of how users interact through CMC and ISM that have significant implications for how individuals approach connecting and engaging with each other. The establishment of new online communities instead of in person voluntary associations has important differences that must be noted. "Another advantage of belonging to an online community is having 24-hour access. It is immediate and messages can be saved for future reference. For some people, being able to write means they can present themselves more clearly than in face-to-face meetings. Many people like having time to reflect and respond thoughtfully" (Ghozati and Preece 2009, 238). Differences in form and style of correspondence between CMC and 'in real life' interactions may contain explanatory value as to why people are moving to associations using ISM through CMC instead of joining in person voluntary associations (Fung 2003). Although the mechanisms and means of communication have altered the content has remained the same. People are still fulfilling the same needs through contact, but have shifted the means by which they network on a regular basis (Langman 2005). As policymakers evaluate communication there is significance because government institutions can expedite solutions to citizens needs more effectively and efficiently (Collins 2008). One must remember although the means of communication are changing the actors and their needs have not. This observation allows previous studies of significance in relation to governance and democracy to remain
9 relevant. Members of civil society still retain a substantial role in the development of democracy. These activists can engage the public in a more free way since they are not constrained by the parliamentarian expectations put upon politicians. Individuals are expressing themselves through groups and associations they voluntarily create – addressing shared needs and concerns of the community left unresolved by the state. Voluntary associations have made themselves even more accessible through CMC and ISM to the general public, which only serves to enhance their place in dialogues about the democratic processes of governance. They are also gaining recognition and thus legitimacy by increasing their interactions with citizens on many different fronts through a variety of media outlets. Voluntary associations are cornerstone sustaining democratic virtues. As a step before any system is collectively formed, individuals must come together to put aside their differences and cooperate with each other for everyones' mutual benefit. Once accepting this assumption, the grounds are ripe for the seeds of democracy to be placed. Robert Putnam indicated the dynamics of interactions that create conditions for democracy to thrive can be defined through the concept of social capital, "…the notion of social capital has been introduced as a direct continuation of the thought of Alexis de Tocqueville and his vision of participatory, deliberationbased democratic society" (Putnam 1993, 160). Those who want to form a virtuous society hinging on democratic purposes must first get people to come to the table and participate. These groups (such as the Chamber of Commerce, the Rotary Club, the American Civil Liberties Union, etc.) are the doorway through which most people enter into political and civic life. Creation of Community by Fostering Citizen Connection By bringing people together voluntary associations form a thriving populace eager to improve their community (Holbert, et al. 2004). New mechanisms of communication have
10 enabled people to create a shared experience through innovative forms of media. The most favorable traits in governance allow for fluidity between individuals, "Empathy is the ability to identify with and understand another person's situation and feelings. Our ability to empathize affects how well we communicate our thoughts and feelings with others, and how comfortable people feel communicating with us (Ghozati and Preece 2001, 233)." Without the ability to hear others and be heard by them policymakers would be hamstrung in their efforts to address issues facing the public. The power of shared experience is through the expression of empathy. Without empathic communication, individuals are stuck – unable to express to each other their most basic and fundamental needs. Communication is critically involved in and engaged with governance which serves to keep everyone focused on the same collective goals. The role of empathic expression is elemental, "Empathy appears to be a key ingredient in human communication, regardless of the medium used, but so far it has received surprisingly little attention in computer-mediated communication, probably because most studies have focused on work where empathy tends to be less obvious than in informal communication settings" (Ghozati and Preece 2001, 236). To be clear, CMC are interactions and relations occurring via use of a computer whereas informal communication settings take place 'in real life' between individuals in the same physical location (Collins 2008). For example, tweeting with someone who represents the US Chamber of Commerce is considered CMC using ISM while attending a conference held by the US Chamber of Commerce is an informal communication setting using traditional networking – both interactions are conducted through voluntary association. Empathy is the driving force behind collective action and justifies the existence of government institutions through the mutual consent of citizens upholding democratic virtues. Without a shared and collective identity and bonds democratic systems begin to languish.
11 Motivation to work as a community comes from two directions. First, intentions and reasons to act are shaped by the conditions of society giving people context for working together. A shared need for safety may arise due to home burglaries. A homeowner's association may then decide to allocate funds from membership dues to provide for extra security patrols or petition city council for more police protection. Secondly, a sense of community can lead to creation of shared values, such as the desire to establish public art. A board may be convened to raise funds for such projects and to explain the importance of such a project to the majority of stakeholders – the MAPS projects in Oklahoma City are another example of this type of motivational tendency (Bernhagen 2009, 88). CMC maintains capacity for empathic enumeration, "…postings had a strong empathic content and echoed the definitions of empathy given by psychotherapists, particularly the characteristics of knowing, feeling, and responding compassionately to another person…The overall feeling conveyed in the messages is of mutual understanding and caring developed from shared experience" (Ghozati and Preece 2001, 244). The statistical analysis of experiencing empathy through CMC shows, "A chi-square test comparing the two types of messages (empathic, hostile) posted in the support communities with those sent in other communities indicates that the difference between the two types of communities is significant (chi square = 398.6, df= 4, p <.001)" (Ghozati and Preece 2001, 246). This statistical analysis shows there is less than 1% of probability that empathy is not experienced online. To say this with more clarity, it can be stated that there is a greater than 99% chance of the likelihood that empathy can be experienced through CMC. This is not to say that over 99% of the content of communication is empathic in nature, but rather there is greater than 99% likelihood empathic articulation can occur through this means of interface. Since CMC maintains a capacity for
12 empathic expression, practitioners and analysts of democratic processes of governance must evaluate the nature of ISM through CMC. The emergence and expression of empathy is substantial in its relationship to democratic virtues. All instances of empathic existence must be studied and evaluated. Shared experiences are powerful because they translate into real world tangible action and production (Langman 2004). People once exposed to the advantages of cooperation people will go leaps and bounds to work together in dynamic ways to progress the advancement of everyone resulting in mutual benefits for all participants. Creating systems of governance means letting voices be heard that can improve the status quo and implement progress toward the ideal. The United Methodist Church (UMC) Volunteers in Mission (VIM) projects show how ideals can become tangible. UMC unites people under the shared identity of being Methodist to catalyze them into acting for the benefit of others. Missioners often go to other countries to work on projects that will improve the lives of fellow Methodists, such as building houses in Mexico or a library for deaf children in Africa. UMC uses CMC and ISM to bring even more people into the fold – allowing individuals to jump onto projects and join VIM teams from around the world through their website. Societal structures are formed under the assumption of the necessity of collective action – an evaluation of the robustness of a democratization trend can be evaluated, "…structures must give rise to orientations that make people believe in democracy as a desirable goal. People's beliefs are thus the intervening variable between social structure and collective action. Ignoring this, democratization processes cannot be adequately understood" (Bernhagen 2009, 128). While the missioner example differs in origination, the concepts remain applicable to governance as missioners are acting upon a shared identity to achieve a collective goal from a shared experience.
13 Trust and Transparency in Democratic Society The establishment of empathy requires leg work and initial interest in seeing benefits from such vulnerability. Democratic government institutions allow people to calculate their risk before interacting by providing means of creating credibility through verification and reputation. Trust is the ability to know there is recourse for defection to be punished (Yamagishi 2005). In the American political economy, people must trade with each other due to the nature of capitalism individuals have specialized and are now reliant on the production of other individuals to satisfy their needs. Therefore, it is in policymakers' interest to create appreciation for democratic values of transparency and accountability, "Establishing common ground may be a prerequisite for empathy or vice versa, and lack of common ground a cause of hostility" (Ghozati and Preece 2001, 252). Agents should keep in mind cooperation can happen organically due to the value of reciprocity and the nature of iterated interactions (Axelrod 1984, 21). All empowering interactions tie together to form the network with which societal structure can instill democratic virtues in citizens, more to this point, "Social trust, then, generated by learning and experience from an active and vibrant civil society, is an important component of political participation. To the extent that participation in the new democracies depends on social learning, progress toward achieving the levels found in the established democracies will necessarily be slow and dependent upon the accumulation of trust over successive generations" (Bernhagen 2009, 197). Contracts exist as a means for individuals to legally bind each other to the terms of an agreement. These documents and the courts that enforce them keep people honest in their dealings because breeching contracts results in a long adjudication process and potential significant financial loss. Typically, people will run a cost-benefit analysis and understand remaining cooperative under the terms of the contract is more advantageous than any potential benefit they may get from weaseling out of obligations. Benefits of compliance must outweigh
14 incentives to defect in order for contracts to remain an effective source of legal obligation. These types of arrangements allow for predictability and transparency of other's actions. Predictability and transparency, as observed by Axelrod, make reciprocity robust by creating advantageous cooperative attitudes. The extent to which people utilize their networks with CMC shows the connectivity and engagement potential of new modes of communication, "Trust and reciprocity aid contract enforcement and increase predictability and stability of cooperation. They allow individuals to overcome the classic dilemmas of collective action, and transform individual preferences to collective interests" (Bernhagen 2009, 162). Government institutions help to foster cooperation by providing means of verification for interactions between individuals. When individuals suspend their risk and engage with each other to gain mutual benefit, they can see the advantageous nature of cooperation (Chen and MacKie-Mason 2006). Trust is created when space manifests for individuals to interact with each other and institutions only get involved in cases of defection and to meet the need of verification. Trust Creates Social Capital and Increases Citizen Participation Participation in social life is indicative of participation in political life as processes of governance influence how social life manifests. Civil society holds a central role in the communication between policymakers and individuals (Langman 2004). By involving themselves in social activities people increase their likelihood of participation in political life because "The positive consequences of participation in organized activities are therefore threefold; 1. Socialize individuals into cooperative behavior 2. Provide them with a number of skills necessary to effectively shape politics at the local and national level; and 3. Expand their formal and informal networks, which they may use for other, political or social, purposes" (Bernhagen 2009, 162). Not only are people getting their thoughts and ideas expressed, but they
15 are also setting a shared agenda. These associations allow people to come together and decide on a shared vision then disseminate their views to the community at-large (Bernhagen 2009, 162). Acting as a liaison between social and civil society ISM serves to utilize the connections between people. "Civic health requires an active interest in the life of the community, city, state, and country through organization participation and leadership" (National Conference on Citizenship 2010) – ISM and CMC foster the development and expansion of civic health by keeping citizens engaged with each other and encouraging participation by increasing familiarity with issues. Accountability and reciprocity are critical needs for citizens to fulfill through government institutions to maintain legitimacy for the political system. Associations bring people together and governmental institutions give them a means by which to act, "The appeal of civil society and social capital is based largely on their functionality for institutional quality, both in the sphere of political and economics…they maintain their functionality only if applied in the sensitive and context-conscious manner" (Bernhagen 2009, 163). All communication between individuals must be taken into context. The context with which evaluations occur ought to be the political and social system which the individual participants have set up and live their lives under. In studying America, academics ought to look to founding documents of the country as the contracts set up between individuals specifying the powers and authority of government actors. Democratic virtues are being attained through a process and all acts are progress toward the ideals and virtues set forth in documents such as the United States Constitution (Fearon and Laitin 2000). Accessibility to governance processes are significant for democratic stability "…the important point that democracy cannot be taken for granted; indeed, it is a process that requires
16 continuous input to remain vital and vigorous. One crucial element in maintaining a democracy, therefore, is the active participation and support of a large majority of the population. With the decline in social capital, the conditions for such popular participation and support are increasingly adverse" (Sorsenson 2008, 48). However, as argued previously, there has not been a rapid decline in social capital; people have simply changed how they interact with each other instead opting for methods of computer mediated communication (Collins 2008). The nature and content of communication have remained the same in its empathic and empowering nature emphasizing the emancipative values of democracy, but the mechanism has shifted. Just because a social scientist is looking at the wrong form of association does not mean associations no longer exist – they may be present in a new adapted form of emerging communication technology (CMC) and networks (ISM). Governance through Emancipative Reciprocity and Empathic Messages Individual expressions of reciprocity and empathy through CMC are significant because political participation increases. As members of civil society express their agenda, people are able to more rapidly buy in through CMC by volunteering their time in real life (for example, ProjectOKC – a volunteer organization in Oklahoma City based online to help the community offline), consuming more media covering the agenda that is being expressed, or by donations financially to the cause seen as uniting everyones' shared experience (Chen and MacKie-Mason 2006). All actors are buying into the answer being offered by an agenda created through consensus as agreed upon using CMC via ISM. These members of civil society are able to more easily move within CMC because they have clearly delineated themselves as the cheerleaders of the community in the expression of the will of the people talking and engaging through ISM and CMC in various forms. Whether it's writing a blog or writing a check there are massive
17 implications for the time and speed at which CMC occurs and content spreads through ISM. Participation in political life increases and gets expedited due to the interaction and engagement between individuals and members of civil society through CMC (Norris 2003). CMC is only significant because the nature of correspondence has changed. Communication holds a central role because the content of interactions is a key factor in the emergence of cooperation. A cooperative society, not a coercive one, must be founded in order for democratic systems to be sustainable (Sorenson 2008). Cooperation has the effect of creating space where conflict can be resolved (Axelrod 1984) without resorting to violent ends. There is not a balance between conflict and harmony in relations, but instead the emphasis would be more properly placed on a dichotomy between conflict and cooperation (Keohane 2005). A harmonious system is utopian and unattainable because there will always be variance that founders of societies cannot anticipate. However, what people can do in founding their societies is determine strategies that will best deal with variances in unpredictable behavior by incentivizing strategies that encourage and develop the use of cooperative acts. Even in the direst of circumstances robust strategies of cooperation are sustainable. The point of the matter is beginning with an intention of long-term interaction amongst people (Tov and Diener 2009). Once one takes into account the repeated nature in of citizens' daily lives, then there is freedom in the creation of a strategy that is empowering to individuals. CMC and ISM create cooperative social attitudes that can spread through democratic systems of governance. Representative Government Derived From Reciprocity The strongest strategy to enhance cooperative acts amongst people utilizes the concept of empathy and reciprocity. Empathy has already been rigorously examined in its implications for
18 democracy. Reciprocity, however, must be more thoroughly studied. Even when one assumes the world is a place full of rational acting self-egoists, the existence of cooperation still occurs even though it is not anticipated. Given this pessimistic assumption about the world, the expectation would be all individuals would be in conflict, driven by the most extreme conditions, and would be in a natural state to compete with each other to the end of using violence in order to satisfy their most basic human needs. Instead, there is the emergence of capitalism – a fundamentally cooperative economic strategy for allocating scare resources amongst unlimited wants (Gilpin 2001). Capitalism and democratic virtues such as freedom, liberty, and equality hinge as much on empathy as they do on the concept of reciprocity. In order to clearly evaluate a strategy of cooperation based on reciprocity, it would be wise to construct a model for analysis. Prisoner's dilemma is used in an analysis done by Robert Axelrod where TIT FOR TAT is empirically proven through a series of interactions in a computer tournament based on game theory to be the most robust strategy for the organic development of a cooperative pattern of behavior by two individual actors. In prisoner's dilemma two criminals are given incentives to cooperate with the prosecutor in lieu of spending more time in jail. However, if both prisoners' rat each other out and cooperate with the prosecution, then neither of them get the reduced sentence for their crime, but instead will get the maximum. No communication between the prisoners is allowed. Prisoners end up defecting on each other and cooperating with the prosecution because they have no communicative means by which to come to cooperative ground (Axelrod 1984). However, in the current day and age, technology permeates our existence eliminating hindrances in constructing cooperative systems (Norris 2003). TIT FOR TAT is a strategy that will cooperate on the first turn once then becomes a reflexive strategy by mirroring any following movements of the other actor. This
19 means there may not be a maximization of potential benefits of interaction, but instead an emphasis on mutual benefits that enable both actors to move together toward improving each other's lives (Collins 2008). Creation of cooperative dispositions is the intention of democratic systems of governance. When a specific strategy is available study of viability is of primary importance, "TIT FOR TAT benefits from its own non-exploitability because three conditions are satisfied: i. The possibility of encountering TIT FOR TAT is salient, ii. Once encountered, TIT FOR TAT is easy to recognize, iii. Once recognized, TIT FOR TAT non-exploitability is easy to appreciate" (Axelrod 1984, 53-54). There are many features this strategy utilized and thus, there is mass appeal, "What accounts for TIT FOR TAT's robust success is its combination of being nice, retaliatory, forgiving and clear. Its niceness prevents it from getting into unnecessary trouble. Its retaliation discourages the other side from persisting whenever defection is tried. Its forgiveness helps restore mutual cooperation. And its clarity makes it intelligible to the other player, thereby eliciting long-term cooperation" (Axelrod 1984, 54). Government institutions enable the actors to recognize each other by providing a forum for interaction and verification of behavior (Bernhagen 2009). CMC and ISM also share these traits. The Constitution may act as a set of empathic expectations. Rational observations of government practice are a central focus of ISM and CMC. Verification is critical to lending credibility toward the system and ensuring emphasis on reciprocal behavior, "The critical requirement is that violations can be detected before they can accumulate to such an extent that the victim's provocability is no longer enough to prevent the challenger from having incentive to defect" (Axelrod 1984, 185). People are reliant upon patterns of behavior they can detect through recognition because they construct their reality and decision-making process on interactions that have already occurred, "Just as the future is important for the establishment of
20 the conditions for cooperation, the past is important for the monitoring of actual behavior. It is essential that the players are able to observe and respond to each other's prior choices. Without this ability to use the past, defections could not be punished, and the incentive to cooperate would disappear" (Axelrod 1984, 182). Predictability enhances the process of tracking reciprocal deeds and is aided by transparency as people are able to verify each other's actions and behavior (Curin and Meijer 2006). Want to make sure an employee is of good character? In the world of CMC and ISM employers now look up job candidate Facebook profiles to verify an individuals' portrayal of themselves in an interview. ISM and CMC create a world in which there is vast information available about people without having to do much investigative work knowing this keeps people more genuine with their interactions. Convergence of Empathy and Reciprocity in Cooperative Systems of Governance Why cooperation? Democracy requires cooperation be pursued. Democratic systems are the only process of governance that ensure individual rights during processes of equalization amongst all citizens due to the emphasis on justice, equality, liberty and fairness (Nye 2002). All of these qualities indicate emancipative nature of human interactions as a means of propelling humanity together toward greater ends by working together. These values must be instilled by the people and kept at the fore front of any actions taken in the name of governance (Nye 2002). American Identity construction begins at a young age and continues throughout an individual's lifetime. Children say the pledge of allegiance every day as a reminder of the values that bring people together. How people are politically socialized impacts how they view the function politics and each other. "It is self-evident that democratization is not an automatism that guides itself without agents. Instead, it is the outcome of the intentional collective actions, involving strategies of power elites, campaigns of social movement activists, and mass participation. Thus,
21 any explanation of democratization intending to illuminate the role of social conditions must make plausible how these conditions shape actor constellations" (Bernhagen 2009, 88). An emphasis on intention brings appreciation for the marriage of empathy and reciprocity because they both derive from an intention of cooperation (Rosenberg 2003). Cooperation will always be attained because through cooperation are strategies of human empowerment. Humans will always strive to create dynamic administrative bodies, "Human empowerment nurtured emancipative mass movements in any regime. In autocracies, emancipative movements oppose the regime, attempting to replace autocracy with democracy. In democracies, emancipative mass movements attempt to make their governments more responsive. In both situations, emancipative values tend to transform political institutions" (Bernhagen 2009, 133). This is why democracies thrive – their institutions are transformative in nature because of the fundamental recognition of human liberty engrained within the peoples' expectation of government conduct, progression toward a consolidated democratic state involves synergy and synthesis of actions (Bernhagen 2009, 133). People will continually to seek out more emancipative orientations for the exertion of state authority. Citizens will always desire for government to enhance their selfsufficiency because these are the expectation one derives from the Constitution of the United States. The values system is what will stick with people and allow them to act as a collective (Axelrod 1984). CMC and ISM growth are exponential in nature as the consciousness is shared amongst humanity – the power in its message only gains strength over time. "Emancipative mass beliefs appear to be the single most important cultural factor in helping to attain, consolidate, and deepen democracy. As a system designed to empower people, democracy is an emancipative achievement, driven by emancipative forces in society" (Bernhagen 2009, 143). Empathic
22 consciousness can be shared by those who have empathic awareness with individuals who do not until empathy is retained by all individuals (Rosenberg 2003). Communication is the first step and as people are able to associate and communicate with each other more easily through CMC interactions gain importance (Norris 2003). People participate by engaging each other online, but also in how political fundraising is changing (Chen and MacKie-Mason 2006). Those candidates running for office who wish to be successful fundraisers must have an intermediary presence through internetworked social media (ISM) conducted with computer mediated communication (CMC) (Chen and MacKie-Mason 2006). Associations' manifestation may be changing, but the implications remain the same, "An effective civil society-a dense network of associations, interest groups, civil rights groups, and so forth-is the best basis for the consolidation of democracy" (Sorenson 2008, 161). Room for Improving Democratic Governance Showing how reciprocity and empathy work together, an interesting realization occurs about why governance becomes more of a practice toward an ideal,
"The foundation of cooperation is not really trust, but the durability of the relationship. When the conditions are right, the players can come to cooperate with each other through trial-and-error learning about possibilities for mutual rewards, through imitation of other successful strategies with a weeding out of the less successful ones. Whether the players trust each other or not is less important in the long run than whether the conditions are ripe for them to build a stable pattern of cooperation with each other" (Axelrod 1984, 182).
Empathy and reciprocity are the two components of communication seen as the most valuable for compelling people to act in a cooperative manner. Actors of communication have always been important, especially actions taken by members of civil society. Members of civil society have associated themselves in a way to indicate their intention for collective action with the goal of improving society as a whole. All participants in social life impact in positive or negative manners the processes of democratic governance (Fung 2003). Some people may choose to enable practices by participating in conferences while others seek to disrupt processes by
23 protesting outside of such conferences. The World Trade Organization meeting in Seattle comes to mind when discussing this contrast in strategies. CMC has the capacity to bring together people with all different intentions and values. The point is there is room for improving participation in democratic processes through ISM and CMC. People have begun utilizing online donation systems to contribute to candidates they endorse because a shared agenda is created through the ISM. Participation is caused by interactions online in matters of CMC and ISM and their implications for political life. Governance in practice serves the same functions of CMC and ISM. This process moves us closer toward empowering individuals – the ultimate goal of democracy. The goal overall is to inform the best practices for expediting the realization of ideas into democracy. This means determining what type of content and engagement further substantiate and shore up participation in these means of communication as they are seen to be significant amongst social scientists. The variables still remain to be tested and theorized, but there is significant cause for further investigation. CMC and ISM replicate the same functions of government institutions and overlay how individuals interact with each other. Dynamic creation by users of content and agenda setting are the groundwork for political participation. Getting individuals to begin this process can be volatile, but beneficial trends ought to be identified, fostered, analyzed, and engaged. By following the most successful paths down the rabbit hole, one can determine which strategies of connection foster better relationships of empowerment and more fully recognize the emancipative powers of CMC and ISM. The best paths to investigate at this point are forms of ISM that have a high amount of users, such as Facebook, to ensure there is a robust sample size to make applicability of theories and models easier to ascertain. The variables on how to measure connection and engagements on such a site are still a bit murky, but there is some work
24 being done to make sure this data is more clearly identifiable and less corruptible in the future. An easier way of tracking engagement is to narrow the scope. By only looking at ISM and CMC as used by political candidates as the independent variable, one can track fundraising contributions online as a dependent variable. Contributions will be assumed to vary as the audience is engaged with the empathic or reciprocal nature of the candidate's content. However, if there is a lack of online contributions, one could expect the candidate is not properly harnessing the empathic and reciprocal nature of ISM and CMC methods and thus is not getting as much engagement and connection with users. This creates an empirically based and easily measureable model under which to test the hypothesis linking connection through CMC and ISM to political participation in a verifiable way. All of the talk about empathy and reciprocity pertaining to political participation may be normatively satisfying, but it also must be empirically verifiable in order be considered a valid theory in social sciences. In order for democracy to remain sustainable as a viable system of political processes, there must be citizen participation. Participation is central to keeping the system afloat as government agents do their best to meet the needs of the citizens equally (Cornwall and Coelho 2004). Democratic systems are formed on the recognition of all individuals and their equal place in society. Without recognition of individual humanity there would be no authority in a government supposedly of the people. To be founded on liberty and virtue all citizens must be engaged in the political system which so dramatically impacts every aspect of daily life (Sorenson 2008). There is not always satisfaction with processes of governance and in all cases citizens must be prepared to offer feedback. Computer Mediated Communication only enables this process thereby expediting the abilities of government officials. Statistical Analysis of Participation in Political Campaigns
25 Empirical evaluation of participatory measures using ISM and CMC are necessary prove the direct relationship between communication and promotion of democratic systems of governance through ISM and CMC. One of the most commonly used platforms for networking online is Facebook. Through Facebook fan pages political campaigns can track and look into dynamics of people following them. Fan pages track data of followers such as their age, race, and gender as well as other analytics and send weekly updates to the email associated with the campaign. Campaign managers can then use information related to engagement on the fan page to derive which content gains the most traction with the public. As of now, the best indicator of participation in a campaign remains financial contributions. Online financial contributions are easily managed and tracked whereas CMC content engagement remains a vague and amorphous variable. Research is ongoing into the field of tracking robust content engagement. However, one may correlate engagement in campaigns through ISM such as Facebook 'likes' of campaign fan pages to online contributions with more ease. Similarity of platform (both interactions occur through ISM and CMC) allow for applicability of these variables to each other. To bring this concept into tangibility in academia requires collecting data from the field of campaigns that have incorporated ISM and CMC into their fundraising strategies. Brittany Novotny recently ran for the Oklahoma House of Representatives against incumbent Representative Sally Kern in House District 84. Ms. Novotny began her campaign by establishing a network of support through ISM – particularly her campaign's Facebook fan page. Through connecting and collaborating with people on this page, Ms. Novotny was able to shore up her support and move online correspondence into tangible offline benefits for the campaign, namely through driving contribution traffic and recruitment of staff and volunteers. In sum, the Novotny campaign captured $17, 450 from April 1, 2010 to November 3, 2010 in total online
26 contributions. On the campaign's Facebook fan page during this period there were an aggregate 1,725 unique 'likes.' The timeframe of April 1, 2010 to November 3, 2010 was chosen because this timeframe provides the most robust set of data as well as is the most relevant to how the campaign was able to use ISM in order to foster tangible outcomes. Evaluating IMS and CMC
fluctuations allow campaigns to track viability of differing content expressed by the campaign through the Facebook fan page. The financial impact of coverage of the campaign by external media outlets also became clear by tracking trends on online contributions and Facebook fan page 'likes' in the 72 hour window after external coverage occurred. In doing statistical analysis (see appendices for data tables and charts) and determining the impact of ISM and CMC (independent variable) on financial contributions (dependent variable) several trends became apparent. By running a regression, r-squared was calculated to be 0.3901 overall between unique Facebook 'likes' and online campaign contributions. This rsquare value means Facebook 'likes' have a 39.01% likelihood of being related to online contributions. The previous timeframe from April 1, 2010 to November 3, 2010 were the units of analysis used meaning there were 217 observations. Using each 24 hour period as a unit of analysis allowed for ease in comparison by tracking daily financial flows in contributions and daily unique 'likes.' 217 observations allowed for a viable sample size allowing for stout data comparison. This entire analysis means there is practical material to be studied in the implications of these relationships. Campaigns provide ground to study strategies for increasing participation in civic life as people who express interest in campaigns are likely to become politically involved in the long-run. Engaging participative mechanisms are critical to create vital and sustainable democracies.
27 Additionally, traditional media drove traffic into the campaign resulting in increased campaign contributions. A regression was run on the impact of media coverage upon campaign contributions. There were eight 72-hour periods of media coverage during the timeframe studied. Of these eight media coverage periods, three have a t-stat score of greater than 1. Any t-score of greater than 1 have an impact on the model. The three news stories with robust implications for the Novotny campaign were published by The Huffington Post, KWTV-9, and The Oklahoman/CNN (which happened during the same 72-hour time frame). The evidence indicates that the null hypothesis – ISM and CMC do not have an effect on amount of online contributions – can be rejected as a relationship is shown through analysis of the data collected. The Huffington Post Impact on ISM Presence and Online Contributions The Huffington Post coverage had a p-value of 0.000 when run with a 95% confidence level showing there is absolute significance in the robustness of the relationship between Huffington Post coverage driving traffic to the campaign's Facebook fan page and online contributions. During the time period used for The Huffington Post coverage, the unadjusted coefficient was determined to have a value of $1,052.09. With the Novotny campaign's coverage in Huffington Post every new unique like on the Facebook fan page was highly valuable in tangible financial benefits. The p-value lets allows this conclusion to be reached with confidence. The standard error of The Huffington Post coverage was $216.44 making the adjusted value of each new Facebook 'like' to $808.65. During this 72-hour period from June 9, 2010 to June 12, 2010, there were an aggregate $7,111 raised solely through online contributions and 543 unique daily likes on the campaign's Facebook fan page. The correlation during this time period was approximately 39% meaning the coverage by Huffington Post could account for about 39% of the variation within ISM and online fundraising.
28 KWTV-9 Impact on ISM Presence and Online Contributions KWTV-9 reporting of the Novotny campaign had a p-value of 0.208 when run with a 95% confidence level showing there is probably a about 79.2% likelihood of a relationship between KWTV-9 coverage motivating interest toward to the campaign's Facebook fan page and online contributions. During the time period used for the KWTV-9 coverage, the unadjusted coefficient was determined to have a value of $229.11. With the Novotny campaign's coverage in KWTV-9 every new unique like on the Facebook fan page was of some value in tangible financial benefits, but not as substantial as The Huffington Post period. The standard error of the KWTV-9 coverage was $181.33 making the adjusted coefficient of each new Facebook 'like' to $47.78. During this 72-hour period from September 9, 2010 to September 12, 2010, there were an aggregate $1,150 raised solely through online contributions and 6 unique daily likes on the campaign's Facebook fan page. The correlation during this time period was approximately 88% meaning the coverage by KWTV-9 account for about 88% of the variation within ISM and online fundraising. CNN/The Oklahoman Impact on ISM Presence and Online Contributions During the period from September 14, 2010 to September 18, 2010 reporting of the Novotny campaign had a p-value of 0.030 when run with a 95% confidence level showing there is absolute about 97% relationship between The Oklahoman and CNN coverage stirring attention toward to the campaign's Facebook fan page and online contributions. During the time period used for the coverage from The Oklahoman and CNN, the unadjusted coefficient was determined to have a value of $430.18. With the Novotny campaign's coverage every new unique like on the Facebook fan page was of some value in tangible financial benefits, but not as substantial as The Huffington Post period. The standard error of this coverage was $196.69 making the adjusted
29 coefficient of each new Facebook 'like' to $233.49. During this 72-hour period from September 14, 2010 to September 18, 2010, there were an aggregate $3,775 raised solely through online contributions and 44 unique daily likes on the campaign's Facebook fan page. The correlation during this time period was approximately 81.7% meaning the coverage by CNN and The Oklahoman accounted for about 81.7% of the variation within ISM and online fundraising. Overall Reach and Implications of ISM and CMC on the Novotny Campaign On Facebook, the Novotny campaign reached a total of 1,725 unique 'likes'. The Facebook audience demographics offer great insights to how CMC is used and by whom. The largest chunk of the Facebook audience consisted of women who are from 25-34 years old. This information is collected by Facebook and distributed to the campaign along with an array of other data in weekly 'insight' reports. By providing this information, campaigns are able to analyze content and target messaging and content to users within their audience. Targeted marketing of message fosters higher engagement and participation in the campaign process as people are encouraged to interact with each other through CMC with ISM. The campaign was able to target content at various audiences and create an array resonating messages for diverse sets of people. By retaining an active Facebook audience willing to express their support of the campaign's message through online donations the Novotny campaign could bypass traditional fundraising methods. Since Ms. Novotny was freed from the obligation to make fundraising phone calls to retain contributions she was better able to get out to the people of House District 84. Ms. Novotny knocked over 3,000 doors personally while on the campaign trail. Instead of having to sit in the office all day soliciting donations the Novotny campaign was proficiently increased in person access and online availability of Ms. Novotny through the use of CMC and
30 ISM. There were some donations by political action committees (PAC), but not nearly as much as one would expect to see from a legislative campaign. In 2006 and 2008 there were high instances of PAC financial contributions to campaigns (Hardt 2010). PAC money was not pursued by the campaign due to a viable social media presence. Using ISM through CMC translated into practical implications for managing the campaign. The candidate and staff were able to spend minimal time fundraising through usage of a successful ISM strategy. Instead, most of the labor of the candidate and staff became oriented toward a grassroots field campaign supplemented with a direct mail program – all highly funded through online contributions. Shifting the focus of labor allowed individuals on staff to specialize in messaging and coordination of in district work, not funding and financial issues, which are often the highest concern of campaigns for a state legislative seat. ISM and CMC were only part of the equation of the Novotny campaign's efforts to win the HD 84 legislative seat. Having a strong online presence with CMC and ISM is important, but must be part of a comprehensive and coordinated campaign messaging strategy. The Novotny campaign worked closely with operatives within the Oklahoma Democratic Party and participated in the Party's "Campaign in a Box" (CIB) program. CIB aims to coordinate all forms of messaging into a one stop shop. The Party will aid a campaign through CIB with a direct mail program, online presence, and field strategy. Participating in CIB would not have been feasible without the financial support of online contributors. The collaboration and coordination between the Oklahoma Democratic Party and the Novotny campaign lead to the distribution of a 5 piece mail program to 5,000 addresses and a Get Out the Vote effort aimed at 1,200 addresses to which door hangers were distributed by volunteers and interns. These frequent interactions have the ability to create trust and increase participation as observed by
31 Putnam and Axelrod. While the Novotny campaign was not successful in securing victory over Representative Kern, there was great success in formulation of media strategies allowing adequate fundraising to occur. The Novotny campaign was even able to substantially out fundraise the opposition without going to traditional sources for contributions. Through proper funding, appropriate channels of information dissemination could be pursued that at times prove difficult for campaigns without financial freedom. At the very least, the campaign was greatly successful in getting people engaged and participating in the local political process by increasing social capital through CMC and ISM. Throughout the campaign, many references were made to the demographics of Novotny supporters as being a small elite group of well to do individuals whom reside out of state. However, the demographics show most of the following of the Novotny campaign through CMC and ISM came from within Oklahoma and even Oklahoma City. Individuals indicate their location to Facebook, which is then given to the campaign in reports from Facebook's aggregated data related to the campaign page. From these reports, followers of the Novotny campaign consist of 1,567 users from Oklahoma City in the same timeframe used for previous statistical comparisons. The old adage that 'all politics is local' is still applicable even when discussing communication mechanisms that are world-wide. All communication and implications derived from it must be kept in the context which they occur for proper understanding. The Novotny campaign simply was not a campaign bankrolled and supported by out of state forces. The reason the campaign gained this much support is due not only to the inflammatory nature of the opponent's remarks in the past (especially about the LGBT community), but also the uplifting and empowering message of the Novotny campaign. Not once did messaging on the Novotny campaign go negative in content as focus remained on a positive and constructive platform of
32 creating jobs, improving education, and building transportation infrastructure that can build a brighter future for all Oklahomans. Best Practices of Campaigns Wishing to Use ISM and CMC for Fundraising The question for social scientists at this point derives from explaining variations over time in trends between usage of ISM via CMC and online contributions. During the Novotny campaign, there were eight periods of traditional media coverage lasting 72-hours each, but the statistics indicate only three of these periods produced measureable benefits for the campaign through financial donations. There are substantial differences in how these traditional media sources made available their content about the Novotny campaign online. Coverage from The Huffington Post was the most significant for the campaign whereas stories done by the Journal Record had no effect upon ISM and thus online contributions. This discrepancy can be explained in a variety of ways. First, accessibility to online content offered by media seems to be one of the largest factors. The Huffington Post is only published online and contains embedded links and information, which allows users to easily share ideas and stories with each other. On the other hand, the Journal Record maintains a locked site meaning access to their content is gated and requires a subscription. People are not willing to overcome cumbersome thresholds to share online media content. The payoffs simply are not there. Expedited ease of use and sharing of user generated content is central to the fluidity with which information is shared through ISM and CMC. Secondly, the audience sizes between The Huffington Post and the Journal Record are dramatically different. The Huffington Post is an internationally known resource for obtaining newsworthy political information online. The Journal Record is a paper published in Oklahoma and the publishing company is just starting to generate online content. This means their audiences will be different in scope and preferences. Readers of the Journal
33 Record tend to be more conservative Oklahomans interested in local business issues and get their copies of the paper physically mailed to them through the United States Postal Service. However, readers of The Huffington Post tend to be liberal in their political dispositions and come from an array of backgrounds and geographical locations. All of these factors may contain explanatory value as to why there is variance from the impact of Huffington Post coverage compared to coverage from the Journal Record. Knowing how different media pays off in donations enables managers of campaigns to prioritize daily tasks. From knowing this information, one can make the decision to have a candidate talk to a media outlet with a strong online presence since the interview will produce a flow of online donations. However, the best use of time when it comes to media outlets without a strong online presence may be to find another way to reach their audience. For example, instead of meeting with a journalist from a specialized business newspaper a candidate may be more diligent with their time by attending a meeting of business people, such as Rotary in order to make in person networking connections that can pay dividends in fundraising and resource capturing. This all ties in with how democratic systems are formed and governed based on those most active in civil society. Since people construct strategy based off of track records of success looking at management techniques in the present can be indicative of future trends (Axelrod 1984). Targeting participation in the most effective ways to maximize the benefits of each interaction is the priority of utmost importance with time constrained campaigns. Knowing how, which, and why certain engagement techniques work provide roadmaps in decision-making related to crafting and spreading of campaign platform message. Genuine communication and dialogue through ISM and CMC are what creates 'stickiness' in interactions between individuals online. If a candidate uses their page to spam followers with
34 a load of information about the campaign and fundraising/volunteering asks, then they will risk alienating their followers. ISM and CMC must be used deliberately by the candidate of the campaign in order to engage those indicating their participatory predispositions through their expression of interest by 'liking' the campaign on Facebook. Fundamentally, all communicative power manifests from the ability of persons to recognize the humanity in each other. ISM and CMC are dynamic and innovative in that they encourage dialogue and engagement instead of 'read and respond.' Campaign staffers and candidates must understand this and use these technologies not only to be heard by their followers, but also to hear their needs and concerns. More successful ISM strategies have the candidates themselves posting and running online content as people want to speak to candidates – not staffers. ISM and CMC create accessibility to candidates and a sense of authentic interaction. After all, candidates are wishing to be hired to represent the needs of the people – they must use CMC and ISM to express their capacity to listen and take in the concerns of others not constantly babble about their own opinions and message. Conclusion ISM and CMC allow for the expression of appreciation to honesty and authenticity during iterated interactions. By recognizing cooperative acts legitimacy and credibility are constructed to those who are seen as worthy of confidence (Keohane 2005). Humanity sets up expectations of behaviors then verifies proper conduct through transparency. In a world of ISM and CMC transparency only becomes more paramount allowing for the exponential growth of trust and validation of honest behavior. The fact of the matter is that it's harder to keep a cap on dishonest behavior. With the spread of information, one must work hard to keep secrets in the dark. Now less energy must be exerted in being honest and the payoffs are higher. Assurances
35 must be made that actors will respect each other and keep in mind participation in society through the protection of their reputations (Axelrod 1984). Communication tools such as Facebook enhance cooperative behavior because of the emphasis put upon connections between individuals. More to this point, an emphasis on system structure is noted, "The advice dealing with how this mutual cooperation can be promoted comes in three categories: making the future more important relative to the present; changing the payoffs to the players of the possible outcomes of a move; and teaching the players values, facts, and skills that will promote cooperation" (Axelrod 1984, 126). ISM and CMC provide for the expansion of all three elements stipulated by Axelrod. Facebook involves different strategies to create more interactions between people such as showing common connections, similar interests, and shared experiences through different features available on profiles. Users can also tell if someone has edited their profile or interactions in order to be viewed more favorably. In a world in which transparency and trends are becoming more ample the manipulation or selection of information by individuals to control their image is a cutting off one's nose to spite their face (Curtin and Meijer 2006). If people can tell there has been tampering with information, then they automatically assume the worst and make judgments about individuals beyond the original information hidden. The ability of CMC and ISM to change payoffs with interactions is clear through the case study of the Novotny campaign. People are now using ISM and CMC for a variety of activities from attaining employment to interacting with distant family members. As people socialize with each other more it becomes less possible to dehumanize and exploit each other for selfish gains. The highest needs for content resonance with ISM and CMC seem to be authenticity, reciprocity, and connection. People need to know the interactions they are having are genuine because if they are not people will back out of interactions and end their
36 participatory behavior. The goal ought to be fostering and protecting honest expression through incentives while punishing defection that comes in the form of manipulation and lying. The website Reddit contains both incentives and punishments of reputation through their concept of 'karma.' Ebay allows dynamic interaction and feedback by allowing purchasers to share their experience with different buyers through a post-purchase survey. Construction of online reputations must be translatable to 'real world' implications in order to foster accountability and credibility, which create durable communication. Empathy and reciprocity in ISM and CMC could be seen during the Iranian election as users of Twitter all over the world changed their locations in order to cloak activists physically in Tehran who were using Twitter from police brutality and censorship. People wanted to continue to get information about what was happening internally in the country and they knew if a police crackdown occurred, then people would be less likely to use ISM for communication so they muddied the waters for investigators and as a result kept lines of communication open. The implications for democratization are great. People will continue to pursue paths of empowerment no matter the government institutions under which they live because all of humanity desires to be free from coercion. CMC and ISM stand as a path by which democratic ideals of equality, liberty, and freedom can be instantaneously spread throughout the world. By learning and understanding each other through long-term interactions a capacity is created to perceive each other not as enemies, but cells in the same body of humanity. Our ability to recognize each other's humanity is inexplicably tied to the ability to communicate our thoughts, ideas, and concerns about issues facing each of us. Participation will only develop as people are given methods to help each other and once they have a reason to care about the wellness of others. Shifting perceptions about behaviors and
37 conduct by comprehending each other's similarities and differences will impact the nature of interaction. Associations will always develop as people strive to work together once they understand the benefits of cooperative action (Fung 2003). Even if associations shift in where they communicate an absence of ability to measure engagement fully does not mean an absence of existence. All interactions take time to understand through study and more analysis is needed about how people interact with each other through CMC and ISM. What can be easily said though is there is a relationship between online ISM networks of political campaigns and online contributions. Who knows what the implications of this shift may be in the future as smaller unknown candidates are able to get financial support without relying on traditional institutions such as PACs. In the end, all of American democratic identity boils down to a shared experience based on the codification of expectations and intentions starting with the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution (Fearon and Laitin 2000). In attempting to live up to expectations a variety of institutions and supplemental legislation has been passed aiming to stabilize the American system of democratic governance. The government cannot be fully representative and fair to all citizens without active participation in politics by all shareholders (Holbert 2004). Until all citizens have the ability to express their concerns and desires for the goals of government action the system is not fully equal or representative. Participation without representation is crucial as protection is needed during processes of progress, as the old saying goes, "the squeaky wheel gets the oil." CMC and ISM allow people to clearly enumerate and stipulate how government is or is not adequately governing or what they want to see done (such is the case with SeeClickFix – a website where people can report problems within their community such as potholes in roads). Consensus cannot always be reached, but consensus is
38 not the goal of American democracy. American democratic values intend to create collaborative and cooperative space where ideas and policies are allowed equal treatment to compete for validity and legitimacy by the populace. Those societies that allow for such communication to occur can anticipate the peaceful development and progress toward more democratic systems of governance (Sorenson 2008). Governments wishing to censor and limit communicative abilities will find themselves on the wrong side of history staving back the progression of fundamental human rights to liberty, freedom, and justice. People will eventually attain their full rights, but with resistant governments the process is longer and may result in more violence and bloodshed. Democratic citizenship identity is based on an attitude of service derived from an understanding that individuals belong to a larger system of which participation is beneficial, so there are incentives to improve the system (Axelrod 1984). These improvements will not happen without communication leading to problem identification and agenda setting as well as resolution articulation. ISM and CMC have been utilized in community based situations that are not particularly political, for example, as a response to natural disaster. Sharing of information through these means can create means of assuring citizens physical safety in times of crisis. Reforming our understanding of communication will allow confidence to be gained in individuals trust for political processes of governance. Now as people communicate there is less hierarchy and chain of command thinking – the whole process has flattened (Cornwall and Coelho 2004). People are able to engage their leaders personally through ISM such as Facebook instead of calling a legislative assistant or attending an event where time to interact with their leader may be limited. The shift of most importance is the demographic one – the group most interested in the Novotny campaign (young women) has a notoriously bad voter turnout rate in Oklahoma. CMC and ISM could potentially lead to shifts in
39 voter turnout as people gain more faith in the credibility and trustworthiness of online interactions over time. Understanding and compression of ISM and CMC and their relationship to democratic practices to enhance the processes of governance are prevalent and relevant to citizens' everyday lives (Collins 2008). Now it is not a matter of 'want to' for politicians and civic activists to use ISM and CMC in their day to day communication – it is a matter of 'have to' because citizens are increasing their expectations of interactions due to their experience with these new forms of media. Those involved in governance must go where people are associating and communicating with each other.
40 References Axelrod, Robert. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. Revised Edition. New York: Basic Books. Barthel, Brea and Theresa M. Harrison. 2009. "Wielding New Media in Web 2.0: Exploring the History of Engagement with the Collaborative Construction of Media Products," In The Internet and Health Communication: Experience and Expectations, ed. R. R. Rice and J. E. Katz. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc., 237-260. Bernhagen, Parick, et al. 2009. Democratization. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chen, Yan, et al. (2006) "Online Fund-Raising Mechanisms: A Field Experiment." Contributions to Economic Analysis & Policy 5 (2): 1-39. Collins, Richard. 2008. "Trust in the Digital World: The Return of the Kings of Old." Communications and Strategies 71 (3): 57-78. Cornwall, Andrea and Vera Shattan P. Coelho. 2004. "Space for Change? The Politics of Participation in New Democratic Arenas." Development Research Center on Citizenship, Participation, and Accountability. 1: 1-28. Curtin, Deirdre and Albert Jacob Meijer. 2006. "Does Transparency Strengthen Legitimacy?." Information Polity 11: (109-122). Fearon, James D. and David D. Laitin. 2000. "Violence and the Social Construction of Ethnic Identity." International Organization 54 (4): 845-877. Fung, Archon. 2003. "Associations and Democracy: Between Theories, Hopes, and Realities." Annual Review of Sociology 29: 515-39. Hardt, Jan. 2010. "Where Did All of the Political Party Money Go? A Comparison Between the 2006 and 2008 Oklahoma Elections." Oklahoma Politics. 20: 51-92. Ghozati, K. and J. Preece. 2001. "Observations and Explorations of Empathy Online." In. R. R. Rice and J. E. Katz, The Internet and Health Communication: Experience and Expectations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc., 237-260. Gilpin, Robert. 2001. Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Holbert, Lance R., et al. 2004. "Connecting, Trusting and Participating: The Direct and Interactive Effect of Social Associations." Political Research Quarterly 57 (December): 643652. Huntington, Samuel P. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Touchstone. Keohane, Robert. 2005. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
41 References Langman, Laura. 2005. "From Virtual Public Spheres to Global Justice: A Critical Theory of Internetworked Social Movements." Sociological Theory (March): 42-74. Martin, Brian and Wendy Varney. 2003. "Nonviolence and Communication." Journal of Peace Research. 40: 213-232 National Conference on Citizenship. 2010. "Report on Oklahoma Civic Health Index" University of Central Oklahoma and Oklahoma Campus Compact. 1: 1-28. Newton, K. 2001. "Trust, Social Capital, Civil Society, and Democracy." International Political Science Review. 22: 201-214. Norris, Pippa. 2003. "Global Governance and Cosmopolitan Cities." Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to the Globalization Debate (2nd edition). Ed. David Held and Anthony McGrew. Nye, Joseph S. 2002. The Paradox of American Power. New York: Oxford University Press. Ostry, Sylvia, and Richard R. Nelson. 1995. Techno-Nationalism and Techno-Globalism: Conflict and Cooperation. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution. Putnam, Robert D., et al. 1983. "Explaining Institutional Success: The Case of Italian Regional Government," American Political Science Review. (March):55-74. Rosenberg, Marshall. 2003. Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life. Second Edition. Encintas, California: PuddleDancer Press. Sorenson, Georg. 2008. Democracy and Democratization: Processes and Prospects in a Changing World. Third Edition. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. Tarrow, S. 1996. "Making Social Science Work Across Space and Time: A Critical Reflection on Robert Putnam's Making Democracy Work." American Political Science Review. (June): 389397. Tov, William and Ed Diener. 2009. "The Well-Being of Nations: Linking Together Trust, Cooperation, and Democracy." Social Indicators Research Series. 37: 155-173. Yamagishi, Toshio, et al. 2005. "Separating Trust from Cooperation in a Dynamic Relationship: Prisoner's Dilemma with Variable Dependence." Rationality and Society. 17: 275-308.
42 Appendix: Data and Measurements Figure One: Regression of Traditional Media Events
Regression Statistics Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations 0.633597665 0.401446001 0.39015253 359.0991121 217
ANOVA df Regression Residual Total 4 212 216 F 35.54673117 Significance F 1.02796E-22
Coefficients Intercept Daily New Likes Huffington Post KWTV-9 Oklahoman/CNN -47.36 18.39 1025.09 229.11 430.18
Standard Error 33.45 3.23 216.44 181.33 196.69
t Stat -1.42 5.70 4.74 1.26 2.19
P-value 0.158 0.000 0.000 0.208 0.030
Figure Two: Traditional Media Coverage Analytics
Huffington Post Total Amount Total Iteration Engagement Likes
Correlation of donation amount to likes
6/9-12/2010 7111 28 543 174 0.810341655
Oklahoman/CNN Total Amount Total Iteration Engagement Likes
Correlation of donation amount to likes
9/14-17/10 3775 44 637 122 0.81762882
KWTV-9 Total Amount Total Iteration Engagement Likes
Correlation of donation amount to likes
9/9-12/10 1150 6 203 18 0.225493808