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dr.ing. Gabriel Oprisan Cochior Iulian 2010
1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Practice objectives Conclusions References
students in performing during professional practice. .1 (1) Labor protection is a set of institutionalized having intended to ensure the best conditions in developing process work. Cap. facilities. equipment.Introduction 1. tools and other similar means necessary in the work process.Protection of labour Issued: Romanian Parliament Published in: Monitorul Oficial No. persons employed with contracts.12 (1) For purposes of this Act. cooperative members. (2) labor protection standards established by this law is a unitary system of measures and regulations applicable to all participants in the process work. and apprentices. equipment and personal protection work. physical integrity and health employees and other persons participating in the work process. are equipment: machines. 157 from 23 july 1996 Cap. and appropriate measures for women and youth work. except those which have the purpose household chores. Art.2 Machinery. devices. food safety and sanitary materials Art.1 General dispositions Art. equipment.3 Work safety rules apply to employees. defense of life. (3) Activity enforce work safety ergonomic criteria for improving working conditions and to reduce effort physical.
19 Persons mentioned in Art. (3) Machinery of domestic and imported must be equipped with measuring and control equipment parameters. training.3 Obligations regarding the achievement of employment protection measures Art. and prevention and hazard warning states. b) to develop their own rules for protection rules work under the conditions in which the activity jobs.3 are required: a) acquire and comply with work safety rules and measures for their implementation. c) provide information to each person prior to employment in risks to which it is exposed at work and the necessary preventive measures. Art. . Cap. c) notify the work supervisor any damage technical or other situation that constitutes a danger of injury or occupational disease. testing and improvement employment of people with responsibilities in the field of labor.18 (1) In order to ensure work safety conditions and prevention of work accidents and occupational diseases. d) ensure the unit cost.(2) machinery must comply with the provisions of rules. as well as individuals have the following duties: a) to adopt the research phase. management legal person. e) to stop work on the appearance of imminent danger of causing incident and immediately inform the head job. standards and other regulations on labor protection and not endanger the health or life of employees. as well as on others involved in the work process. 3. b) operate in such a way as not to expose to danger injury or occupational disease both own person. design and execution of construction technical equipment and to develop technologies manufacturing solutions for protecting labor standards in accordance with whose implemented to eliminate the risk of injury and illness professional employees and others involved in the process work. the persons to drive for work or other persons to ensure that work protection pursuant to art. d) notify the head of workplace accidents suffered by the person's own work and others participating in work process.
5 Work accidents and occupational diseases Art.24 Fall accident at work in relation to products and consequences number of persons injured in: a) the accident causing temporary work incapacity of at least three days. c) the fatal accident. and specific job specialty that prepare students students and apprentices in workshops and laboratories of legal persons individuals and workshops. Necessary documents for a building erection .50 The purpose of this law.f) use personal protective equipment provided. b) accident causing disability. the authorization of operation.7 Final and transitional provisions Art. g) give the relations required by the control and research labor safety.46 Legal entities and individuals who carry out their work without be authorized in terms of labor protection in the coming into this law are obliged to apply state inspectorates territorial safety. professional practice means training practice. Art. 2. Cap. Cap. d) collective accident when I am injured at least three people in the same time and the same cause. proper purpose for which it was granted. within 30 days of arrival in this law.
Replay The work will be done only with the professional body. If during the works in which archaeological remains are found (fragments of walls. including dissertations and verification. pottery. etc. presents and songs written and drawn . foundations. health advice. -Proof of payment of legal fees from subsidiary SRO and project making in evidence submitted for approval . the organs charged with exercising control law.. carved and sculpted stones. they will demand. Notify the State Inspection for Quality Building works start date permitted by sending. monetary stock. throughout the work.project specific organization works execution (POE) and specific notices (notice the traffic. at least 30 days before.Document the payment of the fee for issuing a building permit (copy) . if necessary.) Notify immediately the issuer of the permit (City Hall).Solemn declaration on the lack of litigation over the property.Proof of title to the building. .including annex. 3. which will render the applicant the right execution of construction works (the copy). etc.To authorize the construction works . 2. Keep in perfect condition the building permit and construction documentation for neschimbare targeted.Agreement neighbors in authentic form or notary statements WORKS consent holder shall: 1.Application form for issuance of building permit .CAP. as well as environmental laws. with at least five days before. 4.signed and stamped original (two copies) made up as follows: a) it elaborates the collective technical expertise. complete with the identification and technical data on the design (stamped for legal persons).Cadastral sheet . the attached authorization form.Tabulation . . osminte. hollow frames. to endorse and be signed by technical personnel with superior training only in architecture and construction b) verify the law of auditors certified projects c) in case authorization is required and site organization.SECTION 1 . notice for temporary employment in the public domain.). Comply with the conditions imposed by the use and protection of the public domain. the attached authorization form. . referatul technical expertise . . opinion /contract sanitation company.Planning certificate (copy) and Annex HCLM plan DUP / ZUP / regulations PUG . City to announce the start date The work authorized by reference. 5.
RATC. Fire Brigade. Environment Agency. roof. A. projected construction shares (share level. storm drainage purposes. platforms. lagging behind the construction of temporary buildings and construction to disband after completion of work. if necessary SECTION 3 -indicative estimate of the work -designers signatures list -inspection reports SECTION 4. Electrical.Plan levels.The situation with the circulation and pedestrian accesses. Technical Memorandum of resistance: . distance.6.The necessary legal notices and agreements and plans to annex the subject issuer. alleys. nominated in the planning certificate (RAJA. green spaces) .Plan the existing street front progress / proposed + photos + + 3D simulation in with other studies mentioned . Sanepid. pavement lines. Congaz. RADET.There's technical expertise where appropriate .Foundation structure plans drawn at 1:50 scale .Network coordinator plan . Romtelecom. SCILConfort Urban (Lighting) . according to the permit issued by the Directorate of Public Services.The situation on a scale of 1:200 concerned PMC Cadastre Service will include: parcel topographical elements. request the minutes of reception. Termoelectrica. SECTION 2 . After completion of work. car (and relationships with existing circulation. pedestrian accesses. municipal Direction (green areas). name and destination of each body construction. Memorandum of architecture: . Constanta Construction Inspectorate.Framed in the plan at 1:1000 scale . where applicable) . 7. plans mention front color-prepared materials and finishes used in 1:50 scale B. County Department for Culture. to observe the time limit established by the building permit. To carry on Constanta Port Gate 9 103 berth behind. typical sections. designed to). the vertical. materials can not be recovered or exploit.
masonry walls) Building materials (brick blocks mechanical characteristics. concrete class. where appropriate C. Palas Projects.Subzidiri plans. foundations. etc.Details . steel reinforcements. The technical installations: .. Iasicon-Podul de fier) Industrial Buildings (Bricostore) Monumental Buildings (Manastirea Galata si Manastirea Cetatuia) For every type of building recognize: Structural elements (girders. purlins.Layout Practice objectives Identify building types: Office and apartment buildings (ex. columns. beams.) .
This includes office buildings. .1. family housing. commercial premises and underground parking. Office and apartment buildings Palas Project It is one of the largest projects of its kind in Europe.
we can realize that the building has a strong foundation. Due to project size we see a concrete station which help save time and funds The beams and columns are made of reinforced concrete and the walls will be made of autoclaved concrete. Due to underground parking. It can be easily main structure of the building. which is composed of supporting pillars and beams.In the right image we see an apartment building with two underground parking levels. . Palas project is the largest project in Eastern Europe but unfortunately we do not have much information on it.
In the basement there is parking. The first two floors are for offices and commercial spaces. Others are intended for housing. offices and homes This project involves two buildings housing the nine and 11 storeys. . Among the elements of structure mention support columns and diaphragms.Shops. They are constructed of reinforced concrete.
. Elevator shaft was built with vertical hollow bricks and building walls are made of autoclaved concrete. Reinforcing pillars are made with steel and stirrups. Molded plates are supported by pillars and beams with lattice.This picture is observed coffering concrete columns using prefabricated formwork. Fittings role is to give greater strength poles. In this picture you can see also the posts ready for casting. After a period of approximately 20 days to remove the casings and remove support pillars.
Industrial Buildings During practice we visited the laboratory of concrete.The concrete laboratory . a. aerodynamics laboratory of the faculty and an industrial plant unfinished.Here you can see the connections between stirrups and fittings 2.
Roof beams give a high strength concrete structure due. In this picture we can see the pillars which support a machinery beam.This kind of roof is made by beams and it is used at industrial buildings. It is made by reinforced concrete and it has the following form. . It is used because of the its size and its strength.
The structural elements are:fork columns and the concrete beams . The above give us some of the main structure of industrial buildings. b. concrete beams. They are mounted between the columns and their role is to preserve the structure. and ceiling in the box form. walls with vertical hollow brick.Here we have the bracings of the building.Industrial building In this building you can see the fork columns.
Monumental buildings “Cetatuia” Monastery Raised arc(arc suprainaltat) Bracket arc(arc in acolada) .3.
Arc in maner de cos Arc frant obtuz Classification of arcs .
numerical analysis and conceptual structural design. statics. structural engineers often further specialize into special structure manufacture or construction. however. Structural engineers ensure that their designs satisfy a given design intent predicated on safety (i. etc. material science. Structural loads on structures are generally classified as: live loads such as the weight of occupants and furniture in a building. columns. Large man-made objects—everything from furniture to medical equipment and from vehicles (trucks. the purpose of which is to support and resist various loads. structures do not collapse without due warning) and on serviceability (i. The fundamental core subjects for structural engineering are strength of materials or solid mechanics. reinforcing structures against sabotage has taken on increased importance. composite . its scope is already expanded beyond the edge of civil engineering. An experienced engineer would tend to render more difficult structures. dynamics. structural engineering is largely the application of Newtonian mechanics to the design of structural elements and systems that support buildings. In recent years. heat and energy inside the building components. walls (including retaining walls). the forces of wind or weights of water. Structural engineers mainly fight against the forces of nature like winds. timber. however. structural engineers are responsible for making efficient use of funds and materials to achieve these goals. structural engineering is viewed as part of civil engineering. Most commonly. spacecraft and watercraft) to cranes—require the input of a structural engineer. dead loads including the weight of the structure itself and all major architectural components and live roof loads such as material and manpower loading the structure during construction. including calculating the loads on each member and the load capacity of various building materials (steel. floor vibration and building sway do not result in occupants criteria discomfort). In the United States. but also play an essential role in designing machinery where structural integrity of the design item is a matter of safety and reliability. Typically. Additionally.e. In a practical sense. and floors of a new building. aircraft. Traditionally.e. structural engineers are involved in the design of buildings and nonbuilding structures. such as pipeline engineering or industrial structures. dams. tunnels.Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of any structural system(s). earthquakes and tsunamis. entry-level structural engineers may design simple beams. In addition. concrete). Reinforced concrete. the forces due to seismic activity such as an earthquake. masonry. the structural engineering field is often subdivided into bridge engineering and structural engineering for buildings. considering physics of moisture. The education of structural engineers is usually through a civil or architectural engineering degree with structural emphasis or through a structural engineering degree. bridges.
prestressed concrete design. Architectural engineering programs do offer structural emphases. timber. which typically do not emphasize structural engineering. Recently in the United States. bridge engineering. and one still exists at the University of California-San Diego. At the senior year level or higher. or aerospace engineering degree programs. There is also growing support to establish a structural engineering undergraduate degree. Some have called for a master's degree to be the minimum standard for professional licensing. The structural analysis courses which include structural mechanics. some existed in the past.structure. mechanical. masonry and structural steel designs are the general structural design courses that will be introduce in the next level of the education of structural engineering. space frame design for building and aircraft. structural dynamics and structural failure analyses are designed to build up the fundamental analysis skills and theories for structural engineering students. there have been discussions in the structural engineering community about the competency of structural engineering graduates. Many students who later become structural engineers major in civil. . civil and aerospace structure rehabilitation and other advanced structural engineering specializations are usually introduced. and are often in combined academic departments with civil engineering.
128 800 50 A1 80 . Performanta termica superioara.kg) Rezistenta la compresiune (σ N/mm2)* Conductivitatea termica echivalenta (λech .141 2. • Caracteristici tehnice Dimensiuni (lxbxh -mm) Masa (M. Rezistenta la forfecare in rostul vertical de mortar este sporita cu cca.30% fata de produsele tip locas de mortar.POROTHERM 30 STh POROTHERM 30STh se foloseste pentru pereti structurali exteriori si interiori. Configuratia blocului ceramic imbunatateste mecanismul de cedare sub actiunea solicitarii de tip seismic. 15 10 0.W/mK) Rezistenta la transfer termic (R m2K/W) Densitate aparenta (kg/m3) Indice de reductie sonora (dB) Comportament la ardere Livrare (bucati/ palet infoliat) 250x300x23 8 cca.
conform SR EN 771-1:2003 References 1. a Protecţiei Muncii 2.ro .Necesar de caramizi/m2 de zidarie 16 Necesar de caramizi/m3 de zidarie 54 * Valoare minim garantata. www. 90 din 12 iulie 1996. Brickstone 3.palasiasi. LEGEA Nr.
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