Sericulture Industry

I INTRODUCTION Sericulture is a labour-intensive industry in all its phases, namely, cultivation of silkworm food plants, silkworm rearing, silk reeling, and other post-cocoon processes such as twisting, dyeing, weaving, printing and finishing. It provides employment to approximately 60 lakhs persons, most of them being small and marginal farmers, or tiny & household industry mainly in the hand reeling and hand weaving sections. Cultivation of sericulture is not very widespread being practiced regularly in contiguous districts in the three southern States of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu; in the NER; in the tribal areas of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa; and in Jammu & Kashmir and West Bengal. The cocoons and silk processing industry has traditionally existed in clusters in areas not necessarily coinciding with the sericulture areas in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Bihar. Reeling of silk is more widespread, with different clusters/traditionally producing distinctive designs and weavers, mainly in saris. India has the distinction of cultivating all the four commercially known varieties of silk, namely, Mulberry, Tasar, Eri and Muga. II WORLD RAW SILK PRODUCTION The World Raw Silk production (mulberry and non-mulberry) about 125605 MT (2004) (Annexure-I) mainly from two countries, China and India. China leads the world with silk production of 102560 MT or 81.7% of the produce. India ranks second in respect of world raw silk production. It is this position, as one of only two major silk producers in the world, and from its employment potential, that sericulture and silk derive their importance in the Indian textile map. Policy decisions are defined mainly by these two considerations. III AREA UNDER CULTIVATION AND PRODUCTION (DURING 2004-05) DOMESTIC RAW SILK

India’s raw silk production is 17305 MT (2005-06), 89.25% (15445 M.T.) of it is mulberry and 10.75% (1860 M.T.) Vanya silks. The area reported by States as cumulatively planted under mulberry is 1.79 lakh hectares (2005-06); and the production of cocoons is 126261 tonnes. State-wise production of mulberry and non-mulberry silk is given in Annexure II. IV PRODUCTIVITY OF RAW SILK As seen from the table below, though, area under sericulture has fallenmainly because of drought in AP and Karnataka in the first two years of X Plan, as also due to price fluctuations, the productivity per ha. has been steadily improving. The main reasons behind increase in production is improved silkworm races and hybrids, better technologies in rearing and reeling, evolution of higher leaf yielding mulberry varieties.

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Production of raw silk (Tons) Year Mulberry Hectarage Mulberry Cocoon 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 282244 270069 227151 215921 232076 194463 185120 171959 179065 127495 126566 124531 124663 139616 128181 117471 120027 126261 Raw Silk 14048 14260 13944 14432 15842 14617 13970 14620 15445 NonMulberry 1188 1284 1270 1425 1509 1702 1772 1880 1860

Per Ha. Productivity of mulberry (In Kg.)

Total Cocoon Raw Silk 15236 15544 15214 15857 17351 16319 15742 16500 17305 451.72 468.64 548.23 577.35 601.60 659.15 634.57 698.00 705.11 49.77 52.80 61.39 66.84 68.26 75.16 75.46 85.02 86.25

V BIVOLTINE SILKS: With Japanese technology and cooperation, CSB has recently been able to evolve & popularize Bivoltine silkworm races which can yield raw silk of international standards. With these races, provided there is concomitant reforms in the marketing and processing of cocoons, India can hope to expand its sale of domestic raw silk beyond its own borders. The X Plan target for bivoltine raw silk production is 1500 tonnes (revised). VI SILK IMPORTS: (i) Demand Supply Gap: The domestic production of raw silk is not adequate to meet the domestic and export demand. It is estimated that against the demand of around 26,000 ton per annum the domestic production is around 17300 tonnes. The gap of nearly 8700 tonnes in demand is mainly on account of the fact that high-grade quality mulberry raw silk is not being produced in the country to the extent required by the industry. This quality of mulberry raw silk is basically required in the powerloom industry, for export purposes, and to some extent in the handloom industry for warp purposes. To meet the demand of exporters, the Govt. has allowed the import of raw silk under O.G.L. as per WTO compatibility. (ii) Raw Silk Imports:The quantity and value of raw silk imported during the last five years is indicated as under: 2

Raw Silk Quantity (in ton) Value (Rs. In Crores) 1997-98 2346 218.33 1998-99 2824 259.36 1999-2000 5018 412.74 2000-2001 4713 475.15 2001-2002 6808 624.73 2002-03 9054 647.15 2003-04 9258 628.41 2004-05 7948 607.21 2005-06 8383 779.71 Apr-Jul (Provisional) 2006-07 1585 195.58 Year 2005-06 IX EXPORTS (i) Export Trend Exports of Indian silk products comprise mainly natural silk, fabrics, made-ups, ready-made garments, silk carpets and silk waste. Indian Silk exports have grown during last few years, rising from Rs.1250.55 in the year 1998-99 to Rs.2421.98 crores in the year 2000-01. However, in the year 2001-02 and 2002-03 export of silk goods showed a declining trend ie Rs.2359.56 crores and Rs.2294.05 crores respectively. The export of silk goods during 2003-04 was Rs.2779.19 crores (US$ 604.7 million). The silk goods exports during 2005-06 was 3194.20 crores (US$ 721.53 million) showing an increase of 11 % over 2004-05 which was Rs.2879.56 crores (US$ 640.90 million). (ii) Exports Data The exports of silk goods during the last five years is indicated as under: Year 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-05 2005-06 April-July** 2006-07 2005-06 (Figure in Rs. Crore)* 1250.55 1755.55 2421.98 2359.56 2294.05 2779.19 2879.56 3194.20 1046.56 960.34 Million US $ 297.04 404.97 530.21 495.29 474.08 604.70 640.90 721.53 228.91 220.36 2966 239.60

* Including silk carpets and silk RMG. ** The silk good exports during the period April-July of 2006-07 was 1046.56 Crores (US$ 228.91) which was 9% more as compared to April-July period of 2005-06 which was 960.34 crores (US$ 220.36 million) 3

XI X-PLAN: TARGETS FOR X-PLAN: (i) Production: In M.Tons
SILKS Mulberry-Bivoltine Mulberry Multivoltine Tasar/Oak Tasar Eri Muga TOTAL 1,500 18,000 450 1700 150 21,800

(ii) Exports: Exports are envisaged to grow at 15% reaching a level of about Rs.3200 crores by end of X-Plan. (iii) Employment:Creation of livelihoods is projected at 60.03 lakhs. .Mid term appraisal of the X plan schemes: Sericulture, which falls within the Village and Small Enterprises Sector, is important for the creation of sustainable gainful employment and rural incomes, providing a non-agricultural commercial crop with a high level of rural income and for supplying the raw material to industry largely based in rural areas that has a significant and growing export. The targets for the sector were fixed in terms of production of mulberry and non-mulberry raw silk, creation of employment and enhancement of exports.
Sl. No. 1 2 Particulars Area under Mulberry (Lakh hectares) Production of raw silk (MT) A. Mulberry B. Non-Mulberry (a) Tasar (b) Eri (c) Muga Total Employment (Lakh persons) Exports (Rs. in crores) * Anticipated achievement X Plan target (2002-2007) 2.00 20022003 1.94 20032004 1.85 Actual 20042005 1.72 20052006 1.79 20062007 * 1.90

24150 450 1700 150 26450 60.03 3200.00

14617 284 1316 102 16319 56.00

13970 315 1352 105 15742 56.50

14620 322 1448 110 16500 58.00

15445 308 1442 110 17305 59.50 3194.20

16700 323 1514 116 18653 60.00 3200.00

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2294.05 2779.19 2879.56

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During the year 2005-06, total production of all varieties of raw silk was 17,305 tons compared to the production of 16,500 tons in the year 2004-05, indicating an increase of 4.8%. Production of mulberry raw silk during 2005-06 was 15,445 tons compared to the production of 14,620 tons in the year 200405 indicating an increase of 5.6%. There is a significant improvement in Bivoltine Raw silk production during the year 2005-06 amounting to 971 MT indicating an increase of 8.7% as compared to the production of the same during the year 2004-05 which was 893 MT. REASONS FOR SHORTFALL The detailed mid term review of the major development schemes has been done in consultation with the State Governments and other implementing agencies. The objective of this appraisal was not only to assess pace of progress and identify short comings but also to assess whether it was proving effective in tackling the major issues identified at the start of the X th plan:The short falls in production during 2002-03 and 2003-04 were mainly due to: 1. The drought conditions which prevailed during the first two years of X Plan in the Southern States which are major silk producing States. 2. Increasing imports of raw silk and silk fabric at low prices from China since 2001 adversely affected the domestic markets thereby distracting farmers and other stakeholders from sericulture activities as it has reduced the remunerative gains for sericulturists, releers and weavers. 3. Obsolete reeling and weaving technology limit productivity and profit margins. With reeling and weaving confined mainly to the small and tiny sectors, the beneficiaries lack capacity to invest in upgraded technology. The availability of credit to the rural industry sector was identified as a bottleneck. Despite continuous discussions with the traditional sericulture states especially Karnataka to amend their acts regulating the market, the lack of response to the globalising conditions and the continued restraints on sale of cocoons worked adversely for the sector. The production of bivoltine silk was affected mainly by this. 4. The functioning of cocoon markets does not permit reelers to obtain a steady supply of uniform quality of bivoltine cocoons due to the lack of systems for grading and direct linkages with cocoon growers. Without this reelers are unable to produce a uniform quality of silk and therefore to achieve a gradable silk or get a remunerative price for their produce. 5. Seed supply, which falls 75% in the private sector under license by the State Governments and 15% directly in the State sector is un-reliable for both quality as well as disease freeness. Controls by the State Governments on licensed seed producers are so poor that they are unauthorisedly crossing hybrids and to sell untested, un authorized and un guaranteed seeds to the farmers. In turn their supply of seed cocoons for producing silkworm seeds lack proper grading and sorting. 6. Release of funds by the State Governments to the department is less of a problem in sericulture than in several other sectors, but is by no means always tiny. It is also been seen that in several states, state share has not been provided to meet the requirements of the sector or the requirements projected in their proposals.

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Central Silk Board (Amendment) Bill, 2005 has been passed by the parliament and the same has been notified in the Official Gazette on 14.09.2006 as “Central Silk Board (Amendment) Act, 2006 (No.42 of 2006), amending the provisions of the Central Silk Board Act, 1948 to regulate the quality of Silk-worm seed and matters incidental thereto.

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Annexure-I

World Rawsilk Production
(M.T) 2004 % (P) Share) 102560 81.65 16500 13.14 263 0.23 1512 1.20 0.12 0.76 1.13 0.60 1.19 100

Country

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

China 67113 68500 60300 57500 56959 61648 64567 68600 94600 India 13909 14126 15236 15544 15214 15857 17351 16319 15742 Japan 3240 2580 1920 1080 650 557 431 394 287 Brazil 2468 2270 2120 1821 1554 1389 1485 1607 1563 Korea 946 506 272 210 200 165 157 154 150 150 Republic Uzbekistan 1320 2500 2000 1500 923 1100 1260 1260 950 950 Thailand 1313 1144 1039 900 1000 955 1510 1510 1500 1420 Vietnam 2100 1500 1000 862 780 780 2035 2200 750 750 Others 2967 2766 2117 1572 1250 1952 1692 3814 1500 1500 Total 95376 95892 86004 80989 78530 84403 90488 95858 117042 125605 Note : Figures of India is for Financial year April to March. Source : 2004- Sericologia 44 (3)& ISCC-2005

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Annexure-II

Statewise Mulberry and Vanya Rawsilk Production Unit: Metric tonnes
2005-06 State Mulberry Andhra pradesh Assam Arunachal Pradesh Bihar Chattisgarh Himachal Pradesh Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharastra Manipur Mizoram Meghalaya Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttaranchal West Bengal Total
neg - less than 50 kg.

Vanya Silk Tasar 20 neg 14 90 96 16 6 3 neg neg 21 3 5 34 308 Eri 27 745 10 2.8 2 neg 235 3.2 280 130 2 neg 0.5 neg 4 1442 Muga 104 0.24 0.06 0.07 5.4 0.18 neg 0.2 110 Total 5422 857 11 18 96 16 95 97 7471 12 39 50 286 9 288 131 25 4 739 4 24 19 1591 17305 5375 8 1 3 3 16 95 1 7471 12 23 44 48 6 3 1 2 4 0 739 4 19 14 1552 15445

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