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Many colleges and universities require a college admission essay as part of their admission application, and scholarship applications often include one or more essays in addition to such objective information as grades and test scores. The typical question asks you to share personal informationallowing the selection committee to get to know you-such as your plans or goals, an important event in your life, your philosophy and/or beliefs, or your financial situation. Writing this college admission essay is an opportunity for you to stand out among the applicants and to prove you're the most deserving candidate. Be sure to keep certain things in mind as you write this essay: Consider exactly what the question asks. Then list some relevant main ideas; use this list as an informal outline for your essay.
Don't write a "generic" essay that could pass for one that any other applicant could have written. Everything in the
essay should reveal something about YOU and your unique situation. Any reader of your essay should feel as if he or she knows you personally. Remember that committee members are seeking the applicant who fits the mission of their institution and is worthy of their award. Tailor your college admission essay topic with their perspective in mind, and work to convince them that you're the right candidate.
If you have trouble thinking of ideas, be resourceful. Ask people who know you well what they would say about you. If someone has written a letter of recommendation for you, re-read it. Which accomplishments listed on your résumé might interest the committee?
Don't simply repeat information that is already on your application form or in your résumé. Your essay should include specific incidents and concrete examples.
Don't use long words and obscure vocabulary simply to impress the committee; doing so will come across as artificial and showy.
Follow guidelines regarding such things as font size and essay length. Sometimes a typed essay is required; other times, you are required to hand-write it. Sometimes it should be on the application form; other times, it must be on a separate piece of paper. No matter how good your college admission essay is, failure to follow instructions will make a negative impression and may actually disqualify you.
The appearance of your essay is important. Spell all words correctly; follow grammar and punctuation rules; and keep your paper neat. The committee may not meet you personally; this essay may be the sole basis for their selection. A messy paper or an essay full of errors will cause them to see you as uncaring or unqualified, despite the inaccuracy of this judgment.
Save your essay! There is nothing wrong with using the same ideas—and occasionally even the same college admission essay—for several applications. Each time, make revisions so that the essay topic responds specifically to the question(s). Although you have used it for other
applications, the committee should not be able to tell that this essay wasn't originally written as a response to their question.
Planning for College
Planning for college should begin once you enter high school. Here are things to do each year as you progress through high school.
1. Begin following a college preparatory program. Earn the credits you will need for college admission later on. 2. Begin getting involved in extracurricular and volunteer activities. College admission officials value this participation heavily. 3. Begin exploring your career preferences. This will influence your later choice of a college and a major. 4. Work hard to achieve high grades. Your GPA will be an important factor in the college admission process.
1. Take the PLAN Test (pre-ACT) and/or the PSAT
(preliminary SAT). This will provide you with valuable experience that will help you when you later take the ACT and/or SAT. You will also identify areas in need of improvement. 2. Begin seeking election to class offices or to organization offices. College admission officials regard holding office as an indicator of leadership potential.
2. . 5. Keep in mind that some colleges require one or the other. Take the ACT and/or SAT. focus your preparation on the areas in which you scored lowest. When preparing to do so. Identify those that are recognized for strong programs in your areas of career interest. Explore the community around each campus. the SAT. Begin exploring colleges on the Internet. Ask the writers to address why you would be a successful college student and what you can bring to a college. Decide whether you will take the ACT. Continue to visit college campuses if feasible. Retake the ACT and/or SAT to improve your scores if needed. Talk with students attending these colleges and ask about their experiences as students there. and role models who have influenced you.3. Make requests from the registrars' offices for visitation tours of the campuses you wish to visit. Take test preparation classes if you can. 3. Consider your strengths and weaknesses when making this decision. Begin taking Advanced Placement (AP) classes in your areas of strength. Twelfth Grade 1. Obtain letters of recommendation from teachers and others who can speak favorably on your behalf. Consider visiting college campuses that meet your interests and capabilities. 3. or both. 4. 2. Study for these tests on your own. Eleventh Grade 1.
Admission to college is becoming increasingly competitive . there are various forms of financial aid that can help you meet these costs. Apply for financial aid and/or scholarships. Fortunately. Don't miss application deadlines for admission and financial aid. Other grants and scholarships are merit-based. but fortunately. Apply to more than one college. Guidance counselors can help you locate these sources." 5. Grants or Scholarships Grants and scholarships are great because the money they provide does not have to be paid back. Remember! Start your planning for college as soon as you enter high school. abilities. 6. These fall into three basic categories. 1. . the cost of college keeps going up. financial assistance can be obtained if you look carefully at the many sources available. or achievement. College costs have become very high. This means that they are awarded on the basis of financial need.4. Financial Aid Like everything else. Some grants and scholarship are need-based."Don't put all your eggs in one basket. This means that they are awarded on the basis of special skills.
In effect, grants and scholarships are "money for the asking." But you have to know how to find them first. Here are three things you should do: Talk with your high school guidance counselor. He or she will know about national, regional, and local grants and scholarships.
Contact the financial aid offices of colleges to which you are applying for admission.
Check with your parents’ employers to see if they provide grants or scholarships to the children of their employees.
2. Student Loans
The federal government provides education loans through banks and other financial institutions. To be considered for these loans, you must complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). The government uses this application to determine your eligibility based on financial need. Here are the three types of loans provided by the government.
Federal Stafford Loans. These are fixed-rate loans for undergraduate and graduate students who are attending school at least half-time. The loan can be used to pay tuition and other school expenses. The interest rate is low, and the loan does not have to be repaid while you are enrolled in school.
Federal Graduate PLUS Loans. These loans allow you to borrow up to the full cost of your graduate education (less any money you may be receiving from Stafford loans). No
payments are required as long as you are attending school at least half-time. Federal Parent PLUS Loans. These loans allow your parents or guardians to borrow up to the cost of your education at a low fixed-interest rate.
Work-study consists of federally subsidized employment opportunities. The work is typically on campus or with nonprofit organizations off campus. Work-study opportunities are usually awarded on the basis of financial need. College is expensive. But there is help. IMPORTANT: Meet all application deadlines - there are no exceptions.
Transition to College
Deciding to go to college is an important decision in your life. Getting admitted to college is a significant accomplishment. Succeeding in college is an even more significant accomplishment. There are many differences between high school and college. Because of the differences, students often find the transition from high school to college to be very challenging. In fact, one out of every three students who enter college does not complete his or her freshman year. Here are some of the important differences between high school and college that can make a successful transition difficult. For each, you will find suggestions to help you successfully handle the difference.
1. The academic work in college is more difficult than it is in high school. This means that you will have to work both harder and longer. High school students typically study 2 to 3 hours a week for each class. For each college class, you will probably need to study 2 to 3 hours for each class hour. Since most college classes meet for 3 hours a week, you will have to study 3 times as much in college than you did in high school. Be prepared to take on this commitment. 2. In high school you are required to attend every class session. This is often not the case in college classes. Many college teachers don't take attendance. It will be easy for you to find things you would rather do than go to class. Don't give in to temptation. Students who attend and participate in classes on a regular basis get higher grades than students who don't. Make every effort to attend every class session.
3. You are going to have to be an independent learner in college. High school teachers often check to see that you are doing your assignments and readings. College teachers simply expect you to do these things. It is up to you to make sure that you do.
4. Your schedule of classes in college will be more spread
out than your classes in high school. High school classes typically meet daily. College classes meet 2 to 3 times a week, and some even meet just once a week. It is very important for you to carefully manage the time in between classes. Creating and sticking to a study schedule is crucial.
5. Tests in high school classes are often given frequently
and cover a small amount of information. Tests in college classes are given less frequently and cover a great deal of
To do well on tests in college. You should also have a good strategy for taking tests. Also. Make-up tests are rarely given in college. Tips for Choosing a College Choosing the right college can be a difficult task. 1. especially in jobs that are related to their major. College is not simply a continuation of high school. . Choosing a college that has faculty members with good reputations in their field can be very useful since these faculty members can provide paths into the working world via internships and jobs. you must take good notes in class and from your textbooks. The college should have statistics to back up their claims. Make sure the procedure used for compiling their statistics is clear to you. Internships provide valuable experience and vital networking opportunities. Here are some tips that can help you select the appropriate college.information. 2. find out the success rate of students obtaining employment. Sometimes the only test is the final exam. There are thousands of colleges and universities to choose from and many are worthy of being considered. For each potential college. Colleges that offer internships in some of the fields you find interesting are worthy of your attention. It is a new experience that requires you to approach success in new ways right from day one. companies often hire interns that perform well. and you usually cannot raise a low score by doing extra credit work.
Take the official tour and then do some exploring on your own. This type of information can be found on the Internet and in magazines.3. It may be helpful to divide your criteria list into sections labeled extremely important. important. and somewhat important. private college that has local name recognition and an excellent local reputation. Make a list of your important criteria and find out how well each college you're considering meets your criteria. selecting a college primarily based on a potential major is usually not a good idea. 6. Also. visiting each of the finalists is vital. ask about the college's graduation rate. it's very important to contact a prospective school's alumni association and find out from former graduates if earning a degree from the school was helpful in obtaining a job. It's also important to talk to as many students as you can and get their impressions of the college. strong name recognition for a college is often a significant factor for employers. College courses can help you determine what subjects interest you as well as your aptitude for a given subject. In addition. Also. students change their minds about majors after they have completed some college classes. Unless you are very certain of the major you want to pursue. Visiting the campus can change your attitude about a particular school. 4. You can ask by telephone or email. ask potential employers for their college preferences. 7. strongly consider if you will be staying in the . School rankings and a national reputation of academic excellence are often important factors for potential employers. If you have selected several potential careers. After narrowing down the field to a few colleges. When considering an expensive. 9. Name recognition can be a more important factor in getting a job than the actual quality of education the college provides. One of the best ways to learn about the quality of a college and the satisfaction of its students is to ask about the percentage of students that return after completing their first year. Often. 8. 5.
1. In addition.area in which the college is located after you graduate. 10. In this circumstance. the classes at community colleges are typically less difficult. 8. 4. Sometimes graduates from expensive private colleges move to other geographical locations where employers have never heard of the small school they attended. 2. Community colleges are considerably less expensive than four year colleges. Do the departments offering your potential majors have additional accreditation? 6. the extra money spent on the education simply doesn't help in acquiring a job. Most employers are more concerned about the college you attended while studying your major than the college you attended while taking general education courses. consider attending a community college for your first two years. If the cost of college is a significant issue. 3. You can then transfer to a four year college to pursue your major. This makes it easier for you to work part-time while going to school. and you save on living expenses by living at home. you should answer the following questions about each school on your list. What types of financial aid are available? What degree programs are offered? What are the costs of tuition and housing? Does the school have regional accreditation? 5. Also. What is the average class size? What type of extracurricular activities are provided? Does the college have dorms available? . 7.
and students are expected to be independent. teachers are more demanding. Once you move from high school to college.how-to-study. • • • • Be clear about why you are going to college. Succeeding in College Just as in elementary school through high school. effective time management.com. the work is more difficult. you will generally find that students are more motivated and competent than in high school. Be certain your goals are consistent with your interests and abilities. Establish specific goals you wish to accomplish.9. But college success requires much more. These areas are covered in other screens here at www. You must be very certain about the importance of a college education. if you are living away from home for the first time. and good testtaking strategies.change your goals if needed based on your experience as you progress through college. Be flexible . Further. Know what it will take to reach these goals. • . your success in college requires high motivation and effort. you will have many new experiences. strong study skills. Here are some ideas that will help you succeed in college: Have Clear Goals College success requires commitment and a lot of hard work. What is the size of the student population? Following the tips and answering the questions provided in this article will help you choose the college that is most appropriate for you.
• Respond quickly and completely to all requests for additional information. and books. Consider all possible sources of financial aid in addition to your college's financial aid office. • • • Set a budget and keep to it. If you do receive financial aid. • . There are many sources of financial aid that can help you meet the high costs of college. fees. Open a checking account and carefully monitor your balance. Pay balances promptly to avoid high interest costs. • Meet all deadlines for submitting applications and documentation. Manage Your Money There are many ways to spend money in the college setting for other than education purposes. Become aware of and pursue these sources. Even if you attend a public college or university and live at home. Don't overspend. meet all requirements to keep and continue your aid. you still must pay for tuition. • • • Be persistent in following up your application. Be careful about your use of credit cards. Take steps to ensure that you do not waste the money set aside for your college education.Get Financial Aid if Needed College is expensive.
and fresh fruit are healthy alternatives to provide the energy you need. Don't rely on coffee and drinks that contain high doses of caffeine to provide you with energy. • Use the services of the student health office. . The professionals there can help you overcome feelings of loneliness. non-sugar cereals. Foods such as pasta. • • Get enough sleep. peanut butter. and low cost or free medication.Keep your cell phone under control. Avoid junk foods. Often you will find student ratings of professors on the Internet. and anxiety. Fast food is convenient but usually not good for you. Most classes offer more than one section so that you can choose not just the day and time. These services typically include emergency treatment. depression. You can get even more feedback by talking to other students. low cost examinations. • Choose a Professor Carefully In college you get to select your schedule of classes. but the professor who is teaching that section. Those minutes and fees can really add up. • Stay Physically and Emotionally Healthy You will need to be at your best to succeed in college. • Use the services of the counseling office. Try to choose a professor who demonstrates the following characteristics. This means taking care of your body and maintaining a good frame of mind.
Work With Your Advisor As a student you will be assigned a faculty advisor to help you with both academic and career issues. • Consider your advisor's ideas when selecting your major or at any time you are considering changing your major or career goals. Establishes clear and reasonable requirements. and contact information.• • • • • • • Maintains adequate office hours. • Make Good Use of the Library . Adapts to different styles of learning. Grades fairly. • Schedule an appointment with your advisor at any time you have problems that affect your academic performance. It is up to you to get the most out of this guidance. Is highly competent in the subject being taught. • Have specific questions in mind whenever meeting with your advisor. schedule of office hours. Provides a positive learning environment. Provides constructive feedback. Know your advisor's office location.
Take full advantage of this major resource. microfiche readers. You will find many organizations from which to choose. A college campus is an exciting. etc.You are going to spend a lot of your time in college at the library. Sign up for their use if required. dynamic environment that can provide you with many opportunities for enhancing your college experience. • Attend social events. But this effort will provide benefits to you throughout your life. The ideas . production facilities. • Join an intramural team.success in college takes effort. • Yes . • Join a club in your major. Join a student organization that is consistent with your interests. • • • Learn to use its computer resources and card catalogs. This can not only help you in your studies but can provide contacts that may be very useful in your future career. Get to know the resources of the library as soon as you get to college. Make good use of its equipment such as copy machines. This is a great way to keep yourself in good physical shape and make new friends. Check out its quiet study areas. Your college experience should not be all work and no play. • Get Involved in Campus Life There is a lot more to college than just classes.
activities. Course objectives are carefully crafted and they are the foundations around which a well-designed course is built.in fact. Tips for Success in Online Learning You may be one of the increasing number of students who is pursuing a college degree online. 1. written assignments. Don’t ignore these objectives. Many students assume that online classes require less work and are easier than traditional classes. Every course has learning objectives. discussion boards. Do not presume. Lectures. Be prepared to do a minimum of six hours of work a week in an online course . online classes are designed to be just as rigorous and demanding as traditional courses. 2.and that’s a modest estimate. Some weeks and some entire classes will require far more than that. In reality.presented above can help you to make your college experience a successful one. everything in a course-flow . especially during the weeks of finals and midterms. follow these tips to help you be a successful online learner. and tests . If so. Pay attention to the course learning objectives.
you will understand what is expected of you in all aspects of the class.from the objectives. Participate wholeheartedly. and ungraded self-assessment activities. or participate in groups if you don’t have the proper technology. Well-designed courses use technology to enhance learning. Be sure you have the required software and hardware. Go through every screen in a course. Respond to discussion board questions with substantive remarks. 7. where a lot of communication is oral. animations. and email are all common modes of communication in online courses. Even if something doesn’t have a grade attached to it. Give animations. Making sure that you have the proper Internet connection. Read and practice everything. Be prepared to read and write a lot in online courses. A good post would bring up . Your instructor designed the course to help you achieve its learning objectives. If you understand the course objectives. You may not be able to turn in papers. Discussion board posts. Don’t let a piece of software or hardware prevent you from achieving learning objectives. spyware. not just the graded assignments. An example of a bad post would be a very short "I agree with the previous post" response. videos. and software programs installed is essential to your online learning success. 4. 6. view videos. even if they seem different from what you’re used to. written assignments. and audio files a try. Students learn in different ways. know that it is there to provide supplemental learning opportunities to better prepare you for graded assignments and exams. and will understand the criteria upon which your grades will be based. Most communication in an online course occurs through the written word. 5. This is different from traditional classes. 3. Be open to new ways of learning. so be open to it. Be comfortable communicating through text. Don’t run through a course skipping videos. and instructors often use a variety of strategies to appeal to a wide variety of learning styles. These requirements are usually specified somewhere in the course-usually in the syllabus or course introduction section.
and detail and substance will earn you higher points and grades. Manage your time and do some work each day. just as you would in a traditional course. If you email or call the instructor before an assignment. Online courses often ask for your feedback somewhere within the course or after the course is over. Building Vocabulary: Using Context Clues to Learn Word Meaning When authors write.and enjoy the experience all at once. If you have questions or don’t understand an assignment. Your instructor won’t know if you don’t understand something unless you tell them. Fill out the surveys. or exam. and there’s always room for improvement. 9. A school will use your comments to build better programs and create better online courses. quiz. you’ll prevent the struggle. Be proactive. Since courses are designed for students to do at least six hours of work each week. Use the opportunity to have a meaningful conversation with your classmates.. Establish a regular schedule.or at a minimum five days a week.. Log on to your course every day. and avoid having your grade suffer. You will likely be given points and grades for your postings. If you follow the suggested tips. A welldesigned discussion board is designed to generate thoughtful discourse. Remember that online education is relatively new. they often include context clues to the meaning of words they use but think that some of their .thought-provoking questions related to the lesson’s subject matter and would be multi-sentenced. it’s not wise or effective to wait until the end of the week to do the coursework. you can succeed at online learning -. 10. Don’t wait until after you've turned in an assignment to let the instructor know that you have struggled. 8. contact your instructor. The time you take to answer a survey will benefit you as well as future students.
Synonym context clue The author includes a synonym to help the reader understand the meaning of a word. "tainted" is defined as having a disease. A synonym is a word that means the same as or nearly the same as another word. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word. the synonym "pity" helps the reader understand the meaning of "compassion. the antonym "eager" helps the reader understand the meaning of "reluctant. Antonym context clue The author includes an antonym to help the reader understand the meaning of a word." After seeing the picture of the starving children. we all felt compassion or pity for their suffering. An example is provided for each. In the following example. Definition context clue The author includes a definition to help the reader understand the meaning of a word. This was especially true for fish caught in Lake Jean. 2.readers may not know. 1. The local newspaper published a bulletin in which readers were clearly told that eating fish that had a disease could be very dangerous. 3. The people of the town were warned not to eat the tainted fish. In the following example. Sometimes a visual such as a picture is provided. The context clue is usually presented in the sentence or paragraph in which the word occurs." . Here are six types of context clues used by authors to help the reader understand the meanings of words. In the following example.
enthusiasm. In the following example. statements about being rude. People were attracted to his charm and enthusiasm. In the following example. Even her parents thought that Andrea was impolite. Billy was eager for the chance to be captain. His personality was described as magnetic. Visual context clue The author includes a picture. showing no respect. Her manners were very poor." John Fitzgerald Kennedy. He was afraid that the time it would take would hurt his grades. our 35th president. or other type of visual to help the reader understand the meaning of a word. and a magnetic personality help the reader understand the meaning of "charismatic. and being impolite help the reader understand the meaning of "impertinent. descriptions of President Kennedy as having charm. Summary context clue The author makes a number of statements that help the reader understand the meaning of a word." Andrea was a very impertinent young lady. He thought that being captain of the team would make him very popular in school. improved human rights and equal rights for all people. She was so rude that she talked while her teacher was explaining a lesson.Joe was reluctant to take on the position of captain of the basketball team. chart. 4. graph. 5. the picture and its caption that . having poor manners. He was a very charismatic president. She was exultant 6. In the following example. drawing. Description context clue The author includes one or more descriptions to help the reader understand the meaning of a word. She showed no respect for other students. On the other hand.
how often to water the flowers as they grow. when it was built. for the topic of scuba diving. you could tell how to prepare the soil. Peggy had an exultant look on her face. Here are five steps to follow to produce effective expository writing. Expository Writing Expository writing informs or explains. and when to add fertilizer. how tall it is. life saving. Decide whether you want to inform the reader about your topic. Sometimes the topic is assigned by your teacher. start by thinking about a general theme such as water. and what can be seen from its observation deck. The subject or idea you select is your topic. 1. If you are writing to explain how to grow flowers. scuba diving. or even water polo. For example. you could write about where it is located. If you have to select your own topic. You will need skill in expository writing when you write school reports and research papers. you might decide to inform the reader about . you might list such topics as diving. Using the context clues provided by authors can help you learn the meaning of many new words. if you are writing to inform about the Empire State Building. or explain something about the topic.is close to the sentence helps the reader understand that "exultant" means great joy. For example. Then list some specific topics related to water. Select a subject or idea about which you want to write. when to plant the seeds. 2. swimming. Select the topic in which you have the most interest. For example. Determine your writing objective.
and the safety procedures to follow. and atlases. In traditional English grammar. 3. You can organize the information from your notes by creating an outline that shows the major ideas about your topic and the supporting details for each idea. when and where it began. you might decide to explain how to scuba dive. Following these five steps will help you whenever you do expository writing. Sources of information include: people such as your teachers and parents. and examples as needed. newspapers and magazines. 5. why people scuba dive. you can visually organize your information by using a graphic organizer. reference books such as encyclopedias. Knowing . Gather the information needed to meet your objective. and the Internet. equipment needed.how scuba diving got its name. Write notes as you gather the information. and where some of the best places to scuba dive are located. details. Use your outline or graphic organizer to be certain that your writing follows a logical order. almanacs. Be sure to include all the information needed to meet your objective. Using index cards is a good way to do this. Provide logical supporting facts. Or. certification or license requirements. Organize the information you obtain. End with a summary or conclusion that clearly meets your objective. Parts of Speech A part of speech explains how a word is used. Provide smooth transitions so that the reader can easily follow what you are trying to say. Write your research paper or report. there are eight parts of speech. 4. Or. You could write about the training a person would need.
(how many) Only several people attended the town meeting. It can tell what kind or how many. while automobiles is a plural noun. Examples: . or thing. Examples: (person) . Examples: (what kind) That was a wonderful movie. (place) . Pronouns act just like nouns. Here are the eight parts of speech and their most common meanings: Noun: A noun is a word that names a person.Michael Jordan was a great basketball player. or thing is a plural noun. For example. A past tense verb shows action that has already happened.I enjoy reading a good book. or thing is a singular noun. Examples: Bob gave me the best puppy in the litter. place.about each part of speech will help you use words correctly when speaking and writing. A future tense verb shows action that will happen. Now that cute puppy is mine. place. A noun that names more than one person. A present tense verb shows action that is happening now. place. Pronoun: A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun. A noun that names only one person. Your communication skills will be enhanced. Verb: A verb is a word that shows action. (thing) .I left my notebook at school. Adjective: An adjective is a word that describes a noun. automobile is a singular noun.
(future tense) We are going on vacation in the middle of July. (when) I like Jamie because he never lies. an interjection is followed by a comma (. I didn't mean to do that. Examples: Wow! That movie was scary. Examples: (how) I try to eat my food slowly.(present tense) Please move the chair away from the wall. Preposition: A preposition is a word that links and relates a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence. Conjunction: A conjunction is a word that connects words in a sentence. Examples: I haven't gone to the gym since Tuesday. It is usually an exclamation that is followed by an exclamation point (!). I will go to the park if you come too. Tom said that he was against Bill's idea. Oops. Interjection: An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.). Examples: Susan and Anna are very close friends. Adverb: An adverb is a word that describes a verb. Spelling Long Words: The Syllable-Building Strategy . Knowing these eight parts of speech will improve your writing and speaking. (past tense) I walked home from school yesterday. Sometimes. It can tell how or when.
A long word is a word that has more than one syllable (i. • Step 4. • Step 5.. Here is what he wrote. He pronounced this syllable each time he wrote it. He came across this word while reading his social studies textbook. Step 1. William used the phonetic respelling of democratic in the dictionary to help him pronounce the word. Using the SyllableBuilding Strategy will help you spell long words such as democratic. Here is what he wrote.e. Here is what he . William wrote democratic leaving a space between each syllable. William knew that if he could still not pronounce democratic. From the dictionary. A syllable is a word or part of a word that is spoken with a single sound of the voice. • Step 3. Here is what he wrote. William wrote the first syllable of democratic three times. • William then covered what he had written and wrote the first syllable of democratic from memory. • Step 2. William learned that democratic was a four-syllable word. multisyllabic). William then located the word democratic in his dictionary. Here is how a student named William used the steps in the Syllable-Building Strategy to learn to spell democratic. William carefully copied the word into his notebook. he could ask his teacher for help. He checked what he wrote to be sure that he had spelled the word correctly.
Here is what he wrote. William then wrote the first two syllables of democratic together three times. William then looked to see if he had spelled the first two syllables correctly and found that he had not. he wrote democratic on his personal spelling list.wrote. He covered what he had written and wrote the first two syllables from memory. He looked to see if he had spelled the first syllable correctly and found that he had. He pronounced the two syllables together as he wrote them. He looked to see if he had spelled the first two syllables correctly and found that he had. pronouncing them as he did so. William periodically reviewed the spelling of democratic using the following Spell and Say Review Procedure: • . • Step 7. Once William had correctly spelled the entire word from memory. he once again wrote the first two syllables of democratic three times. He wrote both the entire word and the word broken into syllables. Step 6. William continued this procedure for the first three syllables of democratic and then for the entire word. William covered what he had written and wrote the first two syllables from memory. Therefore. Here is what he wrote. Here is what he wrote. Here is what he wrote.
I was pleased when my teacher said to me. 2. He spelled the entire word aloud." . He wrote democratic three times. events. • Capitalize the pronoun "I. • Capitalize the first word of a sentence. holidays. 4. He pronounced and spelled aloud each syllable. Using the Syllable-Building Strategy will make you a better speller Capitalization Rules There are many times when a word or words must be capitalized. Here are ten capitalization rules you should know and use. places. An example is shown for each rule. and organizations). • Capitalize days of the week. 3. We usually go on vacation during July and August. • Capitalize the first word in a quote. I believe that George Washington was our greatest president. It is important to know when a word must be capitalized. "You are a wonderful student.1. and months of the year. He pronounced democratic aloud." Do you think I should study for another hour? • Capitalize proper nouns (names of specific people.
. the). etc. • Capitalize the first word of a salutation or closing. movie.a. or. Hawkins is a great chemistry teacher. There are many capitalization rules. My friend told me that Dr. Also. and. I was very moved when I read To Kill a Mockingbird.• Capitalize the name of a language. My favorite author is J. Next year I will study Spanish literature. Tolkien. do not capitalize prepositions. Writing a Five Paragraph Essay . R. Amanda Warren • Capitalize the first word and last words and each important word in the title of a book.g. • Capitalize the official title of a person when used with that person's name. Knowing and using these ten rules is a good start. With warmest regards. if. R. • Capitalize initials in someone's name. an. for. as. Do not capitalize little words within a title (e.
Make your first sentence as interesting as possible. Introduction The first paragraph of a five paragraph essay is the introduction. The first paragraph of the body should contain your strongest argument in support of your thesis. Begin this paragraph by stating your idea. Conclude this paragraph with a sentence that sums up what you discussed in the paragraph. As its name implies. However. Conclude the paragraph with a thesis statement in which you present what you believe and intend to prove. Each paragraph should be limited to one main idea that supports your thesis statement.As you progress through school. A good thesis statement takes a stand and is very specific. and a conclusion. a five paragraph essay consists of five paragraphs. you will be required to write essays. a body. you will be required to write your essay in a five paragraph essay format. Then follow with two or three sentences containing supporting evidence or examples. Most frequently. the essay itself consists of three parts: an introduction. You should begin this paragraph with a statement that captures the reader’s interest so that the reader will want to continue to read your entire essay. Follow with several sentences that clarify your opening statement. An essay is a written composition in which you express a certain idea and back it up with statements that support the idea. Body The body of a five paragraph essay consists of three paragraphs. .
Writing essays becomes increasingly important as you progress through school. This paragraph should contain your second strongest argument in support of your thesis statement. and contains your third strongest argument. The third paragraph of the body follows the same format. Conclusion The fifth and final paragraph of the essay contains the conclusion. Phonics Rules What is Phonics? Phonics refers to associating letters or letter groups with the sound they represent. Your final sentence should signal that your essay has come to an end. This concluding paragraph should repeat your thesis statement in slightly different words than used in your introductory paragraph. In addition to summing up what you have discussed in the paragraph. It should summarize the three arguments you presented in the body of your essay.The second paragraph of the body should follow the same format as the first paragraph of the body. Following the format presented above will help you write good essays. What Phonics Rules Should I Know? . the last sentence should also indicate that the paragraph contains the final argument you are raising. In essence. Mastery of phonics is an important tool for reading and pronouncing words. your concluding paragraph should make it clear to the reader that you believe you have proven what you set out to prove.
or y. ng (ring). The vowels are: a. i." the vowel that comes before the silent "e" is long. th (that). that vowel is short. be/come. bite. But keep in mind there are some words that don't follow the rules. 6. 2. Here are some consonant digraphs you should know: wh (what). and y (although y is a consonant when at the beginning of a word). that vowel is usually long. 3. When a syllable ends in a vowel and is the only vowel. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel. u. bi/sect." Example: gem.Because the English language is so complex. Knowing the phonics rules that apply most often can be a major aid to identifying words and improving comprehension in your reading." it usually has the soft sound of "s. lock. You will just have to watch out for these exceptions. Here are the most useful phonics rules you should know: 1. i. gene. 4. fu/ture. or y. Examples: ba/ker. Example: stain. the first vowel is usually long and the second vowel is silent. my/self. 5. wr (write). hope. When a syllable ends in a silent "e. there are many phonics rules. Examples: tap." it usually has the soft sound of "j. ph (graph). 7. e. When "c" is followed by "e. o. kn (know). sh (shout). bug. fuse. ch (child). tch (watch). When "g" is followed by "e. When a syllable has two vowels together. A consonant digraph is two or more consonants that are grouped together and represent a single sound. gh (laugh). go/ing. i. bed. wish. Examples: take. Every syllable in every word must contain a vowel." Example: city. 8. .
above. carries. Examples: charm. Here are eight spelling rules you should learn and use. Knowing and Applying These Phonics Rules Will Improve Your Reading. tried (but not receive) 3. *Examples: shave. ladies . Almost every rule has exceptions. A word that ends with the sound of "v" is spelled with the letters "ve" at its end. The letter "i" comes before "e" except after "c. Even when rules apply to the spellings of words: • • • • There are many rules to be learned. there are some rules that apply to the spellings of words with few exceptions. corn. form the plural of the word by changing the "y" to "i" and adding "es. effective 2. Many of the rules are very complicated. When a vowel is followed by "r" in the same syllable. and that are not difficult to learn and remember. surf.9. Learning and using these rules can improve your spelling. term. 1. field. the vowel is neither long nor short. When a word ends with "y" preceded by a consonant." *Examples: countries. Useful Spelling Rules Correct spelling is very difficult for many students because the spellings of many words do not follow rules. shirt." *Examples: believe. Still. Many of the rules apply to a small number of words.
Choosing a Topic Sometimes when you are assigned to write a research paper. hopeless 6. learning and using them will help you correctly spell many words. Other times." *Examples: quick. *Examples: changing. swimmer. triangle. • Be certain that your topic is consistent with your assignment. nervous 5. You will be more motivated to write your paper if you do this. In some cases. equation 8. Choose a topic that fits your interests and knowledge. if the assignment is to write a • . hitting 7. antique.4. Keep the final silent "e" when adding a suffix that begins with a consonant. here are some guidelines to help you select an appropriate topic. Do not change the spelling of a word when adding a prefix to it. *Examples: useful. When this is the case. your teacher selects the topic. notable. The letter "q" in a word is followed by "u. your teacher may provide a list of topics from which you are to choose one. *Examples: topped. misspell While some of these rules have exceptions. selecting a topic is left entirely up to you. Drop the final silent "e" when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel. *Examples: remove. double the final consonant when adding a suffix. For example. When a one-syllable word ends in a vowel followed by a consonant. lovely.
music and art should be avoided as sources of topics. Choose a topic that is not too broad. getting back to the Civil War. but you would not be overwhelmed by too much information. • . The topic "The Civil War" is too broad. it is hard to put the qualities of Mozart’s symphonies in words. there are thousands of articles and books about the Civil War. You will not be able to find enough information to write your paper. The topic "Should We Spend More Money on Space Exploration?" is more creative.paper dealing with a social issue. and is likely to capture your teacher’s interest. the topic "The Role of Nurses during the Battle of Gettysburg" is too specific. "The Role of Nurses in the Civil War" would be a suitable topic. For example. • Try to choose a topic that is creative. Your teacher may be tired of reading about this topic. • Choose a topic that is not too narrow. "The Moon Landing" is a common topic about space exploration. Mona Lisa. it would be difficult to write about the beauty of the painting. • Avoid topics that are difficult to express in writing. Similarly. not a social issue. the topic "Important Inventions of the Twentieth Century" is not appropriate because it deals with a technical subject. You won’t be able to organize the abundance of information into a cohesive paper. In general. For example. You would be able to find enough information about this broader topic to write your paper. For example. For example.
To form the plural of a word that ends with a consonant followed by -y.donkeys valley . to form the plural of a word that ends with a vowel followed by -y.valleys 2. city . Be sure to choose a topic that will allow you to write a paper that will fit within the required length. 1. • Following these guidelines will help you with the first step in writing a research paper . Here are some rules that can help you correctly form plurals for some of these words.Consider the length of the paper you are required to write. and so on.chiefs safe . boy becomes boys. For example. simply add -s. Most words in the English language are made plural by simply adding -s to the end of the word.turkeys donkey . chief . Teachers often specify the length of the paper you are to write.ladies candy . simply add -s.candies However. Forming Plurals Plurals signify that there is more than one of something.safes gulf .gulfs . turkey .cities lady . To form the plural of most words that end with -f or -fe. so good.choosing an appropriate topic. change the -y to i. and add -es. So far. The problem comes for words that do not form their plurals in this simple manner. kitten becomes kittens.
the plural is formed by adding -s or -es.sandboxes checkbook . -s or -es is added to the word that is to be pluralized. But they .leaves knife . and adding -es.patios studio . wife . video . in some cases.echoes When -o is preceded by a vowel. mother-in-law . For compound words that are not hyphenated or separated by spaces. sandbox .lieutenant- These rules will not help you with words that have irregular plural forms such as mice and stimuli.potatoes hero . the plural is formed by simply adding -s. The word to be pluralized is the main word in the compound word. the plural is formed by adding -es.heroes echo .studios 4.poets If you can’t identify a main word to be made plural. simply add -s or -es.windmills However.mothers-in-law laureate poet laureate . when a compound word is hyphenated or separated by spaces.grown-ups colonels lieutenant-colonel .wives leaf .checkbooks windmill .videos patio .However. potato . For most words that end with -o preceded by a consonant. grown-up . the plural is formed by changing the -f to v.knives 3.
The use of punctuation marks can be very complex. stop. Period (. Williams is a great teacher. You cannot do this when you write.Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence (a sentence which states an idea). When you speak. Punctuation marks are signals to readers. "I think that Mr. clauses. you can pause. Each punctuation mark can be used in many ways. Examples are provided for each. The marks or signs are called punctuation marks. or change your tone of voice to make your meaning clear.Use a period to end an abbreviation. you must use punctuation marks such as commas and question marks to make your meaning clear.will help you correctly form the plural for many of the words you encounter. Using Punctuation Marks Punctuation is the use of standard marks and signs in writing to separate words into sentences.) ." . When writing." Question Mark (?) . Here are the punctuation marks that are most commonly used when writing and the most typical way or ways they are used. and phrases in order to clarify meaning. "That was a wonderful movie.
Boston. for instance.) . Wednesday. for example.) . the power in our house went out due to a storm. Trenton. California. otherwise." . "My friend Jane. "I planned to study Saturday morning.Use a question mark at the end of an interrogative sentence (a sentence which asks a question).. consequently. I have my homework right here. "We wanted to go to the beach.Use a comma after introductory words or phrases in a sentence. "I have lived in Los Angeles. "Did you like that movie?" Comma (.Use a semicolon when two independent clauses in a sentence are not separated by a conjunction (such as "and"). moreover. "My history class meets each Monday.Use a comma to set off dates and addresses." . "I like pizza. Pennsylvania. New Jersey. lives in Akron. nevertheless." Colon (:) .Use a comma to separate independent clauses in a sentence. Massachusetts. Ohio." Semicolon (.Use a semicolon when the items in a series of items contain commas.Use a semicolon between independent clauses in a sentence that are separated by any of the following transitional words or phrases: accordingly. and Philadelphia. 1992. however. and Friday. "Certainly.Use a comma to separate three or more items in a series." . but it rained that day. instead." . and therefore. however. who was born June 18. furthermore. Carlos also likes pizza" .
Use an exclamation mark at the end of a sentence to show strong emotion." . we plan to visit the following countries: England.Use an apostrophe plus the letter "s" to show possession. "I have an appointment with the doctor at 10:30 tomorrow morning. and Greece. "On our next vacation.Use a colon to divide hours from minutes. . Italy. Some form of the word "follow" is often used in such a case. "I am very upset with him!" ." Exclamation Point (!) (sometimes called an Exclamation Mark) ." Use punctuation marks to make the meaning of what you write as clear as possible. France. "I don't think she will win the election.." Apostrophe (') .Use an exclamation mark at the end of a sentence for emphasis. "I have to go home right now!" ." .Use an apostrophe to indicate a missing letter or letters in a contraction.Use a colon before a list that is preceded by a complete independent clause. "Wow! That test was harder than I expected. "Please take good care of Brad's dog.Use an exclamation mark after an interjection at the start of a sentence (an interjection is a word used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion).
rerun. Often. It may be a word you think you know but cannot identify. Here are the steps of a word identification strategy you can use. when you look at a word a second or third time. LOOK FOR A PREFIX at the beginning of the word. you should use a word identification strategy to identify and say the word. When this happens. you will identify the word as a word you know. tallest. . This will get you to look more carefully at the word. Here are some examples of words with the suffix underlined: lovely. LOOK AGAIN at the word. Sometimes. Here are some examples of words with the prefix underlined: prepaid. A suffix is a word part that is attached to the end of a word. Each step tells one thing you should do when you come to a word you cannot identify. or it may be a word that is new to you. 2. 1. say each letter in the word. unheard. Continue to follow the steps until you have identified the word. As you look at the word again. READ THE SENTENCE containing the word to see if you can determine what the word means by how it is used in the sentence. A prefix is a word part that is attached to the beginning of a word. spelling. 3. LOOK FOR A SUFFIX at the end of the word.A Word Identification Strategy From time to time while reading you will see a word you cannot identify. 4. knowing the meaning of a word will help you identify the word.
look at the definitions provided for the word. lovely. ask your teacher.5. Using Prefixes to Expand Your Vocabulary What is a prefix? . LOOK FOR THE STEM. or another student to help you identify and say the word. If you have reached this step and still cannot identify the word. 7. Look in the dictionary for the word and its phonetic respelling. the stem. BLEND AND SAY THE WORD. Use the phonetic respelling to help you pronounce the word. Select the definition that best fits the meaning of the word as used in the sentence. The phonetic respelling shows the most common pronunciation of the word. 8. misspelling). ASK SOMEONE for help identifying the word. USE A DICTIONARY to help identify the word. Also. then the whole word is the stem. Use this word identification strategy whenever needed in your reading. If there is no prefix or suffix. Knowing the pronunciation of the word and its meaning should allow you to identify the word. 6. The stem is what remains after the removal of a prefix and/or suffix. You cannot understand what you read unless you can identify most or all of the words. and the suffix if there is one to say the entire word. Blend together the prefix if there is one. For example: un+help+ful = unhelpful. Here are some examples of words with the stem underlined: prepaid. parent.
" Learning to identify prefixes and knowing their meanings are great ways to expand your vocabulary. Every prefix has its own meaning. The root word "purpose" means "an aim or a goal one wishes to achieve." The new word "multipurpose" means "designed or used for many purposes. a prefix changes the meaning of the root word to which it is added. For example." By adding the prefix "multi" to "purpose.You must understand what a root word is in order to understand what a prefix is. as well as words that can be formed by adding the prefix to root words. It will also help you communicate more effectively when writing or taking tests. take the root word "purpose. resend. A root word is a word you can change into a new word by adding a beginning and/or an ending. When added to a root word. Prefix re hyper Meaning of Prefix again over Words Formed Using the Prefix replay. ." The prefix "multi" means "many. Using these prefixes and others will expand your vocabulary. A prefix is a beginning that is added to a root word. hypersensitive. Some Common Prefixes Here are some common prefixes." the new word "multipurpose" is formed. An expanded vocabulary will increase your listening and speaking comprehension. The meaning of each prefix is shown. replace hyperactive.
do the following: 1. tricycle. look up its meaning in a dictionary. Write the prefix and its meaning where you can refer to it easily and often. predate misconduct. You can add these prefixes to many root words to form new words and expand your vocabulary. unsure. Prefix ante bi equi hypo neo poly semi Meaning before two equal under new many half Prefix auto circum im inter omni retro trans Meaning self around not between all backward across To build your vocabulary using prefixes. triweekly prepay.hyperventilate un tri pre mis sub not three before wrong below unclear. submarine Some More Prefixes Here are some more prefixes and their meanings. substandard. . misunderstand subway. 2. undecided triangle. When you see a prefix whose meaning you do not know. prepackage. misspell.
become very angry.fool someone.be in a fortunate position.a dull or boring person who spoils the happiness of others.pay one’s bills. Wet blanket .underestimate someone. Shape up or ship out . 5. Get off someone’s back .keep something a secret. the idiom "having the upper hand. Keep under one’s hat . It means to have the advantage in a situation. For example.behave properly or leave. 4. Form words by adding these prefixes to root words. Watch your vocabulary grow! Idioms An idiom is an expression that is characteristic of a particular language.3." has nothing to do with hands. Make ends meet . Sitting pretty . Sell someone short . . Hit the ceiling . People frequently use idioms because they make speech and writing more colorful and interesting.stop bothering someone. Review the meaning of these prefixes from time to time. Here are some commonly used idioms and their meanings. Use these words when you speak and write. Pull someone's leg . but that means something different from the literal meaning of the words.
not serious. Give it your best shot . Idioms are hard to learn. You may find it helpful to purchase one of the many dictionaries of idioms that are available.laugh very hard. Each of the letters in REDW stands for a step in the strategy. even thousands of idioms that are used in the English language.try hard. Examine . Shake a leg . Using this strategy will help you comprehend the information contained in your assignment. Once you have a general idea of what the paragraph is about. go on to the next step.hurry. You may find it helpful to whisper the words as you read or to form a picture in your mind of what you are reading. For the birds .reveal a secret. Here is one more idiom.uninteresting and meaningless. Reading Comprehension: The REDW Strategy for Finding Main Ideas REDW is a good strategy to use to find the main idea in each paragraph of a reading assignment. Spill the beans . but give it your best shot. There are hundreds.Out of the woods . Tongue in cheek . In stitches . Read Read the entire paragraph to get an idea of what the paragraph is about.out of danger.
These words are the main idea of the paragraph. Write Write the main idea for each paragraph in your notebook. For each sentence. If you are allowed to. The sentence that contains these words is the topic sentence. Decide which sentence contains the words you wrote that best describe the main idea of the paragraph. Ignore the words that are not needed to tell what the sentence is about. write on a sheet of paper the words that tell what the sentence is about. Your teacher may have specific requirements about what you must include in a book report. This will provide you with a written record of the most important ideas you learned. Your teacher may even provide you with a very specific form to use. A good book report should include the following: . draw a line through the words to be ignored. The other words you wrote are the supporting details for the main idea. Writing Tips: Writing a Book Report (Fiction) A book report should contain a factual summary of the book along with your reaction to the book.Examine each sentence in the paragraph to identify the important words that tell what the sentence is about. Book reports usually range from 250 to 500 words. Use REDW to help you understand the information in your reading assignments. Decide Reread the words you wrote for each sentence in the paragraph. This written record will be helpful if you have to take a test that covers the reading assignment.
Basic Information about the Book • • • • • Title Author Publisher Year published Number of pages 2.1. Summary • • • • • • • Where the story takes place (setting) When the story takes place (time) Who tells the story (narrator) Main character (protagonist) Secondary characters Sequence of important events (plot) How the book ends 3. Your Reaction • • Was the book well written? If you have read other books by the same author. how does this book compare with the others? .
You should have written that marital bliss is a wonderful thing. while effect means the result of something. Words like these can be easily confused with each other. You will find this adds to your enjoyment of the book. If not. Jotting down some notes can be helpful. affect means to influence something. but each has a different meaning. You write that martial bliss is a wonderful thing. . you may express something different than what you mean to express. Write your book report as soon as possible after you finish reading the book. The word marital refers to marriage." The word principle means a fundamental truth. For example. You must be careful to use the correct word from a pair of such confusing words when you are writing and speaking. check to make sure you have: • • • Correct spelling Correct punctuation and grammar A complete and accurate summary Your book report makes it clear that you have read the entire book. As you read the book think about what you want to include in your book report. Confusing Pairs of Words Many pairs of words sound alike or nearly alike." The word principal refers to the head of a school. A book report makes you think about what you are reading. The word martial refers to war.Would you recommend this book to others? Why or why not? • Once you have completed your book report. suppose you are writing about the importance of a good marriage. You should write "Dear Principal. For example. You wouldn't want to embarrass yourself by addressing a letter to the administrator of your school as "Dear Principle.
to come apart Cite . sandy area Dessert . hot.a dry.to agree Brake .to take something that is given to you Except .something made for a certain purpose Devise .to change Ascent .a device for stopping or slowing a vehicle Break .a sense of right and wrong Conscious .to invent something or develop a plan Elicit .moving from one point to the next Complement .something that makes a thing whole or perfect Compliment .Here are some word pairs that are commonly confused.state of being awake Descent .a raised place used in religious services Alter .coming from a higher place to a lower one Dissent .to document Site .to climb Assent .to leave out Altar .to disagree Desert .to bring out Illicit . Accept .a place Coarse .to praise Conscience . Learn the meanings of each of the words so that you use them correctly.rough Course .illegal .the sweet final part of a meal Device .
writing paper . or understood Plane . heard.about to happen Faint .Eminent .a portion of something Plain .to cause something to flow Precede .reluctant Loathe .weak Feint .famous or well respected Imminent .so thin you can see through it Stationary .absence of fighting Piece .an entire thing Loath .a flat surface Pore .to save and store away Horde .to stand still Stationery .an opening through something Whole .a very large group Hole .forward Fourth .clearly seen.to go forward Shear .greatly dislike Palate .an artist's board for mixing paints Peace .to cut the wool off a sheep Sheer .to come before Proceed .at or in a place Hear .a very small opening in the skin Pour .a movement meant to deceive Forth .to receive sound through one's ears Hoard .the roof of the mouth Palette .an ordinal number Here .
"bottomless pit" is a metaphor because it is being applied to "the teenage boy's stomach" to imply that his appetite could never be satisfied (that is. 2. In this example.the part of the human body between the ribs and the hips Waste . The inside of the car was a refrigerator.to use or spend carelessly Weak . "refrigerator" is a metaphor because it is being applied to "the inside of the car" to imply that the inside of the car was very cold. • A bottomless pit can never be filled. • A refrigerator is very cold. Why Use a Metaphor? Speakers and writers use metaphors for several reasons: . Examples of Metaphors Using Words and Phrases 1.without strength Week . his stomach could never be filled). In this example.Waist . The teenage boy's stomach was a bottomless pit. Metaphors What is a Metaphor? A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase that denotes a certain object or idea is applied to another word or phrase to imply some similarity between them.a period of seven days Don't be CONFUSED! Learn the meanings of these words to use them correctly.
very angry. Mary stole the spotlight with her performance. (This implies that Jake was the brightest or best part of her life. the metaphor appears in bold print. • Metaphors can communicate a great deal of meaning with just a word or a phrase. My memory of the event is foggy. Jake.) 2.) 3. (This implies that the homework was very easy to do. (This implies that my dad was very. • Some More Metaphors Depending on what you are trying to communicate when writing or speaking. just about any word or phrase can be used as a metaphor. What the metaphor implies is shown after each sentence. • Metaphors. (This implies that his idea was hard to accept. The homework was a breeze. 1. can get listeners and readers to think about what they are hearing or reading.) 4. (This implies that they gave the girl many gifts.) 7. (This implies that my memory of what happened was unclear. Her dog. In each sentence. (This implies that Mary's performance made her the center of attention. because they imply rather than directly state relationships.) 6. The teacher got to the bottom of the problem. • Metaphors can make speaking and writing more lively and interesting.) 8.) 5.Metaphors can help readers or listeners to better understand something about the object or idea to which the metaphor is being applied. My dad was boiling mad.) . Here are some sentences in which a metaphor is used. His idea was difficult to swallow. They showered the birthday girl with gifts. was the sunshine of her life. (This implies that the teacher got to the source of the problem.
Alice was thrilled when her idea began to bear fruit.) 13. Each year. (This implies that each year a new group of students entered whose skills and abilities would grow during their years at Harrison.) Helen and Maria hatched a plan to help Maria become president of her class.) After graduating from college. (This implies that Alice's idea produced results. suppose you are trying to describe a sunset. (This implies that you should stay away from that topic.) 15. Identify another object or idea that strongly implies what you want to communicate. a new crop of students entered Harrison High School. Identify what it is you want to communicate about that object or idea. I would steer clear of that topic. 2. The suspect clammed up when the police began to ask him questions about where he had been the night of the crime. You decide that the idea . (This implies that Helen and Maria came up with a plan. (This implies that William decided to present himself as a computer specialist when looking for a job. (This implies that a smile was forming and growing. I knew he was just joking because I could see a smile sprouting from the edges of his lips.) 14. You want to bring out how beautiful the sunset is.) 10. For example.9. 3. A Strategy for Using Metaphors 1. (This implies that the suspect shut his mouth and said nothing. 12. Identify the object or idea that is the subject of what you are writing or saying. If I were you. William decided to market himself as a computer specialist.) 11.
you could write or say. The main character plays the biggest role and is often the first character to be introduced. 4. Most often the story is seen through the eyes of the main character. Characters are most often people but can be animals or even fictionalized beings like those seen in cartoons or movies. Using metaphors when you write and speak will allow you to communicate more effectively and in a more interesting way. school. Characters Characters are the first element to look for when reading a story or novel.of "painted" would be a good way to communicate the beauty of the sunset. The setting is usually revealed very early in a story. Construct a sentence in which you link the idea of painted with sunset. A story may take place in a home." Congratulations! You have just used painted as a metaphor. town. amuse. countryside. A Strategy for Reading Novels A story is a fictitious tale that is written to entertain. The setting is the location where the story takes place. For example. "The sunset painted the sky with vibrant colors. Setting The setting is the second element you should look for when reading a story or novel. Secondary characters play a smaller supporting role and are introduced throughout the story. or instruct the reader. A novel is the same as a story but it is longer and more complex. To understand a story or novel. . you need to understand the six elements used by authors when they write a story or novel. or wherever the author chooses to have the action occur.
Solution A solution is the sixth and final element in a story or novel. Ten Steps to a Good Research Paper . Events Events are the fifth element you should look for when reading a story or novel. The problem most often grows out of a conflict between the main character and another character in the story. a war. Usually the time when the story takes place is introduced very early in the story. An event is an attempt at solving the problem in the story. Problem The problem is the fourth element you should look for in a story or novel. and appreciate different writing styles used by authors.Time The time when the story takes place is the third element you should look for when reading a story or novel. In a story there are usually a number of attempts to solve the problem and these events make up most of the story. Most often the solution is revealed near the end of the story. or one of the many obstacles that produce a conflict in life. A story may take place very recently or many years ago. Recognizing these story elements will help you better understand and enjoy a story. But the problem can also involve a circumstance such as a hurricane. remember the story facts. The solution is how the problem is resolved or brought to an end. Sometimes the solution is not revealed until the very last page or even the final paragraph of the story.
Number your note cards to keep track of them. When choosing a topic. almanacs. Prepare Note Cards. These sources include encyclopedias. books. details. subtopics. "The Effects of Pollution on Geese in the Northeast Section of Duluth. Find these sources in print form. Following these ten steps will help you write a good research paper. and newspapers. Step 1. Locate Information. • Step 2. choose one in which you are interested. you must be specific about your topic. Prepare an Outline. and subdetails. and say it effectively. Prepare bibliography cards to document the sources of information you use when writing your paper. Your library will have style manuals to illustrate how to prepare bibliography cards for various sources of information. "The Effects of Pollution" is too broad because there are so many effects of pollution. Choose Your Topic. You are not likely to find much information that is this specific. Use note cards to record notes from each source you use when writing your paper. Use an organization such as: • . Minnesota" is too narrow. magazines. Use information from a variety of reference sources. "The Effects of Pollution in Yosemite National Park" is just about right as a topic. Prepare Bibliography Cards. on CD-ROMS.To write a good research paper. • Step 5. and on the Internet. • Step 3. and for which there is enough information. • Step 4. know what you want to say. If your topic is too broad. Write an outline for your paper by organizing your notes from the note cards into topics. you will have difficulty completing your paper. scholarly journals.
Before handing in your paper. Use your note cards and outline to write a rough draft of your paper. your name. The title page is the first page of the paper. provide a list of all the sources you used to gather information for the paper. It should list the main topics. Final Checklist. Revise Your Rough Draft. Make any changes needed to be sure your ideas are clearly expressed and your writing has accurate spelling and grammar. and the date on which the paper is due. • Step 10. Write A Rough Draft. use numbered footnotes to credit sources from which you take quotations or major ideas. important subtopics. • Step 9. and the page on which each is introduced in your paper. • Step 8. • o o o o Did I include a title page? Did I include a table of contents? Did I number all pages correctly? Did I provide footnotes for quotations and major sources of information? . be sure you can answer "Yes" to each of the following questions. The table of contents is the second page. At the end of your paper. Prepare a Title Page and Table of Contents. (detail) a. Your bibliography cards will provide this information. It should include the title of your paper. (subtopic) 1. • Step 7. As you write your draft.I. (subdetail) Step 6. Prepare Your Bibliography. List your sources in alphabetical order by the first word on each of your bibliography cards. (topic) A.
Or. Here are the things you should do to be a critical reader. and forming your own opinions about what the author is saying. You may be reading something that was written by an author from a different cultural context than yours. you may be reading something written some time ago in a different time context than yours. Critical reading involves questioning and evaluating what the author is saying. Look for facts. In either case. It involves more than just understanding what an author is saying. Before accepting what is written. you must recognize and take into account any differences between your values and attitudes and those represented by the author. Critical reading is active reading. examples.o o Did I include a bibliography? Did I keep a second copy for my files? Following these ten steps will help you write a good research paper. Don’t accept what is written at face value. Critical Reading Critical reading applies to non-fiction writing in which the author puts forth a position or seeks to make a statement. be certain that the author provides sufficient support for any assertions made. • Question assertions made by the author. • . Consider the context of what is written.
• Identify any possible author bias. take what is written with "a grain of salt. If there are inconsistencies. That is. you will become better informed and may change your views as appropriate. you must decide whether or not the assumption is valid. Look to see that what is written is consistent with what others have written about the subject." • By being a critical reader. In doing this. For example. be certain that the sources are credible. be sure that the sources are current. • Analyze assumptions made by the author. This means you must read carefully in order to identify any assumptions. carefully evaluate the support the author provides for the inconsistencies. Assumptions are whatever the author must believe is true in order to make assertions. For example. Also be certain that the sources are relevant. • Evaluate the sources the author uses. Number Prefixes . Finally. Einstein is not a relevant source when the subject is poetry. Compare what is written with other written work on the subject. if the author is writing about a subject in its current state. studies done by Einstein in the early 20th century may not be appropriate if the writer is discussing the current state of knowledge in physics. Einstein is a credible source if the author is writing about landmark achievements in physics. A written discussion of American politics will likely look considerably different depending on whether the writer is a Democrat or a Republican. You need to take this possible bias into account when reading what the author has written. Also. What is written may very well reflect a biased position. look to see if the author has integrated the work of authorities. Once you identify an assumption. the author’s assumptions are not directly stated. In many cases.and statistics that provide support.
An event that occurs every two years. A house divided into two units with separate entrances. A pedaled vehicle that has one wheel. A plane figure that has three angles and three sides. A railroad track that has only one rail. 1 uni unicorn unicycle 2 bi bicycle biennial 2 du duet duplex 3 tri triangle tricycle . Recognizing these prefixes and the numbers they represent will help you to learn and better understand the meanings of such words Here are prefixes that represent the numbers 1 though 10. 1 mono monologue monorail A long speech or performance given by one person. along with the meanings of the words. They are used to create some words you will encounter. An imaginary animal that has one horn. A pedaled vehicle that has two wheels. A pedaled vehicle that has three wheels. A piece of music written for two singers or musical instruments. Next to each prefix are examples of words that are formed using the number prefix.Number prefixes are prefixes that are derived from numbers or numerals.
Similes . A six-pointed star. A plane figure that has six angles and six sides. A saltwater animal with eight arms. An event that occurs every seven years. A plane figure that has five angles and five sides. The ninth month of the year in the ancient Roman calendar. An athletic contest that consists of ten events. A period of ten years.4 quad quadrangle quadruple A plane figure that has four angles and four sides. A number or amount four times as great as another. A period of seven years. Nine days of prayers or services. 5 penta pentagon pentathlon 5 quint quintet quintuplets 6 hexa hexagon hexagram 7 sept septenary septennial 8 oct octet octopus 9 nov November novena 10 deca decade decathlon You can expand your vocabulary by recognizing these number prefixes when they appear at the beginnings of words. A group of five persons or things. The first eight lines in a sonnet. An athletic contest that consists of five events. Five children born at the same time to the same mother.
as busy as a beaver is the simile. Mary was as busy as a beaver. but are alike in one important way. The two things being compared are "slept" and "log. Last night Bob slept like a log. The listener or reader can form a mental image of the comparison." A log just lies in one place and does not move. slept like a log is the simile. The comparison made in a simile is often unusual. A mental image of Bob sleeping like a log would show him lying in one place without moving. and like is the word used to signal that a comparison is being made. the words "like" or "as" are used to signal that a comparison is being made between the two things. and undisturbed sleep and not just a nap. 2. In this example. Why Use a Simile? Speakers and writers use similes to emphasize a certain characteristic of a thing. This would bring out that the speaker or writer is saying that Bob had a long." When building a dam a beaver keeps busily working until the dam is completed. A mental image of . The two things being compared are "busy" and "beaver. In this example. This increases understanding of what the speaker or writer is trying to communicate.What is a Simile? A simile is a comparison made between two things that are not alike in most ways. Examples of Similes Using Like and As 1. and as is the word used to signal that a comparison is being made. deep. Working on her project. In a simile.
Commonly Used Similes Here are some commonly used similes in which like is used to signal the comparison: • • • • • • • • • • • • fits like a glove runs like a deer chatters like a monkey moves like a snail sits there like a bump on a log eats like a pig swims like a fish stood out like a sore thumb fought like cats and dogs eyes like a hawk takes it like a man sings like a bird . This would bring out that the speaker or writer is saying that Mary was putting a lot of effort into her project and would keep working until it was completed.Mary being as busy as a beaver while working on her project would show her working very hard.
Listen or look for the words "like" or "as" as clues to a possible simile. 5. Identify the two things being compared. Form a mental image of the comparison. Follow the steps listed below to build your understanding of similes. 1. 2. Think about the two things being compared. 3.Here are some commonly used similes in which as is used to signal the comparison: • • • • • • • • • • • • as clear as mud as strong as an ox as nutty as a fruitcake as pretty as a picture as good as gold as quiet as a mouse as clear as a bell as bright as day as light as a feather as dry as a bone as slow as molasses as deep as the ocean A Strategy for Using Similes You will often encounter similes when listening to a speaker or reading something. Recognizing similes will help you better understand what you hear or read. Writing Techniques . Using similes when you speak or write will improve your communication. Identify what the speaker or writer is trying to communicate. 4.
A story has characters. is commonly found in newspapers. To be a good writer. and most other forms of written communication. The scripts written for movies and plays are further examples of narrative writing. and most other forms of written communication. . Exposition Through exposition. 2. a time. Bedtime stories are examples of short stories while novels are examples of long stories. seeing. a writer tells a story. explains. a writer helps the reader use the senses of feeling. Description helps the reader more clearly understand the people. you must master each of the following writing techniques. a writer informs. magazines. a problem.Writing is an important form of communication. like descriptive writing. Expository writing. You will find descriptive writing in newspapers. and things about which the writer is writing. It is the most common form of writing. Description Through description. magazines. Exposition goes beyond description to help the reader understand with greater clarity and depth the ideas and thoughts of the writer. hearing. a setting. and tasting to experience what the writer experiences. places. and clarifies his/her ideas and thoughts. 1. books. Good writers use different writing techniques to fit their purpose for writing. books. attempts at solving the problem. 3. Narration Through narration. and a solution to the problem. smelling.
Editorials. . How to Round a Number To the nearest ten If the ones digit is 5 or more. The writer presents facts and opinions to get the reader to understand why something is right. letters to the editor in newspapers and magazines. By using the writing technique that fits your purpose. or position. wrong. subject. If the ones digit is less than 5. Math Tips Here are some "how-to's" that will come in handy. Persuasion Through persuasion. a writer tries to change a reader's point of view on a topic. Describing living conditions in 1900 and living conditions today would allow for much comparison and contrast. Comparison is used to show what is alike or in common. round to the next highest ten (68 rounds to 70). and the text for a political speech are examples of persuasive writing.4. you will be able to communicate your ideas effectively. round to the next lowest ten (33 rounds to 30). a writer points out the similarities and differences about a topic. Comparison and Contrast Through comparison and contrast. or in between. 5. Contrast is used to show what is not alike or not in common.
round to the next highest thousand (7. add the numbers together and then divide the sum by the number of numbers. 8 24 3 x 24 = 72 8x9 = 72 3 and 8 5 8 9 are equivalent 24 and 3 are not 12 5 and 3 5 x12 = 60 equivalent fractions. If the hundreds digit is less than 5. If both products are the same. the fractions are equivalent. round to the next lowest thousand (7. If the tens digit is less than 5. 8 12 8 x 3 = 24 . How to Find an Average To find the average of several numbers. round to the next highest hundred (384 rounds to 400).268 rounds to 7.000). 6. 3 and 9 fractions.000). 30.To the nearest hundred If the tens digit is 5 or more. round to the next lowest hundred (427 rounds to 400). The average of 17.602 rounds to 8. and 7 = 60 ÷ 4 = 15 How to Tell if Two Fractions are Equivalent Cross multiply the fractions. To the nearest thousand If the hundreds digit is 5 or more.
Move the decimal point of the resulting quotient two places to the right.792 = 79. divide the first number by the second.How to Find a Percentage To tell what percentage one number is of a second number. The RQWQCQ Strategy for Solving Math Word Problems RQWQCQ is a good strategy to use when solving math word problems.067 = 6. . Example: What percentage is 20 of 300? 20 ÷ 300 = . 6 15 = 6 ÷ 15 = .2% Refer to these how-to's until you can do them automatically. 0. Each of the letters in RQWQCQ stands for a step in the strategy. Move the decimal point of the resulting quotient two places to the right.7% How to Change a Fraction to a Percentage Divide the numerator by the denominator.40 = 40% How to Change a Decimal to a Percentage Move the decimal point two places to the right.4 = .
Read Read the entire problem to learn what it is about. or draw a picture of the problem. When this happens. . Question Find the question to be answered in the problem. Sometimes. go back through the steps of RQWQCQ until you arrive at an answer that is possible. It is helpful to cross out any facts presented in the problem that are not needed to answer the question. form a picture of the problem in your mind. all of facts presented in the problem are needed to answer the question. circle your answer. Once you have done this. You may find it helpful to read the problem out loud. Question Ask yourself "What computations must I do to answer the question?" Compute Set up the problem on paper and do the computations. Check your computations for accuracy and make any needed corrections. Question Look at your answer and ask yourself: "Is my answer possible?" You may find that your answer is not possible because it does not fit with the facts presented in the problem. Often the question is directly stated. you will have to identify the question to be answered. Write Write the facts you need to answer the question. When it is not stated.
When three or more numbers are multiplied. 3+5=8 or 5+3=8 b. You should be familiar with each of these. 6 + (4 + 3) = 13 or (6 + 4) + 3 = 13 b. 3 x 5 = 15 or 5 x 3 = 15 Associative Property a. Addition. Addition. and identity. Basic Number Properties There are four basic properties of numbers: commutative. associative. When three or more numbers are added. It is especially important to understand these properties once you reach advanced math such as algebra and calculus. the sum is the same regardless of the order in which the numbers are added. 6 x (4 x 3) = 72 or (6 x 4) x 3 = 72 . Multiplication. When two numbers are multiplied together. distributive. Commutative Property a. Multiplication.Use RQWQCQ to help you correctly solve math word problems. the product is the same regardless of the way in which the numbers are grouped. When two numbers are added. the sum is the same regardless of the way in which the numbers are grouped. the product is the same regardless of the order in which the numbers are multiplied.
Addition. You will sometimes find this scale . The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are the most common. liquid. Anders Celsius. The Kelvin scale is primarily used in scientific experiments. This scale divides the range of temperature between the freezing and boiling temperatures of water into 100 equal parts. 12 + 0 = 12 b. Multiplication. or solid. Celsius Scale The Celsius scale was invented in 1742 by the Swedish astronomer. The product of any number and one is that number. Temperature Scales Temperature is the level of heat in a gas. 5 x (7 + 2) = 45 or 5 x 7 + 5 x 2 = 45 Identity Property a. The sum of any number and zero is that number. 18 x 1 = 18 Knowing these properties of numbers will improve your understanding and mastery of math.Distributive Property The sum of two numbers times a third number is equal to the sum of each addend times the third number. Three scales are commonly used for measuring temperature.
Here is how to do this. Kelvin Scale The Kelvin scale is named after William Thompson Kelvin. a British physicist who devised it in 1848. the Fahrenheit scale is widely used in the United States.8. It divides the difference between the melting and boiling points of water into 180 equal intervals. It extends the Celsius scale down to absolute zero.8 + 32. To convert from ºC to K use the formula: K = ºC + 273. Temperatures on this scale are called Kelvins (K). To convert from K to ºC use the formula: ºC = K – 273.identified as the centigrade scale. a hypothetical temperature characterized by a complete absence of heat energy. Temperatures on the Fahrenheit scale are known as degree Fahrenheit (ºF). Temperatures on the Celsius scale are known as degree Celsius (ºC). . 2. Fahrenheit Scale The Fahrenheit scale was established by the German-Dutch physicist. To convert from ºF to ºC use the formula: ºC = (ºF-32) ÷ 1. Converting Temperatures It is sometimes necessary to convert temperature from one scale to another. Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit.15.15 4. To convert from ºC to ºF use the formula: ºF = ºC x 1. in 1724. 1. While many countries now use the Celsius scale. 3.
15) + 32.6 68 to 77 You probably refer to temperature every day. TEMPERATURE Boiling point of water Freezing point of water Average human body temperature Comfortable room temperature ºC 100 0 37 20 to 25 ºF 212 32 98. and symbols. Comparing Temperatures Here are some common comparisons between temperatures on the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales. Be sure about the scale you are using. Any word or . and space using mathematical processes. rules. There are many branches of mathematics and a large vocabulary associated with this subject. To convert from K to ºF use the formula: ºF = 1. 6.8(K – 273. Math Vocabulary Mathematics (math) is the study of numbers. shapes. but may not know their precise meanings.5. Here are some math words and terms you will likely come across.15. quantities. To convert from ºF to K use the formula: K = 5/9 (ºF – 32) + 273.
It contains an equals sign. Negative Number A number that is less than zero. 9 is the coefficient in 9x. -12 is a negative number. 16 . For example. Coefficient A number that multiplies a variable. Improper Fraction (mixed fractions) A fraction that has a larger numerator than denominator. The denominator represents the number of parts into which the whole is divided. Greatest Common Factor (greatest common divisor) The largest number that will divide two or more other numbers equally. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations. as in 2nd place. For example. 6 is the denominator in the fraction . Algorithm A step-by-step mathematical procedure used to find an answer.9 and the expression 7 are equal). Positive Number A number that is greater than zero. For example. is an improper fraction.term shown in bold is defined in the following alphabetical list of math words and terms. For example. the greatest common factor of 32 and 48 is 16. Ordinal Number A number that shows place or position. For example. Numerator The top number in a fraction. Denominator The bottom number in a fraction. . Inverse Operations Opposite or reverse operations. The numerator represents the number of parts of the whole. Equation A mathematical statement used to show that two expressions are equal. the absence of a minus sign signifies a positive number. as are multiplication and division.9 = 7 (the expression 16 . For example. For example. While a minus sign is used to signify a negative number. A minus sign is used to show that a number is negative. 5 is the numerator in the fraction .
An official professional football is about one foot long. For example. 7 is the square root of 49. Measurement Units A measurement system is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured. These are just some of the many words and terms found in mathematics. 7 is a prime number. It is important to know the meanings of words and terms you will encounter as you progress through the study of math. 49 is the square of 7 (7 x 7 = 49).Prime Number A number that can be divided evenly only by itself and 1. Length Inch (in): The distance between the knuckles on your index finger is approximately one inch. It is designated by the symbol √. . Square Root of a Number A number that is multiplied by itself to produce a square number. Foot (ft): One foot equals 12 inches. The system used in the United States is the U. Square Number A number that results from multiplying another number by itself. taking on different values. For example. customary system. Yard (yd): One yard equals three feet. Variable A quantity that can change or vary. For example. It is typically represented by a letter of the alphabet. A baseball bat is about one yard long. For example x is the variable in 9x (x can be any number that is being multiplied by 9). Here are the common units used in this system along with examples to give you a frame of reference.S. There are various measurement systems used across the world.
Mile (mi): One mile equals 5,280 feet. A mile is approximately the distance a championship distance runner can run in just under four minutes.
Ounce (oz): A slice of bread usually weighs a little less than one ounce.
Pound (lb): One pound equals 16 ounces. A loaf of white bread usually weighs a little more than one pound. Ton (T): A ton is 2,000 pounds. The famous Liberty Bell in Philadelphia weighs about one ton.
Cup (c): A standard baby bottle holds about one cup of juice. Pint (pt): One pint equals two cups. A pint of ice cream is just about right for four people to share. Quart (qt): One quart equals two pints. Motor oil typically comes in a quart-sized container. Gallon (gal): One gallon equals four quarts. A large container of milk contains one gallon. Knowing these measurement units will help you in school and in everyday life.
You can guess from their name that Roman Numerals originated in ancient Rome. They were created as a simple means of counting in which certain letters are given values as numerals (a numeral is a written symbol referring to a number). The original system of Roman Numerals was modified during the Middle Ages and is the system we still use today. Seven letters form the basis of Roman Numerals. Each letter stands for a number as shown here. ROMAN NUMERALS I=1 X = 10 C = 100 M = 1,000 V=5 L = 50 D = 500
Reading and Writing Roman Numerals
Numbers are represented by combining the letters shown above. There are several rules to follow.
1. If one or more letters are placed after another
letter of greater value, add that amount. VI = 6 (5 + 1 = 6) XXVII = 27 (10 + 10 + 5 + 1 + 1 = 27) MDC = 1,600 (1,000 + 500 + 100 = 1,600)
2. A letter cannot be repeated more than three times.
30 = XXX (10 + 10 + 10 = 30) 40 = XL (50 - 10 = 40) You cannot write 40 as XXXX.
3. If a letter is placed before another letter of greater
value, subtract that amount. IX = 9 (10 - 1 = 9) XL = 40 (50 - 10 = 40) CML = 950 (900 + 50 = 950)
4. You can only subtract powers of 10 (I, X, C).
95 = XCV (100 - 10 + 5 = 95) You cannot write 95 as VC because V is not a power of 10.
5. You cannot subtract more than one number from
another number. 18 = XVIII (10 + 5 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 18) You cannot write 18 as IIXX. By the way, there is no zero in the system of Roman Numerals. This is all pretty complicated. Why should you even bother learning about Roman Numerals? You will find that Roman Numerals are used all around you. Here are just some of the ways they are used today:
• • •
They are used in outlines. They are used on the faces of clocks and watches.
They are used to number pages that come before the main pages of a book. They are used to identify kings and queens (Henry VIII of England).
They are used to identify sporting events (The New York Giants won Super Bowl XLII).
Topic-List The teacher begins by presenting the topic followed by associated subtopics.Roman Numerals were created long ago. The transitional words also indicate a change from one subtopic to another subtopic. Read to learn about each lecture style. Each subtopic includes details and sometimes subdetails. They are still with us today Identifying Lecture Styles Lectures given by your teachers are usually organized in one of the following lecture styles: • • • • • • Topic-List Question-Answer Compare-Contrast Series of Events Cause-Effect Problem-Solution Identifying the lecture style used by your teacher will help you take good notes. Number words like one or second and transitional words like next and finally indicate that the teacher is using a Topic-List style. Each question is . Question-Answer The teacher begins by introducing a topic that is followed by one or more questions about the topic.
after. and just as suggest similarities. Words and phrases such as initially. Phrases such as in what way and how did they react also indicate that this style is being used. Series of Events The teacher begins by identifying the topic. Cause-Effect The teacher begins by presenting the cause of something. The teacher then tells how the two things are alike (i. opposite. why and how indicate that the teacher is using a Question-Answer style. and on the contrary suggest differences. for that reason. The teacher concludes by revealing the final event. next. owing to. and as a result indicate that the teacher is using a Cause-Effect style. followed by. contrast). on the other hand. equal to. Words or phrases such as since. where. in parallel. last. antithesis of. and finally indicate that the teacher is using a Series of Events style. resemble.answered after it is introduced. or stage related to the topic. Words and phrases such as differently.. Information is then presented about additional events. consequently. culminating. Then the teacher describes an initial event. however. Words such as who. then. step. followed by one or more effects related to the cause. thus. what. when. at the outset. Compare-Contrast The teacher begins by identifying two things that will be compared and contrasted. on account of. Words and phrases such as alike. intermediate. compare) and how they are different (i. counterpart. or stages.. later. or stage.e. correspondingly. therefore. succeeding. Details are included for some of the effects. disparity. similarly. step. Problem-Solution . steps.e.
the teacher concludes by identifying the solution to the problem if one has been found. answer. Good Listening in Class It is important for you to be a good listener in class. The teacher continues by describing attempts to solve the problem. providing details as needed.The teacher begins by introducing a problem and explaining why it is a problem. or the status of attempts to solve the problem. clear up. issue. and worked out indicate that the problem has been resolved. explanation. point of dispute. cleared up. and complication indicate that a problem is being presented. Words and phrases such as unravel. Much of what you will have to learn will be presented verbally by your teachers. Identifying the lecture style used by your teacher will help you write good notes in class. Words and phrases such as puzzle. . Just hearing what your teachers say is not the same as listening to what they say. and untangle indicate that an attempted solution is under way. Listening is a cognitive act that requires you to pay attention and think about and mentally process what you hear. investigate. Here are some things you should do to be a good listener in class. Words and phrases such as solution. enigma. Finally.
and to maintain eye contact with your teacher. Make sure you complete all assigned work and readings. • Listen with an Open Mind. Focus on what your teacher is saying. Make a conscious choice to find the topic useful and interesting. • Be Attentive. • . Identify what you expect and hope to learn from the class session. It is good to question what is said as long as you remain open to points of view other than your own. Be committed to learning all that you can. Review your notes from previous class sessions. Think about what you know about the topic that will be covered in class that day. • Be Emotionally Ready to Listen When You Come to Class. It helps to sit in the front and center of the class. Be receptive to what your teacher says. Listen for these things as your teacher talks.Be Cognitively Ready to Listen When You Come to Class. Try not to daydream and let your mind wander to other things. Your attitude is important. • Listen with a Purpose.
Here are the three stages of notetaking and what you should do during each stage. or too dark.LEARNING. While you can think faster than your teacher can speak. You must be able to take good written notes from what your teachers say. The classroom may too noisy. too bright. Get Ready to Take Notes (Before Class) Review your notes from the previous class session before you come to class. Don't give in to these inconveniences. and after class. Taking notes requires you to make decisions about what to write. Listen even more carefully at these times and work hard to understand what is being said.Be an Active Listener. You can think faster than your teacher can speak. • Meet the Challenge. Take good written notes about what your teacher says. you cannot write faster than your teacher can speak. • Triumph Over the Environment. Taking good notes is a three-stage process in which there are certain things you should do before class. Don't give up and stop listening when you find the information being presented difficult to understand. too cold. Don't be reluctant to ask questions. 1. This will help you remember what was • . and you have to be an active listener to do this. The information they provide will be important for you to know when you take tests. during class. • Taking Notes in Class In classes. your teachers will talk about topics that you are studying. Use this to your advantage by evaluating what is being said and trying to anticipate what will be said next. too hot. Stay focused on the big picture .
" and "Remember that.. and writing short sentences. and shortened sentences into longer sentences. • . • Make your notes more accurate by answering any questions you had when writing your notes in class. Rewrite Your Notes (After Class) Rewrite your notes to make them more complete by changing abbreviated words into whole words. Use your textbook and reference sources to obtain the information you need to answer your questions. • 3. symbols into words. ask your teacher or other students for help. • Bring all notetaking materials with you to class. but about whose meaning you are not sure. Complete all assigned readings before you come to class.. If necessary.covered and get you ready to understand new information your teacher provides. • 2. Your teacher will expect that you have done this and will use and build upon this information. • Place a ? next to information you write in your notes. Do this by writing abbreviated words such as med for medicine.. using symbols such as % for percent. Examples of signal statements are "The most important point.. Take Notes (During Class) Keep your attention focused on what your teacher is saying. Listen for "signal statements" that tell you that what your teacher is about to say is important to write in your notes." Be sure to include in your notes information that your teacher repeats or writes on the chalkboard. • Write quickly so that you can include all the important information in your notes. Have several pens and pencils as well as your notebook.
• Having good class notes will help you to be better prepared for tests. Therefore. This is not realistic though. It would be nice if your teachers talked slower so that you could keep up with what they are saying as you write your notes.Check with other students to be sure you did not leave out important information. Here are some examples of words that have a common abbreviation: Word department introduction junior mathematics weight Abbreviation dept intro jr math wt Word package negative magazine foot highway Abbreviation pkg neg mag ft hwy . One way to do this is to write abbreviations for words. An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word used when writing to represent the complete word. This is hard to do because your teachers can talk faster than you can write. It is up to you to write more quickly. Using Abbreviations To Write Notes Quickly Many of the questions you find on class tests will be based upon the information your teachers orally present in class. you need to write class notes that completely and accurately include the most important information presented by your teachers. You must be able to recognize the complete word from its abbreviation. Many words have a commonly used abbreviation.
You can form your own abbreviation for just about any word. Leave out the vowels when writing a word. Here are three ways you can do this. Write just the beginning of a long word. Here are some examples of words that have been abbreviated by writing just the first and last letter of the word: Word quart Abbreviation qt Word land Abbreviation ld . write just the first and last letter of the word. 1. Here are some examples of long words that have been abbreviated by writing just the beginning of the word: Word different incorporated elementary molecular division Abbreviation diff inc elem molec div Word feminine population ambiguous separate hippopotamus Abbreviation fem pop ambig sep hippo 2. For words that have just one syllable. Here are some examples of words that have been abbreviated by leaving out the vowels when writing the word: Word century mountain reason popular quality Abbreviation cntry mntn rsn pplr qlty Word point school clean teacher progress Abbreviation pnt schl cln tchr prgrss 3.
Using abbreviations for words will help you take good notes more quickly. Use the way that best fits the word for which you are writing an abbreviation. REMEMBER: YOU MUST BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THE COMPLETE WORD FROM ITS ABBREVIATION. Knowing the context in which you wrote the word will help you recognize the complete word from its abbreviation. . Do not try to abbreviate every word you write in your notes. Having good notes will help you do better on tests. Using Acronymic Sentences to Remember Information Creating an acronymic sentence is a good strategy to use when you have to remember information in a certain order. For other words. underline the first letter of the most important word. • • Write each piece of information you have to remember. Abbreviate those words that are important and for which you can quickly form an abbreviation. An acronymic sentence is a sentence that is created using the first letter of each piece of information to be remembered. If there is more than one word in a piece of information. form abbreviations by using one of the three ways you just learned.tick girl night link tk gl nt lk round pack field heart rd pk fd ht Use common abbreviations of words whenever you recognize them. Here is how to create an acronymic sentence. Underline the first letter of each piece of information.
"Insects" represents "Indianapolis"). Fort Wayne." Here are the five most populous cities in Indiana shown in order from highest to lowest: Indianapolis. from closest to furthest.Write a sentence using words that begin with the underlined letters. Creating acronymic sentences is an effective and fun way to remember information." Try to form an acronymic sentence that is funny or has a personal meaning for you. Loci Strategy . • "My (Mercury) very (Venus) earthy (Earth) mother (Mars) just (Jupiter) served (Saturn) us (Uranus) nine (Neptune) pizzas (Pluto)" is an acronymic sentence that students through the years have used to remember the order of planets around our sun. Gary. If you accept recent evidence that Pluto is not a planet. When you remember the acronymic sentence you create. South Bend. "Insects from everywhere seem gross. each word in the sentence will help you remember the piece of information it represents (for example. You will find the sentence easier to remember if you do this. Here is an acronymic sentence you can use to remember these cities in the order shown. you can use "My very earthy mother just served us noodles. Evansville.
In this example. somersault. which means place. Here are the associations with features of the kitchen you could visualize to help you remember the items: . In this example. Here are the steps in the loci strategy along with an example. and puddle. Second. invasion. The more unusual your association. the more likely you are to remember it. It can work well for you if you are good at visualizing (picturing) things in your mind. lemon. you will remember the item "nature. one of the items you must remember is "nature. In this example. associate each item to be remembered with a particular feature of that place. visualization. In this example. by visualizing the coffeepot with a plant growing out of it. The loci strategy is based on your familiarity with a place." To complete this example. one of the features you visualize is a coffeepot on the kitchen stove. to remember "nature.The word loci is the plural form of locus. visualize that place and its features in your mind." First. such as your home. In this example. Fourth." you visualize a plant growing out of the coffeepot. you decide to use the kitchen where you live as the place. identify a place with which you are very familiar. Third. The strategy helps you remember lists of items through organization. and association. visualize each feature of the place and the association you formed for an item to be remembered. here are the other items you must remember: pigeon.
You can substitute your own . Using Pegwords to Remember Information The pegwords strategy is a good strategy to use when you must remember a number of things such as five reasons we should conserve energy.visualize lemons floating in a pitcher of lemonade in the kitchen refrigerator. You can use any word as a pegword as long as it rhymes with a number word.• • pigeon .visualize a clown somersaulting over a chair. • puddle . • lemon . invasion . Each pegword is substituted for a number word and is then associated with the information to be remembered. It remains just as useful today as it was long ago. somersault . • To remember the entire list of items. The loci strategy was invented by the ancient Greeks. visualize each kitchen feature and the association you created for it.visualize the kitchen sink overflowing and forming a puddle of soapy water on the floor. Pegwords are words that rhyme with number words.visualize a pigeon landing on the table. Below are suggested pegwords for the number words one through ten.visualize ants invading and swarming all over a slice of bread on the kitchen counter.
1. Use the pegword shoe for the second piece of information. Nouns and verbs are best to use as pegwords because they are easy to associate with information to be remembered. Think of the pegword for the number word one. Repeat steps 1-3 for each additional piece of information to be remembered. and so on. 2. Number Word one two three four five six seven eight nine ten Pegword run shoe tree door dive fix heaven gate sign hen Here are the steps to follow to use the pegwords strategy. Form an association in your mind between the pegword one and the first piece of information to be remembered. 4.number words. The pegword for one is run. tree for the third piece of information. Create a picture in your mind of this association. . Think of the first piece of information to be remembered. 3.
2. the number word one will trigger the pegword run. and you will recall the picture of a rabbit running toward a bowl of food. Using Flash Cards to Remember Information . The pegwords strategy lets you use your imagination to remember information. Later. Forests provide lumber that is used to build homes for people.Here is an example of how the pegwords strategy can be used to remember three important reasons for preserving forests. (three/tree). Forests provide shelter for animals. 1. You will thereby remember that one reason for preserving forests is that forests provide food for animals. You could create a picture in your mind of a rabbit running to a bowl of food. when you try to recall the reasons for preserving forests. 3. You could create a picture in your mind of stacks of lumber lying on the ground next to a partially built house. (two/shoe). The pegword for one is run. Forests provide food for animals. You could create a picture in your mind of a chipmunk living in a shoe.
1. and the correct spelling of words. write the information on a card. For example. and nutritious could go on green or blue cards. You can use neutral colors such as white or tan for words that are neutral (words that are not positive or negative). Other times you will see "first U. write the word to be learned on the front of the card and a short two or three word definition on the back of the card. you might write "George Washington" on the front and "first U. Illustrate the cards. Organize your cards into decks. If you place cards for different subjects or topics in the same deck. use a different color for words that have different connotations. The more you work at making . 4. Positive words such as delightful. suspicious. Use both sides of a card when appropriate. excellent. Use flashcards in several different colors. Sometimes you will see "George Washington" and will have to remember that he was the first president of the U. For a historical fact. if you are using flash cards to remember vocabulary words. when learning a new vocabulary word. 2. Use colors as cues to help you recall a distinctive characteristic about the information on a flash card. Whenever you come across a piece of information you want to remember.S. president" on the back. mathematical formulas. Here are some strategies to help you get the most benefit from using flash cards. you will only become confused. and threatened could go on red or yellow cards. Flip the cards over from time to time. Draw pictures on a card or cut pictures from a magazine and paste them on the card. one for each subject or topic. history facts. 3. president" and will have to remember that it was George Washington.Flash cards are a powerful tool that can help you remember information such as the meanings of vocabulary words. for example. Doing this will strengthen your recall of the information. Negative words such as resentful.S. For example.S. Carry a stack of blank cards with you (3" x 5" size works well). Make flash cards as you learn and study. The particular colors you choose don't matter as long as you are consistent in their use.
His StudyProf. Shuffle the cards each time you review them. and are a great tool for remembering information. Don't put too much information on any one card. Using Acronyms to Remember Information . 6. 5. Questions on a test about the information on your cards may come in any order. riding on the school bus. easy to use. and so on. Make reviewing your cards a daily habit like brushing your teeth or taking a shower.a card distinctive and interesting. The biggest mistake students' make is putting too much information on a single flash card. in bed before you go to sleep. the easier you will find it to recall the information on the card. Carry your cards with you. Review your cards whenever you have a chance. it will be difficult for you to remember a piece of information when it is not in the order you studied. during long trips. Flash cards are easy to make. you can review your cards while eating a meal. waiting on a line. 7. This article contributed by Cody Blair. Each card should contain just one piece of information. For example. Change the order of the cards frequently. If you always study the cards in the same order.com website has more information about flashcards and other study skills.
Notice that in this example. O is the first letter of Ontario. underline the first letter of only the first word in the fact. "Telk" is not a real word. kangaroo. Superior. Here is how to form an acronym. . "Telk" is an acronym that can be used to remember the following animals: tiger. Huron: In HOMES. Underline the first letter of each fact. If there is more than one word in a fact. Ontario. It can be a real word or a nonsense word you are able to pronounce. • • Write the facts you need to remember. Erie. Arrange the underlined letters to form an acronym that is a real word oranonsense word you can pronounce. and so on. An acronym is a word that is formed from the first letter of each fact to be remembered. elephant. but you can easily pronounce it. You could also have used "kelt" as an acronym. lion. H is the first letter of Huron and helps you remember that name. • "HOMES" is an example of an acronym that is a real word you can use to remember the names of the five Great Lakes: Michigan.Forming an acronym is a good strategy to use to remember information in any order.
For example. Read to learn about the three reading styles used by flexible readers. Becoming a Flexible Reader To become a flexible reader. Each has its own purpose.you cannot form a real word using the first letter of each fact to be remembered. Use the acronym strategy as a way to remember information. There are three important reading styles you should learn to use. Study Reading is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to read difficult material at a high level of comprehension. Sometimes. The Skimming style is most useful when you have to read a large amount of material in a short amount of time. peach. Study Reading will often require you to read material more than once to achieve a high level of comprehension. as you read you must challenge yourself to understand the material. you need to know how to select and use a reading style that is consistent with your purpose for reading. When using the Study Reading style. Knowing when and how to use these three reading styles will make you a flexible reader. reading the material aloud will also help you improve your comprehension. Further. Skimming is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to quickly obtain a general idea about the reading material. you should identify the . When using the Skimming style. apple. the acronym "capp" can be used to remember the following fruits: pear. Sometimes two or more of the facts you must remember each begin with the same first letter. cherry. you should read at a rate that is slower than your normal reading rate. You can use the first letter "p" in the acronym to remember either "pear" or "peach" and the second letter "p" to remember the other.
Because you are only looking for the main idea in each paragraph you read. and sometimes even in a paragraph. Decide if you are reading for a high level of comprehension. identify your purpose for reading.main ideas in each paragraph and ignore the details in supportive sentences. a lower level of comprehension is to be expected than when using the Study Reading style. words. The piece of information to be located may be contained in a list of names. short statements. Then use the reading style that is appropriate for your reading purpose. move your eyes quickly over the reading material until you locate the specific piece of information you need to find. Scanning is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to quickly locate a specific piece of information within reading material. numbers. Before you begin your next reading assignment. Since you know exactly what you are looking for. or looking for specific information. trying to get a general idea about what you are reading. A Strategy for Reading Textbooks .
or Conclusion. Read to learn what to do for each step in SQRW. headings. you will quickly learn what the chapter is about. what. for the heading "Uses of Electricity" in a chapter about how science improves lives. you might form the question "What are some uses of electricity?" If a heading is stated as a question. Also. and/or graphs and read the caption that goes with each. examine all visuals such as pictures. maps. why. By surveying a chapter. Read the information that follows each heading to find the answer to each question you formed. Questions give you a purpose for reading and help you stay focused on the reading assignment. Question. where. For example. Form questions by changing each chapter heading into a question. when. use that question. introduction. you may decide you need to change a question or turn it into several questions to be answered.SQRW is a four-step strategy for reading and taking notes from chapters in a textbook. . Each letter stands for one step in the strategy. Surveying brings to mind what you already know about the topic of a chapter and prepares you for learning more. Summary. Survey. When a heading contains more than one idea. You need to have questions in your mind as you read. Stay focused and flexible so you can gather as much information as you need to answer each question. To survey a chapter. Read. read the title. Do not form questions for the Introduction. form a question for each idea. Using SQRW will help you to understand what you read and to prepare a written record of what you learned. The written record will be valuable when you have to participate in a class discussion and again when you study for a test. or how to form questions. tables. and the summary or conclusion. As you do this. Use the words who.
The Ten Study Habits of Successful Students Successful students have good study habits. and so on for the remaining headings in the chapter. Space the . and Write steps for the first heading. HINT: Once you complete the Survey step for the entire chapter. Try not to do too much studying at one time. Read about each study habit. and Write steps for the second heading. Then complete the Question. Reread each of your written answers to be sure each answer is legible and contains all the important information needed to answer the question. you will tire and your studying will not be very effective. As you practice using SQRW. Read. Write each question and its answer in your notebook. Work to develop any study habit you do not have. If you try to do too much studying at one time. Successful students: 1.Write. complete the Question. They apply these habits to all of their classes. you will find you learn more and have good study notes to use to prepare for class participation and tests. Read.
working on a paper or project. A delay in studying is called "procrastination. You must be very clear about what you want to accomplish during your study times. Studying at the same times each day establishes a routine that becomes a regular part of your life. just like sleeping and eating. 4." If you procrastinate for any reason. resulting in careless work and errors. Set specific goals for their study times. 5.work you have to do over shorter periods of time. 3. you will be mentally prepared to begin studying. 2. When a scheduled study time comes up during the day. It can be completing assigned reading. Goals will help you stay focused and monitor your progress. You may rush to make up the time you wasted getting started. Try to study at the same times each day. you will find it difficult to get everything done when you need to. or studying for a test. Simply sitting down to study has little value. Plan specific times for studying. . Schedule specific times throughout the week for your study time. You may delay starting your studying because you don't like an assignment or think it is too hard. Start studying when planned. Taking short breaks will restore your mental energy. Study time is any time you are doing something related to schoolwork.
Make sure they are your study habits." 10. Yes. 8. Reviewing your notes can help you make sure you are doing an assignment correctly. Review their schoolwork over the weekend. Two study problems can occur if your friends call you during your study times. Improving Concentration . weekends should be fun time. your notes may include information that will help you complete an assignment. Your most difficult assignment will require the most effort. your friends may talk about things that will distract you from what you need to do. This is a case where "two heads may be better than one. First.turn off your cell phone during your study times. It is not that easy to get back to what you were doing. Start with your most difficult assignment since this is when you have the most mental energy. This will help you be ready to go on Monday morning when another school week begins. your work is interrupted. 7. These ten study habits can help you throughout your education. Work on the assignment they find most difficult first.6. Review their notes before beginning an assignment. But there is also time to do some review. Also. Second. 9. Here's a simple idea . Tell their friends not to call them during their study times. Call another student when they have difficulty with an assignment.
Concentration means focusing on one thing to the exclusion of all else. • Make sure you are not tired and/or hungry when you study.Many students have difficulty concentrating while studying. • . If you try to complete a large task all at once. Some people work well early in the morning. You won't be able to concentrate on either one very well. It's hard to concentrate when you're tense. Otherwise. • Break large tasks into series of smaller tasks that you can complete one at a time. This will provide you with the structure you need for effective studying. Also. you won't have the energy you need to concentrate. • Try to study at the time of day you work best. you may feel overwhelmed and will be unable to maintain your concentration. It's important to relax when working on a task that requires concentration. Being able to concentrate while you are studying is essential to doing well in class and on tests. Meditation is helpful to many students. Here are 10 suggestions for improving your study concentration: Study in a quiet place that is free from distractions and interruptions. • Make a study schedule that shows what tasks you need to accomplish and when you plan to accomplish each task. • Don't try to do two tasks at the same time. • Relax. You know what works best for you. others late at night. Try to create a space designated solely for studying. maintain your physical fitness.
Preparing to Study: A Good Study Place You need a good study place to be prepared to study. There is no set formula for when to take breaks. • Develop an interest in what you are studying. 2. You will know when you need to take a break. • Take breaks whenever you feel fatigued. Is my Study Place free from interruptions? . You can get distracted by your own thoughts. Try to relate what you are studying to you own life to make it as meaningful as possible. Monitor your thoughts and prevent yourself from following any that take you off track. Mental poise is important for concentration. Don't daydream. You should be able to answer YES to all of the following questions: 1. This can motivate yourself to concentrate. It doesn't work. If you are using a Study Place that you must share with others for any reason. work out a schedule so that you know when you can use it. • Studying without concentration is like trying to fill a bucket with water when the bucket has a hole in its bottom.Clear your mind of worrisome thoughts. Is my Study Place available to me whenever I need it? Your Study Place does you little good if you cannot use it when you need it.
Does my Study Place contain all the study materials I need? Be sure your Study Place includes reference sources and supplies such as pens and pencils. Allow enough room for writing and try to avoid clutter. If you use a computer for your schoolwork. keep the volume low. paper. Does my Study Place have enough storage space? You need enough room to store your study materials. A chair that is too comfortable might make you sleepy. 3. Be sure you have enough storage space to allow you to keep your desktop or other work surface clear of unnecessary materials that can get in the way. Does my Study Place have a comfortable chair? A chair that is not comfortable can cause discomfort or pain that will interfere with your studying. You may have to hang a DO NOT DISTURB sign on the door or take the phone off the hook. calculator. Is my Study Place free from distractions? Research shows that most students study best in a quiet environment. 6. Select a chair in which you can sit for long periods while maintaining your attention.It is important to have uninterrupted study time. use a desk or table that is large enough to hold everything you need. Does my Study Place have enough light? . ruler. 8. 5. Does my Study Space contain a large enough desk or table? While working on an assignment or studying for a test. and whatever else you might need. it should be in your Study Place . 7. 4. If you find that playing a stereo or TV improves your mood.
A short-term goal is something you want to achieve soon. .The amount of light you need depends on what you are doing. Examples of short-term goals are finishing your homework and doing well on tomorrow's test. Then you must set specific and clearly stated goals. Having a good Study Place is important for good studying. Setting Goals A goal is something you want to achieve. your thinking may slow down and become unclear. THE THREE W'S OF GOALS Each goal you set should state WHAT you will do and WHEN you will accomplish it. a goal for a research paper might be stated as follows: I will (your determination) finish gathering information for my research paper (what you will do) by November 20 (when you will accomplish it). A long-term goal is something you want to achieve at some later date. Examples of long-term goals are writing a paper and passing a class. If you do not have clearly stated goals. 9. you might become sleepy. Write your goals to have a record of them. To set appropriate goals. For example. your effort will lack direction and focus. Does my Study Place have a comfortable temperature? If your Study Place is too warm. Implied in each goal you set is your WILL (determination) to do it. If it is too cold. The important thing is that you can clearly see what you need to see without any strain or discomfort. Select a temperature at which your mind and body function best. you must know what is important for you to accomplish.
and counselors will set goals for you. You may do what you have to do. Sometimes things will not go the way you anticipate and you may need to change your goal. Other than when working as part of a group. accomplishment of your goal should not depend on other students. It is important to be able to measure your progress toward a goal. realistic. flexible. These are people who know what is important for you and are very concerned with your success. but if others don't. within your control. . Setting a goal to learn the spelling of three new words a day is realistic. teachers. within your skills and abilities. measurable. you will not accomplish your goal.CHARACTERISTICS OF APPROPRIATE GOALS Your goals should be: 1. Trying to learn the spelling of fifty new words a day is not realistic. You can control what you do. 5. 4. 2. Many times your parents. They can also help you accomplish the goals they set. Be accepting when they do. Failure to measure your progress toward a goal and recognize its accomplishment will result in effort that is misdirected and wasted. Stay flexible so when you realize a change is necessary you will be ready to make the change. SET GOALS IN SCHOOL THAT PROVIDE YOU WITH DIRECTION AND LEAD TO SUCCESS. 3. Knowing your strengths and weaknesses will help you set goals you can accomplish. but you have little or no control over what others do. It is especially important to recognize when you have accomplished your goal and need to go no further.
Go crazy and add some cherries and nuts. Just about every student experiences this problem at one time or another. 5. This will make studying more enjoyable. Develop interest in what you have to study. For example. Reward yourself for studying. If you are surrounding by things you would rather do than study. Study with your friends. you will not only find it difficult to stay focused. When you are not motivated. Educational success requires studying. When you are motivated. Eliminate distractions. 2. you will find it easy to stay focused over a period of time. Remind yourself of your long-term goals. Motivation is important for good studying. welcome to the club. 1. have a treat like a nice big ice cream cone. 3. after a successful study session. Don’t make it party time. but you will find it difficult to get started in the first place. . Here are some ways to increase your motivation to study. you will probably do those things instead of studying. Achievement of your goals likely requires educational success. 4. but you can have fun as you do this.Motivating Yourself to Study If you find that you lack motivation to study.
you can use KWL to help you learn about a topic.6. You can also read inspirational stories about real people who have achieved success through effort. Place the poster where you can see it as you study. You probably won’t get very far if you look at your study session as "mission impossible. This will make it easier for you to resume studying after your break. Finally. if these suggestions don’t do it for you. 7. Just do it. Once you do. try to stop at a point where you are at something that is easy for you. Take breaks. You will be more inclined to study if you feel comfortable. 10. Establish reasonable goals for a study session. 8. Use a motivational poster. The poster should include positive words and a picture depicting success. However. KWL Chart The KWL chart was designed as an instructional reading strategy teachers could use to guide students' textbook reading. you will feel a lot better than if you are worried about getting it done. Here is what a blank KWL chart looks like. You can buy one or even make your own." 9. just think about the consequences of not studying. . When you feel that you need to take a break. Establish a comfortable environment.
Complete the K column by thinking about and writing what you already know about the topic. Also. is typically very in a desert? They are found by an aquifer hot. The W in KWL stands for what else you want to know about the topic. Here is an example of a KWL chart that a student completed for the topic "Deserts. Complete the L column by writing the answers to the questions you wrote in the W column. Aquifer is an underground bed or layer that yields water. write in the L column other information you learned as you answered the questions.K W L The K in KWL stands for what you already know about the topic. You'll find more plants and animals by an oasis than in any other part of the desert. Complete the W column by writing the questions you want to answer about the topic. Are there cold The Gobi Desert can get as deserts? cold as -40° in the winter because it is far north of the ." Topic: DESERTS K W L A desert is a dry Are there any There are areas with water in a area of land that areas of water desert that are called an oasis. or an underground stream. The L in KWL stands for what you learned about the topic as you read your textbook and use reference sources.
In short. It is natural to procrastinate occasionally. So can many birds and insects. Using a KWL chart can help you bring together information about any topic. Why Do Students Procrastinate? There are many reasons why students procrastinate. excessive procrastination can interfere with school and personal success. However. Procrastination What is Procrastination? Procrastination is putting off or avoiding doing something that must be done.equator. Mostly by using their long roots Hard for plants to get to water below the How do plants to survive in the ground. It can also cause anxiety since the task still needs to be done. excessive procrastination can result in guilt feelings about not doing a task when it should be done. More than 1/5 of What is the largest the world is desert? desert. Here are the most common reasons: . The Sahara Desert is more than 3 million square miles in area. Hard for animals How do and come out only at night. survive? desert. to survive in the animals Mammals such as camels and desert. survive? rodents can go for long periods without water. Further. They avoid the heat of the day. excessive procrastination can cause poor performance if the task is completed without sufficient time to do it well.
A student may lack the skills and abilities needed to accomplish a task. A student may have too many things around that distract him/her from doing a task. 3. Perfectionism. 4. 8.1. Difficulty Concentrating. 5. A student may have little or no sense about which tasks are most important to do. Lack of Priorities. 6. A student's standard of performance may be so high for a task that it does not seem possible to meet that standard. A student may be unsure about how to start a task or how it should be completed. 2. 7. A student may lack confidence and fear that he/she will be unable to accomplish a task successfully. Poor Motivation. A student may have little or no interest in completing a task because he/she finds the task boring or lacking in relevance. A student may dislike doing what a task requires. Task Unpleasantness. Confusion. How Do I Know if I Procrastinate Excessively? You procrastinate excessively if you agree with five or more of the following statements: . Fear of Failure. Task Difficulty.
6. I often ignore a task when I am not certain about how to start it or complete it. I often find my mind wandering to things other that the task on which I am trying to work. 7. 1. 8. . it will go away. I often start a task but stop before completing it." 2. 12. 3. Motivate yourself to work on a task with thoughts such as "There is no time like the present. I often put off starting a task I find difficult 2. I often give up on a task as soon as I start to find it difficult. 5. 10. I often have difficulty getting started on a task. I often wonder why I should be doing a task. 9. I often cannot decide which of a number of tasks I should complete first. Prioritize the tasks you have to do. I often try to do so many tasks at once that I cannot do any of them. I often find myself thinking that if I ignore a task.1. 11. 4. I often put off a task in which I have little or no interest. I often try to come up with reasons to do something other than a task I have to do." or "Nobody's perfect. What Can I Do About Excessive Procrastination? Here are some things you can do to control excessive procrastination.
Commit yourself to completing a task once started. 8. Work on difficult and/or unpleasant tasks first. 5. 7. 9. Work on a task you find easier after you complete a difficult task. 13. Find a good place to work on tasks. 14. Above all. think positively and get going. Work on tasks at the times you work best. task. You will feel increasingly relieved as you work toward its accomplishment and will come to look forward to the feeling of satisfaction you will experience when you have completed the task. Make a schedule of the tasks you have to do and stick to it. you will probably find that it is more interesting than you thought it would be and not as difficult as you feared. Study Groups . Once you are into a task. Work on tasks as part of a study group. Get help from teachers and other students when you find a task difficult.3. 4. 11. Break large tasks into small manageable parts. 10. Set reasonable standards that you can meet for a 12. 6. Reward yourself whenever you complete a task. Eliminate distractions that interfere with working on tasks. Take breaks when working on a task so that you do not wear down. 15.
The other group members can be a source of encouragement. You can learn valuable new study habits from the other group members. A support group can "pick you up" when you find that your motivation to study is slipping. Here are the most important benefits: 1. 4. 2. You may become more committed to study because the group members are depending on your presentation and participation. Finally. Then read on to learn about how to start a study group and the characteristics of a successful study group. 6. 5. Benefits of a Study Group A study group can be beneficial in many ways. be sure to read about the possible pitfalls of a study group. 3. These activities add a strong auditory dimension to your learning experience. One or more group members are likely to understand something you do not. Read to learn about the benefits of a study group.A study group can be helpful when you are trying to learn information and concepts and preparing for class discussions and tests. . You may be reluctant to ask a question in class. They may bring up ideas you never considered. You will find it easier to do so in a small study group. You will not want to let them down. Group members will listen and discuss information and concepts during the study sessions.
7. You can compare your class notes with those of the other group members to clarify your notes and fill in any gaps. 8. Teaching/explaining information and concepts to the other group members will help you reinforce your mastery of the information and concepts. 9. Let's face it - studying can sometimes be boring. Interacting with the other group members can make studying enjoyable.
Getting a Study Group Started
Study groups don't just happen. Here is what you should do to get a study group started: 1. Get to know your classmates by talking with them before class, during breaks, and after class. When selecting a classmate to join your study group, you should be able to answer YES for each of the following questions:
o o o o
Is this classmate motivated to do well? Does this classmate understand the subject matter? Is this classmate dependable?
Would this classmate be tolerant of the ideas of others?
Would you like to work with this classmate?
2. Invite enough of these classmates to work with you in a study group until you have formed a group of three to five. A larger group may allow some members to avoid responsibility, may lead to cliques, and may make group management more of an issue than learning.
3. Decide how often and for how long you will meet. Meeting two or three times a week is probably best. If you plan a long study session, make sure you include time for breaks. A study session of about 60 to 90 minutes is usually best. 4. Decide where you will meet. Select a meeting place that is available and is free from distractions. An empty classroom or a group study room in the library are possibilities. 5. Decide on the goals of the study group. Goals can include comparing and updating notes, discussing readings, and preparing for exams. 6. Decide who the leader will be for the first study session. Also decide whether it will be the same person each session or whether there will be a rotating leader. The leader of a study session should be responsible for meeting the goals of that study session. 7. Clearly decide the agenda for the first study session and the responsibilities of each group member for that session. 8. Develop a list of all group members that includes their names, telephone numbers, and email addresses. Make sure each group member has this list and update the list as needed.
Characteristics of a Successful Study Group
Once started, a study group should possess the following characteristics to be successful: 1. Each group member contributes to discussions.
2. Group members actively listen to each other without interrupting. Only one group member speaks at a time. 3. The other group members work collaboratively to resolve any concern raised by a group member. 4. Group members are prompt and come prepared to work. 5. The group stays on task with respect to its agenda.
Group members show respect for each other.
7. Group members feel free to criticize each other but keep their criticisms constructive. This can encourage group members to reveal their weaknesses so that they can strengthen them. 8. Group members feel free to ask questions of each other. 9. At the end of each study session, an agenda including specific group member responsibilities is prepared for the next session. 10. Above all, the positive attitude that "we can do this together" is maintained.
Possible Pitfalls of a Study Group
A study group can be a very positive learning experience. However, there are pitfalls to be avoided. Here are some cautions: 1. Do not let the study group get distracted from its agenda and goals. 2. Do not let the study group become a social group. You can always socialize at other times. 3. Do not allow group members to attend unprepared. To stay in the group, members should be required to do their fair share. 4. Do not the let the session become a negative forum for complaining about teachers and courses.
Each type is available in print forms. 1. you will need to use reference sources to find information about topics. and spelling of words. math. Abridged dictionaries omit words that do not regularly appear in books. Dictionary A dictionary provides information about the meaning. Do not allow one or two group members to dominate the group. Here are five types of reference sources you should use. and newspapers. biology. It is important that all members have an equal opportunity to participate. They include technical words that are rarely used outside of the subject. pronunciation.5. Using Reference Sources As you go through school. Unabridged dictionaries attempt to be complete by including all words currently in use in a language. Thesaurus A thesaurus contains synonyms for commonly used . They provide extensive information about the words included. and many more. 2. and on the Internet. on CD-ROMs. The information you just read will help you decide when a study group is appropriate for you and will help ensure its success. psychology. locate facts. and answer questions. Specialized dictionaries provide detailed information about the words that apply to a particular subject such as space. magazines.
In addition to articles. historical events. . "simple" is a synonym for "easy. Because almanacs are revised each year. There are also specialized atlases for such things as weather across the world. Almanac An almanac is an annual single-volume reference source that contains useful facts about a wide range of topics. and bodies of water. Encyclopedia An encyclopedia contains articles on a variety of subjects. 4. The most common atlas contains maps that show the political and physical features of countries throughout the world. encyclopedias may include illustrations and diagrams.words. The articles are written by experts on each of the subjects. A synonym is a word that has the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as another word. events." A thesaurus contains many more synonyms for a word than does a dictionary. A subject encyclopedia contains longer and more detailed articles on specific topics. For example. A physical map shows the features of the earth's surface such as mountains. 5. A thesaurus can help you precisely express your ideas when writing. definitions of some words. the information is current. 3. A political map shows government boundaries. You can learn about countries of the world. Atlas An atlas is a collection of maps. A general encyclopedia includes overview articles on a wide range of topics. government. and references to additional information. You may also use a road map to learn how to get from place to place. and many other topics. deserts. or fields of study.
and even the anatomy of the human body. but you can decide how to best use them. and a term. You cannot change the number of hours.oceans of the world. Record your school assignments with their due dates and your scheduled tests. Update it as the week goes on. Here is a strategy for doing this. prepare a Weekly Schedule. Record your known out-of-school activities. Prepare a Term Calendar At the beginning of a term. . Here is what to do to prepare a Weekly Schedule. Wherever you study. Prepare a Weekly Schedule Each Sunday before a school week. Update it as the term goes on. Managing Your Study Time There are only so many hours in a day. • Record your daily classes. Here is what to do to prepare a Term Calendar. a week. be sure you have access to each of these important reference sources.Record your planned school activities. • • • Record your planned school activities. To be successful in school. you must carefully manage your study time. prepare a Term Calendar.
Your Daily Organizer should have more detail than your Weekly Schedule. Using a Term Calendar. Here is what to do to prepare a Daily Organizer. Mathematics. and a Daily Organizer will help you make the best use of your time. • Review your class notes for the day just completed to see if you need to add any school activities. working on projects. ACT Test Taking Tips The ACT is a widely used college admission standardized test.Enter things to be done for the coming week from your Term Calendar. evenings. These times may be during the school day. • Be sure to include times for completing assignments. • Prepare a Daily Organizer Each evening before a school day. • Enter the things that still need to be accomplished from your Daily Organizer from the previous day. and weekends. Enter the things to do for the coming day from your Weekly Schedule. and Science. Place a √ next to each thing to do as you accomplish it. • Your Weekly Schedule should have more detail than your Term Calendar. a Weekly Schedule. and studying for tests. It has four mandatory subject tests: English. • Add any out-of-school activities in which you will be involved the next day. There is also an optional Writing test which some colleges require. General Tips . Reading. • Add any out-of-school activities in which you will be involved during the week. prepare a Daily Organizer for the next day. • Review your class notes from the previous week to see if you need to add any school activities. right after school.
consider how the underlined portion fits with the rest of the section. • Examine each answer choice to see how it differs from the others. • Reread the underlined portion with your answer choice to be sure it is correct. • • • Don't spend more than a minute or two on any question. choose this as your answer only if you are sure none of the other answer choices are correct. There is no penalty for guessing. English Section Tips Consider the writing style used for each section. (It's a good idea to bring a reliable watch. • For items that include "No Change" as an answer choice. • Reading Section Tips . Use the process of elimination to narrow your choices.Answer the questions you find easiest first.) • • • • Answer every question. Come back to the others later. Be careful to mark only one answer choice per question. Write in the test book in any way that will help you. keep track of how much time remains. • When asked a question about something that is underlined. The correct answer choice will be the one that works best with the writing style used. Consider all answer choices before you choose one. As you work on a section.
Read the passage carefully before you read the questions.
Focus on the main ideas in the passage. Underline these. Don't get lost in the details.
• • •
Try to identify how ideas in the passage are connected. Refer back to the passage as you answer each question.
Mathematics Section Tips
Work out the problem before looking at the answer choices. When done, choose the answer choice that matches your answer. If none match, redo the problem.
Don't overly rely on your calculator. Some problems are best worked out manually. Some don't even require calculation.
The questions focus much more on reasoning than on calculation. If you find yourself doing complicated calculations, you're probably on the wrong track.
Make sure your answer choice makes sense. A calculation error can lead you to a wrong answer choice.
Check your work.
Science Section Tips
Given the complexity of the passages, it may help to make some simple notes as you read them.
• • •
Cross out irrelevant information.
Don't be overly concerned with any technical terminology. Technical terms usually have little to do with the correct answer choice. Be watchful for conflicting viewpoints in some of the passages.
Writing Section Tips
Organization of your response is very important. Use a five-paragraph essay that includes an introduction, supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion.
• • • • • • •
Plan your response before you begin to write it. Stay with the topic throughout your response. Vary your sentence structure and word choices. Use specific examples wherever possible. Write legibly.
If you have time, check your grammar, usage, punctuation, and spelling. These tips can help you get the most out your knowledge, skills, and abilities when you take the ACT.
Many of the tests you take in school will be multiple-choice tests. Here are two types of items you will often find on multiple-choice tests. 1. An incomplete statement followed by several answer choices. In this type of item, the missing part of the statement can be anywhere in the statement. You must circle the letter that represents the answer choice that correctly completes the statement. Usually there are four answer choices represented by the letters a, b, c, and d. Sometimes there are more than four answer choices.
Here is an example of this type of item:
The first president of the United States, ____, was known as the "Father of his country." a. Thomas Jefferson b. Abraham Lincoln c. George Washington d. Theodore Roosevelt You should circle "c" to show that George Washington was the first president of the United States. 2. A question followed by several answer choices. In this type of item, you must circle the letter that represents the answer choice that correctly answers the question. Here is an example of this type of item: How many states make up the United States of America? a. 48 b. 52 c. 46 d. 50 You should circle "d" to show that 50 is the correct answer choice for this question. Sometimes, one of the answer choices is "all of the above." In the following example, "e" is the correct answer choice because all of the foods shown are dairy products. Which of the following foods are dairy products? a. milk b. ice cream c. yogurt d. cream cheese e. all of the above
Read all the answer choices before selecting one. Circle or underline important words in the item. One of these two answer choices is likely to be correct. Argentina c.Other times. none of the countries listed could be in South America. Look for two answer choices that are opposites. "b" is the correct answer choice because Argentina is the only country listed that is in South America. 4. 5. a. The correct answer choice may be part of another item on the test. 3. It is just as likely for the last answer choice to be correct as the first. Russia b. ______ is a country in South America." In the following example. Mexico d. 2. For "e" to be correct. Cross out answer choices you are certain are not correct. . one of the answer choices is "none of the above. 1. Look for hints about the correct answer choice in other items on the test. Japan e. none of the above Guidelines When Taking Multiple-Choice Tests Here are some guidelines that will help you correctly answer multiple-choice items. This will help you narrow down the correct answer choice. This will help you focus on the information most needed to identify the correct answer choice.
Do not change your initial answer unless you are sure another answer choice is correct. 8. Here are the steps to follow when studying for an essay test.6. Do not choose "none of the above" if even just one of the other answer choices is correct. Knowing how multiple-choice items are constructed and using these guidelines will help you improve your score on a multiple-choice test. Choose "none of the above" if you are certain all other answer choices in the item are incorrect. Your studying for essay tests should be related to this goal. 9. Studying for an Essay Test Tests such as multiple-choice tests and true/false tests assess specific factual knowledge. Essay tests assess your mastery of themes and overall ideas. Choose "all of the above" if you are certain all other answer choices in the item are correct. When studying for these tests. An answer choice that contains such language is usually correct. Look for answer choices that contain language used by your teacher or found in your textbooks. your goal should be to recognize facts. . 7. your goal should be to recall broad information in an organized way. Do not choose "all of the above" if even just one of the other answer choices is not correct. your first choice is correct. More often than not. When studying for essay tests.
textbook notes. and class notes and add written details about the theme or overall idea to the card. 6. 2. Try to predict the questions your teacher will ask on the test. You will often find the same theme or overall idea in one or more places. Read these materials to identify themes and overall ideas. but use just one card to represent it. Doing this will give you a working familiarity with the information that is most likely to be the basis of questions on the test. 3. Be sure to review these cards the evening before the test. When you complete Step 6. Essay tests can be scary. 4. 7. Test Anxiety WHAT IS TEST ANXIETY? . Once you have completed Step 3 for each card. For each card you prepare in Step 2. and your class notes. include direction words often used by teachers. Use the cards you developed in Step 3 to help you answer each question. Carry the study cards you developed in Step 6 with you so that you can review them frequently. review your cards several times. such as explain or compare. When writing the questions. you will have a set of study cards. 5. label an index card with the name of that theme or overall idea.1. This includes your textbook. your textbook notes. each containing a possible test question and a written response to that question. Assemble the materials that contain the information that will be covered on the test. For each card you prepared in Step 5. Write each question on its own index card. Take the scare out of them by following the study steps above. Each time you identify one. Now is the time to think like your teacher. write a response to the question on that card (write on the back of the card and on additional cards if necessary). carefully review your textbook.
Too much anxiety about a test is commonly referred to as test anxiety. HOW DO I KNOW IF I HAVE TEST ANXIETY? You probably have test anxiety if you answer YES to four or more of the following: 1. too much anxiety may block your performance during the test. You may have difficulty learning and remembering what you need to know for the test. I experience physical discomfort such as sweaty palms. In fact. an upset stomach. 5. Further. When studying for a test. When taking a test. 4. I expect to do poorly on a test no matter how much or how hard I study. When taking a test. I have a hard time getting started studying for a 2. You may have difficulty demonstrating what you know during the test. When taking a test. It is perfectly natural to feel some anxiety when preparing for and taking a test. 6. I often "draw a blank. and tension in my muscles. When taking a test. test. However. 7." . I find many things that distract me. I find it difficult to understand the directions and questions. a headache. a little anxiety can jump start your studying and keep you motivated. 3. difficulty breathing. too much anxiety can interfere with your studying. I have difficulty organizing my thoughts.
Go into the test well rested and well fed. This mastery will help you to approach the test with confidence rather than have excessive anxiety. 4. deep breaths can help. not failing. Think of the test as an opportunity to show how much you have learned. 10. Taking slow. Don't panic even if you find the test difficult. Use good study techniques to gain cognitive mastery of the material that will be covered on the test. Eat a light and nutritious meal before the test. Stay with your plan! . Maintain a positive attitude as you study. and after a test to reduce your test anxiety. After a test. I find my mind wandering to other things. Think about doing well. 1. Stay relaxed during the test. WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT TEST ANXIETY? Here are some things you can do before. 2. When taking a test. Employ the tips we provide at Study Habits. Stay away from junk foods. during.8. Focus on positive self-statements such as "I can do this. 3. I remember information I couldn't recall during the test." 5. Follow a plan for taking the test such as the DETER strategy we describe at A Strategy for Taking Tests. Get enough sleep the night before the test. 9. I usually score lower on a test than I do on assignments and papers.
8. Apply this knowledge when you take the next test. Direction Words In Essay Test Items Most essay test items are not presented in the form of a question. Once you finish the test and hand it in. Instead.6. When the graded test is returned to you. The meaning of each direction word is provided and is followed by an example . Look for the direction word and be sure to do what it tells you to do. forget about it temporarily. 7. You have to know the material to do well on a test. The direction word tells you what you should do when you write your answer to the item. Learn from your mistakes and from what you did well. Here are the direction words that are most frequently used by teachers when they write essay test items. Take the time that you need to do your best. There is nothing more you can do until the graded test is returned to you. analyze it to see how you could have done better. Don't worry about other students finishing the test before you do. You have to control test anxiety to show what you know. Turn your attention and effort to new assignments and tests. they are often presented as a statement that includes a direction word.
specific manner. Compare . • Evaluate the impact of rap music on American youth. • Explain why the American Civil War occurred. Analyze .Compare tells you to show how two or more things are BOTH similar and different. • Contrast the Republican and Democratic political platforms.Analyze tells you to break something down into its parts and show how the parts relate to each other to make the whole. Explain .Describe tells you to present a full and detailed picture of something in words to include important characteristics and qualities.of an essay test item using that direction word.Define tells you to explain the meaning of something in a brief. . • Describe what it was like to live in ancient Rome. • Define what is meant by "living life to the fullest.Evaluate tells you to present both the positive and negative characteristics of something.Explain tells you to provide facts and reasons to make something clear and understandable. Get to know what each of these direction words tells you to do. Contrast . Define . Evaluate . • Compare the forms of government found in the United States and in China. • Analyze the factors that contribute to good health." Describe .Contrast tells you to show how two or more things are different. • Diagram a modern commercial jet airplane.Diagram tells you to illustrate something by drawing a picture of it and labeling its parts. Diagram .
Summarize . • Outline what it takes to be successful in school. • List the ingredients needed to bake bread. Outline .Outline tells you to present the most important information about something in a carefully organized manner.Justify .List tells you to present information about something as a series of brief numbered points. • Trace the major events that led to America's Declaration of Independence. SAT Test Taking Tips . • Summarize how Thomas Edison's inventions have made our lives better.Trace tells you to present the order in which something occurred. • Justify the need for the federal income tax. List . Trace .Justify tells you to provide reasons and facts in support of something.Summarize tells you to present the main points about something in a brief form. Recognizing these direction words and knowing what they tell you to do will help you do well when taking an essay test.
the questions start out easy and become increasingly difficult. and writing. • Don't spend more than one or two minutes on any one question. If stuck. It includes three sections: math. you don't lose a point for omitting an answer. critical reading. For most questions. . Keep track of time.) • • • Use the test booklet for scratch work.The SAT is the most popular standardized test used for admission into colleges and universities in the United States. • • • • Mark the test book in any way that will help you. Bring water and healthy snacks to renew your mental and physical energy during breaks. but you do lose a fractional point for a wrong answer. try substituting the numbers given as answer choices for the variables in the question. General Tips In each section of the SAT. (Be sure to bring a calculator. Math Section Tips Most of the items in the math section are multiple-choice questions. • Be careful about guessing. Answer the questions that are easiest for you first. Use a calculator as needed.
• . • When a sentence contains two blanks.. Don't just select the first one you come to that you think might be correct. do not select an answer choice unless you are certain that both words in the answer choice are correct. As you read a passage look for the main ideas.g. • Be especially careful when sentences include negative words (e.. Pay the most attention to the first and last sentence in a paragraph. Do the problem again if you come up with a negative number. • The answer cannot be a mixed number. select it as your answer.g. • • Read the passage before reading the questions. convert it to an improper fraction or a decimal. If your answer is a mixed number. Read the sentence and try to complete it before looking at the answer choices. • Some passages are presented in pairs. You can always go back to look for details. • Read all the answer choices before selecting one. • Critical Reading Section Tips Some of the questions require you to read a sentence containing one or two blanks. • The answer cannot be a negative number. • Other questions require you to read a passage and select the correct answers to questions about the passage. not) or prefixes (e. un). If what you come up is one of the answer choices.Other questions require that you come up with your own answers and fit them into a grid. take your best guess if you can't figure out the answer. read the introduction first to see how the passages are related. You are required to select the answer choice that correctly completes the sentence. These change the meaning of a sentence. Since there is no penalty for wrong answers here. In this case.
Writing Section Tips This section includes multiple-choice questions. persuasive essay on an assigned topic within 25 minutes. Don't be too "wordy. • The standard five-paragraph essay is the best format to use. • It is particularly important to read the questions and answer choices in this section very carefully. • This section also requires you to write a short. Because the score for your essay is based on the reader's overall impression. express your ideas clearly using examples to back them up. • Keep your writing as simple as possible. The DETER Strategy for Taking Tests . Do not select an answer choice that seems awkward and very complicated. • • Avoid the use of slang. and writing skills. But these tips can help you make the most of your skills when taking the SAT. reading. Some require you to improve sentences. others to find errors in sentences. Nothing can take the place of math." • Focus on the organization of the essay rather than perfect grammar and spelling. Select an answer choice that seems simple and clear. and others to improve paragraphs.
Ask your teacher to explain anything about the test directions you do not understand Only by following the directions can you achieve a good score on the test. T = Time Once you have examined the entire test. decide how much time you will spend on each item. • . • E = Examine • • Examine the entire test to see how much you have to do. Each letter in DETER reminds you what to do. you must have good knowledge of the information that is being tested.To do well on a test. But you must also have a strategy for taking the test that allows you to show what you know. • If you do not follow the directions. D = Directions • • Read the test directions very carefully. you will not be able to demonstrate what you know. The DETER strategy can help you do your best on any test. Only by knowing the entire task can you break it down into parts that become manageable for you.
• Also make sure to review the test directions to be certain you have answered all items required. you have a 50-50 chance of being right.If there are different points for items. • Planning your time is especially important for essay tests where you must avoid spending so much time on one item that you have little time left for other test items. there are some guidelines you should follow to make sure you demonstrate your knowledge. At the very worst. True/False Tests True/false tests seem easy. you may not get to answer items that test things you know. plan to spend the most time on the items that count for the most points. Nothing can replace having the knowledge. True/false tests are a lot more difficult than they seem to be. They test very specific factual knowledge. you will have time to review your answers and make them as complete and accurate as possible. But would you be pleased with a test grade of 50? Of course you wouldn’t. • R = Review If you have planned your time correctly. Guidelines When Taking True/False Tests Here are some guidelines that will help you correctly answer true/false items. • E = Easiest The second E in DETER reminds you to answer the items you find easiest first. But even if you do have the knowledge. • If you get stuck on a difficult item that comes up early in the test. . • Using the DETER strategy will help you do better on tests and get better grades. All you have to do is read a statement and decide whether the statement is true or false.
and butter are all in the dairy food group. It is always important to read a statement carefully. A negative word or prefix completely changes the meaning of a statement. 2. lettuce. Directions given by teachers should be very unclear. and butter are all in the dairy food group. Choose True for an item only when you are certain that the entire statement is true. It is ." Read the following statement: Milk. while the second is false. Be very careful when a statement contains a negative word such as not or a negative prefix such as un as in the word unfriendly. This statement is true because all three of these foods are part of the dairy food group. Read the following two statements: Directions given by teachers should be very clear. This statement is false because while milk and butter are in the dairy food group.1. At a quick glance. Now read this changed statement: Milk. they two statements might seem the same. cheese. The first statement is true. This is especially important when the item contains more than one "fact. lettuce is not.
An absolute statement contains words such as the following: all. An absolute statement is usually false. and no. every. Read the following statement: Eating a balanced diet is not unhealthy. Read the following statement: The official language of all the countries in South America is Spanish. Spanish is the official language of 9 of the 13 countries in . 3. It is now a much easier statement to understand as true. only. Each of these words suggests that there are no exceptions.especially important to do this when the statement contains a negative word or prefix. When a statement contains two negative words and/or prefixes. but in a confusing way. none. always. Two negatives typically make a positive. Eating a balanced diet is not unhealthy. Now read the same statement with the negatives crossed out. but in a very confusing way. This statement is true. This statement is false because of the absolute word all. The statement has now become: Eating a balanced diet is healthy. 4. never. cross out both.
South America. These words allow for exceptions. This is because teachers typically use tests not only to assess what you have learned. Tips for Choosing a Career . many. most. True/false tests can be tricky. A qualified statement contains words such as the following: some. 6. Use these guidelines to do your best. This statement is true because of the qualified word most. If you have absolutely no clue. choose True as your answer. 5. Guyana (English). and often. usually. take your best guess unless there is a penalty for wrong answers. Research has shown that true/false tests typically contain more true statements than false statements. sometimes. and Suriname (Dutch). but to reinforce what you have learned. may. A qualified statement is usually true. Read the following statement: The official language of most of the countries in South America is Spanish. French Guiana (French). The exceptions are Brazil (Portuguese). If you are uncertain whether a statement is true or false.
Find a mentor. Volunteering also provides many of the advantages of an internship. career outlooks. You will discover details about careers that you were not aware of. Interviewing people in the field is an excellent way to learn about the various aspects of a career. Internships provide excellent opportunities for acquiring a realistic. You can also contact relevant professional associations and societies. Further. Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions you will ever make. Informational interviews often change a person's perspective about an occupation. and which has shown good results.Planning for college should begin once you enter high school. educational requirements. employment statistics. It's important to collect vital information such as career descriptions. You can find interview candidates by asking friends. the following tips can make this process easier for you. Also. Job outsourcing information and forecasts can be collected from sources . The possibility for a job being outsourced to foreign countries is an important consideration. internships provide valuable networking opportunities that may lead to a job. 1. and neighbors. Here are things to do each year as you progress through high school. Doing this may also provide good networking opportunities. 2. 4. formal mentoring organizations are available that match mentors with individuals. 5. and visit appropriate social and professional networking sites online. It's a great way to learn about a career and a mentor can provide valuable networking opportunities. "Mentworking" is a new trend which combines mentoring and networking. Also. While selecting a career can be a difficult process. 3. members of an alumni association. companies often hire interns that perform well. Most people spend half or more of their waking hours five days a week at their jobs. teachers. and potential earnings. Many colleges and employers have a formal mentoring program. Extensive reading about potential careers is vital. clear picture about the daily duties and job satisfaction of a particular occupation.
Look for lists of "hot jobs" on the Internet and in magazines. employment agencies. The more checks you make. Explore the advancement opportunities of each potential occupation. Your aptitudes should be a vital factor in your career selection process. A gratifying career is often built upon a match with what you are naturally good at. and relevant professional associations. Place a check next to each skill you possess. Many community colleges have career centers that provide free individual and group career counseling. choosing a career. The skills required for a career are an essential factor for an individual's potential for success in that career. college counselors. magazine articles. A "hot job" today may not be "hot" next year or the year after. Take into consideration the amount of job opportunities in your area for each career you are considering. Write a list of the skills needed for a particular field. and job satisfaction requirements. Natural strengths allow an individual to work with ease and to acquire expertise faster. 10. the more likely this field is right for you. 7. When evaluating these lists keep in mind your interests. This article contributed by and exploration resource. 11. and the job search process. This is vital if you intend to stay in your current location. skills. professors. career counselors. Do this frequently since these lists keep changing. Does advancement require additional education? Will additional education and certification provide you with a significant advantage over the competition? Are supervisory and management opportunities available? Following the tips provided in this article will help you choose a career that is right for you. 9. Career counselors can provide assistance with the self-evaluation process. 6.such as articles on the Internet. 8. . a FREE career search .
everyday situations. Learn Spanish Abroad You will learn fastest when you are exposed to the language you are trying to learn on a regular basis. . 1. Learning a new language should be attempted in small. manageable steps. These tips will help you on your way to Spanish proficiency. Reading newspapers and magazines can help you gain more confidence in your Spanish reading and writing ability. Actively Involve Yourself With Spanish Literature You don't have to read an entire Spanish newspaper every day. 2. by attempting to read a couple of small articles regularly.Learning Spanish Thinking about learning Spanish? Want some useful advice on the best way to improve? ViaSpanish Language Schools asked some of our qualified and experienced teachers and their students for their top tips to help you learn Spanish. However. Take your time and don't expect to be perfect straight away. You will find your mastery of Spanish will improve significantly if you combine what you learn in school with practice in practical. Be Patient Don't expect to learn Spanish too quickly. Congratulate yourself on progress made and try to steer clear of setting unrealistic goals. 3. You may become frustrated when this doesn't happen. you can pick up common words and phrases.
write it on a flashcard. Learning Spanish with a friend also ensures that you have an opportunity for practical and oral learning outside your classroom. 5. Watch Spanish Movies and Television Shows This is an easy and fun way to learn Spanish. If you keep hearing a word while you are out and about. Also. Learn With a Friend Studying and learning Spanish can sometimes be a frustrating and lonely process. You will never forget the meaning of 'el baño' (the bathroom) again.4. . if there is a word or phrase you find difficult to remember. Try to match the words spoken to the words written on the screen. Also. Every time you go near a labeled item. say its name out loud. The best way to overcome this is by finding friends who will support you when progress seems elusive. Use Flashcards Using flashcards is a great way to remember important Spanish words you come across each day. write it on a flashcard. This is particularly helpful in picking up different accents and trying to comprehend the Spanish language when spoken at a faster pace. Try to get as much exposure to Spanish film and television as possible. watch English-language movies that have Spanish subtitles. Homework usually only involves reading and writing. Review your flashcards frequently. 7. Your motivation may drop from time to time. 6. Label Your Surroundings Buy a pad of stickies and go around your house and stick a Spanish label on things.
remember that learning a foreign language can be challenging and frustrating. and worthwhile! To learn Spanish. you will find a surprisingly large number of people trying to do the same thing as you.the more exposure you have to Spanish. Join a Spanish Learning Community Online. Sign up for online support and guidance. and attend and participate in local Spanish group meetings. Watching the odd Spanish movie will not do. Progress will depend on the effort you put in and the resources you have available. Overall. you must know your subject well and convince your audience that they have . Making an Oral Presentation When making an oral presentation in class. if you want it. or in your local community. But the learning can also be fun. is easy to obtain. Buena suerte! (Good luck!) This article was contributed by Ben Moller-Butcher of ViaSpanish.8. you have to put your heart and soul into it. the better chance you have of mastering this language. You need to set a plan and stick to it. We live in an age where information and guidance. Remember . rewarding. One hour here and there never really works. Take advantage of these resources.
Try to make your presentation as concrete and "down to earth" as possible. • Provide examples. Making your presentation interesting will help you to capture and keep your audience's attention for a while.something to gain from listening to you. Tailor your presentation to your audience's level of knowledge about the subject of your presentation. • Don't read your presentation. Build in some simple and quick activities for your audience so that they are actively involved in your presentation. Here are some things you can do to make an effective oral presentation. Use your notes as prompts as needed. Supplement what you say with visual aids such as handouts. Be prepared. and their interests. Talk to your audience. Add appropriate anecdotes and humor to drive home a point. Make it clear that you are knowledgeable and enthusiastic about your subject. • Be positive. Visual aids are supplements to what you say. Anticipate questions you may be asked and prepare answers to these. • Maintain eye contact. Shift your eye contact around the room so that everyone feels that you are talking to them. Vary the tone of your voice and be careful not to talk too quickly. what they need to know. Practice your presentation until you feel comfortable. Ask questions that you are confident your audience will be able to answer. charts. • Actively involve your audience. • Use visual aids. Don't use visual aids that are so complex that the audience will spend its time trying to read them instead of listening to you. Research your subject to ensure that you are knowledgeable. and slides. • Use your voice effectively. not replacements for what you say. Make sure you can present your information within whatever time limits you will have. but you must do more. • . transparencies. • Know your audience. People can only listen so long without their attention wandering. Make sure that everyone can easily see the visual aids.
It's much better to give yourself compliments than to put yourself down. Try to avoid students who are always looking to find fault with you. With good self-esteem. Be positive about yourself. There is a history of research which shows that self-esteem and achievement are related. It is important to have good self-esteem. and support you. you will have confidence in your ability to learn. while students with poor self-esteem tend to be low achievers. and willingness to try new things. • Stop comparing yourself with other students. What can you do to build your self-esteem? Here are some ideas. Are you better today than you were yesterday? • Associate with students who like. • . respect. Your comparison should be with yourself. • Think of all the things you are good at and all your successes. Leave your audience feeling upbeat about what they have just heard.End on a high note. Read the list every day. • Self-Esteem Self-esteem is your overall sense of your competence and worth. Write these down and keep adding to the list. Students with good self-esteem tend to be high achievers.
• Attack what you think are your weaknesses." • Help others. • Take good care of yourself. You must be sure that homeschooling is for you. • Make use of your special talents and abilities. "Reach for the moon. Homeschooling Deciding to homeschool your child or children is a very important decision." • The higher your self-esteem. You will really feel good about yourself when you do. You will likely be successful in these activities. the higher will be your achievement. The entire household (including the child or children to be homeschooled) must be in full agreement that homeschooling is appropriate. What laws apply to homeschooling in the state in which you reside? • . you'll land among stars. As the old saying goes. • Keep looking for ways to improve yourself. Prove to yourself that "you can do it. Even if you miss. consider each of the following questions. keep in mind that homeschooling will take up much of your time each day. These are your strengths.Get involved in activities you enjoy. Once you have made the decision to homeschool your child or children. and can involve financial sacrifice. When making this decision. You will feel better about yourself if you are healthy and well rested.
• What kinds of help might you need? Homeschooling is rigorous and often stressful. • . These laws vary from state to state. What curriculum will you use? If you are not required to follow the standard curriculum used by public schools in the state in which you reside. • What will your homeschooling schedule be like? Establish a plan for the year. For some advanced subjects such as physics or algebra. You will find considerable variation from curriculum to curriculum. If the state in which you reside requires that you submit end-of-year outcomes for their review. and break it into smaller manageable segments such as weeks. Consider joining a homeschooling support group. journals and portfolios work particularly well. you may need to use the services of a qualified tutor. quarters. It is easy to keep a journal in a notebook in which you date and precisely record what is done each day. • What kinds of records will you maintain? You can use your own record keeping system such as journals and portfolios. Use a portfolio to organize and keep samples of your child's or children's written work and projects. Flexibility is a must. There you can find encouragement and many useful teaching ideas. Be sure you are comfortable with the curriculum you choose. but be sure to leave time for things you must do other than homeschooling. You may choose instead to use a commercial computerized record keeping system. Set a routine. months.You must be in full compliance with these laws. choose a curriculum that best fits the needs of your child or children. and semesters.
and the Tactile/Kinesthetic Learning Style. Are you an Auditory Learner? Auditory Learners learn best when information is presented in an auditory language format. take advantage of the enormous range of homeschooling resources available on the Internet. the Visual Learning Style. Do you do best in classes in which teachers do a lot of writing at the chalkboard. Three learning styles that are often identified in students are the Auditory Learning Style. YOUR preferred learning style is the way in which YOU learn best. Do you seem to learn best in classes that emphasize teacher lectures and class discussions? Does listening to audio tapes help you learn better? Do you find yourself reading aloud or talking things out to gain better understanding? If YES. Your Preferred Learning Style A learning style is a way of learning.Homeschooling is not for everyone. If you decide to homeschool. Are you a Visual Learner? Visual Learners learn best when information is presented in a written language format or in another visual format such as pictures or diagrams. and make extensive use of an overhead projector? Do you try to remember information by creating pictures in your mind? Do you take detailed written notes from your . provide clear handouts. Read about each of these learning styles to identify YOUR preferred learning style. you are probably an Auditory Learner.
For each subject. When you can choose a teacher. Your learning style is your strength. whether your children have been given homework or not. Do you learn best when you can move about and handle things? Do you do well in classes in which there is a lab component? Do you learn better when you have an actual object in your hands rather than a picture of the object or a verbal or written description of it? If YES. When you can choose a class. you are probably a Tactile/Kinesthetic Learner. Go with it whenever you can. you are probably a Visual Learner. make sure they review their notes. they will be prepared to study . When you choose a major and future career. Are you a Tactile/Kinesthetic Learner? Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners learn best in hands-on learning settings in which they can physically manipulate something in order to learn about it. try to choose one who's teaching method best matches your learning style. Helping Your Children in School You can help your children succeed in school by helping them follow these 10 tips. keep your learning style firmly in mind. This will mean that when a big test or an end of unit test comes up. Tip #1: Focus on Homework.textbooks and in class? If YES. try to choose one that draws heaviest on your learning style.
Wednesday night is best. Make sure your childrens' notes contain all the information they need to know. Things might be clearer then. After a little while.for it. Tip #2: Keep your notes neat and clear. but it can be very distracting. their frustration will rise and make matters worse. While your children are applying Tip # 1. The Internet is a valuable resource. Tip #4: Use your time efficiently. For this reason. You will be amazed by what they might find! Often. If a test is coming up. Every now and then. take your children to the library to do their research. Your children might get sidetracked and waste time going from topic to topic. Have your children go back to the piece they left after a while. Encourage them to do a little bit extra. Notes full of crossed out words and messy ink patches need to be rewritten altogether. Your children should use their school planners or their own schedules to anticipate what they will need to be doing soon. it is best to have your children do this in the middle of the week. have them leave it and move on to the next piece. Tip #6: Do research wisely. your children will become naturally neater. and ready to ask any questions that might have come up. . some "lost" notes or homework will show up just in time. Tip #3: Keep your schoolbag neat. At least once a week have your children empty their schoolbags to make them neater. Otherwise. Tip #5: Always look ahead. even when they seem to be finished with the homework for that day. Have them highlight or underline the most important points. Focusing on homework will also help your children be ready for the next lesson. they can "kill two birds with one stone" by improving the quality of their notes. If research is involved in a project. make sure your children don't leave studying to the last minute. be careful about how your children use the Internet. If your children get stuck on a particular piece of homework. They will find valuable information and learn many useful research skills.
Encourage your children to ask the teacher if they find something to be unclear. Help your children learn to type efficiently and use Word correctly. . learning will improve. Front Page. and online. Your children must learn to prioritize the things they need to do. while still others might need to act them out or build something. contact the teacher. This is going to be trial and error at the beginning. others might have to read them aloud. Doing this will also help your children develop important communication skills and build their self-confidence. Tip #10: Communicate with teachers. Install appropriate audio books on their iPods and watch the Discovery Channel and other educational television programs with them. Let them experiment with PowerPoint. successful learners. and other programs. If there is any doubt about an assignment. Some children may have to rewrite their notes to remember facts. Tutoring is available in your home. Once the right way is found. your children will have to find what works best for them. Tip #9: Prioritize what must be done. Tip #8: Find your way. Help your children learn to use a computer effectively to apply to their schoolwork. there is something they are not doing right. If positive results are not occurring. at a local or national tutoring center. Tutoring and Its Benefits The purpose of tutoring is to help students help themselves and to assist or guide them to the point at which they become independent. but for any subject and homework assignment. Publisher. This applies to you as parents as well as to your children. Make this very clear to your children and help them stick to this priority. Your children can do this after class or the next day. Schoolwork and extracurricular activities must come first.Tip #7: Use technology.
How do you know if tutoring is needed for you or your child? There are many possible reasons why you or your child might need tutoring. Here are some of the benefits. Here are some of the most important reasons. • • • Provides personalized attention Improves grades Increases knowledge and understanding of subjects . • • • • • • • • • Teacher or counselor recommends tutoring Grades are dropping Homework seems increasingly difficult Extreme anxiety before tests Self-esteem is dropping Loss of interest in learning Feelings of wanting to give up Resistance to doing schoolwork Reluctance to go to school What are the benefits of tutoring? Tutoring can be beneficial in many ways.
feedback. Not everyone needs tutoring. tutoring can make a great contribution to success. Learning German . and encouragement Provides review of skills not mastered but no longer taught Review the reasons why tutoring might be needed and the benefits tutoring provides. But when needed. Doing this will help you decide if you or your child should consider tutoring.• • • Increases motivation to succeed Provides intensive practice Allows progress at own pace • • • • • • • Leads to better use of study time Improves self-esteem and confidence Encourages higher levels of learning Encourages self-directed learning Reduces competition Provides praise.
amazingly rich. you will feel that your learning has become blocked. Austria. so that German culture is diverse. you will make it. and Luxembourg). The German culture is rich. this is natural. But if you trust in your skills and work as hard as you can. architecture. The German language is spoken in several European countries (Germany. . new vocabulary. Liechtenstein. plays and cinema. Take it step by step. Immerse yourself in the German culture. but not so hard either. and you will even learn to speak German. Sometimes you will have the feeling that you’re improving your German very quickly. a new logic. you will have to practice a lot. and take as much time as you need. and of course. you will learn to read and write in German. Switzerland. The German culture has much to offer in music. Some parts of German are harder to master than are other parts. classic and modern art. But if you really want to. and written literature. you will understand spoken German. You must learn new grammar rules (sometimes totally different from your native language). At other times. Live the language. Plunging yourself into the German culture (reading about it. Do not blame yourself. It’s not so easy.) will increase your motivation to learn the German language. discovering its music and movies. etc.Learning German is similar to learning most other languages.
deep and beautiful intellectual movies. At any point during your learning. Use what you learn. Also try to watch news programs that are broadcast in German. If not. see if you can join a German social group in your community. opportunities to do this will be all around you. practice whatever you have learned at that point with as many people as you can. . and some very cool bands like Tomte and Die Sterne. this may not be practical for you. Learn with a friend.The best way to learn German is to live for a time in a country where it is spoken. It’s really fun to make up little games as you study with a friend. then watch as much German TV and movies as possible. If it is not. Don’t wait until you master German before you begin to use the language. German TV offers plenty of hilarious talk shows. You’ll know how well you did by what arrives at your table. Learning German is like learning anything new. In this way you can practice using German in its daily context and in the way that native speakers use the language. What is more exciting than challenging people and being challenged yourself? Learning German with a friend is a fun experience that will provide you with another perspective other than your own. Go to a German restaurant and try ordering in German. Of course. and you will motivate each other to do better and better. For example. If you live in or visit a German-speaking country for a time. Learning with a friend is always stimulating. Practice makes perfect. the first one to master a certain grammar rule wins a free ice cream.
Each of the intelligences can be useful to you as a learner.This intelligence involves numbers and reasoning. and participating actively in class discussions. getting involved in debates.Activating Your Eight Multiple Intelligences The theory of multiple intelligences holds that there are eight different intelligences that account for the potential to learn. and engaging in hands-on activities. Visual/Spatial Intelligence . Logical/Mathematical Intelligence . diagrams. Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence . reading. You can activate your bodily/kinesthetic intelligence by using your motor skills regularly through exercises like jogging. playing sports. 4.This intelligence involves body movements and handling objects. You can activate your logical/mathematical intelligence by studying formulas. and pictures. You can activate your verbal/linguistic intelligence by trying to learn new words each day. and solving puzzles. Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence . Here are the eight intelligences and some ways that you can activate each. You . You can activate your visual/spatial intelligence by analyzing the visual aids in your textbooks. 1. doing calculations.This intelligence is language-based and involves the ability to speak and write. 3. 2. listening to news on the radio. flow charts. and by creating mind maps.This intelligence involves thinking in images and pictures.
5. 8. and singing. 6. Intrapersonal Intelligence . You can activate your intrapersonal intelligence by critically examining your strengths and weaknesses.This intelligence involves self-esteem. You can activate your musical intelligence by listening to music. You can activate your naturalist intelligence by linking learning experiences to the natural world. It leads to good interpersonal relationships and allows you to enjoy the company of others. 7. self-worth.This intelligence involves responding to the moods. and self-awareness.This intelligence involves appreciation and understanding of nature. playing an instrument. Naturalist Intelligence .This intelligence involves musical abilities such as rhythm and pitch. and getting involved in social activities. Basic Science Vocabulary .can also activate this intelligence as you type your assignments on your computer. and needs of others. The eight intelligences provide eight pathways to learning. You don’t have to learn something using all eight pathways. Interpersonal Intelligence . You can activate your interpersonal intelligence by participating in class activities and discussions. Try to use those that are your strongest and are related to what you are trying to learn. Explore nature through field trips and camping to learn about things in their natural settings. Musical Intelligence . brainstorming with others. motivations.
The words are listed in alphabetical order.a substance that cannot be broken up into a simpler substance (118 elements have been identified at this time) .the amount of electricity carried by an object (a charge can be positive or negative .the smallest unit of living matter charge .if two objects each have a positive charge or a negative charge. Any word in bold is one of the words in the list.any material through which electricity and heat flow easily (opposite of insulator) electron .Science is the systematic study of the natural world.a tiny particle that has a negative charge and orbits the nucleus of an atom element .an organism that is genetically identical to the unit or individual from which it was derived compound .a substance that is composed of two or more elements conductor . atom .the smallest unit of a chemical element cell . they are attracted to each other . Here are some of the words and their scientific meanings that you will probably come across as you study science.if one object has a positive charge and the other a negative charge. they repel one another) clone .
a state of matter that has no definite shape or volume. or gas molecule .the extent to which a material opposes the flow of electricity (copper is used in electrical wiring because copper has low resistance) solid .the tendency of a system to maintain internal stability insulator . such as ice solvent .any material through which electricity or heat does not flow easily (opposite of conductor) ion .a state of matter that has definite volume but no definite shape.something that has mass and can exist as a solid. usually a liquid.the movement of heat from one place to another by waves or particles resistance .a state ofmatter that has both definite shape and volume.any living thing able to carry out life on its own proton .two or more elements that are chemically joined nucleus .a positively charged particle located in the nucleus of an atom radiation .gas . liquid.a substance. such as water matter . that can dissolve another substance . such as air homeostasis .an atom or molecule that has an electric charge liquid .the central part of an atom organism .
anything in the environment that causes a living thing to react substance . There will be many others. It is a good idea to write the science words and their meanings you encounter throughout school in a science notebook.anything that has mass and occupies space symbiosis .a close and prolonged association between two or more different organisms of different species (there is usually some benefit to each organism) tropism .the speed and direction of an object's motion These are just some of the words whose meanings you will need to know when you study science.the response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus velocity . .stimulus .