Yolume . a: S.mmry.4.3.





Volume Ia: Summary



First Published in 1995

Copyright: © Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh

Computer Composed and Printed By: Bangladesh Progressive Enterprise Press Ltd. 46/1, Purana Paltan, Dhaka- 1000, Bangladesh

Published by: NEMAP Secretariat Ministry of Environment and Forest Room No: 1303, Building No.6 Bangladesh Secratariate, Dhaka Fax: 880-2-869210

National Project Directors a. Mr. Karar Mahmudul Hasan Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forest (September 1991-September 1995), Presently, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Communication b. Dr. Mahfuzul Haque Senior Assistant Secretary Ministry of Environment and Forest (October 1995Assisted by Mr. A. T. M. Salahuddin, Assistant Chief, Planning Section, Ministry of Environment and Forest


National Consultants Team: Syed Md. lqbal Ali Mr. Nld. Jahangir Engr. Saleh Mustafa Kamal Dr. Babar N. Kabir National National National National Consultant Consultant Consultant Consultant and Coordinator

Acknowledgement of valuable contribution to the preparation of this report is due to: Mr. Abdullah Haroon Pasha, former Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forest. Presently, Secretary, Prime Minister's Secretariat. Mr. Syed Amir-ul-Mulk, former Additional Secretary -in -Charge, Ministry of Environment and Forest. Presently, Additional Secretary-in-charge, Ministry of Information. IMr.Syed Marghub Murshed, Additional Secretary-in-Charge, Ministry of Environment and Forest. Mr. ivld. Abdul Latif Mondal, Joint Secretary, Ministy of Environment and Forest. Mr. Fazlul Huq, former Joint Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forest. Presently, Director General, Directorate of Youth Development. Dr. S. Huq, Dr. A. Atiq Rahman of BCAS Dr. Q. F. Ahmed of CEN-ADAB & Proshika MUK Ms. Khushi Kabir, Chairperson, Ms. Rasheda K. Chowdhury, Director, Mr. S. K. Saha of ADAB Ms. Eimi Watanabe, Resident Representative, UNDP Mr. M. Constable, Dr. S. Nandy, Mr. B. Leservoisier of UNDP Dr. N1.Yousuf Ali, Mr. Rowshan Ali Chowdhury Mr. C. Mutsuddi of Forum of Environmental Journalists, Bangladesh NEMAP gratefully acknowledges with thanks generous contributions of the following experts in the very formative stage of NEMAP in 1991 7Mr. Haroun-er-Rashid Dr. Ain-un-Nishat lMr.Sanowar Hossain Mr. A. B. Chowdhury Mr. Rezaur Rahman Dr. .Mohiuddin Farooque Mr. Mark King





has been made possible

due to the contributions

of many organisations,


which are: United Nations Development Programme. Association of Development Agencies in Bangladesh and their various lOCal member-NGOs. Coalition of Environmental NGOs and their members. Department ot Environment and Bangladesh

Centre for AdvancedStudies.
Gratitude is expressed toall thelocal NGOs and above all. to those thousands of peoplc from all overthecoultry withoul whose active participation and support. the NEMAP process could never have been compleled. Similarly. contribuLions > of the facilitators, specially those from ADAB and other NGOs. and the journalists. who acted as the rapporteurls to NEMAP and of the secretarial staff of MoEF, UNDP and BCAS, and the supporting staff of all the involved agencies are acknowledged. Further. NEMAP is grateful to all those national and international agencies and individuills who have given their- i pLIts in reviewing and commenting on various documents at different stages of development of the NENIAP.

The iVational Environment Management Action Plan (NEMAP) has been developed by the Ministrv of Environmnentand Forest with inpuztsfrom all sectors of the people including non-governmentorganizations, academics, parliamentarians, |lawvers,journalists and grassroots men and women. The process of preparing the NEMAP has been highly participatory with grassroots workshops held in twentythree agro-ecological zones and six regional and national workshops. The Hon'ble Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Begmn Khaleda Zia, gave her personal support and encouragement to the process. At the Prime Minister'sdirection, the initial NEMAP document was widelyshared around the countryvand with different groups including media, NGOs, academics, government organizations and international development partners. Very substantial and usefulfeedbacks were received and have, as far as possible, been incorporated in the final report. The NEMAP is not being regarded as a one-off document or plan, it is rather a living process. It will be continuouslY improved and updated so that the people of the coungtrythemselves will see it as their own plan to be implemented by not only the government or non-government organizations but also by all the conscious citizens of Bangladesht. We hope all concerned wvilltake NEMAP in that spirit and will join us in our efforts to protect the environment while achieving the goal of development.

Akbar Hossain, (Bir Pratik), M.P. Minister for Environment and Forest


Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FOREWORD CONTENTS LIST OF MAPS LIST OF FIGURES ABBREVIATIONS CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 Introduction The Challenges What is NEMAP? Objectives of NEMAP The State of the Environment and Development in Bangladesh Existing Environmental Policies History of NEMAP Public Consultation and People's Participation People's Concerns People's Solutions and their Incorporation in Action Plan The Action Plan 5 7 8 8 9 (11-18) 11 11 12 12 12 14 15 15 16 16 16 (19-22) 19 19 20 21 21 21 21 (23-26) 23 25 25 25 25 25 (27-40) 27 28 29 30

CHAPTER II: METHODOLOGY 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Parties Involved The Process Geographical Coverage Analysis, Synthesis and Preparation of Reports The Synthesis Process The Document Preparation of the Action Plan

CHAPTER III: INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES AND ACTIONS 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Existing institutions Intersectoral Issues Local Environmental Issues Role of other Non-government Institutions Implementation, Monitoring and Follow-up of NEMAP Strengthening of MoEF and DoE

CHAPTER IV: SECTORAL ISSUES AND ACTIONS 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Natural Hazards/Disasters Industry Water Resources Energy

4.5 4.6

Forestry and Biodiversity Land Resources

31 33

4.7 Fisheriesand Livestock 4.8 Agriculture
4.9 Housing and Urbanization

34 36

4.10 Health and Sanitation 4.11 Education and Awareness
4.12 Transport and Communication

38 39

CHAPTER V: LOCATIONALSPECIFIC(LOCAL)ISSUESAND ACTIONS 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Charlands MadhupurTract BarindTract Wetlands Hill Cutting Salinity and ShrimpCultivation Coastal and MarineResourcesManagement

(41-45) 41 42 43 43 44 44 45


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Climate Change and Sea LevelRise Urbanization RegionalWater Sharing Research and Development

46 46 47 48 (49-51)


Map-2.I Map-2.2 Map-4.I Map-4.2

Location of Grassroots,Regional,Professionaland National Workshopson NEMAP Spatial Distributionof Levels of Participationin NEMAP Process SpatialDistributionof People'sConcernsRegarding NaturalHazards SpatialDistributionof People'sConcernsRegarding Health and Sanitation

19 21 27 39

LIST OF FIGURES Figure-1.I Figure- 1.2 Figure-1.3
Figure- 1.4

Structure of NEMAPDocument SchematicShowing of Inputs and Outputsof Previous & Current NEMAPDocuments Overviewof NEMAP Process
Organizations of NEMIAP Consultative Process

I] 12 13

Figure- 1.5 Figure- 1.6 Figue- 1.7 Figure-2.1 Figure-3.I Figure-7.I

Steps of the Preparationof ActionPlan SchematicRepresentationof Main EnvironmentalIssues People'sConcernsand Solutions NEMAPConsultation,Synthesis and PreparationProcess ProposedInstitutionalArrangementsfor the Implementationof NEMAP SchematicRepresentationof Main Actionsof NEMAP

15 16 17 20 24 51

Association of Development Agencies in Bangladesh Agriculture and Environment Unit Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute Bangladesh Agricultural University Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies Barisal Development Society Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association Bangladesh Forest Research Institute : Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Corporation :Banaladesh Jatiya Mahila Ainjibi Samity ~~~BJiMAS Bol Board of Investment BRAC Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee BRTA Bangladesh Road Transport Authority BSTI Bangladesh Standards Testing Institute BWDB Bangladesh Water Development Board CDA Community Development Association CEN Coalition of Environmental NGOs ADAB AEU BARI BAU BCAS BDS BELA BFRI BIDS BIWTC



Directorateof Land Recordsand Surveys
Disaster Management Bureau Department of Environment Department of Fisheries Environmental Impact Assessment Economic Relations Division Flood Action Plan Flood Control and Drainage Flood Control. Drainage and Irrigation Forest Department Forum of Environmental Journalists, Bangladesh Friends in Village Development, Bangladesh Fish Research Institute High Yielding Variety Geographic Information System Inland Water Transport Authority Local Government Engineering Department Khulna Development Authority :Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Director Management and Relief :Ministry of Education Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry of Environment and Forest Ministry of Finance Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Ministry of Industiy



of Land

Ministry of Law. Justice and Parliamentary Affairs Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development Ministry of Planning Ministry of Water Resources of Fisheries and Livestock :Ministry Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs National Environment Management Action Plan National Economic Council Project Concept Paper Rajdhani Unnayan Katripakha Rangpur Dinajpur Rural Service : South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization Soil Resource Development Institute Surface Water Modeling Centre Urban Development Directorate University Grants Commission United Nations Conference on Environment and Development United Nations Development Programme Water Resource Planning Organization Water and Sewage Authority


1.1 Introduction workshop, in which the Prime Minister To enable people to participate in

took part. This helped a consensus to
Bangladesh is one of the least developed countries with a rapidly increasing population (over 120 million). Its meagre resources are either overexploited or used The pressure of the sub-optimally. popuplatnionon thecountry'sresources make planowroningthan is economic imperati, It is now recognised that for development to be sustainable environmental concerns have to be integrated into the planning process. However, in a country like Bangladesh this is a formidable task. All planning has to be for the people. Their involvement, therefore, in the identification of issues and finding 0 solutions to them is not only desirable but also essential. As democratic practices and institutions take root in Bangladesh, the participation of the the in people formulation of plans must be considered essential. It is stated in the Constitution that "All powers belong to In the people". conformity with the emerge to act as the basis of this Action Plan. 1.2 The Challenges

environmentalplanningon a continuous
basis, the NEMAP process must adjust to changingenvironmentalconditions. Thus the challenges are (a) to ensure involvement of people on a continuous basis; and (b) to make the process incorporate changing environmental realities in a dynamic manner. The present NEMAP document is an attempt to respond to these sort of challenges and develop an implementable P Sustainable with Relationship Development: At the UN Conference on Environment and Development (the Earth Summit) in

The participatory planning process, described in the preceding paragraph, th though highly desirable has its problems. These include developing appropriate methodologies, making action plan implementable, dealing with issues that are multisectoral and persuading the people to improve and modify practices that are environmentally unsound. The MOEF is relatively a new ministry that is still notadequately equipped toco-ordinate activities of different sectors at national, regional and local levels. Figure 1.1

Structure of NEMAP Document




I.1 VO5, I



ronMent (MOEF), to


and Forest Government the S




s .[r,,



of Bangladesh. decided

National Environment Management Actiorl
Plan involving

(N EMAP) people at

every stage of the planning process. In
this process,

I I1,







government agencies,

groups professional academic and
worked researchers through a together series of workshops



t1 1t1 Etl


b A




including a national





Figure 1.2: Schematic showing of Inputs and Outputs of Previous & Current NENIAP Documents


mnitom Professional l

GoscrnrnenE Agenc'e'


Po~ini CoosLtion

Eiiaino PulcOnir




Inputs Inler-miniserial iw

Re[om Priiain


EMAP I (7 N.tionalCoosultants)

------------ >

Inenaonal & NaU OOal)

------------------------- >








1XppenEi Rpor


Rio, 1992, Agenda 21 was signed by Bangladesh. The Agenda21 isabasis to attain sustainable development through policies initiated and coordinated at the national level. The second phase of the Strategy of National Conservation Bangladesh (NCS) has begun. The NCS and the Forestry MasterPlan are initiatives of the mOEF that reiterate BanAladesh's these initiatives are complementary. Aenda2l envisages the establishmentof A sustain dv able ment c o headed by the Prime Minister, The initiation of NEMAP along with the SAARC Declaration on Poverty Alleviationcanbeseenasstepsreaffirming Bangladesh's commitment to Agenda 21. 1.3 What is NEMAP ?

a collection of technical reports with detailed tables. The lasttwo volumes will be of value to specialists. As environmental concerns encompass all sectors of the economy multidisciplinary approaches are therefore needed for the formulation ofpolicies and implementation of programmes related to

degradation, reduce environmental promote sustainable development and generally raise the quality of human lif'e. It has to evolve in response to environmental changes. The present document is relevant for the period 19952005. The Action Plan is meant to be implemented not only by the government
but by the non-government organizations



The National Environment Management Action Plan or NEMAP is a plan of the Government of Bangladesh prepared by the MOEF in consultation with people trom all walks of life. It consists of five volumes which include Volume I SummariesiniEnglishandBangla Volume 11-The main report, Volume ItI - Project Concepts, Volume IV - Methodological Report, VolumeV-TechnicalAppendices (see tigure-1.1). Volume 11 identifies actions to be implemented, Volume III expands each action into an outline identifying actors, Volume IV speaks about the methodology and Volume V is

.. prepared by the Government of Bangladeshtobethebasisforprogrammes and interventions aimed at promoting better resource management, making people aware of environmental problems and reversing the present trend towards environmental degradation. NEMAP is expected to identify key environmental problems. Since these may change over a periodoftime,NEMAPwillhavetoevolve in response to the changes. NEMAP constitutes a synthesis of the perception of the government and the people of Bangladesh regarding environmental issues and what needs to be done to address them. The structureof the NEMAPdocument is shown inFigure 1.Ialongwiththesectoral, spatial and long term issues as identitied by the people.





Objectivesof NEMAP NEMAP is expected to identify key environmental issues, conserve, the nature,

and individual citizens and communities as well. The management interventions are all essential but the more urgent ones have been given importanice. 1 S 1. State of the Environmeia D As the world's most densely populated country with over 800 people per sq. km., Bangladesh's per capita income is a mere US $ 220. In 1994, it was twelfth from the boS$20 In 19i was eltnom the bottom of the world's economic atlas. However, in the recent past, significant progress has been made in certain areas. In lOyears tood production has increased by 30% and in 1992 self sufficiency in foodgrains was attained; population growth has fallen from2.2 to 1.9 percent; through a fair election, democracy was restored in 1991; the government's commitment to the social sector has increased considerably (with the highest allocation to education); export earnngsn have increased; 38% of the development budget is now funded tfirough resources



mobilized locally; there has been an expansion in the capital market; the government has initiated a participatory planning exercise; NGO's have been working as partners of the government in environmental regeneration programmes (like tree plantation; 2 billionsaplingswere planted in 93-94).

Figure 1.3: Overview of NEMAP Process



Governmc Uro[cius |roisukulgroupinpu|









Mudlo I





o Polic



these over



~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~o AM-l:.xy












forty percent of the population live in
abject poverty

(consuminglessthan 1800caloriesaday); Bangladesh's human development indicatorsareappallinglypoor(theliteracy rateis37%-thelifeexpectancyaround52 years); infantand maternalmortality rates unacceptably high; and the urban slum populationincreasing attherateof6% per t annum. The annual arowthrate in the agricultural sector was 2.7% - barely enough to keep pace with the population increase Access pace with the population Increase. to sate to safe drinking water is limited andthe drinkina water is limited and the inmcidence water borne diseases very of high. Inspite of rapid and unplanned urbanization. 80% of the people still live in rural areas. With a large percentage of the population relatively young, pressure on edticational institutions and the job market will increase in the near future. Population growth : Bangladesh, as mentioned earlier, is the most densely populatedcountryintheworld.Theurban population which was 13 million in 1981' will more than treble in 2000 to4 I million, Over 50% of the population is below 15 year ofconoy i notexpeted ge.The to create employment opportunities that

NaturalHazards:Recurrentfloodscause serious damages to 30% of the country. The cyclones which hit areas near the coastal belt leave behind a trail of destruction (nearly 1,30,000 were killed in the cyclone of April 1991). The northwest of the coLntry is drought prone while the northeast susceptible to flash tloods. Geomorphological instability cases large scae river bank erosion.r

an important environmental concern. Water pollution. which is becoming a major problem, can be divided into 3 categories:faecalpollutioncausing spread of water-borne diseases; industrial pollution adversely affecting both the terrestrial and aquatic environmenit; and agro-chemicalpollutionaffectingthefood chain (through residues). ineadIrriation (FCD/1) structures are affecting fisheries by decreasing the spawning grounds and v ~ 0 restricting migration as well as affecting inland water navigation and causing increased siltation of river beds. Land issues: Land related environmental issues are cross sectoral as all sectors compete for the tise of it. Erosion of land has increased landlessness as well as over exploitation of common resources. New land is often unconsolidated and underutilized because of ownership disputes. An integrated planning approach for land reclamation is of importance in a densely populated country where lanldis scarce. Forestry:Fellingot'treesfortimber, fuel

Agriculture: Growth in agriculture . ..
particularly food production was made possibleby thecultivation ofhighyielding varieties (HYV) of rice and wheat.

TheHYVreqLiireintensiveagro-chemical use (both fertilizer and pesticides). This has led tosoil impoverishmentand may in future lead to health hazards. Water:WatermanagementinBangladesh isakeyenvironmentalissue. Bangladesh isadeltaformedbythesedimentbrought down by rivers that form a part of the Himalayan drainage ecosystem. The coastal zone is very dynamic. Indiscriminate use of ground water for irrig-ationhas led to lowering the water -of table. Withdrawal of water by India at the FarakkaBarrageiscausingwatershortage


will absorb all those entering the job
imarket. Population growth may be considered the most serious problem inhibiting sustainable development in Bangladesh.

during the dry season in the north, and
causing saiinity to move further inland in the south. As most of the rivers flowing through Bangladesh originate in neighbouring countries, water sharing is

and encroachmenton areas covered by
forests has reduced the total reserve forest area in Bangladesh by 50% in the last twenty years. Salinity has effected the coastalmangrovetforests.Theinvolvement





of NGOs in social forestry positive development.

has been a

Fishery: There has been an overexploitation of fishery resources, (fishina being often the only livelihood forthelandless).Theproductivityofponds and closed waterbodies is low because of management and tenurial problems. Construction of flood control structures impede water flow causin.g floodplain fishing to fall by 70%. The prospect for shrimp farming and aquaculture is good but it competes with agriculture and forestry. Industry: The establishmentofindustries leads to economic growth and increases employment opportunities. However, industrial and marine pollution adversely affect the environment whenever there is rapid industrial expansion (the fishery sector has been a direct victim of the

adequately create environmental awareness. People are generally perceptive regarding environmental matters. Both governmentagenciesandNGOscanwork together to spread environmental awareness among the people. 1.6 Existing Environmental Policies TheGovernmentsFourthFiveYearPan ( enivironmental a) to control related to b) promote

To further these objectives the Government has undertaken a wide range of initiatives including: a) Creation in 1989 of the Department ofEnvironmentwithinanewMinistry of Environment and Forest Approval in 1992 of a National Environment Policy and Action Plan. Initiation of work on National Environment Management Action Plan (NEMAP), National Conservation Strategy and Forestry Master Plan. Dec larati on that Environmental ImpactAssessmentsshouldbecarried projects. Enacting Environment


c) objectives as follows: pollution and degradation soil, water and air; environment friendly d)

c) d)

activities in the development process: preserve,protect,anddevelopnatural resource bases;-outfr strengthen the capabilities of public and private sectors to manage environmental concerns as a basic requisiteforsustainabledevelopment;


the Bangladesh Protection Act 1995.

uintreated poltutants released by factories),
Environmental awareness and education: lnaacountrywithalowliteracy rate, the formal education system cannot Figure 1.4: e)



The National E-nvironment Policy sets the
policy framework for environmental action in combination with a set of local sectoral guidelines. It emphasizes inter alia: Process

create people's awareness for participation in environment promotion activities. Organizations of NEMAP Consultative

Minisirv of Environment and Forest


T ;;71 CEN

F ;;;;



Wolkshop5 1

~~Worksholps |Wrsos


kledia campaign

Qusun.iA -- BS-_

E M i


chiznoon! AA|ADA B


Syihet | | Roshahi | | Khulna 1 | Mymerisinghl DAB -|-ADAB ||ADAB7]D* J

|OiSotributod jEFIAD4E M ABF







| |

Iurnalists | FEI|| Wonnnn | AD:A-

Acdemis BA3B Gemcn| | |

|MPs || | - MoxEF | -BiMAS


- Pints





JEC|E8DS e-srn | DB|










Maintenance oftheecological balance and overall progress and development of the country through protection and improvement of the environment; of the Protection natuiral disasters,c country against





Public Consultation Participation

and People's


NEMAP is an environmental planningP exerciseoftheGoqvernmentofBangladesh carried out by the MOEF with assistance from UNDP.

Tommakethe NEMAPdocLimentrepresent all shades ofpublic opinion, the1followin actions were taken. To obtain pLiblic



l d ; .The Identification and control of all types of activities related to pollution and degradation of environment; sound * Environmentally development . sounddevelopment Environmentally in all sectors; Sustainable long-term and environmentally congenial utilization of all natural resources; and Active association with all environment related international
National Environment Manage, n


first phase was carried out in 1992 by ntionalconsultantswhoidentifiedcertainized areas of concern. The second phase was carried out in 1993 by national and international consultants who prepared a . list of projects. The order of priorities was arrived at after discussion with government officials. The third phase was carried out in 1994 through a series of discussions and workshops in which people from all walks of life participated. Figure 1.2 schematically represents the
inputs, phases outputs and contents of the three

opinion from all parts of the country 23 steps were taken toensure participation of people from every segment of society; efforts were made to ensure that half the participants of these work shops were women; efforts were made to assess the views ofall the workshopparticipants; the workshop participants were asked to identify their own priorities and suggest solutions.Theywereaskedtorecommend actions that were to be taken by themselves, by the local authorities, local comm .nities and by the national government.
Rooa . susweeoasot . discussed .. SIX In workshops



ActioniPlan(NEMAP)isbeinrrconsidered d DA

as the basis for concretizing programmes and interventions aimed at promoting better management of scarce resources and reversing present trends of environmental degradation. NEM AP is intendedtobuildonthegeneralprinciples setoutintheNationalEnvironmentPolicy by proposing concrete actions and interventionsinanumberofpriorityareas.


s of te

of the NEMAP



Figure 1.3 is an overview of the NEMAP process.Thethreemajorinputs arepeople's concerns, government policies and professional group inputs. These, through an analysis and subsequent synthesis process was developed into an Action Plan.Thefi-urefurtheridentifiestheactors and their respective roles.

in which elected local govt. functionaries and appointed govt. officials participated. In these workshops professional groups were encouraged to present their respective The views of people not inpts. participating in the workshops were collected by circulating a questionnlaire and eliciting the response of the public in

Figure 1.5: Steps of the Preparation of Action Plan
Step 1 INPUTS: People's Opinions Grops Step 2 Discussion Amonest Exisin Govt. Expert |Policy Step 3 People's Professional eProessional Opinions Groups Step 4 Poople Profssional s Groups


ACTIVITY: Listing of all Concerns & Identification of


Liscing and Synthesis of Mvlajor Issues


M~~~~~~~~Najor Concernsll


Recommendations for Action


Priorirization of Ac ion

Major Concerns * OUTPUT: \ Sanitation & Health *

Maior Issutes Institutional I Policy Issues

Recommended Actions bv * Government

Actionable Proiect Outline List of about

* People
* Poverty & Population

30 Project

* Regional Issues * Sectoral Issues * Long Term Issues r,

* NGOs * Academics


* Pollution * Natural Hazards

~~~~~~* Educations
. Lawyers



* Others


NEMAP Summary Report

general on the subjects discussed in the workshops. These views were consolidated and analyzed in a computer programme. The people were informed of the NEMAP process with help of the media, both electronic and print. The

recognition to poverty alleviation got special emphasis during the workshops and consultations. ltisevidentfromfigurel.7thatsanitation, health, deforestation, pollution, natural

offeredaseriesofsolutions.Sixtoei-htof themajorsolutionsineachgroupmanages to capture the wide variety of solutions proposed by the people. The major solutions in each group is indicated in Figure 1.7 which thus summarizes the main solutions given by the people to the problems they had identified which have the key driving, force behind developi i ee ntabi e actions. developmg impiementable actions. 1.11 The Action Plan The Action Plan draws its inputs from the following:

carefully recorded by trained facilitators disaster, water and flood control drainae andexperiencred bytrapporteursd draft e and irrigation (FCD/I) projects and agroand experienced The draftbeen rapporteurs. proposals were discussed at a national chemicalsemergedasthemajorgroupsof workshop in which the Prime Minister of concerns, while the leading seven groups Bangladesh took part-the draft was of concerns covered 83%. the residual f-inalised after prolonged consultations 17% encompassed all the "other' for the concerns of the people being carefuilly convenience of developing an incorporated. implementable action plan.

Figure 1.6 Schematic Representation of Main Environmental Issues

ISSUES Intersecroral coordination

ISSUES Health & Sanitation

ILOCAL iSSUES Saliniry and Shrimp


ISSUES Regional Water sharing

Ensuring people's
participation Monitoring of NEMAP Legislation

sBiodi versity Natural Hazards Education & Awareness

Barind Tract

Climate Change Research and

Charlands Hill

MNethodology of peoples parnicipation cns

intut the tMadhupurTract Ag)lculture
Energy Fishe1res Land Housing


Fit ire 1.4 summarises the ort anizations oftheoNEpsAPconsultativeprocess.rnajor activities and actors have also been eridentified. The EMAP consultations represented an exemplary process of
Government 1.9 Since the NGO collaboration. Concerns to record of the


People's solutions and their incorporation in the actionplan


The people throur h consultative process and inputs stimulated by a nationwide media coverade: Government policies and existing
documenLs, sectoral concerns through consuiltations with government ag~encies: -roups' workshops submnissions. systematically synthesized contributions and written as -iven relevant

The types of activities in NEMAP can be classed into three goups:
(a) (b) (c Policies: Projects; doaY(fh iw ftepol)



it was found to be difficult viewvs of' all the participants



Teoiesnpjctadrw'omthrough tevwsaocedbthpolein tokhe opesandvctedoghcnsuthetiopleFor wokhp each broad n ho.-hcnuttoso group of conicerns, people

workshops separately, major concernsi whichthedit'terent viewswereemphasized were identified. The need to 1<ive

These inputs have been and subsequently by a NEN'vAP synthesis


Figtire 1.7: People's Concerins and Solutions

Solution to Deforestation


toSanitationand HealthHa?ards



T Xlillgllotp-d



~~~~~ ~~32*
/ 36%






~ ~ ~ ~~U

l, S7.w B% 691.

dWoo P 3%


SO eMv*iu 4 _ 8 % ig










U-b A..

& 00 4:

AOon & &S lr31*i,1 23%



12% U.J-,y 13% VD






Solutiont to Natural


B~ . & 00.


Agro. Chemcl'I







Uvp. 159







0-P. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~6%

NEMIAP: Summarv


goVerlnmenit ag-encies. NGOs. mnedia. acadoemicns, private sector, elected representatives, and professionalgroups.
The roles ofeach ofthese groups of actors

have also been specified

as shiown in

Fimt1.5. The types ofs actions acgaini are
into three cateneories:

1) Advocacy 2) Policy anid

3) Specific Projects.
Some of the actions combine two or more ofthe above types. the ConClutdiong chapter contains practical actions or immediate implementation by desigmated actors.
Main iSSueS emerging OUt of the overall asnalySiS acnd SLbseqtent synthesis are Striimarized in Fig. 1 d.6.


Workshops if Bagroa

stibtcommittle consistine of oovernment and nonl covernment representativ For the purpose


of management

Long Term Issues which may become much more seriotis and threateningthanthey needbeifwe do not start taking cognizance of them from now (Chapter 6).



n towards

activities which contribUti meigteojcieoNMPTkn

implementation. acqtiiring necessary funds and enabling all disferent agencies to initiate or implement their own programmes sinl orincombination wvith agencies. all the action has been grotiped uInder the following heads. Institutional aspects which reflect the nbeed to have intersectoral cooperation to tackle environsental problens which may need new and appropriate institttional mechanisms ait nationi,al as wvell as local levels (C hiapter3). 2. Sectoral which reflects the way the government ministries and agencies are organized and hence makes it.. eatsier to identify the agency to carry out the recommended actioni (Chapter 4).

Figure 1.5 schematically represents the process in the preparation of the Action Plan, each having inputs, activity and p The Action Plan identifies a series of specific actions and respectively designated actions including people.

in concerns Stich aS polltiaon had to he segmented into different scctoral iSSueS. The issues were then dividle into further Subsemni;ts and recomenrdation l_or ato m An a oft 'overnment or non-governmnentwas identil1iedi carrv to out the action. The relevant iSSLies ar water, Urbanization, health and indlstries o rdifferent tpes ofpolLution.

-- - - -- -


. * .


. -

3.Location Specificwhich f'OCuSeS onl
particularly acute local level enivironimentalproblems which will need to be addressed on a surety basis evenl if' these are MUltisectoral
concerns anid may need nlew inlstituitionalnmechanisms (Chapter 5).

Hil l cfrattiiigi Chittagonrg


2.1 Parties Involved

TheNEM\VIAPhasbeendevelopedonbehalf of the government of Bangladesh by the MOEF with assistance from UNDP. A National Project Director has been workine witi a secretariat within MOEF with the initial assistance of local and expatriate consultants for the first and second NEMAP preparations. In the third ancl final phase of the NEMAP process andt followivg a decision of the GOB to initiate a consultative process, the input tIoil the non-government sector was sought. Thus a National NEMAP
Committee was established to oversee the

and formats. The participants were broken into 6 to 8 groups, carefully selected to maintain homogeneity within each group. Each group was asked to identify the important environmental problems they were

facing, its causes and to identify the possible actions to address the problems at three levels: (1) by (2) by the local themselves, government (3) by the national government.

Map 2.1




A f

phase. The committee consultative ot of the Coalition consisted ental NGO's(CEN),Association Environmi forDevelopmiienitAgeniciesinBangladeslh Centre for (ADAB), Bangladesh Advanced StLidies (BCAS), Forum of Environmental Jotirnalists of Baigladeshi
(FEJB) and others. 2.2 The Process process was developed



The consultative


throuLh an intensive dialoge between all coverage of partners to allow a maximnum
the coIn try and input from as many sectors


as possible (See figtUre-2.I). a) Grassroot workshops - ltwas decided to hold 23 grassroot level workshops coveringall themain agro-ecological zones of the country (Nviap 1). The 2. responsibility for organizing all the
workshops wasgiven toCEN/ADAB

-ntermstio-1 I~~~~~~-


which in turn which in turn took the assistance of individtial NGOs. The format of the workshops were carefully designed to allow maximum inputs from all the participants who were chosen to



13ound-ry D-itrict Ntio Work Gir- WkrpShocale 5 Po-iona1 Wiokshp



a halance

of women.

farmers. GisCENERE

fishermeni, officials, educationists,
NGO workers, businessmen. elected The representaitives tt and others.
woksop staplenary

sessions explaining their objectives




Summary Report

Figure 2.1
ff I'Ec.i

NEMAP Consultation, Synthesis and Preparation Process
ES -

L .: }

Sn,h-s RefNrt y | - S s R.. -: . vc,''ek.hNorhcn : --:: h> . . Rcporc

~~GO. Scnthec~~c
Report crh~r 'rMAP D

t3UTPE.T j~~i


(b) tor the cooperation between government, NGOsandprivate sector for developing a trLily ' national plan, and (c) forthe use : of national resource persons in all stages of developing the plan wihou ay expatriate consultanits. Although great pains were taken within financial and time constraints onlv a limited numberofpeople of KcytbsucsAcoulld in the participate workshops. The public awareness - raising part of the -- -- <process has undoubtedly reached a much wider audience
the TV and

rcpo -[SntcrdclnidSIe

-W . Actionp5 -.of .MlumRl
A.---CIokbe....... ...S,s

.sp.rcaro . . ...





| ;s:Fs F _qSySt lQtritep csin
Symh-,is AzRen


onsibiliris . . .






-loto.lorc) -- '; LcA,¢.
... . -...: .............._ .:_
.: .... .... .


h,celCeel.uh.> .ldi.Rlnpm.

:- .through



_ - _:__________.


| .B |XCAS C SynthesisaCdmmiee& Consuiants

~~~~~~~~~programmes, newspaper
advertisements and cirCLulation of the questionnaire.

CDE. |


~~~~~J Consuitants

.IoEF, UNDP, ADAB, CEN. BCAS. FEJ, Consultants



2.3 b) Regional workshops: Following the grassroot level workshops, six oneday regional workshops were held at Khhulna, Sylhet, Comilla, Chittagong, Bogra and Mymensingh. National workshop : On 29th June, 1994 Primc Mlinister Khaleda Zia inaugurated the National Workshop where she reiterated the determiination of the governmentto carry out peopleoriented planning and directed the
NEiMIAP secretariat to take the draft ' document back to the people again,
throLugh follow-up regional

G e og r a p h i c al Coverage

of the Success and limitations Participatory consultative process: The ENEMAP process is the first tiimie where such an effortofpublic participation has been undertaken prior to any major planning initiative. [t is innovative inthree ways - (a) For going to the people to get theiropinions priortodevelopiig theplan,

Out of the total of 493 thanas in Bangladesh. participants trom 291 thanas got involved in the NEMAP consultation process. This imieanisthat the process covered 607 ofthe thanas of Bangladesh. Map 2.2 shows the spatial distribution of participation in the NENIAP processes.








workshops. d) Professional workshops: e) Government consultations; t) ,Media campaig,n; g) Questionnaire: h) Video.


ar orkshop in cyvclonesheltelr Coxs Bazaar




Synthesis Analysis, Preparation of Reports


* The people's participation in the NEMAP was adequately described and recommended adequately prioritized. 2.6 The Document
0 The actions


Preparation of the Action Plan




The participatory process of NEMAP was started to retlect views and concerns of the people at various levels ofthe NEMAP process. A synthesis sub-committee was formed with the representation of MoEF, UNDP, NEMAP consultants, Coalition of Environmental NGO's (CEN) under ADAB, BCAS and the Forum of Environmental Journalists to steer the activities of thepublic consultation process and finalize the NEMAP documents. The present initiative took into account the two documents prepared earlier under NEMAP. A group of experienced were organised to act as journalists rapporteurs for each workshop, and prepared independent synthesis reports. All information collected from the workshops was synthesized and structured so that the consultants could use the for the preparation of information NEMAP. A series of mass awareness raising activities were also undertaken including special TV programmes, such as Avim-at. 100,000 copies leaflets and questionnaire were printed and distributed all over the country through government and non-government organizations and media channels. 2.5 The Synthesis Process


The document consists of 5 volumes with a technical compendium fifth volume giving a description of the data analysis, computer programmes and Geographical information System used.

The Action Plan was prepared in four steps: Step i) identificationofmajorconcerns sumch sanitation and health as nt alt soc iaoe vi ron deforestation, pollution, natural hazards, water related agrochemicals and others;

Map 2.2


In the process ofsynthesis ofall the outputs, the following criteria were applied; * The major concerns expressed by the and people were incorporated addressed. * The major regional or ecosystem specitic environmental problenis were
addressed. ^
z l


* The major concerns were to be dealt
with * *





B...d-ry Numb.r r psn

9M, <~ 5 500 500 t(

Institutional and policy issues were to be addressed.

ToLO >

Proposed actions were to allow people's participation. * Realistic actions were proposed'




Long term problems were not neglected.




Summary Report

Step (ii)

listing issues;

and synthesis

of major



Step (iii) recommendations for action based upon recommendations made by the people themselves as well as professional groups and the government; and Step (iv) prioritizaLionof actions -based upon views expressed by the and people. professionals government agencies.


It took into accountexistinag overnment
priorities and policies the environmental issue as well as other sectors.
Althouagh the Action Plan might be far -.--. NEMAP Regioncal Workshop at Co,nilla Althogh te Pan mght e hr Acion certain

from perfect and has probably neglected issues and areas which to some grouips deserve higher priority, it has nevertheless attempted to beas responsive as possible to the concerns expressed by the different groups of people. The National Environment Management Action Plan, as envisaged, would not be a


one-oft exercise, but would be a livingI
process which would involve people, providing them the chance to monitor the activities which thereby ensures that their concerns are being genuinely addressed.

Urban Waste Problemi in Rashahi




3.1 Existing Institutions enforcement. Recently the Department has been given new extensive powers to deal with airpollution, protecting habitats and conservation of soil, water and other natural resources. The Department of Forest is responsible for the management and development of Bangladesh's forest resources. The Planning Commission is responsible for preparation, monitoring and approval cell.TheDepartmentofEnvironmentlacks adequate skilled manpower, training facilities for different technical subjects. the capacity to frame and enforce legislation, the capacity to gather information and monitor activities, expertise regarding environmental standardsaswellasproperequipmentand logistics. The institutional capabilities of boththeministry andthedepartmenthave to be continually reassessed and

In 1989 a decision was taken to create a Ministry ot'Environment and Forest with the Department of Forest and a newly createdDepartmientofEnvironmentunder it. The ministry is responsible for environmental matters atthe national level and works with the ministerial agencies to ensure that environmental concerns are taken into accoun1tin the formulation and exectLtion of development policies. Besides. the Departments of Environrment

and Forest. the Ministry oversees the

of all developmentplans in Bangladesh.
On theguidelinescontainedinthenational five year plans it allocates funds and resources to the different sectors of the economy. The Ministry of Environment and Forest has certain inadequacies. Being a new ministry it lacks adequate facilities and equipment. proper technical expertise, relevant data and an effective planning

Under the NEMAP programme the following institutional issues have been considered: Inter-sectoral matters, local environment issues, the roleof the NGOs and implementation, monitoring and follow-up of NEMAP and strengthening of MOEF and DoE.

activities of the Bangladesh Forest Industries Development Corporation (BFIDC), the Forest Research Institute, the Institute of Forestry (at Chittagong University) and the National Herbariulm. The newvly created Department of' the technical agency of theministrv, looksaaftertheenvironmental planning, management, monitoring and Table :3.1 Institutional Issues
Key Issues Absence of instittitional mechaniism to deal with initer-sectoral issues at niationial level Lack olf institutional tmechanisinsat local level to resolve inter-sectoral issues

Recommended Actions Activation of National Environmeit CouLncil headed by PrinmeMinister

Type of Actions Policy

Actors/Agencies MOEF/PMI's office

Specifie Action Arrange meeting of NEC and its Executive Committee to review NEMAP implementation

Activation of Divisional Policy Environimienit Comittees and creation of Environmiient coimnitmeesat District aidThana levels with peoples participatiomt Advocacy & Projects

MOEF/Pivl's office

Creation and lImplemlientationi Local of EnvironrimentCommitiitees (LECs) on pilotbasisiinsotieselectedeco-specific locationis.

INLcl foi hivol% ernet of al IAllow

everysectorofcivil society people. NGOs. sectors of civil society in includiitg NEMAP implementation acadeinics.imedia,privatesector. youth groups and others to imnpleiineiit par[s of NEMAP Nccdtitoinpletmt.iitmoniitor latd lollow-up on NEMAP Continuation of N EI AP secretariat and steerinig comnmittee and follow up o NEMIAP Needs assessinent and preparation of programmes and projects to strengthen MoEF / DoE

NGOs, Pri vate Sector, Take upspecific actions underNEMAP Acadetitics. Lawyers. tttedia, for inpleinentation through dtifferet youth groups. professionals. group activities. others.



Adoptand inipleinent NEiAPmhrough preparation of specific costed projects for sectoral and other actioits.

Need to* strengthen capabilities of MoEF and DoE to address their mandates

Projects & Advocacy


Assess imeedsand implement capacity building projects including environmental management



Summarv Report

Figure 3.1: Proposed Institutional Arrangements for Implementation of NEISMAP


- WMillM ers is -.i

_ _


~~~Plamiiig i ~~ommissi;on


..... ..

~ l~



~ ~ ~




s, GoB A-en:i.'M - .A,''

, ''


7 '-- . ..roessonas'-me,






: - -~Farnrs











-',.:,.:, .--2_4




Intersectoral Issues


; -

Environmental matterscoverawiderange of subjects which extend beyond the jurisdictionofthe MinistryofEnvironment and Forest. There is a need to develop an appropriate institutional mechanism to resolve inter-ministerial subjects. The lack of coordination between ministries and agencies dealing with cross-sectoral environmental issues were discussed during the various consultative NEMAP workshops. It was felt that there was a need to devise ways to settle inter to problems related ministerial environmental issues. At present certain 'facilitiesexistwherecrosssectoral matters can be discussed and resolved. At the national level, there is the National Environmental Council headed by the Prine Minister which is supposed to functionthroughanExecutiveMinisterial Committee headed by the Minister of MOEF and Divisional Environmental Committees headed by the Divisional Commissioner. To implement approved policies these bodies need to be activated. It is desirable that the MOEF ensures that these committees function effectively and are used for the implementation of NEMAP. 3.3 Local Environmental Issues

follow up of NEMAP a pilot project may be undertaken by MOEF to put in place the proposed committees. 3.4 Role of other Non-Government Institutions

Environmental issuescannotbe addressed by the government alone but require the participation of civil society and nongovernment organizations. In the various NEMAP workshops the need to ensure of the NGOs in the participation formulation and implementation of policies that have a bearing on environmental matters was stressed. At presentthereisnospecificpolicyregarding NGO participation in developmental activities.Theinvolvementofpeoplefrom different walks of life is necessary to make all the segments of society conscious of environmentalproblems.ltistherefore desirable that the government should encourage the NGOs to play an active part in the environment sector (including activities under NEMAP). 3.5 Implementation, monitoringand follow up of NEMAP

up. During consulitations the importance offOllOwupLmeasureswas emphasized. It is expected that implementation of NEMAP will hecome an integral part of the national policy. The participation of -various government agencies, the NGOs and representatives of the people from different walks of life, which was successfully tried during the consultative phase of NEMAP has to be ensured while NEMAP is being implemented. 3.6 Strengthening DOE of MOEF and

(a) Introduction The Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF) has been given wide mandate andresponsibilitiesundertheEnvironment Policy which will increase considerably withthe implementation ofNEMAP. Both the Ministry and its technical arm. the Department of Environment (DoE), lack adequate manpower, expertise andcother resources to fulfil their mandate and responsibilities. (b) People's Perception It was felt from various sources that the lack of effectiveness of environmental legislation andotheractivities was directly related to the inadequacy of capacity to

To make NEMAP an on-going process, it isnecessary to havenmechanismstoensure implementation, monitoring and follow

Atthe local level, itis feltthatnoinstitution or mechanisnmexists that can deal with intersectoral issues relatedto environmentLocal government officials and elected representatives acknowledge the need for appropriate mechanisms in this matter. People at different workshops identified the absence of focal points at different levels where environmental issues maybe addressed. There exists at present an Environmental Committee at the divisional level but this is mostly nonfunlctional. that Local It is recommended Environmental Committees (LEC) should be formed at the district and thana levels, in which local representatives are to be *inivolved. Under the implementation

mrnitored by DoEpersonnel Air quialitybeinsg





absence of regular training ,.,Xjprogramme to support staff development;\ and / tX - { shortageof basic facilities, equipment


and logistic support.

AtoLugh broad areas of instituitional the weakness is known. there has been, to
date, no thorough institutional assessment


§ 1 jSconducted Mlinistrvin defininto assistthe its exact requirements and suppor-t for planning for the future. With everincreasing pressure on the Nlinistry to

e tr



L r




fulfill its mandate and become

active in

RcN yC/ill

Reeve/lug .fplnsric uaoe~ m Tongi

(?fp, astic




translating environmental programmes into action, priority must be aiven to identifying a systematic programme to strengthen the .Ministry's institutional
capabilities. based on its present and

enforcereg,ulationsbytheDoEand\MoEF. It waS therefore generally felt that strengtheningthecapacityofbothMOEF and DoE should be considered a priority.

monitor projects for their environmental impacts effectively and it suffers from a shortage of basic facilities, equipment and logistic

pro.jected requirements. (e) Recommendation/Acti It is theretore recommended that an immediate assessment of the needs of both iMOEF and DoE be undertaken to identify specific actionis needed to strengthen theircapabilities and capacity of carry out their mandates and responsibilities.

(c) Existing Policy

TI=heexisting Environmental Policysipport. mandates and ascribe responsibilities to The Department of Environment faces DoE.Inadditionenvironmentallegislation these weaknesses: ascribes responsibilities to DoE. In order to fulfil these responsibilities the capacity shortage of adequate and appropriate ot' both MOEF and DoE need to be manpower;

(d) Key Issues The key issues with respect to the iMoEF are: the M/linistryhas yet to develop a strong functioning Planning Cell to support its work; * it lacks essential baseline data on resourcesand areasofenvironmental concern; although it now acts as a "clearinn house" for all development projects put forward by the different line ministries, itiacks the necessary basic technical expertise to assess and

shortage of trained and experienced manpower. There is a need for expertise in the disciplines of biological and geo-sciences, hydrology, soil and socio-economic sciences in addition to engineering; lack of capacity of planning, monitoring,publicity,and fortframing and enforcing legislation:

lack of information management system supported by a strong data bank to back up planning, policies and monitoring activities; lack of expertise on environmental impact assessments and environmental quality standards:




The NEMAP process identified a number of key issues, recommendations and specific actions with in the action regime stLich policy, advocacy, project etc. in as respect to environment nmanagement in different sectors. It also identified the actors/agenciestotakeiniitiativesinrespect to those actions leading to formulation/ initiation of detailed actions or project planning. The following provide surmmaries of the sectoral issues raised, recommendations made and specific actions required in the NENIAP process. 4.1. Natural Hazards / Disasters Vulnerability to natural hazards like cyclone, flood, drou-ght, tornado and desertiflication is a major environmental concerns in Bangladesh. Although the major concern related to natuLralhazard has been retlected in the existing policies, the institutional arrangements to
implement the policy

key issuesin thesectorasretlected in people's perceptionandexisting policy are (i) institutional weakness to address issues like hazard forecasting preparedness, posthazard intervention and managrementactivitiesandhazard proofing, unplanneddevelopment structuresleadingtosusceptibility to natuLral hazards, degradation of environment such as siltino of rivers, defore station and lack of scientific knowledge on natLiral hazards. The NEMAP has taken' cognizance of the above and accordingly has proposed a numberotactions. The prioritized actions are presented in the following table. Map 4.1 shows the spatial distribution ofpeople's






concerns regarding natural

is still lacking.



cmi,, CDICIV 0Afl5f50


V^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~NTIONAL TItSAIAO$AAW AAs£NAAMCACrOQ FLA (SEwAn)

Table 4.1: Natural Hazards/Disasters
Key issues
|Tittely and correctly azard Forecastin2 for lood.cyclone&tidalsurge tnd preparations forhazards

Reconmmended Action
DevelopiimenitofcapabiliLiesoni different natural hazard forecastingandemthancettemttof coordiriationi withiit GoB agencies

Type of Actions

|MoWR. BWDB. Mlet. Office. SPARRSO. MoDM & R. Cyclone Preparedness Ceintre

lnIltitutionalcapabilitvdeveloptllerntof the acencies inivolved in hazard forecastine Institu tionalizationt of capability

developed in FAII 19. FAP25.SW.'vlC for tsitg the tlood forecastitig atict
%[ 11 l l | |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~disaster iriatiagolliniitactivities l

Traititg and developti_elit||



GoB. Media. Contniunity Organtizatiotts/NGOs. Peoplc Cotinttuttitv Orgattizations/ NGOs. Media. People Disaster Managetnettt

Creating trainiing programmes. preparatiotm of ttatualIs for traititme Pilot progranitttes it diffcrettt hazarid prone areas (commnultity based) Coitduct studies and pilot projecis it

|n |

Cotiotnuinity based hazard preparedness programme .azard Proofitig
* |


Pilot projects
l l


post atid

~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~MoR&R, People ~ differeiii hazard piroiie areas
D)isaster Fotllltaioll/etlitaitcetttetitofeapabilities oftheitter actcscordittationce irieluditt NGOs Creatiott of cotttptiterized GIS as a tool


oor/tlmtoordinated azard ititervetition ttanageement

Etihanceniletit of coorditation duringposthazardinterventioits


MoDM & R ADAB. ManagetttentBureau

Database on the ittventory



Disaster Managetnent Btireau.

dalabase olt

hazard ntitigation capabilities
(for exainple No. of cyclotte centres. school, food storage. fuel etc.) iteluding NGO and I Govt. agency's capabilities


hazardsldisaster ittartaement by usitn1





4.2 Industry Expansion of indLustrial areas into the agricLtlturalandforestlandsandindustries Khulna regions. Pollution arising from various industrial processes and plants entreprenuers:lackoftechniolocy toensuLre efficient use of resources and Waste

based on renewable energy. agricultural
resources and non- renewable is likely to pose potential threat to environment and sustainable use of resource base. Existing indtistries create a number of environ mental problems throughout the country. though these are mainly concentrated in Dhaka, Chittagong and

throughout the country is causing
degradation to surrounding environment at different-levels. [ssues and concerns in industrial sectors relate to a general absence of pollution abatement in terms of waste management andtreatment; low level ofenvironmental awareness among industrialists and

minimisation absenceofanyguideline and
forthe location of industrial units. Further. the environmental policy and the environmental legislation would not be effective without the polLition abatement regulation and gLuideli for environment ne quality standards.

S/hip-breakin ata Kinia a C tagong


i depoiig

1.atko (asl r


Table 4.2

Reconimended Actions Trypeof Actions Actors/Agencie-s SpecificActioni

Key Issues

Pollutioni fromi the untreated Proper treatmnent of effluent anid Policy effluents and etnissions entiissiun, according to guidelines s

.,o. Private Sector

Installation ofieffluent/ernissioiz treatrient
plants Classification of industries accordini_to leVelS Of pollution tar takintg appropriate m1eaSure!s Projectso-techiiology traitsferandtrainini g Training Workshops

Lackof appropriate technology for Technology transfer pollution abaterieint


Mol. Private Sector Mot. Bol. DoE. Chamiibers

Lack of environiiental awareness linparting Environmental Education Policy anionazthe industrialists & the awarettessto industrial sectors elntrepreneurs Lack of guideline/ legislations for Preparationof guidelines the matiageinetit of effluent and emission atid their eitforcemilent Lackofincentivesinprivatesector for the abatetnentof pollutioni Occupational health Policy/Project

NloEF DoE. Mol. Bol Preparation ot industrial guidelines Institutional stremtitheining DoE & Nlol of for the application of guidelines Mol. Finazncial Institutions providing credits to ittdustries DoE. Mol. MoHFP lncetitive programmes for the private sectorstostipporttheirpollutioziabhatezzeiit measures Preparatiozz of implementation guideline and its

Fitiatcial incentives to Private Sectors Policy for encouraging to take steps for pollution abatement Preparation of guidelittes and setting Policy/Project standardsfor working environment



4.3 Water resources Waterresources need tobeexploited most optimally to achieve a bare minimum feed the growing to sustainability population. But, development in this sector sound has to be made environmentally and sLIstainable. Water development projects might have adverse effects on wetlands, mangroves, fisheries. water land, settlements, agricultural transportanidthequalityofwatersupplies. Inadequate planning ofthe FCD/I projects and failure to consider theirwider impacts has, in some cases, led to environmental degradation; poor drainage of wetland, flooding, water logging, siltation and salinisation. Concerns in this sector relate mainly to river bank erosion, flood damages, degradation of water bodies, increased water pollution, non availability of water for irrigation, drainage congestion and withdrawal of water from the Ganges. Solution to the problems lies in excavation of water bodies, supply of adequate water forirrigation, prevention of deforestation, adequate providing tree plantation. culverts, bridges for the flow of tlood water, taking flood proof measures. for project compensation providing affected people, negotiating and sharing of the Ganges water with India. NEMAP hassug;estedactionstoaddresstheissues raised in the water sector and outlined the following specifice action for immediate follow-up.

Table 4.3: Water Resources
Kev Issues Flooding anld associated Recommended Action Type of Actions Project Actors/Agencies MoWR Specific Actioni Flood protection projects with popular

Flood protection Controlling

loss of life and property

tmeasure with

Policy Cotntrtunity Organizations/ NGOs, ADAB. CEN MoWR, Universities, Research Organisations, People, NloEF. DoE

aid participation properenvironmenital
impact assessment

of people's Developitettt participation itt water sectoral projects Getteral failure to take e n v i r o n it e n t a I it, the consideratioit of FCD/I fort,iulatiort project due to absence of a suideline inadequlateparticipation of people its the FAP Developmient of guidelitie for environtnental review of water sectoral projects

Case stuzdies in selected water sector projects (NEiNIAP methodology could be usedl) Review of FAP 16 guidetine for recomnmendatiotn, its itnprovemnnt if gUidelile possible by formulating leWv


Methodology for adequate scope of participation of people in the FAP p ocess

Policy/Projectl Advocacy

MoWR, FPCO. People ADAB, CEN, People

Development of nethodology with inpitts of ADAB. CEN Lobbyitg anid advoc:cy for Govt. & NGO collaboration DesignreviewoofFCD/iprojectstaking utider coiicerns enviroilnental consideratiott Impletmentation of pilot projects

Poor designing & planiting of FCD/I projects leading to over topping britches Draining ofWetlands. water logging. flooding, siltation. salinity & Biodiversity Absence of database on hydrology and inadequate of the understatding
aitd phenometna flooding tloodplain manlagemnent

Design review of esisting plan and ongoing FCD/l projects.



Mitidation, restoration wherevver Project possible A comprehensive plan for the developmentaltd toatiageinent of the water sector database Project

hloWR, People



Creatioii ofresear-chcentre/institutionis dealing with water sector data base backed up by 1IS capabilities

Uniplanned abstraction of glroUniidwater leading to drawdowtt of the water table, failure ofshallow and deep tubewells

Preparation ofguideline


MoWR,LGED(Forsinallscale irrigation project)

Preparation of guideline impletnentation

and its

S,eduction; otfaailability Of Formulation of strategy at both water during the dry seasott natiotial and international levels in the Ganges river due to the cottstruction ofFarakka barraLc


MoEF. Mot. MoWR. MoFA Corntnutiity Organizationsl NGOs. People

Raising. tthe issue at regional international forumi


Ltobbying & advocacy with the NGOs at regional and itttcrrtatiotial levcls Fortmulation of research project for funding

Detail impactstudy. nonitoring and creation of database


GoB Research Orgattizations. Universities, Private Sector



Summary Report

4.4 Eneray

Availabilityof biomass fuel for domestic
needhasreachedacrisiswhilecommercial and industrial need of energy has been satisfied to a great extent by bio-mass which has been supplemented by nonrenewable energy available within the country and through imports. The key environmental issues in this sector may be suimmed up as: Large scale deforestation to satisfy rural energy requirements and Non availability of livestock manuire for fuel in rural areas. Solution to the energy issues should involve people in m-ass tree plantation, forest conservation and regeneration, the increase in bovine population and by motivating people to use energy efficient chulas (stoves), and also increasing an a awareness about the caLuses of fuel shortage.










9Children collectinzg bin-massfor u(se fuel in rural Bangladesh as

Table: 4.4:

Recommended Actions Type of Actions Actors/Agencies Specifie Action

Key Issues

Heavyrelianceonbio-fuels. Development awarenessabout Policy/Advocacy/ of wood. agri-residue, thealteinativeuseofaericultural Project cowdung for fuel residueand animalwaste Developmten altemnate of Energy Policy/Advocacy Large scale deforestation Afforestationi prograrnine Policy/Advocacv involving the participation of community Policy/Advocacy Project

Com ani uiity Organiizations/ Media Campaign and demimonstratiotn NGOs. MoE. MvoEF. DoE. etc. oit alteitiateelergy esources People Research Organizations, Universities. DoE Pilot projectott solar energy. bio-eass

DoF. Local Govt. agencies. Social Forestry. CommunityForestry. Coitmunity Organizations/ Agro-Forestry programnimieswith NGOs.People people's participatioti' DoE.ConmunityOrganizationsl Awareiiessraisingprogratmnte through NGOs. People titedia
TN.. Radio pro-raitttme

Lack of Awareness oti AwarenessCampaign EntergyConservation



BCSIR,ResearchOrganizations. Pilot projects
DoE. COMnmunity Organization,/


Research and l)eveloptttCtttprojcctsoll efficient chulas



4.5. Forestry

and Biodiversitv
natural ecological improveproductioninagricu]ture,forestry and fishery. Key issues life and associated biodiversity settlement; with forests, include depletion of wetland of forest withini wild

with theirgreat



is still



shoLild acceptable


resources,areonthedeclineinBangladesh and have reached an all time low in recent years. Forests are also important to mankind supports biodiversity. resources for the various including Preservation is both a matter life forms wildlife of ofinsurance that it and genetic and

rehabilitated system

to develop

an ecologically Salinity eso in the fcwater

viable and socio-economically of management.

fresh watertiowoftheGangessysLenmdue in'ntheLupperripsarianrc the v forest: eget atiooteu upon erban mang

encroachmentofforestlandforagriculture and human resources; forests, and replacement management by commercial

unCon trol ed growth

of simp




Table 4.5 (a): Forestry and Biodiversity
Key Issues Forests Policy National Forest Recommended Actions Type of Actions Actors/Agencies MoEF. in Collaborationi with NloLands..MoEstablishment. NloLaw, MoLGRDC. MoLF. MoE. MoA. Mol. MoP. NMoTourism.NMoIWDFC. Cabinet divisiort, FD. People's Representatives, Community Organizations/ NGOs, People Specific Action ReviewingaeidSttidyingexistitig Forest Policy. Laws. Rules and Regulatioits. Related Sectoral Study Reports. Draft Forestry Mlaster Plan. Draft NCS. National Enivirolimenital Policy 1992. Draft NEMAP antd preparation of with peoples Nationial Policy participation. Constiltatiotts with local people living the in and aro Ind forests. private forests owners. hoinesteads treegarden owner-s. local landless people. destitute women. marginal farmiiers, un-emnployed anid tinder-emploved people anidtakirg theiopinions and views for formiulating the ilew National Forest Policy. InStitUtional Reformns Separation of authority anid Policy/Advocacy in fulictions enterprise org anizations; governiment providintg full fledgied(furittionial and financial) autottoiny to the enterprises system; enterprises formed should promote private sector, cooperative sector and organized people's participation Policy/Advocacy Givinghighestprioritiestoforest conservationt. augmentation of forest resources, tree resources developineiit in rural areas, and increasing forest atid tree cover of the countrv MoEF in Collaboration with MvoEstablishment. MoFinance. MioLGRD MoP. Cabinet Dvso,F.Pot' Divisin,teD. Pople's Representatives. Journalists. and ComtttunitV Organizations/ NGOO,People Reviewiag and Sttdying the Draft Forestry MNaster latt - 993/2012. Consuhtations with all concerned actors. n rprn h C a

Formulationi of a new National Policy/Advocacy/ Forest Policy suited tothepresent Project and future social, economic, politicalanidenlvirofifental needs of the coLntr-y together with adequate and appropriate legislationsfor-imnplementingthe policy

Depletioni of Forest Resources

MoEF, FD, Community Organizations/NGOs

Adopting and implementiitg adequate and appr-opriate National For-estPolicv through people's par-ticipatioir aiid participatory eitforceinent through targeted groups Impr-oved manageittenit of State Forests and planitations. ttiaiiitai ni tig sustainability. productivity. erivirottirtenita soLitidiiess.equlity based forest prepared on properly management plans attd inipletrtettitt" the same through people's participatiolis Itnproved managemnent of homestead forests and providiitg all sorts of| 1 piivale supports for developing nurseries


Updating forest and tree resources invenitory informations. forest anidtree cover tiiaps. and maintaining them on Resource Informationl Managettent System (RINIS).


N'ENIAP: Summary Report

Table 4.5 (b):
Key Issues

Forestry and Biodiversity
Recomniended Actions Awareness Developmenit Type of Actions Advocacy/Policy Actors/Agencies MoEF, FD. T.V.. Radio. Newspapers. Video Film. Specific Action lMedia Camttpaign.Extension. T.V. and Radio Programmes. Short Filtims.

CommunityOrganizationV' NGOs. People
Wildlife: Conser-vation of Wildlife Giving priority totheprotection Policy/Advocacy/ of wildlife. birds. frogs. lizards Project and snakes MoEF. FD. DoE. Law enforcing agencies. Commnunity Organizations/ NGOs. Wildlife atid Nature Conservation Societies. People.

ExhibitionsSeminars and Symiposia. Newspaper Articles. Essay CCompetitions at Educational
Institutions Inventory toassessthepresentstatusof wildlife. birds. frogs. lizards and snakes and evaluate thei- tvpes and quantities available Prohibition on hunting anidtrapping, of wildlife and their hides: hunting. trapping and disturbances oftiigratory birds and aquatic birds: large-scale commercial exploitation of selecteci frog. Iizard a[id snake species through appropriate legislation

Biodiversitv Conservation of Biodiveisity

B iodiversity protectioni

Policy/Project/ Advocacy

MoEF. NioLF. FD. BFRI. People's Repr-esentatives. Conservation Organizations. Wildlife attd Nature Conservatioit Societies.

Conservation of germ plasm it seed stores. clonal orchards, borattical gardensatid zoos Awareniess developimient
throL1g h

NGOs. People International Collaboration conserve biodiversity to Policy/Advocacy MoEF. MoP. FD. other related institutions anid ministries

mnedia. T.V., Radio. Newspapers.
Seminar. Syvioposiunit Development of a Biodiversity Cotimmission with tleighbor-i me countries for developing strategies to conserve shared resources proruotc anid genetic iiterchattge



Sindartlban5s. k,town for its r'ichlwildlhfe. bioediversity amnel the ltoineof Royal Beintgtl Tiger



4.6. Land Resources Land is the most important resource in Bangladesh and is under intense use threatening its carrying capacity. Population pressure on land is a crucial factorin the management oflandresources in the country. Availability of land is a majorconstraintinBangladeshasvirtually all available land is utilized for crop production, forestry, fishing and urban development. Majorlanduse conflictarise from uncoordinated action amongst the ministries and agencies concerned with land managlement. The country lacks a comprehensive land use policy emphasizing the most appropriate and productive use of land. Gradual loss of agricultural land, loss of soil fertility, soil degradation, landlessness, distribution of khas land and cumbersome land registration system etc. are the major issues which have been addressed by the NEMAP and a number of specific action in this regardhave been proposed.

Table 4.6: 7

Land Resources Recommended Actions
Development of sustainable

sKev Issues

Type of Actions

MoLand, Agricultural Research

Action Research/Farn level research

Unsustainable Lattduse

landuse management

Organization, Universities. Community Organizations I NGOs
Ploject Research Organizationi, Study to increase efficiency of the

Studyon indigenoussustainabele

landuse practices Lossofsoil fertility Soil fertility status survey and Pr-oject classification of soil-according to fertility and taking care of appropriate soil nutrient deficiencies

Community Organizations / productionsystemand its application NGOs, People SRDI, Research Organization. Survey projects on soil fertility Universities. conservationand mapping

Managementof degraded Inventory of degraded land. its Project land mappiig and recominendation for appropriateuse Status of land resource: National Landuse Survey in Proiect iiventoryclassificationand collaboration with research legal status institutionsand private sector

SRDI, SPARRSO, Research Survey ai d mapping Organization s Directorate, DLR, Research Landuse survey landclassificationon Organizations. Private Sector the basis of physical uses and legal status and foriiiulation of recommendation for subsequent replication DLR, MoLand. Organizations Research Pilot study attd fortnulation of recommendation for subsequent replication

Age old land registration Modernization of land Policy/Project and records of land right registration and land right systemit recording sy.stemwith the help of computer assistance such as GIS Absence of land policy Formulation of comprehensive Policy providing provision for Land Policy landuse pianning and addressing the policy of land reform/land fragmentation/land tenure/ I a n d Ie s s n e s I/I a n d settlemenit. such as distributionof khas lands Soil Conservationissues Soil conservationn measures in Project areas with highsoil erosion such as iviodhupurTract. Hill slopes of Chittagongand Sylhet


Formnulation Landuseplan of Land reforms in corporating with agrarian and tenurial structure Programmesfor giving khas lands for settiements tothepoorandencouraging environamentally,soundandsustaimiable landuse pattern

DoF, CHTDB, Community Pilot project to develop appropriate Organizations! NGOs. People Agro-forestrypractices.plantationi and landusepractices for theconservation of soil with active participatioiiof the local people in the areas nientioned



Summarv Report

4.7 Fisheries and Livestock Fisheries play adominantrole in nutrition, employment, foreign exchange earmings and otherareasofBangladesh'seconomy. Fishes provide 80% ofthe nation's animal protein intake. Livestockremainsacrucial sector in the agrarian and largely subsistence economy of Bangladesh. Interference with the hydrological systems Table 4.7. (a): Fisheries and Livestock
Key Issues Loss of open water fishery habitats Recommended Actions Allocation of requisite quantities of water with requisitehydrologicalconditionsforfishandother aquatic animals and plants be inade. Type of Actions Policy Actors/Agencies MoEF, MoiWDFC, MoFL Specific Action Ministry of Environimienitand Forests approval mayinitiatepolicypapersfor by the Council oF Ministers to allocate and sustain different corimponienits of openwater habitats for Ltse bv fish. prawn and other aquatic atnimals Policy papers to be initiated by the Mvinis-trv of Water Resources in consultation with the Minist-y of Fisheries and Livestock. Case studies in selected conitplkted waterresources dcv. projects (N EM A P methodology couLd be tised ) Mlinistry of Fisheries and Livestock should develop and executeprojects to study the ilmtpacts of coa.tal embankittents on the popLilatioit sizes of different ittaritte fish anid prawit. Project concepts ott preparation atid enforcementof lawvmaybe iitiated by I theMiisitryofEnvironitiietitaid Fotest inl C0onSUltation coordinaion si anid all the relevant Mlivistfieh

particularly in the form of FCD/ls, coastal embankments have led to the depletion of fish production, degradation of fishing environment and loss of biodiversity in the open water fisheries of Bangladesh. Further, increased and unrestricted use of pesticide and agrochemical and discharge of untreated industrial effluents into the

open water system etc. are also causin2 harm to the fisheries of Bangladesh. Non availability of feed is a major concern which is arising out of nonsustainableIuse of land. The NEEMAPhas identified the major issues in this sector and has outlined the actions required.

PrefeasibilityandfeasibilitystudiesonFCD,FCD/ I and other water resources development project must provide for comprehensive fisheries biological studies. Prepare plans to exainie possibilities for restoration ofsome of the lostttsh (aquatic) habitats in different components of the openwater system. Adverse impacts of coastal embankotent on estUarintefish Possibilities for restoring the tidally inundated nursery grounds for mnarineand estuarine fishes and prasans areto beexamined and restored as far as possible Discharge of untreated solid, liquid and gaseous wastes front industries should be prohibited atid prohibitory measures should be strictly enforced Law to install proper waste treatnenit plants in all industrial units should be enacted and enforced Inclusions of waste treattioent plants should be tnade obligatory by all new industries to be permitted Oilspillageontoimarineandiinlanidwatershould he made a punishable offence.


.MoWater Resources, MoFL


MoWater ResoUrces. MoFL, NGO MoFL, Mowater Resources. NGO, People


PollItion aniddegradationi of open waters


MloEF, Nol. NloFL. DoE N,ol, MvloEF Mol. MoEF, DoE

Project Project



Projectfor tnottitoritigandquanititativc assessment of oil spillage by oii tankers. ship breakers etc. it dil'ferenit areas should be ittipleineitted by Dept. Of .Environment Lawstobe foritiulatedatideiitfoiced by the Nlitiistry olE ilvirotitnent

Dumping of raw sewage and other hutiaii wastes as well as other raw organic wastes into the open waters should be discontinued Run off of poisonous agrochemicals should be prevented/reducedby resorting to integrated pest management practices and by using less lethal chemicals


NloEF, Local Governienit


MoEF. MvoH. MoLocal Governtneit MoA NloAgricullure. MoFL, MoEF

Project to nionitor volumiiesof oreanic] wastes beitig dutinpcd into waler utay be developed anid implemiienited by Deptt- of Ensvironitiietit Prepare a(l -itilp lettlefit protiects t assess level of agro-cheriuical pollutioni on differentt rivers. stcaris and othcr standitigwater bodies and recottiticndI o ltleasureto el itillate/reduce lvels of such pollutioti



Table 4.7 (b): Fisheries and Livestock


WKey Issues



Type of Actions

Actors/Agencies MoFL Universities. NGOs. People

Specific Action A project concept paper to be initated| by the Department of Fisheries and Fisheries Resear-ch Institute|

Loss ofaqUatic biodiversity ContinuouIs rnonitoring of the species of fish. Project shrimpsandprawn.crabs mussels,oysters,turtles and tortoises and other aquatic living organisms should be carried out to locate species becoming rare or extinct with a view to restoring and
preserving themn

of Poor NIana,agement open In place of revenue oriented management, scientific management of the poptIlations of water fisheries differentspeciesoffish, prawti andcommercially harvestable aquatic anitnals occurring in the Floodplaint/Riverine) openwaters under the control ofMinistry of Land and in the Sunderbans under the Ministry of Forests should be initroduced. fish Overfishittg of milaritte Extent and iInpacts of overfishing on populations of different fish and prawtt species should be assessed quantitatively attd regulatory measures are to be enforced in the form ofcatch quota, size Iimit of fish/prawn in the catch and other similar ttianagement measures including fishing efforts

Policy/Project/ Advocacy

MoFL, DoFisheries. FD

DepartmetittofFisheriesshouldprepare] a project on scientific managemitent of the fish. prawn. crab. oyster, mIsselCI etc. resources in thgeovernrrent owned inland waters and thieir exploitationat a predetermined level of intensity by | fisherman. Projects imay be forimiulated and imtplemented by the aeencies tlitdel the Nlinistrs of Fisheries and Livestock





salinity belt ctoljivatiotnin the constnal nagrnanfes

Fis/t - rte ttojor souirce qf artnutnl proteino in Bangladesh

Livestock is ertensively tised as dra



Summary Report

4.8. Agriculture The NEMAP has identified the key environmental problem in theagricuL)turaI sector. Agricultural intensification and the increase in irrigated area have led to a nuimber of environmental problems i.e., loss of bio-diversity through the conversion of forest land into agriCu.ltural land, abandonment of many indigenous crop varieties in favoUr HYV 's leading of to irrever-sibleloss of the country's genetic resources, depletion of soil nutrients and or-ganic matter duie to intensive cropping. loss of wetand habitatsthrou,gh abstraction and drainage resulting in depletion of aqulatic fauna and flora and reduiction in water availability to the rural poor, desertification (in the Barind Tract), increased use of agro-chemicalsraising the pollution potentials of surface and ground water.



Growth mnost the HYV trops depetdL()n irrigation of of

Table 4.8:

Reconmmended Actions Type of Actions Actors/Agencies Organization. BAU Specific Action genepool inventory on wild relatives

Key Issues duetointroduction ofHYV

Loss of genetic resources Preservation


Genetic Project

GoB, Agriculture Research Establishmentof gene bank and local Agriculture

Change in cropping pattern and Policy/Project
agricultural landuse patternis

Research Researchatd developmnenton cropping
(GoB). BAU. pattern for sustainable landuse

Universities Loss of agricultural lanid Appropriate regulation for the Policy/Advocacy fertility due to overLuse use of pesticide and agroof
agro-chemicals leadiitg to chemicals anid its enforcement


Formulation of legislation/rUlesanld regulationis

increasing dependence on these chemnicals Use of sustainable agriculture Policy/Project

Community Organizations / Pilot Studv and Field research NGOs, ResearchOrganizatiolns Extensioni programmile MoAgri.BARC LGED, Foriiulation of appropriate rules itd regulations Community Development of sustainable nitnor |
irrigation scheimle

| Noni-availability of Sustainable use of ground and Policy irrigationiwater during the surfacewater
dry season due to reduction|




and Policy

abstraction of ground water

Organizations/ NGOc

|incidenceofpestattackanid Integratedpestmanagement diseases

GoB. Agriculture Research Pilot Project. Research Organizations Developiietitworks Community Organizationis / Action ResearchProgrammes


Adverse effect on land Development of appropriate Policy fertility due to crop landuse management practices intensity/cropping pattem throughfarm level research Removal of agricultural Developmentof efficiemit chulas Project residueleadingtoreduction and altemate fuelwith resources of soil fertility with use of agriculturalresidue as fuels

GoB Agri-Research On farin research on appropriate Organizations. Community landusemanagement Organizations NGOs. People / Research Organizations. Research and development works for Community Organizations / appropriatetechnologyinnovationi NGOs



4.9 Housing and Urbanization

The key issuesidentifiedby the NEMAP
process in this sector are - unplanned and

disposal of waste and sewage treatment
and management.

institutional capacity for integrated
planning, creating better housing facilities

unregulated urban growth, high density of population often with poor provisions for

Actions suggested by NEMAPto address

for the uirban poor, middle class and working women, enacting appropriate

sanitation causing high incidence of disease. and inadequate facilities for Table 4.9: Housing and Urbanization
Key Issues Unplanned and unregulated urban growth

the environmentalissues in this sector relatetostrenygthenincg oflocalgovernment

legislationforlanduse,buildingstandards, zoning and town planning.

Recommended Actions Formulation oflanduseguideline for urban areas

Type of Actions Policy

Actors/Agencies MoWorks, MoLocal Govt. UDD. LGED, RAJUK. CDA, KDA. Pouroshava UDD

Specific Action Formulation of lantduse guidelines

Regional planning


Preparation of project proposals for regional plan.aing Fortnulation of plaitning criteria and buildinig standards unider strict supervision Flood protection programmes for big cities and small towns Institutional strengthening

Unplanned building


rise Setting up planning criteria for Policy building standards under strict supervision Flood proofing and protection measures Project


Urban Flooding

RAJUK. CDA. KDA, LGED RAJUK. CDA, KDA, Local Govt. agencies (Municipalities Pourashava) Municipal Corporations, WASA

Application of strict zoning law Project in the highly vuliterable areas Sewerage & garbage disposal problem Better provisions and facilities Project for disposal of garbage and sewerage treatment Recycling and economic use of Project garbage through participatory management involvitig

Development of garbage disposal and sewerage treatment capability

Community Organizations / DevelopmentofPilotProjectinvolving NGOs, Municipal Corporation Govt. anidCoiiiunity Organizations / NGOs

Inadequate & unhealthy housing facility

Improve housing facilities Policy/Project panicularly for the less wealthy section


Planning more residential areas with multistoried buildings Providing iltcelitives to the private sector & NGOs to unidertake housinlg projects Low cost house programmes building loai

Private Sector, Community Organizations / NGOs, People Financing Urban housing Policy Financial Organization. Private Sector, Community Organizations / NGOs WASA, Local agencies Government

Shortage of water Supply

Ensure sustainable clean water

supply of Project

Proper Water supply projects

Rural-Urbati migiration Weak local government organization

Creatioti of job opportunities in Project the rural areas Strengthening capaciLy organizational Advocacy/Policy

GoB, Community Organizations/ NGOs, People GOB.CommunityOrganization, People

Employment generation activities Campaign, Policy actions



: Summarv Report


Health and Sanitation

The National Environment Management Action Plan outlines the policies of the Government of Bangladesh relevant to health. sanitation and population control and identified the key environmental problems in this sector. The generally inadequiate state of human health in

Bancgladesh is the result of inextricable linkage between over population, poor nutritional status, unsuitablepotable water and poor sanitary provisions. The key concermslsectorsare-inadequateprovision forvsafednkiig water,usingopenplaces fordefecationandurination,lackofmother

andchild healthcare facilities.poorquality ofdrug. malnutrition, unhealthycondition of workplaces, narcotics and drug abuse. NEMvIAPhas suggested specificactions to address these conerns which are as diollows tnlap 4.2 shopns the spatial health and sanitation.

Table 4.10: Health and Sanitation
safe drinkiig water

Recommenided Actions
coverage forsafe drinking water

Type of Actions

Organizations / NGOs

Specific Actioni
comillunlity levels Programmes for credit support sinking tLUbewells CommuTIILinity based water for

Inadequate plovisioIn for Mass scale service support Policy/Project

GoB agencies, Cominunity Programmesfor sinking tubewells at


programmesin rural areas and slants
IniadeqLuate provision latrine for Mass scale service coverage for latrinie support Policy/Project GoB agencies. Comntitunity Programmes for iistalling latrines at Organizations / NGOs collmmilunlity levels Proglrammnesforocredit support folr establishing latrinies Usitng opein pIaces for Public toilet intcottvenientpiublic Advocacy defecation anidurittatiott places Lack of Nlother anid Child NlCH proeratnmcs GoB,PdivateSector.Cottttttttnitv Organizations / NGOs GoB,ComrnunityOrganizationis Public toilet it both rlu ral andl city ar eas lnic casccoverageeo fMNICHpr-ogrelalitlsres

Health Care facilities Qualityof Drutg Strictapplicationiofdiugpolicies Strengtheningdrug
administration department attd BSTI Malnlutritionl AwarenessandlHealthEducation

/ NGOs
MoHealth MoHealth. BSTI EmpoNvering/delegatinig powverto
appropriatc agencies

Streng theting



laboratories forcarrving ouLt nlecessalry analvsis GoB.CommunityOrganizations Radio. TV.. Media camnpaigtm. Rall.

/NGOs. WASA Crop Diversitication Food Security ineasures as opposedtocerealsecuritysection Ut'lhealthycoiuditionatwork Preparationof Guideline.Rules attd Regulations place Lack of awareness in Awarcnessbuildingprogratnmes health. sanitation amtd
nut ittion

Semilnar. Sytttposiumetc. Co iltinlity Pilot projects wittl t'ip
itdigellonls rabi crops iasis Oil


Organizations / NGOs

Comtttnunity Orgaiizactios / Advccacyamitl lobbyilg NGOs.GoB Policy Formulatioi Mol. DoE, Nlolaw Studv anidrecortutieridaiioll

/ NGOs

GoB.ComtnunitvOrganizatioi.s Camttpaign sinig TV.. Radio. fiewspaper. senthiar. syniposiulit. rally

Health Educatiort

GoB.CotninunityOrganizations Training Progranmtes /NGCs



4.11 Map - 4.2

Education Awareness


nutrition, mother and childcare. The coverage given to environmenlal issues in the press and the information media is sporadic and insufficient. There is no co-ordination of approaches to environmental awareness training by varioLis Nfinistries and NGOs which compromises their effectiveness and cost efficiency. NEMAP has proposed actions to improve environmental awareness amono people and the developinentofthe study of the environmenit at all levels of

Since only 30% of the population are literate, major efforts have to be undertaken to provide basic education to the remaining population. Low literacy rate greatly impedes the dissemination information environmental of on health




i ,
NE11lAP fiacilirntorscliscitssiiigeiivir-nlieiitctl issuseswoilh grevssroots
Type of Actions Actors/Ag Spe


4.11 Key

Edrtcation Issues


Awareness Recommtended Actions

gInadequate emnphasis oti Upgrading ofsyllabus atprimnaty Policy/Project NenvhiotilieitiLail educzition .a aiid sec-ondary levels to all levels iiicorporate cilvironinental education including madrcasa.. s Introduction of specialized coursesionerivironmtleiitalaspects
at universitv levels


|Ilmprovemient and revision |curricIdLtii and syllabus

of the|
i II



1 sti tuti ons l

Improvemenit and revisionl of the curricuilumi and syllabus

|Inaadequ ate fac iIi ty/ Increasingtraihiednrianpo%ver Project oni tc.lpability (mianpowver. environmenltal education

Universities Educational

Ti-aihiflgspr-ograi,iiie,oii etivirotiiiiemiaI
aspects |Developilletit of laboratories andi|

0himpariing edilcationi

in che

Increasinig laboratory

& library



Allocation of research grants, scholarship., for carrving out research on eiiviroilTllent Environinerial programiniies in Radio. T.V and oEher iiiedias Policy

Universities, UGC

|Aliocationofprojectgrants for research | |and hiigher educations on environmnent |(Ph.D.. M.Phil.) |.as Scale Promrmines on|| |environiiieiit awvarenleSs Introductioii of course- foi- diftei-ein levels oni envir-oliiilernt

|Inadecluate ResearchGrants ftor coniducting research in |[he educational ihistitutions

|Lack ]

of generasl awareriess |oii iii.ljor enivironimenital concernls

Policy/Project .Bangladesh

Radio,.T.V. Opeii University


Awareiiess camnpaignl prograrmile, |Incorporatioii of environnienital|| iwareniess issue in the noii-forinal||

| education progarnmines



Summarv Report

4.12 Transport and Communication The policies and issUesrelated to transport
and communication have been identified


in NEMAP. The key environmental issues inthetransportandcommunicationsector F are: water pollution arising from inland and coastal shipping, lack of facilities to treatship wastes, airpollution in localised turban areas and along major roads, urban transport planning and management appears inadeqcuate for the volIme of traffic in many urban areas resulting in trafficjams, roadand railroad construction lead to permanent loss of agricu]tural land, 'inadequate attention to natural drainage patterns often due to insufficient culverts.



High level of air-pollution frotmvelicles in an urMban area

Table 4.12: Transport
Key Issues Unplanned ieveloptmelt

and Communication
Recommended Actions Type of Actions Actors/Agenicies Roadsand Highway. LGED Specific Action Developinent and application of guideliites to ensure eiivironiiienit soundness of the plan through the participationof people Developmenit design criteria for en of soundtr.ansportnetwor-kinfrastructureI

road Planned road nietwork Policy/Project development with people's participation

Inadequate infrastrticture Keeping adequate provision of Project for facilitating tloodwater infrastructure theroad/railway in drainage along roads arid facilitatingfish passes

Roadsand Highways.LGED

Reviewing the designs of the Project existitlg networks in order to facilitatedrainage fish passes
Air pollutioni Application of existing law Policy DOE. BRTA. IWTA Application regulations of existing rules and

Situation of tmjor water Dredgingwhereeverpossible ways Oil pollutiott due to Eiiforcetienitof existing law ittechanized boats anid launchesit theinlandwater

Policy/Project Policy/Project



IWTA,Law EnforcingAgencies Review of existitg law to assess the adequacy to abate pOilLtioll froits mechaitized boats and lauitches Enforcingof existiig law

Pollutionidue to oil spill Enforcetnetitof existing law
fronit ocean going ships it


IWTA. BatigladeshNavy

Stretsgthettingcapability of the law
enforcing agencies with traininig inan

the territorial waters of Bangladesh Lossoofvaluableaericultural Landuseplannitg lanid due to transport

power and speedy coastal water transport Policy DoE. loLand Forimiulation landuse plan of

Closure ol water ways Developtttetitof guideline for Policy due to infrastructure infrastructuredeveloptnent


BWDB. LGED. Roads & Developinent of guideliite and its Highways enfoiceittetii




in the NEMAP participatory process severalregionalissueswereraisedlocally bytheparticipants.Therewasanemphasis on developing and implementing environmentally sound local level development projects in different ecosystems. Thesewereobviousconcerns aboutenvironmental degradationincertain well definedregions whichrepresentpart or whole of someecologicalunit,of these the most criticalhave beenconsideredfor the action plan. Such environmental problemscannot be addressedby a single sectoral agency alone but requires integrated environmental management interventions. Therefore,theseissueshave been treatedseparatelyas regionalissues - identifiedas 'Local Issues and grouped under the followingheads: Table 5.1: Charlands
Key Issues Recommended Actions Type of Action Actors/Agencies

CharlandIssues MadhupurTract Issues BarndTractlssues WetlandIssues Hill cutting Salinityand ShrimpCultivationIssues Coastal and Marine Resources ManaoementIssues 5.1 CharlandIssues There aresandbar, locallycalledcharland in all the large rivers. These chars are usually unstable but some of them are observedto remainstable for a longtime. The charlands of the major rivers of the country (Meghna, Padma and Jamuna) arequitelongandhavesettlements.These

charlandsare importanthabitats of some birdsand aquaticanimals.There is a need to develop an understanding of the ecosystemofthecharlands,includingtheir soil formationprocessesand thendevelop recommendationfortheirenvironmentally soundmanagement programme. NEMAP hasproposedto selectseveralcharsin the following category - newly formed and unstable,relativelystable,old and stable, inhabited and un-inhabited, and small, medium, large. Existing ecosystem will then be studied to recommend ways and meansof exploitingthe land resourceson a sustainablebasis.

Specific Action
Landuse control

Instability of charlands due Management measures to reduce Policy/Project to erosion erosion and instability such as afforestation, landusecontrol and engineering measures

Community Organizations / Afforestation programmes along with NGOs,FD,LocalGovt.agencies, the shore lines. Appropriate People engineering measures for selected char lands Community Organizations / Afforestation programmes along with NGOs, FD, Local Govt. agencies, the shore lines People MoLand Charland management landuse component plan with

Scarcity of vegetation

Afforestation Programme


Uncontrolled landuse

Charland management and landuse control



~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~_.

Untimnely and imiproper Timely char survey operation survey of settlemnent and registration of rights


MoLand. DLR, People

Revision ofcharsurveyand procedur-e


Corruption in char survey Proper survey of the charland Policy and its settlement leading to appropriate procedure for social conflict registration and recording ofright Management of settlement in charlands with the participation of the community Policy/Project

MoLand, DLR

Revisionofcharsurvey procedure


MoLand, Cominunity Organizations / NGOs, People

Charland settletnent programme with the participation of Community Organizations



Summarv Report

5.2. iMvadhupur Tract

N'ladhupurTract has undergone serious
environmental degradation which calls for immediate intervention. The dissected area of Madhuptir is highly degraded. The organic matter content, soil moisture retaining capacity and soil fertility is very low and as aresult, yield is low and cannot SLustain productivity during, the drv its season. Natural vegetation is sparse and rapidly declining. In terms of biodiversity the area suffered heavy loss of indigenous plants and animal species for the last 100 years. Homestead trees are fast depleting cr and there is an acute shortage of fuel wood and lack of initiative at replantation. Due to lack of soil conservation practices, topsoil is being constantly eroded. iMadh upulr Tract serves as a water catchment for the Turag, Banar, Bangshi rivers and dLe tosoil erosion sedimentation has increased. As a result, the river system of the Madhupur tract has been silted tip causing increased flood vulnerability.






hIndiscriminate felling of trees degrades

the forest

resource base in /Madhtpur


To prevent environmental degradation as well as to maintain sustained agricuItural of production, it is necessary to reduce soil erosion, enhance vegetative cover and increase productivity of tipland agriculture. In order to achieve this it is

proposed to take up a pilot project in a demonstration site to apply the concept of environmental management. initially. which will then be replicated throughout the area.

Table 5.2:

Madhupur Tract
Recomnmended Actionis Type of Actioni Policv/Project Actors/Agencies MoEF, FD. People Specific Action Enactment of Forest law with appropriate provisions for the control of encroachment providing scope of participatioi for the enicroacher-s in the forest management Fornulation of matiagettent plati incor-poritiing laniduse and zoniiig control

Key Issues

Illegal encroachmemt upon Enactment of law and its Forest land iinpletnentation

Deforestation and Zoning and Landuse control transformation of Forest land (agricultural land for urbanization. infrastructural developinent. industrial use etc.) LossofBiodiversity(Plants -andanitnals) Measurestoconserverarespecies throuhth creationofprotected| areas in ,viadhupur forest


MoEF, MoLand


MoEF, FD. NGOs. People

Providing provisions for conlservationih| of area in the tiianilageent plani of the Madhupur Tract Keeping provisions for laniduse zorinf| in the mianagemeti plan Quick disposal of pendittg cases III consultatiorn with the Mol-and

Degradation of soil (soil Control of soil erosioni through erosion.lossofsoilfertilitv) afforestation and application of zoning and landuse law Complex legalstatusoftland atid forest resources


MoEF. FD. NGOs. People

Resolve cotnplex legal issues in Policy respect of ownership of forest |land6 . t

MoEF. FD. MoLand
_ ._




5.3. Barind Tract Barind Tract. located in Nawabganj, Naogaon and Rajshahi districts, is the driest part of the country which experiences frequent drought and has shown signsof desertification.Theareais considered as an ecologically fragile zone with extremely low vegetative cover. The soil is very low in organic matter and devoid of minerals. It is subjected to sheet Table 5.3: Barind Tract
| 32ev Issues Large scale deforestation Reconmiended Actions Large scale affor estation Type of Action Policy/Advocacy

and gully erosion. Groundwater abstraction has affected irrigation. The key environmental issues are large scale deforestation, large scale groundwater abstraction resulting in I c increasing uncertainties of availabili ty of water for irrigation, loss of wild life, degradation of a large number of ponds.

loss of soil fertility and removal of agricultureresidiue. NEMAPhasproposed projects to increase the vegetation cover, reduce sheet and gLilly erosion, improve the organic contents of cropland soil and increase the surface area ml ae ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~by water bodies excavating od- n of ln b existing ponds and small lakes alonv water management and research on desertification problems.


Speciric Action

FD, Local Govt. agencies Affor-esrationprogramme with people's Community Organizations / participa,ion NGOs., People Barind Development Board, Grounid water survey

Ground water abstraction




anid Policy/Project

environmentally sound ground water developmentprogramme
Degradation of ponds Re-excavation of ponds for pisciculture and irigation Project

LocalGovt. agencies. BWDB Formation of environmentallysound
ground water abstraction plan Barind Development Board, Food for work support for the reDoF, Community Organizations excavation of the derelict ponds / S NGOs, GraineenBank.People Credit support for piscicultuire SRDI, Barind Development Board, Community Organizations / NGOs, People Research Universities Organizations, Proper- so;i conservation measuires

Degradation of soil

Soil conservation measures


Signs of desertificationi

Conducting research


Study programiiie on desertification


Wetland Issues have completely dried up, there has been anadverseeffectondrinkingwatersupply and a long term effectonthesustainability of the ecosystem. The key issue affecting the wetlands is reduction of area of the major wetlands. This has been due to increased agricultural practice, loss of wetland biodiversity, unplanned infrastructure construction leading to increasing floodability and drainage problems, pollution of water due to the use of agro-chemicals, absence of integrated wetland managementapproach. NEMAP has proposed actions which include enforcementof law, conservation and management intervention.

The redtiction of wetlands is one of the Marked features of environmental degradation in Bangladesh.The reduction has been partly dtie to natural causes, partlvdtuetohumaninterferenceandpartly toacombination of both.Theshrinkage of wetlands hasaffected the breeding of open water fishes, and has also reduced other wetland values. Places where wetlands

Table 5.4 : Wetlands
jkev Issues Recommended Actionis Type of Action Policy/Project Policy/Project PolicylProject Actors/Agencies Moland, MoIWDFC Specific Action Preparationof Pilotscale managetnent action plan for selected wetland * Declaration of sanctuaries under wetland management action plani Integrated wetland management plan

Reducctioni Wetltiud area Wetland managemtent plan of incorporating landuse control Lossof'wetlanldbiodiversity Biodiversity coniservation

FD, DoF, NGOs, People
DoE, WDB, NGOs, People

ILack ititegrated wetlattd Developtnentofacomprehensive of
tianacement policy wetland managemient policy



Summary Report

5.5 Hill Cutting Issues Hill cutting as an environmental issue came up in Sylhet, Cox's Bazar, Chittagong, Mymensingh and Dinajpur districts. Hill cutting due to development works such as construction of roads; expansion of settlement areas etc. are continuing in these areas resulting in Table 5.5: Hill Cutting
Recommended Actions Type of Action Actors/Agencies Specific Action

siltation of small drainage streams, increased drainage congestion and flooding; soil erosion and instability of hill slopes; destroying scenic beauty; loss of wildlife and bio-diversity. Hill cutting associated with stone quarrying in the foothills of Mymensingh district has

resulted in loss of forest cover, erosion anddrainageproblemsinthedownstream area. NEMAP process has noted these issues and has suggested the following actions.

Kev Issues

Increase in siltation & Conservation of hillslope and Policy/Advocacy drainage congestion and enforcement of hill cutting flooding regulation Increased soil erosion and Managementof hill slopes with Policy/Project/ slope instabilityand loss of properafforestationprogramme Advocacy forest coverage Removalof forestcoverdue Environment friendly leasing Advocacy/Policy/ to forest cutting and stone contracts for stone quarries in Project quarryingin the foothillsof foothillsof Mymensingh district Myymensingh districts

DoE, MoLaw, Municipalities MoEF.MoLand

Enforcementof hill cutting regulation

Community Organizations / IncreasedsupportforFoodforWorkin NGOs, GoB agencies, FD, afforestationprogrammesinhillvareas Private Sector, People DoE,CommunityOrganizations Media. T V . Radio carnpaian I NGOs Newspapers,Training and awareness raising Programime by Community Organization MoL Researchon leasing arrangetnent

Afforestationofalreadydegraded Policy/Project hill slopes through FD and Community organizations / NGOs

FD. CommunityOrganizations/ Afforestation programme on GoB NGOs, Mioland, People Khasland,FDlandsbyFD,Cormnunity Organization throughthe participation of people

5.6: Salinity and Shrimp Cultivation Issues Shrimp cultivation has emerged as one of the significant sectors forearning foreign exchange in Bangladesh resulting in wide physical expansion ofshrimp farmingarea in recent times. Unplanned expansion of shrimp area has caused degradation of environment, particularly increase in salinity in the coastal area of Bangladesh. The NEMAP process has identified the keyenvironmental issues inthesectorand has suggested following specific interventions


Table 5.6 Salinity and Shrimp Cultivation Issues
Key Issues Reconmmended Actions Type of Action Actors/Agencies Speciric Action

Increase in salinity due to Zoning control on shrimp Policy shrimpculture resulting in cultivatingarea reduction ofagri-production D Conflict between shrimp Zoning control on shrimp Policy culture and agriculture cultivatingarea Loss ofbiodiversitv due to Awarenessand Training shrimp fry collection Shrimp Hatchery Advocacy/Policy Project

WDB, Moland,Private Sector MoF WDB, Moland.Private Sector MoF

Preparation of guideline and its implementation Preparation of guideline and its implementation

DoF, Fisheries. Commnunity Programme on environnmental Organizations NGOs, People awarenessfor shrimp fry collection / DoFisheries.Private Sector Establishmentofshriinphatcheriesboth in public& private sector Extending credit facility to Private Sector for the establishment of the hatcheries



5.7 Coastal and Marine Management Issues


Many single sector activities such as fisheries, forestry, industry, transport and tourism etc. exert influence on marine and coastal natura] resources. The key environmental issues pertaining to coastal and marine resource management which the NEMAP seeks to address are as follows: Pollution of marine and coastal environment due to disposal of untreated

municipal and industrial waste, lack of regulatory control and facilities for disposal of ship wastes; deforestation of mangroves dueto shrimp farming lack of coastal zone management strategies, loss of wildlife and biodiversity, degradation and decrease ofmangroveforests, natural hazards and water resource development. NEMAP has listed a number of actions to

address the issues as shown in the following table. However, it may be emphasised thatmany ofthe actions could be implemented throuah the application of the concepts of Integrated Coastal Zone Management and NEMAP has prioritized its application.

Table 5.7: Coastal and Marine Resources Management
Key Issues
management straregy

Recommended Actions coastal zone
management and pilot projects

Type of Actions Policy/Projects

Actors/Agencies MoEF, FD, MoLand, NGOs,

Specific Action Prepara;.on of i integrated
managemnent a.tion plan

Absence of coastal zone Integrated



projects Deforestation of mangrove vegetation Marine pollution by ship Afforestation Project FD, Community Organizations/ NGOs, People GoB agencies, MoShipping Plantation programmes with peoples participation Strengthening the law enforcement capabilities of relevant agencies Landuse/zoning control through coastal zone management

Enforcement of existing law Policy/Advocacy within the territorial water

Concentration of polluting Enactmentofappropriate landuse Policy/Advocacy industries along the shore law/zoning and its enforcement including ship breaking Susceptible hazard to natural Better warning system, Hazard, Policy/Advocacy protection and proofing

MoEF, DoE and other government agencies, Private Sector, Mol

Disaster management Plan, Cominunitybasedhazard management Community Organizations / programme NGOs, People Hazard protection measures Media, T.V, Radio, Community Organization (NGO), People MoEF Training and awarettess oni hazard tnanagement Coastal managetnent strategy incorporating landuse and zoning regulation Preparation of environmentally sound landsettlement policy fornewly formed offshore islands. accreted land in the coastal area Developinent of environinetal lines guide

Awareness development


Increasing human economic Landuse/zoning regulation under Policy activity, shrimp cultivation coastal zone management etc along the shore and recently formed off shore islands Environmentally sound land Policy/Advocacy settlement policy in the newly formed off shore islands Construction of water development structures resulting in adverse environmental effect Incorporation of environmental Policy concemsinthedesignofthewater development projects which are under consideration Environmentalimpactstudieson Policy/Project the already constructed water & development projects recommend actions for
mitigative measures

Moland (DLR)


MoIWDFC, Research Organization, Universities

Pilot study in selected water developmentprojectinthecoastalatleas

Depletion of wildlife

Declaration of wildlife Policy sanctuaries/protected areas in relevant coastal areas Awareness development Advocacy/Policy


Inventory of wildlife necessary action



GoB agencies, Community Organization. People Wildlife societies, Community Organization. People

Media, Radio. T.V, cainpaign Awareness Raising workshop

Participatory wildlife protection activity


Programme supporting wildlife protectioni activities with participation of communities




6.1. ClimateChangeandSea LevelRise Overthe past 100years, the broadregion encompassing Bangladesh has warmed by0.5'C. The warmingtrend is consistent within the Northern Hemisphere as a whole.Bangladeshis projectedto be 0.5' to 2.0'C warmer than today by the year 2030 although the uncertaintiesare very high. The institutional structure for efficientplanningand implementationof decision is often incomplete and not operationalas they deal with long range changes beyond the time limits of their immediate concern and interest such as climate change. The potential for long terrm developmentin Bangladeshdepend on such uncertain issues which are expected to change the inundationand droughtconditioninthe countryaffecting the potential for agriculture while an increasedintrusionof salinewaterislikely tohavean adverseeffectonsoil and water Having forordinaryhumanconsumption. signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change, Bangladesh has confirmedits intentionto meet a number of commitments particularly the developmentof a national inventory on thesourcesandsinksofgreenhousegases, formulation of programmes containing measuresto mitigateclimate change and to facilitateadaptation. Priority should therefore be given to research that will help determine the magnititude of the natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases inBangladesh.Develop integratedimpact modelsfor Bangladesh that link existing climate condition. The followingactions have been proposed in the NEMAPinrespect of climatechange.

Table 6.1 : ClimateChangeand Sea Level Rise
Key Issues Recommended Actions Type of Action Actors/Agencies Specific Action
Vulnerabilitystudy due tosea level rise on the basis of IPCC scenlar-iosstudeis, modelling Mvodellingstudies

Uncertainities arising from Scientifie study on the impact of the impacts of sea level rise sea level rise on differenit sector-s Scientific study on the impact of Uncertainitiesarisingdueto the impact of drought and drought and desertification desertification on different sectors Lack of general awareness Advocacyandawarenessraising

Projects. National and DoE. Research Organizations. Regional Universities, NGOs


DoE. Research Organizations. Universities. NGOs

ei Project NGOs, media Advocacy publicatioits everiLec aitd edia

6.2 Urbanization Although,a small proportionof the total population of Bangladesh live in cities, the growth of' the urban populationhas been significant over the past several 1951,thepopulationofDhaka was 336,000 which has increased to 6,100,000in 1991and Dhaka is expected to have a population of 12,500,000 in Table 6.2: Urbanization
Key Issues Recommended ActiorLs Actors/Agencies UDD. Uniiversities. Research Organizations, NGOs Specific Action Study ott urbaiization procecs in Rajshahi. Chittagong, Khuliia Degradation of environment and urban services and Studies on urbanization process facilities with urban expansiolt of the miajor urbatt on major urban centres cetitres of Bangladesh beyond 2000 A.D. particularly Dhaka (when Dhakawill become a Mega City) Vision exercise on Dhaka as a Mega City

2025. By the year 2025, the physical expansion will cover most of the low lying areas. The process will produce a single ecological system. Under such conditions,the city service facilities will be heavily burdened unless large
investments are made in this sector.

tremendous opportunities leading to further growth developmenit the and but expansionwouldbeprobablv increasethe risk of environmental hiazards and degradation.NENIAPhas prioritized the followingactions keeping the lon- term
urban expansion issues in vicw.

Urbanization of Dhaka should trigger

RAIUK. Universities. Resource Vision exercise on Dhaka as Mlega Organizations. NGOs City


NEMAP: Summary Report

6.3 Regional Bangladesh, delta portion

Water being of

Sharinag the downstream and is

a hug


natuLrally vulnerable

to the water quality

and quantity that fiows into it. All major rivers flowing into Bangladesh have their
origins throug-h outside its her complex borders. network Bangyladesh of river

system drains about 1,76 million square

kilometers of catchment areas of the dGanlges, Bahramputra and Meghna rivers of which only 7% lie in Bangladesh. Water resources development in Bangladesh faces a critical situation as the surface' water system of the country is undergaoingy rapid hydrological, morphologyical and ecological changes due to natural and anthropogenic reasons. Further, the re.gional water sharing issue is a majorn factor which dominates the sectoral development, An answer to the problem is the formation
oCre.zional watermanagernentplans which

Oiece mighty Padina dried up due to u,zilateral withdrawal f water at Farakka Barrage by Iidia

management of




sought through

iinding agreements.
the followi'ng



hydrological. ecological


hydrogeological data.


and agro-

resources and the preservation of natural
ecosystem cooperation should of be identified and countries the neighbouring

actions on reagonal water sharing issues.




Regional Water Sharing


Reconimended Actions

Typeof Action

MOIWDFC, MoEF, NGOs Programme

Speciric Action
forbetter knowledge base

~~~Uncertainities, poor Conductstudicsonregionalwater
understanding in respect of shed

upstream intervention the_ in
regionial watersheds including Farakka Poor understandine
| database effect


Collect information on the proposed upstream intervention

Project Project

MoiWDFC, MoEF. NGOO DoE, Research Organizations.
Universities. NGos

Programme fordatacoiiection Survey and mapping of the impacted

and Studyprograinmneintheimpacted

~~intervention in mnajor
regiotial rivers including

on of

downstream upstreami

*Farakka Absenice of efforts to take Advocacy and lobbying with the
the water sharintg isues countries to Regional NGOs


NGOs, People



and lobbying
NGOO through

with the

the people of the regional

workshop. seminars etc.



6.4 Research and Development In adensely populated country, education becomes the most important tool for conservaltion of material resources. Education is an important factor for population planning, public hygiene, health and the environment. Developm~ent or environmental science as a speci alized sutbjectat secondarSy and higher education level is needed. Educational institutions including universities need to expand and to create courses on envi ronmental management in Bangladesh. The University Grants Committee should be Table 6.4: Research and Development
Key Issues Knowled!e base of the life history nnd behavioural

given mandate to provide funds for environmental research. The selection of specific environmental researchproarammeandtheconsideration of environmental aspects in otherresearch will be facilitated by a Research Evaluation Committee chaired by the MOEF. The resource limitation of Bang-ladesh makes it imperative that maximum output is achieved from minimum resources withoutendan-eriJngtheenvironment.The

scientific and research community of BanoXladesh need to evolve new environment friendly technology to help sustain natiorial growth. To maintain sustainable development in Banaladesh introduction of bio-technology has become imperative, speci allIy for the agricuituiral sector. NENlAP has suggested actions for institutional strengthening of different research organization to address the issues of research and development which are as follows:




T~ypeof Project



MoFL and Fishei-ies agencies attached to it, DoE, NG0s



Knowledge has to be imiproved. consolidated and

Projects to develop and expand current research facilities ofFisheries Research

patternsof rnajonityof the expanded through proper field f'ishesandprawnsis lacking study and research

Institute in terrns of additional m3na power and their trainingprocuremTentst of necessary tools and transport facilities MoFL. DoFisheries, NGOs Formiulationaiid imipleinentationof projectstbloifishaiidprawnassessinents in Bangladesh

Presently fisheries Acormprehensiveprogrammef'or Project managenientisba.sedonthe biological assessment of the assessmentof stocks. their stocks of all the coinierically behaviourandtheirresponse fish. imnpornant prawnand other todifferentfishingpi-essures aquaticanimnal populatioriunder anrdintensities resulting in expfoitanionin the inland and their depletion marine watersof Bangladesh Aquatic environmnental needs for different tish and prawn population in the iiiland amid nmarine waters are unknowni Hydrolog,ical cheimical and Project biologicalenvironmientalneeds for different fishes and prawns ought to be ascel-tained through field and laboratory research including the use of stimulation mocielsi_ Project

MoFL. FRI. DoFisheries. NGOs Developtiletit piojects of

inadequate project funding Securing fund for funding to undertake research research activities activities bv the research institute such as Forest Researchliistitute, Fisheries Research hiistitute.BAR[. BIRRI,DoE. etc.


Preparationi research projects of

lIradequate manpowecr a,ld Institutionial developinent Project Iaboratory faciIlitics DoE includingtrainedmnanpower for and for carryilig out research laboratoryfacilities [acti ties vi

MioE DoE

II slitutiona.lcapability developiiielit project



SLIstainable development in Bangladesh depencis on development of citizens measured by the Humanl Development

and in which people are the ultimate decision makers. The key actors in the decision making process are all of the

of the different actors and act as an informationclearinghhoIse. Toenablethe diftterent ornganizations to iderntity the
prioriLized actiois for them a separate list



issues in all development activities at all levels-an administrativestructurein which environmental concerns are key suibjects

people's representatives, civil society groups and individuals) In the Action Plan, MOEF has to coordinate activities

of actions i-r dift'rcent governmenit wellasnon-CovcrtiTCntoretanizationsarc shown in Tablc 7. .in1 7 2


Table 7.1:

Institutional Distribution of Actions
Actors Recommended Actions Type of Action Soecitif Actioin



Policy level


Need to coordinate inter-sectoral issues which Policy cut across different Mitistries and agencies Project Project Project

o o o o

Activationi of Na: :otal Couticil


1.2 Ministry of Environment and Forest

o Strengthen capabilities to coordinate envirolilnient related activities o ImplementandoitonitorNEMAPiincludingpilot projects at local levels

Institutional strengtheniin of MoEF Specific pilot projects in diffeient localities to be resolved with people's participation Dcvc.lp actiorts to fulfill obligations under relevent irtterriatiotr.l treaties (e.g.Clilltate Cottvetttiont.3iodivcrsity TreatryNlon-treal Protocol. CITE.'K etc) Impletoent ICZM pilot project Increase activities for involving
(includinig NGOs)

o Carryoutobligationsuiideririterinationaltreaties

_ _ _ _ _ _ _


Policy/Project Policy Advocacy/Policy Project

o 0 0 o

1.3 Forest Depertielit

o o

I ,

forest inattgement

with people's



itt forest manageit tetit

Iltcrease etforts at afforestatiotn with people's

Involve people (includittg NGOs) itt all
atfforestation projects

1.4 Departtenit of Envirotiloenit


Itctrease pollttiotll inonitoring capabilities

ltstitutiottal and laboratorv strengthening to monitor air, water and soil pollutiion

o Acquire capability to carry out and Eitvirotltiienit Impact Assesslileitt o o o o
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

assess Project Advocacy

o Training and expert inputs on EIA
0 0

Iicrease awareness<on environmental issues

Develop a publicatiott and media catpaign on environmienit DevelopadocLiInentationcentrewithalinationial and internatiotial docuntents on environment Develop in house expertise Develop anid pass Environmetttal qulality

Keep a repository of data. documentatiots and Project other etivironinent related information Carry oLIt investigations

of environmental

Project Policy

o o o o o

Ensure crvirotitnental quality standards Ettsure eivitvonirmeaittl considerations incorporated into plans attd projects

1.5 Other Mittistines (c.g. Water A.AeriCL1tUrC.
Industries, Planning,

o o o

are Project Policy Policy

DevelopinstitutioiialcapacityvwithinPlanining Cells to incorporate environmnental concerns Have an ott-going coordittation role with MoEF Develop sectoral environmental guidelines water, industries. agriculture etc.,


Liaise closely with MoEF oit cross- sectoral envirottittenttrelated issues Etistire sectoral environmental guidelines


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ consultatiorl with MvoEFaiid DOE (e.g~ forDevelopenvii-oninentrelatedexpertisewithini each research iitstitute Develop research programmes on major environnental issues e.g. salinity intrusion. nangrovedepletiont. pollution. deserificatiott

1.6 Research litstititte (e.g. BCSIIR. BARC. BARI. :-

o Ensure environitteiltal issues are incorporated in research plans and projects o Develop specific research etivirotinenital issues projects on

Policy Project

o o

U l



NEMLIAP Summarv Report

Table 7.2

Institutional Distribution of Actions
Actors Recommended o Actions Type of Action o o Specific Action Devclopcurriculaonlenviroeniileitatllelels D-veloppprogrammesforstudentittcol ejient aweren s in environmeiit e.g.sanitary I drive. tree planting. piscictilture etc. De-elopanidhitiplententtirainiin modules on Ietttbers en% ironvoient for staff and gr1OLup Prepare awareness and projects e.g. teec plantin-a. sanitarv awaareness. piscui'ure. organic farini rig. fishery tranage trent ctc. Pilot project in different

2. Educationial Institutions (e.g. Universities. Collees., Schools. etc.)

Ensure environmental topics are taught at all Policv levels Project

olInvolvestudents inienvironimlentrelatedstudies and activ ities awareness o lIncorporate environinenital traintng or staff and beneficiaries

. Non-Government

in Polics Advocacy

o o

(NGOs) OrLanizations


o Ensure eni ironmentally sound oractices by groutp members o Develop eco specific interventiotn environmental


o o

o Ensure institutional capability withit NGO Project associations to give support to environment o FollowLup of NEMAP by NGOs 4. Youth Organizations (e.g. Boy Scottts. Gitis Gutide. etc.) 5. Media (e.g. TV. Radio. daily nespapcr. ss ecklics.etc.) o Involve youth in environmentally actitities Ensure awarentess on envirottntmentt Advocacy SoLind Policy/Project

adCEN atstCtutionalstrenuthetmitte

o o

lImplementation of piogeatinmes anidprojects idetitified it NEMAP atid inttitor process. Develop pragramiiiies anid proiects involve (o)Uth it a%s areitessrarisiit andothcr ac itics. e.g.tree planting. pic.i-ct1ltLie etc. Include tiore coverage of et%iiroitine1ittal


Policy Project

o o o

Prepare special prograititoes and articlcs ;1i environoecttal issues

6. ltdustrialists and private sector (private and public sector attd financial institutions)


EnsLtIeproper waste itaitagement and control of pollution

Policv/Project Polec

Develop properviaste taecottittneXistitte anid planined indtistrics : icetiresfo o Financial lustitstitusi wasteinria.ZTelagllet Inl pr0J1-:CI1 iClUdLzi;lhZ

o o !7..\lc tbers of Parliantlenit
7 MembersoPar tPolicy

EtisLue workersafety vxithitieachitidiustly Carry out Enviroimitenittallitipact Assessments

Policy Policy Policy

Havc a prograintic indu.itrv

oni s%oiker safety in


De,selop EIA capabilities Paciagc oif bills hvijie
n roll

to EiisuLe crvironnienmtal legislation

nlo cottlltdictioui Io

Prioritization Actioin Planl sonme prioritization has been done keeping in minrdthe following
In the proposed people's interests and


where urgent action is needed, as ecosvstems mav be adverseiv affectedL if promptactionlisnottakenianidwhere appropriate institutional arrangements are essential:

Based upon these criteria a prioritized list of Actions has heenl developed as shown inFigtltrc7.1.,whlrei-cciho1 schemlzattcally thesc proposed actions are Lur-ther elaborated into Uscable projec.t coticeIpts with tin identifiClltiotl of the rclevtiC t aencvororeattization. In the \'lumcIll oflNEMAAPthese be described furthier. will The \Vay' Ahead(
Thc NENIAla d1ocumncit rcpresentts

recomniendations: government policies:


where people's participation needs to be ensLurcd; and
where pilot projects are feasible.


nstittition al set tip:
practicability of an action;

Althotigh the prioritized list haS f'octIsed


the identiicationi of the rinht agency , . for implemenitinigan action, All theaction All the actioils of NE AP hav heett ol' NEMAl.2vP beeil have prioritized on the basis of the iollowincriteria: - where large ntimbcrs of people are
likiely to be affected-,

m o t ot Departmiienit Environment it identilicd actions thatcan hetaken by othcrsoutside .

attempt to brini together the ilitcrests alid ievery couwalk otl. priort o pepl f fr and fromicverv eto fth ottv It is theg,overnincrnt. Erlophaisis beeniplaiced ..expected t th cpeople who participtated has thegoverilincilt.Eilphasishasbectiphiced on the participation of the people in tllh in the planing phasCof NEM -Pwill also implementation and illotlitorii of thtig a NEMIAP. NENIAP's sLIccesswill depeild onl the
continuity ofthecon1sultativeproccss. The

miore on thec role ol' the .NIOEF anid the



specificsteps to takenimmediately are activating the National Environmental Couincilheaded bythe Prime Ministeranid iLs Executive Comniittee rnetainin- the NEM,APsecrctar-iatinthe MvOEF: enSuIring the dissemination of in|Formationr andon monitoring puiblic awareniess abo)Ut NENAP: assisting sectoral agencies in preparing their- owni envirornmental
eL dCI lneS LII





* *

~~~environmiental to deal With commnittees ~~~sel-cted ecosy"stemis (pilot scale projects).

Social afibresration ihas becomie a nactianwidv(e n7ove/inenin Ban"hadeshin r-ece,utiears

Figure 7.1

Schiematic Representation of Main Actions of NEN2AP










ACT II,',,








I.dc.r 11


il. ....


xC IiIu1 Id



C1it :





I)O vtt i


*~~~~~~~~~c ./5. r x .cii





| l 1: x §t t | : . 'IX ' l Ci } rl ';''i' S

br cra1 ics.ri.rizvlk[ .s l h r ,goi.-. P g :te,; ,' l.';, i

Iwul.l:l:i>l 1l;< :L.r



~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~C ~




it~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~5 i

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