How to Write a College Admission Essay

Your key to getting in and getting more.
Many colleges and universities require a college admission essay as part of their admission application, and scholarship applications often include one or more essays in addition to such objective information as grades and test scores. The typical question asks you to share personal informationallowing the selection committee to get to know you-such as your plans or goals, an important event in your life, your philosophy and/or beliefs, or your financial situation. Writing this college admission essay is an opportunity for you to stand out among the applicants and to prove you're the most deserving candidate. Be sure to keep certain things in mind as you write this essay: Consider exactly what the question asks. Then list some relevant main ideas; use this list as an informal outline for your essay.

Don't write a "generic" essay that could pass for one that any other applicant could have written. Everything in the

essay should reveal something about YOU and your unique situation. Any reader of your essay should feel as if he or she knows you personally. Remember that committee members are seeking the applicant who fits the mission of their institution and is worthy of their award. Tailor your college admission essay topic with their perspective in mind, and work to convince them that you're the right candidate.

If you have trouble thinking of ideas, be resourceful. Ask people who know you well what they would say about you. If someone has written a letter of recommendation for you, re-read it. Which accomplishments listed on your résumé might interest the committee?

Don't simply repeat information that is already on your application form or in your résumé. Your essay should include specific incidents and concrete examples.

Don't use long words and obscure vocabulary simply to impress the committee; doing so will come across as artificial and showy.

Follow guidelines regarding such things as font size and essay length. Sometimes a typed essay is required; other times, you are required to hand-write it. Sometimes it should be on the application form; other times, it must be on a separate piece of paper. No matter how good your college admission essay is, failure to follow instructions will make a negative impression and may actually disqualify you.

The appearance of your essay is important. Spell all words correctly; follow grammar and punctuation rules; and keep your paper neat. The committee may not meet you personally; this essay may be the sole basis for their selection. A messy paper or an essay full of errors will cause them to see you as uncaring or unqualified, despite the inaccuracy of this judgment.

Save your essay! There is nothing wrong with using the same ideas—and occasionally even the same college admission essay—for several applications. Each time, make revisions so that the essay topic responds specifically to the question(s). Although you have used it for other

applications, the committee should not be able to tell that this essay wasn't originally written as a response to their question.

Planning for College
Planning for college should begin once you enter high school. Here are things to do each year as you progress through high school.

Ninth Grade

1. Begin following a college preparatory program. Earn the credits you will need for college admission later on. 2. Begin getting involved in extracurricular and volunteer activities. College admission officials value this participation heavily. 3. Begin exploring your career preferences. This will influence your later choice of a college and a major. 4. Work hard to achieve high grades. Your GPA will be an important factor in the college admission process.

Tenth Grade
1. Take the PLAN Test (pre-ACT) and/or the PSAT

(preliminary SAT). This will provide you with valuable experience that will help you when you later take the ACT and/or SAT. You will also identify areas in need of improvement. 2. Begin seeking election to class offices or to organization offices. College admission officials regard holding office as an indicator of leadership potential.

Consider your strengths and weaknesses when making this decision. Obtain letters of recommendation from teachers and others who can speak favorably on your behalf. Retake the ACT and/or SAT to improve your scores if needed. 3. Continue to visit college campuses if feasible. Study for these tests on your own. When preparing to do so. Make requests from the registrars' offices for visitation tours of the campuses you wish to visit. Decide whether you will take the ACT. Ask the writers to address why you would be a successful college student and what you can bring to a college. Take the ACT and/or SAT. 2. Take test preparation classes if you can.3. 3. Keep in mind that some colleges require one or the other. 4. Consider visiting college campuses that meet your interests and capabilities. the SAT. 5. Twelfth Grade 1. . Explore the community around each campus. Talk with students attending these colleges and ask about their experiences as students there. Begin taking Advanced Placement (AP) classes in your areas of strength. Eleventh Grade 1. 2. focus your preparation on the areas in which you scored lowest. Begin exploring colleges on the Internet. or both. Identify those that are recognized for strong programs in your areas of career interest. and role models who have influenced you.

Other grants and scholarships are merit-based. the cost of college keeps going up. Fortunately. . Some grants and scholarship are need-based. abilities. 1. but fortunately. Remember! Start your planning for college as soon as you enter high school. This means that they are awarded on the basis of special skills. Don't miss application deadlines for admission and financial aid. Admission to college is becoming increasingly competitive . financial assistance can be obtained if you look carefully at the many sources available. Apply to more than one college. Guidance counselors can help you locate these sources. This means that they are awarded on the basis of financial need. Financial Aid Like everything else. These fall into three basic categories." 5."Don't put all your eggs in one basket. Grants or Scholarships Grants and scholarships are great because the money they provide does not have to be paid back. 6.4. College costs have become very high. there are various forms of financial aid that can help you meet these costs. Apply for financial aid and/or scholarships. or achievement.

In effect, grants and scholarships are "money for the asking." But you have to know how to find them first. Here are three things you should do: Talk with your high school guidance counselor. He or she will know about national, regional, and local grants and scholarships.

Contact the financial aid offices of colleges to which you are applying for admission.

Check with your parents’ employers to see if they provide grants or scholarships to the children of their employees.

2. Student Loans
The federal government provides education loans through banks and other financial institutions. To be considered for these loans, you must complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). The government uses this application to determine your eligibility based on financial need. Here are the three types of loans provided by the government.

Federal Stafford Loans. These are fixed-rate loans for undergraduate and graduate students who are attending school at least half-time. The loan can be used to pay tuition and other school expenses. The interest rate is low, and the loan does not have to be repaid while you are enrolled in school.

Federal Graduate PLUS Loans. These loans allow you to borrow up to the full cost of your graduate education (less any money you may be receiving from Stafford loans). No

payments are required as long as you are attending school at least half-time. Federal Parent PLUS Loans. These loans allow your parents or guardians to borrow up to the cost of your education at a low fixed-interest rate.

3. Work-Study
Work-study consists of federally subsidized employment opportunities. The work is typically on campus or with nonprofit organizations off campus. Work-study opportunities are usually awarded on the basis of financial need. College is expensive. But there is help. IMPORTANT: Meet all application deadlines - there are no exceptions.

Transition to College

Deciding to go to college is an important decision in your life. Getting admitted to college is a significant accomplishment. Succeeding in college is an even more significant accomplishment. There are many differences between high school and college. Because of the differences, students often find the transition from high school to college to be very challenging. In fact, one out of every three students who enter college does not complete his or her freshman year. Here are some of the important differences between high school and college that can make a successful transition difficult. For each, you will find suggestions to help you successfully handle the difference.

1. The academic work in college is more difficult than it is in high school. This means that you will have to work both harder and longer. High school students typically study 2 to 3 hours a week for each class. For each college class, you will probably need to study 2 to 3 hours for each class hour. Since most college classes meet for 3 hours a week, you will have to study 3 times as much in college than you did in high school. Be prepared to take on this commitment. 2. In high school you are required to attend every class session. This is often not the case in college classes. Many college teachers don't take attendance. It will be easy for you to find things you would rather do than go to class. Don't give in to temptation. Students who attend and participate in classes on a regular basis get higher grades than students who don't. Make every effort to attend every class session.

3. You are going to have to be an independent learner in college. High school teachers often check to see that you are doing your assignments and readings. College teachers simply expect you to do these things. It is up to you to make sure that you do.
4. Your schedule of classes in college will be more spread

out than your classes in high school. High school classes typically meet daily. College classes meet 2 to 3 times a week, and some even meet just once a week. It is very important for you to carefully manage the time in between classes. Creating and sticking to a study schedule is crucial.
5. Tests in high school classes are often given frequently

and cover a small amount of information. Tests in college classes are given less frequently and cover a great deal of

1. You should also have a good strategy for taking tests. Make-up tests are rarely given in college. It is a new experience that requires you to approach success in new ways right from day one. There are thousands of colleges and universities to choose from and many are worthy of being considered. you must take good notes in class and from your textbooks. To do well on tests in college. 2. especially in jobs that are related to their major. and you usually cannot raise a low score by doing extra credit work. find out the success rate of students obtaining employment. companies often hire interns that perform well. Choosing a college that has faculty members with good reputations in their field can be very useful since these faculty members can provide paths into the working world via internships and jobs. Here are some tips that can help you select the appropriate college. College is not simply a continuation of high school. The college should have statistics to back up their claims. Sometimes the only test is the final exam.information. Also. . Make sure the procedure used for compiling their statistics is clear to you. For each potential college. Tips for Choosing a College Choosing the right college can be a difficult task. Internships provide valuable experience and vital networking opportunities. Colleges that offer internships in some of the fields you find interesting are worthy of your attention.

Often. This type of information can be found on the Internet and in magazines. Also. Visiting the campus can change your attitude about a particular school. ask potential employers for their college preferences. If you have selected several potential careers. strong name recognition for a college is often a significant factor for employers. Unless you are very certain of the major you want to pursue. When considering an expensive. private college that has local name recognition and an excellent local reputation. important. Also. You can ask by telephone or email. Name recognition can be a more important factor in getting a job than the actual quality of education the college provides. ask about the college's graduation rate. 7. 6. After narrowing down the field to a few colleges. and somewhat important. Take the official tour and then do some exploring on your own.3. selecting a college primarily based on a potential major is usually not a good idea. students change their minds about majors after they have completed some college classes. School rankings and a national reputation of academic excellence are often important factors for potential employers. 8. In addition. strongly consider if you will be staying in the . College courses can help you determine what subjects interest you as well as your aptitude for a given subject. 9. 4. 5. One of the best ways to learn about the quality of a college and the satisfaction of its students is to ask about the percentage of students that return after completing their first year. It may be helpful to divide your criteria list into sections labeled extremely important. It's also important to talk to as many students as you can and get their impressions of the college. it's very important to contact a prospective school's alumni association and find out from former graduates if earning a degree from the school was helpful in obtaining a job. Make a list of your important criteria and find out how well each college you're considering meets your criteria. visiting each of the finalists is vital.

Sometimes graduates from expensive private colleges move to other geographical locations where employers have never heard of the small school they attended. You can then transfer to a four year college to pursue your major. If the cost of college is a significant issue. Community colleges are considerably less expensive than four year colleges. the extra money spent on the education simply doesn't help in acquiring a job. This makes it easier for you to work part-time while going to school. In addition. the classes at community colleges are typically less difficult. 10. 1. Do the departments offering your potential majors have additional accreditation? 6. you should answer the following questions about each school on your list. 4. What types of financial aid are available? What degree programs are offered? What are the costs of tuition and housing? Does the school have regional accreditation? 5. 7. 2. and you save on living expenses by living at home. consider attending a community college for your first two years. Most employers are more concerned about the college you attended while studying your major than the college you attended while taking general education courses. In this circumstance.area in which the college is located after you graduate. Also. What is the average class size? What type of extracurricular activities are provided? Does the college have dorms available? . 8. 3.

you will generally find that students are more motivated and competent than in high school. and good testtaking strategies. and students are expected to be the work is more What is the size of the student population? Following the tips and answering the questions provided in this article will help you choose the college that is most appropriate for you.9. effective time management. These areas are covered in other screens here at www. Succeeding in College Just as in elementary school through high school. Establish specific goals you wish to accomplish. Further. if you are living away from home for the first time. Be flexible . Know what it will take to reach these goals. you will have many new experiences. strong study skills. your success in college requires high motivation and effort. • . Be certain your goals are consistent with your interests and abilities. You must be very certain about the importance of a college education. Here are some ideas that will help you succeed in college: Have Clear Goals College success requires commitment and a lot of hard work. But college success requires much more. • • • • Be clear about why you are going to college. teachers are more demanding. Once you move from high school to college.change your goals if needed based on your experience as you progress through college.

Manage Your Money There are many ways to spend money in the college setting for other than education purposes. Pay balances promptly to avoid high interest costs. meet all requirements to keep and continue your aid. Be careful about your use of credit cards. Take steps to ensure that you do not waste the money set aside for your college education. and books. fees. • Meet all deadlines for submitting applications and documentation. If you do receive financial aid. • • • Be persistent in following up your application. Don't overspend. Consider all possible sources of financial aid in addition to your college's financial aid office. There are many sources of financial aid that can help you meet the high costs of college.Get Financial Aid if Needed College is expensive. • • • Set a budget and keep to it. Open a checking account and carefully monitor your balance. • . Become aware of and pursue these sources. you still must pay for tuition. Even if you attend a public college or university and live at home. • Respond quickly and completely to all requests for additional information.

Fast food is convenient but usually not good for you. peanut butter. • Choose a Professor Carefully In college you get to select your schedule of classes. depression. • Stay Physically and Emotionally Healthy You will need to be at your best to succeed in college. and fresh fruit are healthy alternatives to provide the energy you need. low cost examinations. and low cost or free medication. These services typically include emergency treatment. . but the professor who is teaching that section. and anxiety. The professionals there can help you overcome feelings of loneliness. Those minutes and fees can really add up. You can get even more feedback by talking to other students. Don't rely on coffee and drinks that contain high doses of caffeine to provide you with energy.Keep your cell phone under control. non-sugar cereals. Avoid junk foods. Foods such as pasta. • • Get enough sleep. • Use the services of the counseling office. Try to choose a professor who demonstrates the following characteristics. Most classes offer more than one section so that you can choose not just the day and time. • Use the services of the student health office. Often you will find student ratings of professors on the Internet. This means taking care of your body and maintaining a good frame of mind.

It is up to you to get the most out of this guidance. Is highly competent in the subject being taught. Establishes clear and reasonable requirements. Provides a positive learning environment. • Have specific questions in mind whenever meeting with your advisor. schedule of office hours. • Make Good Use of the Library . Provides constructive feedback. Know your advisor's office location. • Consider your advisor's ideas when selecting your major or at any time you are considering changing your major or career goals. • Schedule an appointment with your advisor at any time you have problems that affect your academic performance. Adapts to different styles of learning. and contact information.• • • • • • • Maintains adequate office hours. Grades fairly. Work With Your Advisor As a student you will be assigned a faculty advisor to help you with both academic and career issues.

You are going to spend a lot of your time in college at the library. • Yes . etc. Sign up for their use if required. Take full advantage of this major resource. • • • Learn to use its computer resources and card catalogs. But this effort will provide benefits to you throughout your life. • Attend social events. Join a student organization that is consistent with your interests. • Get Involved in Campus Life There is a lot more to college than just classes. Get to know the resources of the library as soon as you get to college. Make good use of its equipment such as copy machines. production facilities. This can not only help you in your studies but can provide contacts that may be very useful in your future career. The ideas . This is a great way to keep yourself in good physical shape and make new friends. Your college experience should not be all work and no play.success in college takes effort. Check out its quiet study areas. You will find many organizations from which to choose. • Join an intramural team. A college campus is an exciting. dynamic environment that can provide you with many opportunities for enhancing your college experience. microfiche readers. • Join a club in your major.

follow these tips to help you be a successful online learner. 1. Tips for Success in Online Learning You may be one of the increasing number of students who is pursuing a college degree online.presented above can help you to make your college experience a successful one. Every course has learning objectives. If so. Some weeks and some entire classes will require far more than that. Don’t ignore these objectives.and that’s a modest estimate. 2. Pay attention to the course learning objectives. Course objectives are carefully crafted and they are the foundations around which a well-designed course is built. activities. Many students assume that online classes require less work and are easier than traditional classes. written assignments. Do not presume. discussion fact. everything in a course-flow . Lectures. Be prepared to do a minimum of six hours of work a week in an online course . online classes are designed to be just as rigorous and demanding as traditional courses. In reality. and tests . especially during the weeks of finals and midterms.

from the objectives. If you understand the course objectives. so be open to it. Even if something doesn’t have a grade attached to it. Discussion board posts. Respond to discussion board questions with substantive remarks. you will understand what is expected of you in all aspects of the class. This is different from traditional classes. not just the graded assignments. A good post would bring up . written assignments. and ungraded self-assessment activities. Go through every screen in a course. 7. videos. view videos. and email are all common modes of communication in online courses. and audio files a try. 3. and will understand the criteria upon which your grades will be based. Most communication in an online course occurs through the written word. and instructors often use a variety of strategies to appeal to a wide variety of learning styles. and software programs installed is essential to your online learning success. even if they seem different from what you’re used to. 4. Making sure that you have the proper Internet connection. You may not be able to turn in papers. where a lot of communication is oral. know that it is there to provide supplemental learning opportunities to better prepare you for graded assignments and exams. Participate wholeheartedly. Be comfortable communicating through text. 5. Students learn in different ways. Give animations. Don’t let a piece of software or hardware prevent you from achieving learning objectives. Your instructor designed the course to help you achieve its learning objectives. spyware. animations. or participate in groups if you don’t have the proper technology. An example of a bad post would be a very short "I agree with the previous post" response. 6. Be prepared to read and write a lot in online courses. Well-designed courses use technology to enhance learning. Be sure you have the required software and hardware. Don’t run through a course skipping videos. These requirements are usually specified somewhere in the course-usually in the syllabus or course introduction section. Read and practice everything. Be open to new ways of learning.

Building Vocabulary: Using Context Clues to Learn Word Meaning When authors write. Remember that online education is relatively new. Log on to your course every day. and avoid having your grade suffer. You will likely be given points and grades for your postings. Fill out the surveys. or exam. 10. Use the opportunity to have a meaningful conversation with your classmates.or at a minimum five days a week. 8. they often include context clues to the meaning of words they use but think that some of their . If you follow the suggested tips. Your instructor won’t know if you don’t understand something unless you tell them. and detail and substance will earn you higher points and grades. quiz. A welldesigned discussion board is designed to generate thoughtful discourse. The time you take to answer a survey will benefit you as well as future students. you can succeed at online learning -. Since courses are designed for students to do at least six hours of work each week. If you email or call the instructor before an assignment. Don’t wait until after you've turned in an assignment to let the instructor know that you have struggled. Be proactive. you’ll prevent the struggle. Online courses often ask for your feedback somewhere within the course or after the course is over.. If you have questions or don’t understand an assignment.. 9. contact your instructor. it’s not wise or effective to wait until the end of the week to do the coursework. and there’s always room for improvement. just as you would in a traditional course. A school will use your comments to build better programs and create better online courses.thought-provoking questions related to the lesson’s subject matter and would be multi-sentenced.and enjoy the experience all at once. Establish a regular schedule. Manage your time and do some work each day.

An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word. A synonym is a word that means the same as or nearly the same as another word. 2. Synonym context clue The author includes a synonym to help the reader understand the meaning of a word. The context clue is usually presented in the sentence or paragraph in which the word occurs. Definition context clue The author includes a definition to help the reader understand the meaning of a word. In the following example." . The local newspaper published a bulletin in which readers were clearly told that eating fish that had a disease could be very dangerous. the synonym "pity" helps the reader understand the meaning of "compassion. the antonym "eager" helps the reader understand the meaning of "reluctant. This was especially true for fish caught in Lake Jean. In the following example. Antonym context clue The author includes an antonym to help the reader understand the meaning of a word. 3. Here are six types of context clues used by authors to help the reader understand the meanings of words. we all felt compassion or pity for their suffering. Sometimes a visual such as a picture is provided.readers may not know. 1." After seeing the picture of the starving children. An example is provided for each. In the following example. The people of the town were warned not to eat the tainted fish. "tainted" is defined as having a disease.

Description context clue The author includes one or more descriptions to help the reader understand the meaning of a word. statements about being rude. graph. He was afraid that the time it would take would hurt his grades. In the following example. She was so rude that she talked while her teacher was explaining a lesson. having poor manners. chart. the picture and its caption that ." Andrea was a very impertinent young lady. descriptions of President Kennedy as having charm. His personality was described as magnetic. 4. Summary context clue The author makes a number of statements that help the reader understand the meaning of a word. She showed no respect for other students. He was a very charismatic president. improved human rights and equal rights for all people. Visual context clue The author includes a picture. He thought that being captain of the team would make him very popular in school. In the following example. 5. enthusiasm. Her manners were very poor. our 35th president. drawing. Billy was eager for the chance to be captain. In the following example.Joe was reluctant to take on the position of captain of the basketball team. On the other hand. and a magnetic personality help the reader understand the meaning of "charismatic. or other type of visual to help the reader understand the meaning of a word." John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Even her parents thought that Andrea was impolite. People were attracted to his charm and enthusiasm. showing no respect. She was exultant 6. and being impolite help the reader understand the meaning of "impertinent.

For example. Here are five steps to follow to produce effective expository writing. swimming. how tall it is. you might list such topics as diving. Using the context clues provided by authors can help you learn the meaning of many new words. start by thinking about a general theme such as water. life saving. For example. Select a subject or idea about which you want to write. you could tell how to prepare the soil. and when to add fertilizer. when to plant the seeds. Sometimes the topic is assigned by your teacher. when it was built. 1. if you are writing to inform about the Empire State close to the sentence helps the reader understand that "exultant" means great joy. you could write about where it is located. For example. 2. Then list some specific topics related to water. how often to water the flowers as they grow. and what can be seen from its observation deck. If you have to select your own topic. Select the topic in which you have the most interest. for the topic of scuba diving. If you are writing to explain how to grow flowers. you might decide to inform the reader about . You will need skill in expository writing when you write school reports and research papers. scuba diving. or even water polo. Determine your writing objective. The subject or idea you select is your topic. Peggy had an exultant look on her face. or explain something about the topic. Decide whether you want to inform the reader about your topic. Expository Writing Expository writing informs or explains.

Knowing . Be sure to include all the information needed to meet your objective. Parts of Speech A part of speech explains how a word is used. and the Internet. reference books such as encyclopedias. scuba diving got its name. Using index cards is a good way to do this. certification or license requirements. Write notes as you gather the information. 5. In traditional English grammar. and where some of the best places to scuba dive are located. you can visually organize your information by using a graphic organizer. you might decide to explain how to scuba dive. Write your research paper or report. and the safety procedures to follow. there are eight parts of speech. 3. You can organize the information from your notes by creating an outline that shows the major ideas about your topic and the supporting details for each idea. Gather the information needed to meet your objective. Organize the information you obtain. and examples as needed. Provide logical supporting facts. newspapers and magazines. Or. details. when and where it began. why people scuba dive. almanacs. Following these five steps will help you whenever you do expository writing. and atlases. Provide smooth transitions so that the reader can easily follow what you are trying to say. equipment needed. You could write about the training a person would need. Sources of information include: people such as your teachers and parents. End with a summary or conclusion that clearly meets your objective. Or. Use your outline or graphic organizer to be certain that your writing follows a logical order.

(place) . Pronouns act just like nouns. Here are the eight parts of speech and their most common meanings: Noun: A noun is a word that names a person.about each part of speech will help you use words correctly when speaking and writing. A future tense verb shows action that will happen.I enjoy reading a good book. A present tense verb shows action that is happening now. A noun that names only one person. Verb: A verb is a word that shows action. or thing is a plural noun. place. Examples: Bob gave me the best puppy in the litter.I left my notebook at school. For example. (thing) . Adjective: An adjective is a word that describes a noun. A past tense verb shows action that has already happened. automobile is a singular noun. Now that cute puppy is mine. while automobiles is a plural noun. place. Examples: (person) . place. or thing is a singular noun. Examples: .Michael Jordan was a great basketball player. Pronoun: A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun. (how many) Only several people attended the town meeting. Examples: (what kind) That was a wonderful movie. A noun that names more than one person. or thing. It can tell what kind or how many. Your communication skills will be enhanced.

(when) I like Jamie because he never lies. Interjection: An interjection is a word that expresses emotion. an interjection is followed by a comma (. Examples: (how) I try to eat my food slowly. I will go to the park if you come too. (future tense) We are going on vacation in the middle of July. Examples: Wow! That movie was scary.). Conjunction: A conjunction is a word that connects words in a sentence. Oops.(present tense) Please move the chair away from the wall. Examples: I haven't gone to the gym since Tuesday. Knowing these eight parts of speech will improve your writing and speaking. Adverb: An adverb is a word that describes a verb. I didn't mean to do that. It is usually an exclamation that is followed by an exclamation point (!). Examples: Susan and Anna are very close friends. Tom said that he was against Bill's idea. It can tell how or when. Spelling Long Words: The Syllable-Building Strategy . (past tense) I walked home from school yesterday. Sometimes. Preposition: A preposition is a word that links and relates a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence.

he could ask his teacher for help. He pronounced this syllable each time he wrote it.. He came across this word while reading his social studies textbook. William wrote the first syllable of democratic three times. William wrote democratic leaving a space between each syllable. William learned that democratic was a four-syllable word. From the dictionary. multisyllabic). • Step 3. William carefully copied the word into his notebook. • Step 2. Here is how a student named William used the steps in the Syllable-Building Strategy to learn to spell democratic. William then located the word democratic in his dictionary.e. • Step 4. Here is what he wrote. • William then covered what he had written and wrote the first syllable of democratic from memory. Here is what he . • Step 5. Using the SyllableBuilding Strategy will help you spell long words such as democratic. William knew that if he could still not pronounce democratic.A long word is a word that has more than one syllable (i. Here is what he wrote. Here is what he wrote. Step 1. He checked what he wrote to be sure that he had spelled the word correctly. A syllable is a word or part of a word that is spoken with a single sound of the voice. William used the phonetic respelling of democratic in the dictionary to help him pronounce the word.

He pronounced the two syllables together as he wrote them. Here is what he wrote. Therefore. Here is what he wrote. Step 6. He covered what he had written and wrote the first two syllables from memory. he wrote democratic on his personal spelling list. He looked to see if he had spelled the first two syllables correctly and found that he had. William continued this procedure for the first three syllables of democratic and then for the entire word. Here is what he wrote. Once William had correctly spelled the entire word from memory. He wrote both the entire word and the word broken into syllables. • Step 7. William covered what he had written and wrote the first two syllables from memory. he once again wrote the first two syllables of democratic three times. William periodically reviewed the spelling of democratic using the following Spell and Say Review Procedure: • . He looked to see if he had spelled the first syllable correctly and found that he had. William then wrote the first two syllables of democratic together three times. William then looked to see if he had spelled the first two syllables correctly and found that he had not. pronouncing them as he did so. Here is what he wrote.wrote.

Using the Syllable-Building Strategy will make you a better speller Capitalization Rules There are many times when a word or words must be capitalized." . • Capitalize the pronoun "I. events. He spelled the entire word aloud. • Capitalize days of the week.1. We usually go on vacation during July and August. 2. Here are ten capitalization rules you should know and use. It is important to know when a word must be capitalized. 4. I believe that George Washington was our greatest president. • Capitalize the first word in a quote. 3. "You are a wonderful student. He pronounced and spelled aloud each syllable. holidays. • Capitalize the first word of a sentence. An example is shown for each rule. He wrote democratic three times." Do you think I should study for another hour? • Capitalize proper nouns (names of specific people. He pronounced democratic aloud. I was pleased when my teacher said to me. and organizations). and months of the year. places.

• Capitalize initials in someone's name. as. R.. Knowing and using these ten rules is a good start. Also.• Capitalize the name of a language. R.g. an. There are many capitalization rules. for. do not capitalize prepositions. • Capitalize the first word of a salutation or closing. Tolkien. etc. I was very moved when I read To Kill a Mockingbird. Amanda Warren • Capitalize the first word and last words and each important word in the title of a book. My favorite author is J. Do not capitalize little words within a title (e. My friend told me that Dr. movie. if.a. and. Writing a Five Paragraph Essay . • Capitalize the official title of a person when used with that person's name. the). or. Hawkins is a great chemistry teacher. Next year I will study Spanish literature. With warmest regards.

However. Begin this paragraph by stating your idea. The first paragraph of the body should contain your strongest argument in support of your thesis. Most frequently. a five paragraph essay consists of five paragraphs. Then follow with two or three sentences containing supporting evidence or examples. Each paragraph should be limited to one main idea that supports your thesis statement. Body The body of a five paragraph essay consists of three paragraphs. Conclude the paragraph with a thesis statement in which you present what you believe and intend to prove. Introduction The first paragraph of a five paragraph essay is the introduction. You should begin this paragraph with a statement that captures the reader’s interest so that the reader will want to continue to read your entire essay. Make your first sentence as interesting as possible. A good thesis statement takes a stand and is very specific. and a conclusion. Follow with several sentences that clarify your opening statement. you will be required to write your essay in a five paragraph essay format. the essay itself consists of three parts: an introduction. An essay is a written composition in which you express a certain idea and back it up with statements that support the idea. As its name implies. you will be required to write essays. a body.As you progress through school. Conclude this paragraph with a sentence that sums up what you discussed in the paragraph. .

This paragraph should contain your second strongest argument in support of your thesis statement. In addition to summing up what you have discussed in the paragraph. What Phonics Rules Should I Know? . Your final sentence should signal that your essay has come to an end. In essence. Following the format presented above will help you write good essays.The second paragraph of the body should follow the same format as the first paragraph of the body. your concluding paragraph should make it clear to the reader that you believe you have proven what you set out to prove. Conclusion The fifth and final paragraph of the essay contains the conclusion. It should summarize the three arguments you presented in the body of your essay. and contains your third strongest argument. the last sentence should also indicate that the paragraph contains the final argument you are raising. The third paragraph of the body follows the same format. Writing essays becomes increasingly important as you progress through school. Phonics Rules What is Phonics? Phonics refers to associating letters or letter groups with the sound they represent. This concluding paragraph should repeat your thesis statement in slightly different words than used in your introductory paragraph. Mastery of phonics is an important tool for reading and pronouncing words.

the first vowel is usually long and the second vowel is silent. wr (write). When a syllable ends in a vowel and is the only vowel. sh (shout). lock. You will just have to watch out for these exceptions. Here are the most useful phonics rules you should know: 1." it usually has the soft sound of "j. i. The vowels are: a. o. bite." Example: gem. gene. 8. i. When a syllable ends in a silent "e. th (that). . 4. ph (graph). 5. ch (child). Examples: ba/ker. and y (although y is a consonant when at the beginning of a word). that vowel is usually long. or y. wish. When "c" is followed by "e. bed. i. my/self. When "g" is followed by "e. A consonant digraph is two or more consonants that are grouped together and represent a single sound. 2. be/come. fu/ture. that vowel is short. 6." it usually has the soft sound of "s. Here are some consonant digraphs you should know: wh (what)." Example: city. fuse." the vowel that comes before the silent "e" is long. Knowing the phonics rules that apply most often can be a major aid to identifying words and improving comprehension in your reading. e. bi/sect. 3. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel. hope. Examples: take. When a syllable has two vowels together. go/ing. or y. 7. gh (laugh). there are many phonics rules.Because the English language is so complex. Example: stain. tch (watch). But keep in mind there are some words that don't follow the rules. ng (ring). bug. u. Every syllable in every word must contain a vowel. Examples: tap. kn (know).

and that are not difficult to learn and remember. Useful Spelling Rules Correct spelling is very difficult for many students because the spellings of many words do not follow rules." *Examples: countries. Still. ladies . A word that ends with the sound of "v" is spelled with the letters "ve" at its end. effective 2. When a vowel is followed by "r" in the same syllable. there are some rules that apply to the spellings of words with few exceptions. surf. carries. The letter "i" comes before "e" except after "c. Examples: charm. Here are eight spelling rules you should learn and use. above." *Examples: believe. form the plural of the word by changing the "y" to "i" and adding "es. tried (but not receive) 3. 1. Many of the rules are very complicated. the vowel is neither long nor short. When a word ends with "y" preceded by a consonant.9. shirt. Knowing and Applying These Phonics Rules Will Improve Your Reading. field. corn. *Examples: shave. Learning and using these rules can improve your spelling. Almost every rule has exceptions. Many of the rules apply to a small number of words. Even when rules apply to the spellings of words: • • • • There are many rules to be learned. term.

triangle. Keep the final silent "e" when adding a suffix that begins with a consonant. *Examples: useful. your teacher may provide a list of topics from which you are to choose one. double the final consonant when adding a suffix. notable. Other times. hitting 7. The letter "q" in a word is followed by "u. learning and using them will help you correctly spell many words. selecting a topic is left entirely up to you. You will be more motivated to write your paper if you do this. *Examples: topped. hopeless 6. Choosing a Topic Sometimes when you are assigned to write a research paper. nervous 5. misspell While some of these rules have exceptions.4. lovely. *Examples: remove. swimmer. Choose a topic that fits your interests and knowledge. antique. For example. *Examples: changing. equation 8. your teacher selects the topic." *Examples: quick. In some cases. • Be certain that your topic is consistent with your assignment. Drop the final silent "e" when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel. if the assignment is to write a • . When a one-syllable word ends in a vowel followed by a consonant. When this is the case. here are some guidelines to help you select an appropriate topic. Do not change the spelling of a word when adding a prefix to it.

"The Role of Nurses in the Civil War" would be a suitable topic. • Try to choose a topic that is creative. For example. "The Moon Landing" is a common topic about space exploration. Similarly. it would be difficult to write about the beauty of the painting. For example. it is hard to put the qualities of Mozart’s symphonies in words. Your teacher may be tired of reading about this topic. Mona Lisa. but you would not be overwhelmed by too much information. You won’t be able to organize the abundance of information into a cohesive paper. The topic "Should We Spend More Money on Space Exploration?" is more creative. You would be able to find enough information about this broader topic to write your paper. not a social issue. music and art should be avoided as sources of topics. there are thousands of articles and books about the Civil War. getting back to the Civil War. In general. You will not be able to find enough information to write your paper. and is likely to capture your teacher’s interest. The topic "The Civil War" is too broad. • . For example. • Choose a topic that is not too narrow. • Avoid topics that are difficult to express in writing. Choose a topic that is not too broad.paper dealing with a social issue. the topic "The Role of Nurses during the Battle of Gettysburg" is too specific. the topic "Important Inventions of the Twentieth Century" is not appropriate because it deals with a technical subject. For example.

Forming Plurals Plurals signify that there is more than one of something. change the -y to i. Here are some rules that can help you correctly form plurals for some of these words.choosing an appropriate topic. The problem comes for words that do not form their plurals in this simple manner. city . simply add -s.turkeys donkey .candies However. kitten becomes kittens. so good. 1. boy becomes boys. For example. chief .valleys 2. turkey .chiefs safe . Most words in the English language are made plural by simply adding -s to the end of the word. and so on. Be sure to choose a topic that will allow you to write a paper that will fit within the required length.Consider the length of the paper you are required to write. To form the plural of a word that ends with a consonant followed by -y.donkeys valley . and add -es. to form the plural of a word that ends with a vowel followed by -y. So far.ladies candy .cities lady . Teachers often specify the length of the paper you are to write. To form the plural of most words that end with -f or -fe.gulfs .safes gulf . • Following these guidelines will help you with the first step in writing a research paper . simply add -s.

heroes echo . potato .grown-ups colonels lieutenant-colonel .leaves knife .windmills However. when a compound word is hyphenated or separated by spaces.However. For most words that end with -o preceded by a consonant. For compound words that are not hyphenated or separated by spaces. in some cases. the plural is formed by adding -es. wife . and adding -es.videos patio . The word to be pluralized is the main word in the compound word. grown-up .studios 4.wives leaf .patios studio . video . the plural is formed by simply adding -s. sandbox . But they . the plural is formed by adding -s or -es.echoes When -o is preceded by a vowel.mothers-in-law laureate poet laureate .knives 3. mother-in-law . simply add -s or -es.sandboxes checkbook . -s or -es is added to the word that is to be pluralized.checkbooks windmill . the plural is formed by changing the -f to v.lieutenant- These rules will not help you with words that have irregular plural forms such as mice and stimuli.potatoes hero .poets If you can’t identify a main word to be made plural.

and phrases in order to clarify meaning.Use a period to end an abbreviation.Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence (a sentence which states an idea). Using Punctuation Marks Punctuation is the use of standard marks and signs in writing to separate words into sentences. Here are the punctuation marks that are most commonly used when writing and the most typical way or ways they are used. you must use punctuation marks such as commas and question marks to make your meaning clear. clauses. stop. Examples are provided for each. The use of punctuation marks can be very complex. When you speak. "That was a wonderful movie." Question Mark (?) . The marks or signs are called punctuation marks. Punctuation marks are signals to readers.will help you correctly form the plural for many of the words you encounter. or change your tone of voice to make your meaning clear. When writing. Each punctuation mark can be used in many ways. Williams is a great teacher.) . "I think that Mr." . Period (. you can pause. You cannot do this when you write.

but it rained that day. "We wanted to go to the beach. lives in Akron." Semicolon (.Use a comma to separate independent clauses in a sentence. and Friday." Colon (:) . Ohio. however. for example. Boston. "My friend Jane." .Use a comma to set off dates and addresses. and therefore. "I like pizza. the power in our house went out due to a storm. however. who was born June 18. consequently. moreover. I have my homework right here." . for instance. and Philadelphia. "My history class meets each Monday. Carlos also likes pizza" . New Jersey.Use a semicolon between independent clauses in a sentence that are separated by any of the following transitional words or phrases: accordingly.) . "I planned to study Saturday morning. "I have lived in Los Angeles. instead.Use a comma to separate three or more items in a series. nevertheless. furthermore..Use a question mark at the end of an interrogative sentence (a sentence which asks a question). Trenton.Use a comma after introductory words or phrases in a sentence. California. 1992.Use a semicolon when two independent clauses in a sentence are not separated by a conjunction (such as "and"). Wednesday." .Use a semicolon when the items in a series of items contain commas." .) . "Did you like that movie?" Comma (. otherwise. Massachusetts. "Certainly. Pennsylvania.

Some form of the word "follow" is often used in such a case. "On our next vacation..Use a colon before a list that is preceded by a complete independent clause. "I am very upset with him!" .Use an apostrophe plus the letter "s" to show possession. France.Use an exclamation mark at the end of a sentence for emphasis." ." Use punctuation marks to make the meaning of what you write as clear as possible. Italy." Exclamation Point (!) (sometimes called an Exclamation Mark) ." Apostrophe (') . "Please take good care of Brad's dog.Use an apostrophe to indicate a missing letter or letters in a contraction.Use an exclamation mark at the end of a sentence to show strong emotion." . "I don't think she will win the election.Use an exclamation mark after an interjection at the start of a sentence (an interjection is a word used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion).Use a colon to divide hours from minutes. "I have an appointment with the doctor at 10:30 tomorrow morning. . "I have to go home right now!" . "Wow! That test was harder than I expected. and Greece. we plan to visit the following countries: England.

1. As you look at the word again. Continue to follow the steps until you have identified the word. A prefix is a word part that is attached to the beginning of a word. Sometimes. This will get you to look more carefully at the word. or it may be a word that is new to you. Each step tells one thing you should do when you come to a word you cannot identify. 3. rerun. A suffix is a word part that is attached to the end of a word. tallest. Here are some examples of words with the suffix underlined: lovely. spelling. when you look at a word a second or third time. 2. READ THE SENTENCE containing the word to see if you can determine what the word means by how it is used in the sentence. say each letter in the word. Here are some examples of words with the prefix underlined: prepaid. It may be a word you think you know but cannot identify. unheard. LOOK AGAIN at the word. 4. you will identify the word as a word you know. . Here are the steps of a word identification strategy you can use. you should use a word identification strategy to identify and say the word. Often. knowing the meaning of a word will help you identify the word. LOOK FOR A SUFFIX at the end of the word.A Word Identification Strategy From time to time while reading you will see a word you cannot identify. LOOK FOR A PREFIX at the beginning of the word. When this happens.

If there is no prefix or suffix. or another student to help you identify and say the word. LOOK FOR THE STEM. ask your teacher. For example: un+help+ful = unhelpful. and the suffix if there is one to say the entire word. If you have reached this step and still cannot identify the word. You cannot understand what you read unless you can identify most or all of the words. 6. then the whole word is the stem. ASK SOMEONE for help identifying the word. The phonetic respelling shows the most common pronunciation of the word. The stem is what remains after the removal of a prefix and/or suffix. the stem. lovely. Look in the dictionary for the word and its phonetic respelling. USE A DICTIONARY to help identify the word. Use the phonetic respelling to help you pronounce the word. parent. Knowing the pronunciation of the word and its meaning should allow you to identify the word. Blend together the prefix if there is one. 7. misspelling). BLEND AND SAY THE WORD. Also. look at the definitions provided for the word. Using Prefixes to Expand Your Vocabulary What is a prefix? . Use this word identification strategy whenever needed in your reading. Select the definition that best fits the meaning of the word as used in the sentence. Here are some examples of words with the stem underlined: prepaid.5. 8.

Every prefix has its own meaning.You must understand what a root word is in order to understand what a prefix is." The new word "multipurpose" means "designed or used for many purposes. Using these prefixes and others will expand your vocabulary. Some Common Prefixes Here are some common prefixes. A prefix is a beginning that is added to a root word. It will also help you communicate more effectively when writing or taking tests." By adding the prefix "multi" to "purpose. hypersensitive." Learning to identify prefixes and knowing their meanings are great ways to expand your vocabulary. . A root word is a word you can change into a new word by adding a beginning and/or an ending. as well as words that can be formed by adding the prefix to root words. a prefix changes the meaning of the root word to which it is added. The meaning of each prefix is shown. For example. take the root word "purpose. The root word "purpose" means "an aim or a goal one wishes to achieve. When added to a root word." The prefix "multi" means "many. replace hyperactive. resend." the new word "multipurpose" is formed. Prefix re hyper Meaning of Prefix again over Words Formed Using the Prefix replay. An expanded vocabulary will increase your listening and speaking comprehension.

Prefix ante bi equi hypo neo poly semi Meaning before two equal under new many half Prefix auto circum im inter omni retro trans Meaning self around not between all backward across To build your vocabulary using prefixes. When you see a prefix whose meaning you do not know. prepackage. triweekly prepay. misspell.hyperventilate un tri pre mis sub not three before wrong below unclear. unsure. look up its meaning in a dictionary. misunderstand subway. substandard. submarine Some More Prefixes Here are some more prefixes and their meanings. 2. Write the prefix and its meaning where you can refer to it easily and often. tricycle. undecided triangle. do the following: 1. predate misconduct. You can add these prefixes to many root words to form new words and expand your vocabulary. .

For example. Wet blanket . Use these words when you speak and write. but that means something different from the literal meaning of the words. 4.3. People frequently use idioms because they make speech and writing more colorful and interesting. Sitting pretty . 5.behave properly or leave. Sell someone short .become very in a fortunate position. Shape up or ship out . . Here are some commonly used idioms and their meanings.keep something a secret.a dull or boring person who spoils the happiness of others.stop bothering someone. Hit the ceiling . Pull someone's leg . It means to have the advantage in a situation.fool someone.underestimate someone. Make ends meet . Keep under one’s hat . Get off someone’s back ." has nothing to do with hands. Review the meaning of these prefixes from time to time. Form words by adding these prefixes to root words. the idiom "having the upper one’s bills. Watch your vocabulary grow! Idioms An idiom is an expression that is characteristic of a particular language.

Shake a leg . In stitches . Idioms are hard to learn. go on to the next step. You may find it helpful to purchase one of the many dictionaries of idioms that are available.Out of the woods . There are hundreds. Spill the beans . Read Read the entire paragraph to get an idea of what the paragraph is about. Give it your best shot .laugh very hard. Using this strategy will help you comprehend the information contained in your assignment. Here is one more idiom.reveal a secret.try hard.hurry. Each of the letters in REDW stands for a step in the strategy. Examine . You may find it helpful to whisper the words as you read or to form a picture in your mind of what you are reading. Reading Comprehension: The REDW Strategy for Finding Main Ideas REDW is a good strategy to use to find the main idea in each paragraph of a reading assignment. even thousands of idioms that are used in the English language. Tongue in cheek .not serious. but give it your best shot. For the birds .uninteresting and meaningless.out of danger. Once you have a general idea of what the paragraph is about.

write on a sheet of paper the words that tell what the sentence is about. Ignore the words that are not needed to tell what the sentence is about. Your teacher may have specific requirements about what you must include in a book report. The other words you wrote are the supporting details for the main idea. This will provide you with a written record of the most important ideas you learned. Decide Reread the words you wrote for each sentence in the paragraph. The sentence that contains these words is the topic sentence. Book reports usually range from 250 to 500 words. Writing Tips: Writing a Book Report (Fiction) A book report should contain a factual summary of the book along with your reaction to the book. If you are allowed to. This written record will be helpful if you have to take a test that covers the reading assignment. Use REDW to help you understand the information in your reading assignments. For each sentence. Your teacher may even provide you with a very specific form to use. draw a line through the words to be ignored. These words are the main idea of the paragraph. A good book report should include the following: .Examine each sentence in the paragraph to identify the important words that tell what the sentence is about. Decide which sentence contains the words you wrote that best describe the main idea of the paragraph. Write Write the main idea for each paragraph in your notebook.

1. Your Reaction • • Was the book well written? If you have read other books by the same author. how does this book compare with the others? . Basic Information about the Book • • • • • Title Author Publisher Year published Number of pages 2. Summary • • • • • • • Where the story takes place (setting) When the story takes place (time) Who tells the story (narrator) Main character (protagonist) Secondary characters Sequence of important events (plot) How the book ends 3.

suppose you are writing about the importance of a good marriage. while effect means the result of something. . If not. You write that martial bliss is a wonderful thing. For example. You must be careful to use the correct word from a pair of such confusing words when you are writing and speaking. The word marital refers to marriage. A book report makes you think about what you are reading. You wouldn't want to embarrass yourself by addressing a letter to the administrator of your school as "Dear Principle. You will find this adds to your enjoyment of the book. For example. You should write "Dear Principal. you may express something different than what you mean to express. Confusing Pairs of Words Many pairs of words sound alike or nearly alike. affect means to influence something. check to make sure you have: • • • Correct spelling Correct punctuation and grammar A complete and accurate summary Your book report makes it clear that you have read the entire book. As you read the book think about what you want to include in your book report. Write your book report as soon as possible after you finish reading the book. The word martial refers to war. Jotting down some notes can be helpful. You should have written that marital bliss is a wonderful thing.Would you recommend this book to others? Why or why not? • Once you have completed your book report. but each has a different meaning." The word principal refers to the head of a school." The word principle means a fundamental truth. Words like these can be easily confused with each other.

to change Ascent .the sweet final part of a meal Device .a place Coarse .something that makes a thing whole or perfect Compliment .to leave out Altar .to agree Brake .to praise Conscience .Here are some word pairs that are commonly come apart Cite .something made for a certain purpose Devise .a raised place used in religious services Alter .moving from one point to the next Complement .coming from a higher place to a lower one Dissent . Accept .a sense of right and wrong Conscious .to bring out Illicit .rough Course . hot.a dry.state of being awake Descent .to take something that is given to you Except . sandy area Dessert .illegal .to document Site .to climb Assent .a device for stopping or slowing a vehicle Break .to invent something or develop a plan Elicit .to disagree Desert . Learn the meanings of each of the words so that you use them correctly.

so thin you can see through it Stationary . opening through something Whole .about to happen Faint .a movement meant to deceive Forth .a portion of something Plain .a very large group Hole .Eminent .at or in a place Hear .a flat surface Pore .to stand still Stationery .to cut the wool off a sheep Sheer .to cause something to flow Precede .greatly dislike Palate .to come before Proceed .writing paper .forward Fourth .a very small opening in the skin Pour .clearly entire thing Loath .to receive sound through one's ears Hoard .to go forward Shear .reluctant Loathe . or understood Plane .an artist's board for mixing paints Peace .to save and store away Horde .an ordinal number Here .the roof of the mouth Palette .absence of fighting Piece .famous or well respected Imminent .weak Feint .

• A refrigerator is very cold.the part of the human body between the ribs and the hips Waste . The inside of the car was a refrigerator. his stomach could never be filled). In this example. "bottomless pit" is a metaphor because it is being applied to "the teenage boy's stomach" to imply that his appetite could never be satisfied (that is. Examples of Metaphors Using Words and Phrases 1. In this example.Waist . "refrigerator" is a metaphor because it is being applied to "the inside of the car" to imply that the inside of the car was very cold. • A bottomless pit can never be filled. 2. Why Use a Metaphor? Speakers and writers use metaphors for several reasons: .to use or spend carelessly Weak .without strength Week . The teenage boy's stomach was a bottomless pit.a period of seven days Don't be CONFUSED! Learn the meanings of these words to use them correctly. Metaphors What is a Metaphor? A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase that denotes a certain object or idea is applied to another word or phrase to imply some similarity between them.

(This implies that the teacher got to the source of the problem. (This implies that my memory of what happened was unclear. His idea was difficult to swallow. • Metaphors can communicate a great deal of meaning with just a word or a phrase. (This implies that my dad was very.Metaphors can help readers or listeners to better understand something about the object or idea to which the metaphor is being applied.) 4. (This implies that his idea was hard to accept. (This implies that Mary's performance made her the center of attention. • Some More Metaphors Depending on what you are trying to communicate when writing or speaking.) 2. just about any word or phrase can be used as a metaphor. My dad was boiling mad. very angry.) 7. can get listeners and readers to think about what they are hearing or reading. (This implies that the homework was very easy to do. Jake. They showered the birthday girl with gifts. (This implies that they gave the girl many gifts. was the sunshine of her life. My memory of the event is foggy. In each sentence. because they imply rather than directly state relationships. Her dog. (This implies that Jake was the brightest or best part of her life.) 8.) 6. • Metaphors can make speaking and writing more lively and interesting.) 5. the metaphor appears in bold print. 1. The homework was a breeze. Here are some sentences in which a metaphor is used. The teacher got to the bottom of the problem.) .) 3. What the metaphor implies is shown after each sentence. • Metaphors. Mary stole the spotlight with her performance.

) 13.9.) After graduating from college. (This implies that you should stay away from that topic. (This implies that a smile was forming and growing.) 10. Each year. A Strategy for Using Metaphors 1. a new crop of students entered Harrison High School. You want to bring out how beautiful the sunset is. Identify what it is you want to communicate about that object or idea.) 11. suppose you are trying to describe a sunset. (This implies that each year a new group of students entered whose skills and abilities would grow during their years at Harrison. 3. Alice was thrilled when her idea began to bear fruit. William decided to market himself as a computer specialist. Identify another object or idea that strongly implies what you want to communicate. (This implies that Alice's idea produced results. 2.) 14. I would steer clear of that topic. 12. Identify the object or idea that is the subject of what you are writing or saying. The suspect clammed up when the police began to ask him questions about where he had been the night of the crime. (This implies that Helen and Maria came up with a plan. For example. You decide that the idea .) Helen and Maria hatched a plan to help Maria become president of her class.) 15. (This implies that the suspect shut his mouth and said nothing. If I were you. (This implies that William decided to present himself as a computer specialist when looking for a job. I knew he was just joking because I could see a smile sprouting from the edges of his lips.

or instruct the reader. school. A story may take place in a home. Using metaphors when you write and speak will allow you to communicate more effectively and in a more interesting way. Setting The setting is the second element you should look for when reading a story or novel. amuse. The setting is the location where the story takes place. Secondary characters play a smaller supporting role and are introduced throughout the story. Most often the story is seen through the eyes of the main character. . "The sunset painted the sky with vibrant colors. 4. you could write or say. The setting is usually revealed very early in a story. To understand a story or novel. For example. The main character plays the biggest role and is often the first character to be introduced. Construct a sentence in which you link the idea of painted with sunset.of "painted" would be a good way to communicate the beauty of the sunset." Congratulations! You have just used painted as a metaphor. A novel is the same as a story but it is longer and more complex. town. you need to understand the six elements used by authors when they write a story or novel. or wherever the author chooses to have the action occur. A Strategy for Reading Novels A story is a fictitious tale that is written to entertain. Characters are most often people but can be animals or even fictionalized beings like those seen in cartoons or movies. Characters Characters are the first element to look for when reading a story or novel. countryside.

The solution is how the problem is resolved or brought to an end. Ten Steps to a Good Research Paper . a war. or one of the many obstacles that produce a conflict in life. Solution A solution is the sixth and final element in a story or novel.Time The time when the story takes place is the third element you should look for when reading a story or novel. Usually the time when the story takes place is introduced very early in the story. remember the story facts. Sometimes the solution is not revealed until the very last page or even the final paragraph of the story. An event is an attempt at solving the problem in the story. Recognizing these story elements will help you better understand and enjoy a story. The problem most often grows out of a conflict between the main character and another character in the story. A story may take place very recently or many years ago. Most often the solution is revealed near the end of the story. In a story there are usually a number of attempts to solve the problem and these events make up most of the story. and appreciate different writing styles used by authors. But the problem can also involve a circumstance such as a hurricane. Events Events are the fifth element you should look for when reading a story or novel. Problem The problem is the fourth element you should look for in a story or novel.

almanacs. Choose Your Topic. "The Effects of Pollution in Yosemite National Park" is just about right as a topic. details. Write an outline for your paper by organizing your notes from the note cards into topics. Prepare an Outline. subtopics. Prepare Note Cards. "The Effects of Pollution" is too broad because there are so many effects of pollution. Use an organization such as: • . on CD-ROMS. and subdetails. "The Effects of Pollution on Geese in the Northeast Section of Duluth. Minnesota" is too narrow. • Step 5. If your topic is too broad. magazines. you will have difficulty completing your paper. and newspapers. Prepare Bibliography Cards. • Step 4. books. and say it effectively. Use note cards to record notes from each source you use when writing your paper. Prepare bibliography cards to document the sources of information you use when writing your paper. When choosing a topic. • Step 3. Step 1. Number your note cards to keep track of them. Following these ten steps will help you write a good research paper. scholarly journals. Find these sources in print form. know what you want to say. You are not likely to find much information that is this specific. These sources include encyclopedias. • Step 2. and on the Internet. Use information from a variety of reference sources. and for which there is enough information. you must be specific about your topic. Locate Information. choose one in which you are interested.To write a good research paper. Your library will have style manuals to illustrate how to prepare bibliography cards for various sources of information.

• Step 9. and the page on which each is introduced in your paper.I. • Step 10. (detail) a. The table of contents is the second page. and the date on which the paper is due. At the end of your paper. Write A Rough Draft. your name. Final Checklist. (subtopic) 1. The title page is the first page of the paper. Your bibliography cards will provide this information. Prepare a Title Page and Table of Contents. provide a list of all the sources you used to gather information for the paper. (subdetail) Step 6. Revise Your Rough Draft. important subtopics. • Step 8. be sure you can answer "Yes" to each of the following questions. Make any changes needed to be sure your ideas are clearly expressed and your writing has accurate spelling and grammar. It should include the title of your paper. • Step 7. It should list the main topics. use numbered footnotes to credit sources from which you take quotations or major ideas. • o o o o Did I include a title page? Did I include a table of contents? Did I number all pages correctly? Did I provide footnotes for quotations and major sources of information? . Before handing in your paper. Prepare Your Bibliography. As you write your draft. (topic) A. Use your note cards and outline to write a rough draft of your paper. List your sources in alphabetical order by the first word on each of your bibliography cards.

You may be reading something that was written by an author from a different cultural context than yours. Critical reading involves questioning and evaluating what the author is saying. Critical reading is active reading. In either case. Consider the context of what is written. you may be reading something written some time ago in a different time context than yours. you must recognize and take into account any differences between your values and attitudes and those represented by the author. examples. • . Critical Reading Critical reading applies to non-fiction writing in which the author puts forth a position or seeks to make a statement. Or. It involves more than just understanding what an author is saying. • Question assertions made by the author. Here are the things you should do to be a critical reader. and forming your own opinions about what the author is saying.o o Did I include a bibliography? Did I keep a second copy for my files? Following these ten steps will help you write a good research paper. Look for facts. Don’t accept what is written at face value. be certain that the author provides sufficient support for any assertions made. Before accepting what is written.

If there are inconsistencies. For example. Finally. be sure that the sources are current. In many cases. be certain that the sources are credible. look to see if the author has integrated the work of authorities. carefully evaluate the support the author provides for the inconsistencies. That is. Once you identify an assumption. • Analyze assumptions made by the author. In doing this. Number Prefixes . take what is written with "a grain of salt. Compare what is written with other written work on the subject. Also. you will become better informed and may change your views as appropriate." • By being a critical reader. A written discussion of American politics will likely look considerably different depending on whether the writer is a Democrat or a Republican. You need to take this possible bias into account when reading what the author has written. What is written may very well reflect a biased position. if the author is writing about a subject in its current state. studies done by Einstein in the early 20th century may not be appropriate if the writer is discussing the current state of knowledge in physics. Einstein is a credible source if the author is writing about landmark achievements in physics. Also be certain that the sources are relevant. Assumptions are whatever the author must believe is true in order to make assertions. For example. Look to see that what is written is consistent with what others have written about the subject. This means you must read carefully in order to identify any assumptions. • Identify any possible author bias. you must decide whether or not the assumption is valid. Einstein is not a relevant source when the subject is poetry. the author’s assumptions are not directly stated. • Evaluate the sources the author uses.and statistics that provide support.

A house divided into two units with separate entrances. Recognizing these prefixes and the numbers they represent will help you to learn and better understand the meanings of such words Here are prefixes that represent the numbers 1 though 10. 1 uni unicorn unicycle 2 bi bicycle biennial 2 du duet duplex 3 tri triangle tricycle . A pedaled vehicle that has three wheels. A pedaled vehicle that has two wheels. A pedaled vehicle that has one wheel. Next to each prefix are examples of words that are formed using the number prefix. 1 mono monologue monorail A long speech or performance given by one person. A railroad track that has only one rail. along with the meanings of the words. A piece of music written for two singers or musical instruments. They are used to create some words you will encounter. An imaginary animal that has one horn.Number prefixes are prefixes that are derived from numbers or numerals. An event that occurs every two years. A plane figure that has three angles and three sides.

A saltwater animal with eight arms. A six-pointed star. An event that occurs every seven years. A period of ten years. A group of five persons or things. A plane figure that has six angles and six sides. A number or amount four times as great as another. An athletic contest that consists of ten events. A period of seven years. A plane figure that has five angles and five sides. Nine days of prayers or services. Five children born at the same time to the same mother. The first eight lines in a sonnet. 5 penta pentagon pentathlon 5 quint quintet quintuplets 6 hexa hexagon hexagram 7 sept septenary septennial 8 oct octet octopus 9 nov November novena 10 deca decade decathlon You can expand your vocabulary by recognizing these number prefixes when they appear at the beginnings of words. An athletic contest that consists of five events. Similes . The ninth month of the year in the ancient Roman calendar.4 quad quadrangle quadruple A plane figure that has four angles and four sides.

What is a Simile? A simile is a comparison made between two things that are not alike in most ways. Working on her project. and undisturbed sleep and not just a nap. Examples of Similes Using Like and As 1. In this example. Last night Bob slept like a log. Mary was as busy as a beaver. and like is the word used to signal that a comparison is being made. Why Use a Simile? Speakers and writers use similes to emphasize a certain characteristic of a thing. The comparison made in a simile is often unusual." A log just lies in one place and does not move. The listener or reader can form a mental image of the comparison. as busy as a beaver is the simile. but are alike in one important way. The two things being compared are "busy" and "beaver. In a simile. deep. the words "like" or "as" are used to signal that a comparison is being made between the two things. A mental image of . This increases understanding of what the speaker or writer is trying to communicate. 2." When building a dam a beaver keeps busily working until the dam is completed. The two things being compared are "slept" and "log. This would bring out that the speaker or writer is saying that Bob had a long. A mental image of Bob sleeping like a log would show him lying in one place without moving. slept like a log is the simile. In this example. and as is the word used to signal that a comparison is being made.

Mary being as busy as a beaver while working on her project would show her working very hard. This would bring out that the speaker or writer is saying that Mary was putting a lot of effort into her project and would keep working until it was completed. Commonly Used Similes Here are some commonly used similes in which like is used to signal the comparison: • • • • • • • • • • • • fits like a glove runs like a deer chatters like a monkey moves like a snail sits there like a bump on a log eats like a pig swims like a fish stood out like a sore thumb fought like cats and dogs eyes like a hawk takes it like a man sings like a bird .

Identify the two things being compared. Think about the two things being compared. Follow the steps listed below to build your understanding of similes. 2. Writing Techniques .Here are some commonly used similes in which as is used to signal the comparison: • • • • • • • • • • • • as clear as mud as strong as an ox as nutty as a fruitcake as pretty as a picture as good as gold as quiet as a mouse as clear as a bell as bright as day as light as a feather as dry as a bone as slow as molasses as deep as the ocean A Strategy for Using Similes You will often encounter similes when listening to a speaker or reading something. 5. Listen or look for the words "like" or "as" as clues to a possible simile. Using similes when you speak or write will improve your communication. 3. 4. 1. Identify what the speaker or writer is trying to communicate. Recognizing similes will help you better understand what you hear or read. Form a mental image of the comparison.

Description Through description. Exposition goes beyond description to help the reader understand with greater clarity and depth the ideas and thoughts of the writer. and most other forms of written communication. Description helps the reader more clearly understand the people. smelling. you must master each of the following writing techniques. hearing. and things about which the writer is writing. You will find descriptive writing in newspapers. a writer informs. is commonly found in newspapers. A story has characters. books. books. a problem. Bedtime stories are examples of short stories while novels are examples of long stories. explains. Narration Through narration. 1. It is the most common form of writing. The scripts written for movies and plays are further examples of narrative writing. 2. magazines. attempts at solving the problem. a writer helps the reader use the senses of feeling. places. and tasting to experience what the writer experiences. .Writing is an important form of communication. a time. Exposition Through exposition. and clarifies his/her ideas and thoughts. and a solution to the problem. and most other forms of written communication. Good writers use different writing techniques to fit their purpose for writing. magazines. a setting. like descriptive writing. 3. To be a good writer. seeing. Expository writing. a writer tells a story.

wrong. a writer points out the similarities and differences about a topic. Editorials. you will be able to communicate your ideas effectively. . subject. The writer presents facts and opinions to get the reader to understand why something is right. By using the writing technique that fits your purpose. and the text for a political speech are examples of persuasive writing. How to Round a Number To the nearest ten If the ones digit is 5 or more. If the ones digit is less than 5. or position. 5. Comparison and Contrast Through comparison and contrast. letters to the editor in newspapers and magazines. Persuasion Through persuasion. or in between. Comparison is used to show what is alike or in common. Contrast is used to show what is not alike or not in common. Describing living conditions in 1900 and living conditions today would allow for much comparison and contrast.4. a writer tries to change a reader's point of view on a topic. round to the next highest ten (68 rounds to 70). round to the next lowest ten (33 rounds to 30). Math Tips Here are some "how-to's" that will come in handy.

6. and 7 = 60 ÷ 4 = 15 How to Tell if Two Fractions are Equivalent Cross multiply the fractions. round to the next highest hundred (384 rounds to 400). If both products are the same. 8 12 8 x 3 = 24 . How to Find an Average To find the average of several numbers. 8 24 3 x 24 = 72 8x9 = 72 3 and 8 5 8 9 are equivalent 24 and 3 are not 12 5 and 3 5 x12 = 60 equivalent fractions. If the hundreds digit is less than 5.268 rounds to 7. To the nearest thousand If the hundreds digit is 5 or more.000).000).602 rounds to 8. round to the next lowest thousand (7. 3 and 9 fractions. 30. The average of 17. the fractions are equivalent. add the numbers together and then divide the sum by the number of numbers. round to the next highest thousand (7. round to the next lowest hundred (427 rounds to 400). If the tens digit is less than 5.To the nearest hundred If the tens digit is 5 or more.

0. Each of the letters in RQWQCQ stands for a step in the strategy.40 = 40% How to Change a Decimal to a Percentage Move the decimal point two places to the right.How to Find a Percentage To tell what percentage one number is of a second number. divide the first number by the second. .7% How to Change a Fraction to a Percentage Divide the numerator by the denominator. The RQWQCQ Strategy for Solving Math Word Problems RQWQCQ is a good strategy to use when solving math word problems. Move the decimal point of the resulting quotient two places to the right.2% Refer to these how-to's until you can do them automatically.792 = 79.067 = 6. Example: What percentage is 20 of 300? 20 ÷ 300 = .4 = . Move the decimal point of the resulting quotient two places to the right. 6 15 = 6 ÷ 15 = .

Question Look at your answer and ask yourself: "Is my answer possible?" You may find that your answer is not possible because it does not fit with the facts presented in the problem. or draw a picture of the problem. Question Ask yourself "What computations must I do to answer the question?" Compute Set up the problem on paper and do the computations. You may find it helpful to read the problem out loud. When it is not stated. Question Find the question to be answered in the problem. When this happens. circle your answer. .Read Read the entire problem to learn what it is about. all of facts presented in the problem are needed to answer the question. It is helpful to cross out any facts presented in the problem that are not needed to answer the question. Often the question is directly stated. form a picture of the problem in your mind. Sometimes. Write Write the facts you need to answer the question. Once you have done this. go back through the steps of RQWQCQ until you arrive at an answer that is possible. you will have to identify the question to be answered. Check your computations for accuracy and make any needed corrections.

When three or more numbers are multiplied. 3 x 5 = 15 or 5 x 3 = 15 Associative Property a. Addition. 3+5=8 or 5+3=8 b. When two numbers are multiplied together. Commutative Property a. and identity. the product is the same regardless of the order in which the numbers are multiplied. Multiplication. You should be familiar with each of these. associative. Addition. When three or more numbers are added. Multiplication. 6 x (4 x 3) = 72 or (6 x 4) x 3 = 72 . It is especially important to understand these properties once you reach advanced math such as algebra and calculus. distributive. 6 + (4 + 3) = 13 or (6 + 4) + 3 = 13 b.Use RQWQCQ to help you correctly solve math word problems. Basic Number Properties There are four basic properties of numbers: commutative. the sum is the same regardless of the way in which the numbers are grouped. When two numbers are added. the product is the same regardless of the way in which the numbers are grouped. the sum is the same regardless of the order in which the numbers are added.

Multiplication. liquid. The sum of any number and zero is that number. 12 + 0 = 12 b. or solid. Three scales are commonly used for measuring temperature. The Kelvin scale is primarily used in scientific experiments. Anders Celsius. Temperature Scales Temperature is the level of heat in a gas. You will sometimes find this scale . 18 x 1 = 18 Knowing these properties of numbers will improve your understanding and mastery of math.Distributive Property The sum of two numbers times a third number is equal to the sum of each addend times the third number. Celsius Scale The Celsius scale was invented in 1742 by the Swedish astronomer. The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are the most common. Addition. 5 x (7 + 2) = 45 or 5 x 7 + 5 x 2 = 45 Identity Property a. The product of any number and one is that number. This scale divides the range of temperature between the freezing and boiling temperatures of water into 100 equal parts.

3.8. Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit. 1.identified as the centigrade scale. Temperatures on the Celsius scale are known as degree Celsius (ºC). Temperatures on the Fahrenheit scale are known as degree Fahrenheit (ºF). It extends the Celsius scale down to absolute zero.8 + 32. To convert from ºF to ºC use the formula: ºC = (ºF-32) ÷ 1. Kelvin Scale The Kelvin scale is named after William Thompson Kelvin. Fahrenheit Scale The Fahrenheit scale was established by the German-Dutch physicist. It divides the difference between the melting and boiling points of water into 180 equal intervals. in 1724. Temperatures on this scale are called Kelvins (K). Converting Temperatures It is sometimes necessary to convert temperature from one scale to another. . a British physicist who devised it in 1848. a hypothetical temperature characterized by a complete absence of heat energy. Here is how to do this. To convert from ºC to K use the formula: K = ºC + 273.15 4. the Fahrenheit scale is widely used in the United States. While many countries now use the Celsius scale. To convert from K to ºC use the formula: ºC = K – 273. 2.15. To convert from ºC to ºF use the formula: ºF = ºC x 1.

and space using mathematical processes. but may not know their precise meanings. Comparing Temperatures Here are some common comparisons between temperatures on the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales. To convert from K to ºF use the formula: ºF = 1. TEMPERATURE Boiling point of water Freezing point of water Average human body temperature Comfortable room temperature ºC 100 0 37 20 to 25 ºF 212 32 98.8(K – 273. rules. To convert from ºF to K use the formula: K = 5/9 (ºF – 32) + 273.5. Here are some math words and terms you will likely come across. Math Vocabulary Mathematics (math) is the study of numbers. and symbols. Any word or . 6. There are many branches of mathematics and a large vocabulary associated with this subject. quantities.15.15) + 32.6 68 to 77 You probably refer to temperature every day. Be sure about the scale you are using. shapes.

For example. While a minus sign is used to signify a negative number. Positive Number A number that is greater than zero. Greatest Common Factor (greatest common divisor) The largest number that will divide two or more other numbers equally. 5 is the numerator in the fraction . Algorithm A step-by-step mathematical procedure used to find an answer. Improper Fraction (mixed fractions) A fraction that has a larger numerator than denominator. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations. The denominator represents the number of parts into which the whole is divided. For example. Numerator The top number in a fraction. The numerator represents the number of parts of the whole.9 and the expression 7 are equal). 9 is the coefficient in 9x. For example. Denominator The bottom number in a fraction. For example.9 = 7 (the expression 16 . . 6 is the denominator in the fraction . It contains an equals sign. For example. as are multiplication and division. Ordinal Number A number that shows place or position. 16 . Inverse Operations Opposite or reverse operations. Negative Number A number that is less than zero. the greatest common factor of 32 and 48 is 16. Coefficient A number that multiplies a variable. A minus sign is used to show that a number is negative. For example. as in 2nd place. the absence of a minus sign signifies a positive number. For example.term shown in bold is defined in the following alphabetical list of math words and terms. is an improper fraction. Equation A mathematical statement used to show that two expressions are equal. -12 is a negative number.

7 is a prime number. It is typically represented by a letter of the alphabet. Here are the common units used in this system along with examples to give you a frame of reference. There are various measurement systems used across the world. These are just some of the many words and terms found in mathematics. taking on different values. Foot (ft): One foot equals 12 inches. The system used in the United States is the U. Length Inch (in): The distance between the knuckles on your index finger is approximately one inch. A baseball bat is about one yard long. 49 is the square of 7 (7 x 7 = 49). For example. It is designated by the symbol √.S. 7 is the square root of 49. Square Number A number that results from multiplying another number by itself. Yard (yd): One yard equals three feet. For example. For example. Square Root of a Number A number that is multiplied by itself to produce a square number. It is important to know the meanings of words and terms you will encounter as you progress through the study of math. . An official professional football is about one foot long. customary system. For example x is the variable in 9x (x can be any number that is being multiplied by 9). Variable A quantity that can change or vary.Prime Number A number that can be divided evenly only by itself and 1. Measurement Units A measurement system is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured.

Mile (mi): One mile equals 5,280 feet. A mile is approximately the distance a championship distance runner can run in just under four minutes.

Ounce (oz): A slice of bread usually weighs a little less than one ounce.

Pound (lb): One pound equals 16 ounces. A loaf of white bread usually weighs a little more than one pound. Ton (T): A ton is 2,000 pounds. The famous Liberty Bell in Philadelphia weighs about one ton.

Cup (c): A standard baby bottle holds about one cup of juice. Pint (pt): One pint equals two cups. A pint of ice cream is just about right for four people to share. Quart (qt): One quart equals two pints. Motor oil typically comes in a quart-sized container. Gallon (gal): One gallon equals four quarts. A large container of milk contains one gallon. Knowing these measurement units will help you in school and in everyday life.

Roman Numerals

You can guess from their name that Roman Numerals originated in ancient Rome. They were created as a simple means of counting in which certain letters are given values as numerals (a numeral is a written symbol referring to a number). The original system of Roman Numerals was modified during the Middle Ages and is the system we still use today. Seven letters form the basis of Roman Numerals. Each letter stands for a number as shown here. ROMAN NUMERALS I=1 X = 10 C = 100 M = 1,000 V=5 L = 50 D = 500

Reading and Writing Roman Numerals
Numbers are represented by combining the letters shown above. There are several rules to follow.
1. If one or more letters are placed after another

letter of greater value, add that amount. VI = 6 (5 + 1 = 6) XXVII = 27 (10 + 10 + 5 + 1 + 1 = 27) MDC = 1,600 (1,000 + 500 + 100 = 1,600)
2. A letter cannot be repeated more than three times.

30 = XXX (10 + 10 + 10 = 30) 40 = XL (50 - 10 = 40) You cannot write 40 as XXXX.

3. If a letter is placed before another letter of greater

value, subtract that amount. IX = 9 (10 - 1 = 9) XL = 40 (50 - 10 = 40) CML = 950 (900 + 50 = 950)
4. You can only subtract powers of 10 (I, X, C).

95 = XCV (100 - 10 + 5 = 95) You cannot write 95 as VC because V is not a power of 10.
5. You cannot subtract more than one number from

another number. 18 = XVIII (10 + 5 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 18) You cannot write 18 as IIXX. By the way, there is no zero in the system of Roman Numerals. This is all pretty complicated. Why should you even bother learning about Roman Numerals? You will find that Roman Numerals are used all around you. Here are just some of the ways they are used today:

• • •

They are used in outlines. They are used on the faces of clocks and watches.

They are used to number pages that come before the main pages of a book. They are used to identify kings and queens (Henry VIII of England).

They are used to identify sporting events (The New York Giants won Super Bowl XLII).

They are still with us today Identifying Lecture Styles Lectures given by your teachers are usually organized in one of the following lecture styles: • • • • • • Topic-List Question-Answer Compare-Contrast Series of Events Cause-Effect Problem-Solution Identifying the lecture style used by your teacher will help you take good notes. Each question is . Question-Answer The teacher begins by introducing a topic that is followed by one or more questions about the topic. Topic-List The teacher begins by presenting the topic followed by associated subtopics.Roman Numerals were created long ago. Each subtopic includes details and sometimes subdetails. Read to learn about each lecture style. Number words like one or second and transitional words like next and finally indicate that the teacher is using a Topic-List style. The transitional words also indicate a change from one subtopic to another subtopic.

disparity.e. resemble. equal to. or stage related to the topic. for that reason. correspondingly. in parallel. Series of Events The teacher begins by identifying the topic. at the outset. Compare-Contrast The teacher begins by identifying two things that will be compared and contrasted. and as a result indicate that the teacher is using a Cause-Effect style.e. therefore. on the other hand. after. opposite. Words and phrases such as alike. however. Information is then presented about additional events. compare) and how they are different (i. thus. then. The teacher concludes by revealing the final event. and finally indicate that the teacher is using a Series of Events style. followed by. Words and phrases such as initially. on account of. counterpart. Problem-Solution . step. Words and phrases such as differently. where. Phrases such as in what way and how did they react also indicate that this style is being used. when. step.. consequently. succeeding. Cause-Effect The teacher begins by presenting the cause of something. intermediate. and just as suggest similarities. followed by one or more effects related to the cause. Details are included for some of the effects. The teacher then tells how the two things are alike (i. why and how indicate that the teacher is using a Question-Answer style. contrast). what. steps. last. and on the contrary suggest differences. similarly. culminating. antithesis of. Then the teacher describes an initial event. Words such as who.. or stage. next. later.answered after it is introduced. owing to. Words or phrases such as since. or stages.

Words and phrases such as solution. clear up. Here are some things you should do to be a good listener in class. explanation. and worked out indicate that the problem has been resolved. Words and phrases such as puzzle. answer. the teacher concludes by identifying the solution to the problem if one has been found. Just hearing what your teachers say is not the same as listening to what they say. Good Listening in Class It is important for you to be a good listener in class. and complication indicate that a problem is being presented. Finally. enigma. issue. cleared up. and untangle indicate that an attempted solution is under way. investigate. Words and phrases such as unravel.The teacher begins by introducing a problem and explaining why it is a problem. Identifying the lecture style used by your teacher will help you write good notes in class. point of dispute. Listening is a cognitive act that requires you to pay attention and think about and mentally process what you hear. The teacher continues by describing attempts to solve the problem. or the status of attempts to solve the problem. providing details as needed. Much of what you will have to learn will be presented verbally by your teachers. .

Be committed to learning all that you can. Listen for these things as your teacher talks. It helps to sit in the front and center of the class. Think about what you know about the topic that will be covered in class that day. • . Your attitude is important. It is good to question what is said as long as you remain open to points of view other than your own. Make sure you complete all assigned work and readings. Review your notes from previous class sessions. • Be Attentive. and to maintain eye contact with your teacher. Make a conscious choice to find the topic useful and interesting. Try not to daydream and let your mind wander to other things. Focus on what your teacher is saying. Be receptive to what your teacher says. Identify what you expect and hope to learn from the class session.Be Cognitively Ready to Listen When You Come to Class. • Be Emotionally Ready to Listen When You Come to Class. • Listen with a Purpose. • Listen with an Open Mind.

Get Ready to Take Notes (Before Class) Review your notes from the previous class session before you come to class. or too dark.LEARNING. • Meet the Challenge. 1. Don't be reluctant to ask questions. you cannot write faster than your teacher can speak. Don't give up and stop listening when you find the information being presented difficult to understand. too hot. and after class. too bright. Taking good notes is a three-stage process in which there are certain things you should do before class. This will help you remember what was • . Don't give in to these inconveniences. Here are the three stages of notetaking and what you should do during each stage. The classroom may too noisy. too cold. • Taking Notes in Class In classes. and you have to be an active listener to do this.Be an Active Listener. Take good written notes about what your teacher says. You must be able to take good written notes from what your teachers say. The information they provide will be important for you to know when you take tests. You can think faster than your teacher can speak. Use this to your advantage by evaluating what is being said and trying to anticipate what will be said next. While you can think faster than your teacher can speak. during class. Stay focused on the big picture . Listen even more carefully at these times and work hard to understand what is being said. Taking notes requires you to make decisions about what to write. • Triumph Over the Environment. your teachers will talk about topics that you are studying.

• Place a ? next to information you write in your notes. • 3. • . but about whose meaning you are not sure.covered and get you ready to understand new information your teacher provides." Be sure to include in your notes information that your teacher repeats or writes on the chalkboard. symbols into words. Have several pens and pencils as well as your notebook. ask your teacher or other students for help. • Bring all notetaking materials with you to class. Do this by writing abbreviated words such as med for medicine. If necessary. • Write quickly so that you can include all the important information in your notes. Examples of signal statements are "The most important point.. • 2. Your teacher will expect that you have done this and will use and build upon this information." and "Remember that. Rewrite Your Notes (After Class) Rewrite your notes to make them more complete by changing abbreviated words into whole words.. • Make your notes more accurate by answering any questions you had when writing your notes in class.. Listen for "signal statements" that tell you that what your teacher is about to say is important to write in your notes. using symbols such as % for percent. Complete all assigned readings before you come to class. and writing short sentences. Take Notes (During Class) Keep your attention focused on what your teacher is saying.. and shortened sentences into longer sentences. Use your textbook and reference sources to obtain the information you need to answer your questions.

This is hard to do because your teachers can talk faster than you can write. Here are some examples of words that have a common abbreviation: Word department introduction junior mathematics weight Abbreviation dept intro jr math wt Word package negative magazine foot highway Abbreviation pkg neg mag ft hwy . It is up to you to write more quickly. • Having good class notes will help you to be better prepared for tests. You must be able to recognize the complete word from its abbreviation. An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word used when writing to represent the complete word.Check with other students to be sure you did not leave out important information. you need to write class notes that completely and accurately include the most important information presented by your teachers. Using Abbreviations To Write Notes Quickly Many of the questions you find on class tests will be based upon the information your teachers orally present in class. Many words have a commonly used abbreviation. One way to do this is to write abbreviations for words. It would be nice if your teachers talked slower so that you could keep up with what they are saying as you write your notes. This is not realistic though. Therefore.

For words that have just one syllable. Write just the beginning of a long word. Here are some examples of long words that have been abbreviated by writing just the beginning of the word: Word different incorporated elementary molecular division Abbreviation diff inc elem molec div Word feminine population ambiguous separate hippopotamus Abbreviation fem pop ambig sep hippo 2.You can form your own abbreviation for just about any word. Here are some examples of words that have been abbreviated by writing just the first and last letter of the word: Word quart Abbreviation qt Word land Abbreviation ld . Here are some examples of words that have been abbreviated by leaving out the vowels when writing the word: Word century mountain reason popular quality Abbreviation cntry mntn rsn pplr qlty Word point school clean teacher progress Abbreviation pnt schl cln tchr prgrss 3. write just the first and last letter of the word. 1. Leave out the vowels when writing a word. Here are three ways you can do this.

tick girl night link tk gl nt lk round pack field heart rd pk fd ht Use common abbreviations of words whenever you recognize them. Abbreviate those words that are important and for which you can quickly form an abbreviation. Here is how to create an acronymic sentence. Underline the first letter of each piece of information. Knowing the context in which you wrote the word will help you recognize the complete word from its abbreviation. If there is more than one word in a piece of information. Use the way that best fits the word for which you are writing an abbreviation. An acronymic sentence is a sentence that is created using the first letter of each piece of information to be remembered. Using Acronymic Sentences to Remember Information Creating an acronymic sentence is a good strategy to use when you have to remember information in a certain order. REMEMBER: YOU MUST BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THE COMPLETE WORD FROM ITS ABBREVIATION. underline the first letter of the most important word. form abbreviations by using one of the three ways you just learned. • • Write each piece of information you have to remember. Using abbreviations for words will help you take good notes more quickly. Having good notes will help you do better on tests. . For other words. Do not try to abbreviate every word you write in your notes.

"Insects from everywhere seem gross. When you remember the acronymic sentence you create. Creating acronymic sentences is an effective and fun way to remember information. Gary. • "My (Mercury) very (Venus) earthy (Earth) mother (Mars) just (Jupiter) served (Saturn) us (Uranus) nine (Neptune) pizzas (Pluto)" is an acronymic sentence that students through the years have used to remember the order of planets around our sun." Here are the five most populous cities in Indiana shown in order from highest to lowest: Indianapolis. If you accept recent evidence that Pluto is not a planet. You will find the sentence easier to remember if you do this. "Insects" represents "Indianapolis"). you can use "My very earthy mother just served us noodles. Here is an acronymic sentence you can use to remember these cities in the order shown. Fort Wayne. Evansville." Try to form an acronymic sentence that is funny or has a personal meaning for you. Loci Strategy . from closest to furthest. each word in the sentence will help you remember the piece of information it represents (for example. South Bend.Write a sentence using words that begin with the underlined letters.

In this example. In this example. to remember "nature." First. Third. Second. The more unusual your association. In this example. one of the items you must remember is "nature. visualize each feature of the place and the association you formed for an item to be remembered." you visualize a plant growing out of the coffeepot. invasion. visualization. the more likely you are to remember it. The strategy helps you remember lists of items through organization. by visualizing the coffeepot with a plant growing out of it. visualize that place and its features in your mind. you will remember the item "nature. The loci strategy is based on your familiarity with a place. identify a place with which you are very familiar. It can work well for you if you are good at visualizing (picturing) things in your mind. and puddle. here are the other items you must remember: pigeon. one of the features you visualize is a coffeepot on the kitchen stove. Fourth." To complete this example. you decide to use the kitchen where you live as the place. In this example. which means place. In this example. lemon. somersault. Here are the steps in the loci strategy along with an example. such as your home. and association.The word loci is the plural form of locus. Here are the associations with features of the kitchen you could visualize to help you remember the items: . associate each item to be remembered with a particular feature of that place.

The loci strategy was invented by the ancient Greeks. • To remember the entire list of items. somersault .visualize lemons floating in a pitcher of lemonade in the kitchen refrigerator. invasion .• • pigeon .visualize a pigeon landing on the table. Pegwords are words that rhyme with number words. visualize each kitchen feature and the association you created for it. You can use any word as a pegword as long as it rhymes with a number word. • puddle . • lemon . Below are suggested pegwords for the number words one through ten. Using Pegwords to Remember Information The pegwords strategy is a good strategy to use when you must remember a number of things such as five reasons we should conserve energy.visualize ants invading and swarming all over a slice of bread on the kitchen counter. You can substitute your own . Each pegword is substituted for a number word and is then associated with the information to be remembered.visualize a clown somersaulting over a chair.visualize the kitchen sink overflowing and forming a puddle of soapy water on the floor. It remains just as useful today as it was long ago.

The pegword for one is run. Create a picture in your mind of this association. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 for each additional piece of information to be remembered. Think of the first piece of information to be remembered. and so on. 2.number words. tree for the third piece of information. Nouns and verbs are best to use as pegwords because they are easy to associate with information to be remembered. Number Word one two three four five six seven eight nine ten Pegword run shoe tree door dive fix heaven gate sign hen Here are the steps to follow to use the pegwords strategy. Form an association in your mind between the pegword one and the first piece of information to be remembered. 3. 1. Use the pegword shoe for the second piece of information. . Think of the pegword for the number word one.

Forests provide lumber that is used to build homes for people. (two/shoe). Forests provide shelter for animals. and you will recall the picture of a rabbit running toward a bowl of food. You could create a picture in your mind of a rabbit running to a bowl of food. The pegwords strategy lets you use your imagination to remember information. Later. You could create a picture in your mind of a chipmunk living in a shoe. 2. the number word one will trigger the pegword run. 3. You could create a picture in your mind of stacks of lumber lying on the ground next to a partially built house. Using Flash Cards to Remember Information .Here is an example of how the pegwords strategy can be used to remember three important reasons for preserving forests. The pegword for one is run. You will thereby remember that one reason for preserving forests is that forests provide food for animals. Forests provide food for animals. (three/tree). when you try to recall the reasons for preserving forests. 1.

Draw pictures on a card or cut pictures from a magazine and paste them on the card. 3. for example. Negative words such as resentful. Use both sides of a card when appropriate. you will only become confused. Sometimes you will see "George Washington" and will have to remember that he was the first president of the U. president" and will have to remember that it was George Washington. mathematical formulas. history facts. If you place cards for different subjects or topics in the same deck.Flash cards are a powerful tool that can help you remember information such as the meanings of vocabulary words. write the information on a card. and nutritious could go on green or blue cards. one for each subject or topic. For a historical fact. Other times you will see "first U. Organize your cards into decks. if you are using flash cards to remember vocabulary words. You can use neutral colors such as white or tan for words that are neutral (words that are not positive or negative). Here are some strategies to help you get the most benefit from using flash cards. Whenever you come across a piece of information you want to remember. The more you work at making . president" on the back. Flip the cards over from time to time. excellent. write the word to be learned on the front of the card and a short two or three word definition on the back of the card. Use colors as cues to help you recall a distinctive characteristic about the information on a flash card. and threatened could go on red or yellow cards. Make flash cards as you learn and study. you might write "George Washington" on the front and "first U. For example. Illustrate the cards. 2. Carry a stack of blank cards with you (3" x 5" size works well). Use flashcards in several different colors. use a different color for words that have different connotations.S.S. and the correct spelling of words. suspicious. Doing this will strengthen your recall of the information. The particular colors you choose don't matter as long as you are consistent in their use. when learning a new vocabulary word. Positive words such as delightful. 1. 4.S. For example.

If you always study the cards in the same order. during long trips. The biggest mistake students' make is putting too much information on a single flash card. 6. Each card should contain just one piece of information. Don't put too much information on any one card. Shuffle the cards each time you review them. Make reviewing your cards a daily habit like brushing your teeth or taking a shower. 7. in bed before you go to sleep. Questions on a test about the information on your cards may come in any order. Flash cards are easy to make. His StudyProf. Using Acronyms to Remember Information . This article contributed by Cody Blair. Carry your cards with you. 5. and so on. For example. Change the order of the cards frequently. riding on the school bus. the easier you will find it to recall the information on the card. it will be difficult for you to remember a piece of information when it is not in the order you studied. Review your cards whenever you have a website has more information about flashcards and other study skills. waiting on a line. and are a great tool for remembering information. you can review your cards while eating a meal.a card distinctive and interesting. easy to use.

It can be a real word or a nonsense word you are able to pronounce. Superior. Erie. Huron: In HOMES. lion. elephant. O is the first letter of Ontario. Here is how to form an acronym. "Telk" is not a real word. • • Write the facts you need to remember. If there is more than one word in a fact. • "HOMES" is an example of an acronym that is a real word you can use to remember the names of the five Great Lakes: Michigan. Arrange the underlined letters to form an acronym that is a real word oranonsense word you can pronounce. Underline the first letter of each fact. An acronym is a word that is formed from the first letter of each fact to be remembered. and so on. "Telk" is an acronym that can be used to remember the following animals: tiger. . H is the first letter of Huron and helps you remember that name. Notice that in this example. kangaroo.Forming an acronym is a good strategy to use to remember information in any order. Ontario. underline the first letter of only the first word in the fact. but you can easily pronounce it. You could also have used "kelt" as an acronym.

the acronym "capp" can be used to remember the following fruits: pear. When using the Study Reading style. Read to learn about the three reading styles used by flexible readers. apple. you need to know how to select and use a reading style that is consistent with your purpose for reading. as you read you must challenge yourself to understand the material. Becoming a Flexible Reader To become a flexible reader. Knowing when and how to use these three reading styles will make you a flexible cannot form a real word using the first letter of each fact to be remembered. you should identify the . The Skimming style is most useful when you have to read a large amount of material in a short amount of time. Use the acronym strategy as a way to remember information. you should read at a rate that is slower than your normal reading rate. Study Reading will often require you to read material more than once to achieve a high level of comprehension. There are three important reading styles you should learn to use. reading the material aloud will also help you improve your comprehension. Study Reading is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to read difficult material at a high level of comprehension. You can use the first letter "p" in the acronym to remember either "pear" or "peach" and the second letter "p" to remember the other. Each has its own purpose. Sometimes two or more of the facts you must remember each begin with the same first letter. Sometimes. When using the Skimming style. Further. cherry. For example. peach. Skimming is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to quickly obtain a general idea about the reading material.

a lower level of comprehension is to be expected than when using the Study Reading style. Decide if you are reading for a high level of comprehension.main ideas in each paragraph and ignore the details in supportive sentences. Scanning is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to quickly locate a specific piece of information within reading material. and sometimes even in a paragraph. trying to get a general idea about what you are reading. or looking for specific information. Because you are only looking for the main idea in each paragraph you read. move your eyes quickly over the reading material until you locate the specific piece of information you need to find. Since you know exactly what you are looking for. numbers. Then use the reading style that is appropriate for your reading purpose. identify your purpose for reading. short statements. The piece of information to be located may be contained in a list of names. A Strategy for Reading Textbooks . words. Before you begin your next reading assignment.

SQRW is a four-step strategy for reading and taking notes from chapters in a textbook. Using SQRW will help you to understand what you read and to prepare a written record of what you learned. why. Surveying brings to mind what you already know about the topic of a chapter and prepares you for learning more. By surveying a chapter. what. Also. or Conclusion. Each letter stands for one step in the strategy. Survey. To survey a chapter. and/or graphs and read the caption that goes with each. Use the words who. headings. tables. Do not form questions for the Introduction. Form questions by changing each chapter heading into a question. introduction. Summary. for the heading "Uses of Electricity" in a chapter about how science improves lives. you may decide you need to change a question or turn it into several questions to be answered. The written record will be valuable when you have to participate in a class discussion and again when you study for a test. . or how to form questions. As you do this. where. Read the information that follows each heading to find the answer to each question you formed. When a heading contains more than one idea. Read. Questions give you a purpose for reading and help you stay focused on the reading assignment. and the summary or conclusion. when. you will quickly learn what the chapter is about. read the title. examine all visuals such as pictures. Read to learn what to do for each step in SQRW. maps. form a question for each idea. You need to have questions in your mind as you read. Stay focused and flexible so you can gather as much information as you need to answer each question. you might form the question "What are some uses of electricity?" If a heading is stated as a question. Question. For example. use that question.

complete the Question. Read. you will tire and your studying will not be very effective. Write each question and its answer in your notebook. you will find you learn more and have good study notes to use to prepare for class participation and tests. and Write steps for the second heading. If you try to do too much studying at one time. Successful students: 1. The Ten Study Habits of Successful Students Successful students have good study habits. As you practice using SQRW. Space the . and so on for the remaining headings in the chapter. They apply these habits to all of their classes. Read. Work to develop any study habit you do not have. and Write steps for the first heading. Reread each of your written answers to be sure each answer is legible and contains all the important information needed to answer the question.Write. Then complete the Question. Try not to do too much studying at one time. Read about each study habit. HINT: Once you complete the Survey step for the entire chapter.

2. or studying for a test. You must be very clear about what you want to accomplish during your study times. working on a paper or project. 4. 5. Simply sitting down to study has little value. Goals will help you stay focused and monitor your progress. Set specific goals for their study times. It can be completing assigned reading. Taking short breaks will restore your mental energy. A delay in studying is called "procrastination. Studying at the same times each day establishes a routine that becomes a regular part of your life. Plan specific times for studying. you will find it difficult to get everything done when you need to. Schedule specific times throughout the week for your study time. You may delay starting your studying because you don't like an assignment or think it is too hard. 3. . Study time is any time you are doing something related to schoolwork." If you procrastinate for any reason. You may rush to make up the time you wasted getting started. When a scheduled study time comes up during the day. you will be mentally prepared to begin studying. resulting in careless work and errors. just like sleeping and eating. Start studying when you have to do over shorter periods of time. Try to study at the same times each day.

weekends should be fun time. your notes may include information that will help you complete an assignment. your friends may talk about things that will distract you from what you need to do. Second. Call another student when they have difficulty with an assignment. Start with your most difficult assignment since this is when you have the most mental energy. Work on the assignment they find most difficult first.6. Review their notes before beginning an assignment." 10. 9. Also. Tell their friends not to call them during their study times. Review their schoolwork over the weekend. This is a case where "two heads may be better than one. 7. But there is also time to do some review. Two study problems can occur if your friends call you during your study times. This will help you be ready to go on Monday morning when another school week begins. 8. These ten study habits can help you throughout your education. Yes. First.turn off your cell phone during your study times. Your most difficult assignment will require the most effort. Here's a simple idea . It is not that easy to get back to what you were doing. Reviewing your notes can help you make sure you are doing an assignment correctly. Improving Concentration . Make sure they are your study habits. your work is interrupted.

Concentration means focusing on one thing to the exclusion of all else. This will provide you with the structure you need for effective studying. Meditation is helpful to many students. If you try to complete a large task all at once. You know what works best for you. Some people work well early in the morning. • Break large tasks into series of smaller tasks that you can complete one at a time. Here are 10 suggestions for improving your study concentration: Study in a quiet place that is free from distractions and interruptions. • Don't try to do two tasks at the same time. maintain your physical fitness. Try to create a space designated solely for studying. You won't be able to concentrate on either one very well. • Relax. you may feel overwhelmed and will be unable to maintain your concentration. It's important to relax when working on a task that requires concentration. you won't have the energy you need to concentrate. It's hard to concentrate when you're tense.Many students have difficulty concentrating while studying. • Make sure you are not tired and/or hungry when you study. others late at night. Otherwise. • Make a study schedule that shows what tasks you need to accomplish and when you plan to accomplish each task. Also. • Try to study at the time of day you work best. • . Being able to concentrate while you are studying is essential to doing well in class and on tests.

Try to relate what you are studying to you own life to make it as meaningful as possible.Clear your mind of worrisome thoughts. Is my Study Place free from interruptions? . Don't daydream. • Take breaks whenever you feel fatigued. Preparing to Study: A Good Study Place You need a good study place to be prepared to study. You will know when you need to take a break. There is no set formula for when to take breaks. It doesn't work. • Develop an interest in what you are studying. work out a schedule so that you know when you can use it. You should be able to answer YES to all of the following questions: 1. Mental poise is important for concentration. • Studying without concentration is like trying to fill a bucket with water when the bucket has a hole in its bottom. This can motivate yourself to concentrate. Is my Study Place available to me whenever I need it? Your Study Place does you little good if you cannot use it when you need it. You can get distracted by your own thoughts. If you are using a Study Place that you must share with others for any reason. Monitor your thoughts and prevent yourself from following any that take you off track. 2.

6. use a desk or table that is large enough to hold everything you need. paper. keep the volume low. 7. Allow enough room for writing and try to avoid clutter. Does my Study Place have a comfortable chair? A chair that is not comfortable can cause discomfort or pain that will interfere with your studying. and whatever else you might need. calculator. Does my Study Place have enough light? . If you find that playing a stereo or TV improves your mood. Does my Study Space contain a large enough desk or table? While working on an assignment or studying for a test. Is my Study Place free from distractions? Research shows that most students study best in a quiet environment. Select a chair in which you can sit for long periods while maintaining your attention. 5. it should be in your Study Place . 3. Does my Study Place have enough storage space? You need enough room to store your study materials. 8.It is important to have uninterrupted study time. 4. You may have to hang a DO NOT DISTURB sign on the door or take the phone off the hook. A chair that is too comfortable might make you sleepy. Be sure you have enough storage space to allow you to keep your desktop or other work surface clear of unnecessary materials that can get in the way. ruler. If you use a computer for your schoolwork. Does my Study Place contain all the study materials I need? Be sure your Study Place includes reference sources and supplies such as pens and pencils.

Then you must set specific and clearly stated goals. If you do not have clearly stated goals. your effort will lack direction and focus. Examples of long-term goals are writing a paper and passing a class. Select a temperature at which your mind and body function best. If it is too cold. A long-term goal is something you want to achieve at some later date. your thinking may slow down and become unclear. The important thing is that you can clearly see what you need to see without any strain or discomfort. you might become sleepy.The amount of light you need depends on what you are doing. Write your goals to have a record of them. Having a good Study Place is important for good studying. . For example. A short-term goal is something you want to achieve soon. 9. Setting Goals A goal is something you want to achieve. Does my Study Place have a comfortable temperature? If your Study Place is too warm. Implied in each goal you set is your WILL (determination) to do it. THE THREE W'S OF GOALS Each goal you set should state WHAT you will do and WHEN you will accomplish it. To set appropriate goals. Examples of short-term goals are finishing your homework and doing well on tomorrow's test. you must know what is important for you to accomplish. a goal for a research paper might be stated as follows: I will (your determination) finish gathering information for my research paper (what you will do) by November 20 (when you will accomplish it).

realistic. You may do what you have to do. Many times your parents. within your skills and abilities. 2. Stay flexible so when you realize a change is necessary you will be ready to make the change. It is especially important to recognize when you have accomplished your goal and need to go no further. 4. accomplishment of your goal should not depend on other students. Trying to learn the spelling of fifty new words a day is not realistic. You can control what you do. 3. measurable. Knowing your strengths and weaknesses will help you set goals you can accomplish. Failure to measure your progress toward a goal and recognize its accomplishment will result in effort that is misdirected and wasted. They can also help you accomplish the goals they set. and counselors will set goals for you. but you have little or no control over what others do. .CHARACTERISTICS OF APPROPRIATE GOALS Your goals should be: 1. within your control. Sometimes things will not go the way you anticipate and you may need to change your goal. teachers. Be accepting when they do. Other than when working as part of a group. Setting a goal to learn the spelling of three new words a day is realistic. flexible. These are people who know what is important for you and are very concerned with your success. 5. but if others don't. you will not accomplish your goal. SET GOALS IN SCHOOL THAT PROVIDE YOU WITH DIRECTION AND LEAD TO SUCCESS. It is important to be able to measure your progress toward a goal.

Eliminate distractions. Just about every student experiences this problem at one time or another. When you are motivated. Go crazy and add some cherries and nuts. you will not only find it difficult to stay focused. 2. have a treat like a nice big ice cream cone. Don’t make it party time. Study with your friends. For example. Develop interest in what you have to study. When you are not motivated. If you are surrounding by things you would rather do than study. Educational success requires studying. 3. Remind yourself of your long-term goals. 5. This will make studying more enjoyable.Motivating Yourself to Study If you find that you lack motivation to study. you will probably do those things instead of studying. 4. welcome to the club. Achievement of your goals likely requires educational success. but you can have fun as you do this. Reward yourself for studying. but you will find it difficult to get started in the first place. Here are some ways to increase your motivation to study. Motivation is important for good studying. you will find it easy to stay focused over a period of time. . 1. after a successful study session.

This will make it easier for you to resume studying after your break. if these suggestions don’t do it for you. 7." 9.6. You can buy one or even make your own. The poster should include positive words and a picture depicting success. just think about the consequences of not studying. . Just do it. 8. You probably won’t get very far if you look at your study session as "mission impossible. Establish a comfortable environment. You can also read inspirational stories about real people who have achieved success through effort. 10. Establish reasonable goals for a study session. However. Take breaks. Use a motivational poster. you can use KWL to help you learn about a topic. Here is what a blank KWL chart looks like. you will feel a lot better than if you are worried about getting it done. Place the poster where you can see it as you study. try to stop at a point where you are at something that is easy for you. You will be more inclined to study if you feel comfortable. KWL Chart The KWL chart was designed as an instructional reading strategy teachers could use to guide students' textbook reading. Finally. When you feel that you need to take a break. Once you do.

You'll find more plants and animals by an oasis than in any other part of the desert. Complete the K column by thinking about and writing what you already know about the topic. The L in KWL stands for what you learned about the topic as you read your textbook and use reference sources. or an underground stream. Complete the L column by writing the answers to the questions you wrote in the W column. Also." Topic: DESERTS K W L A desert is a dry Are there any There are areas with water in a area of land that areas of water desert that are called an oasis. is typically very in a desert? They are found by an aquifer hot. Here is an example of a KWL chart that a student completed for the topic "Deserts. Are there cold The Gobi Desert can get as deserts? cold as -40° in the winter because it is far north of the . Aquifer is an underground bed or layer that yields water. Complete the W column by writing the questions you want to answer about the topic. write in the L column other information you learned as you answered the questions. The W in KWL stands for what else you want to know about the topic.K W L The K in KWL stands for what you already know about the topic.

Here are the most common reasons: . The Sahara Desert is more than 3 million square miles in area. excessive procrastination can result in guilt feelings about not doing a task when it should be done. Using a KWL chart can help you bring together information about any topic. excessive procrastination can cause poor performance if the task is completed without sufficient time to do it well. However. They avoid the heat of the day. Hard for animals How do and come out only at night.equator. It can also cause anxiety since the task still needs to be done. More than 1/5 of What is the largest the world is desert? desert. In short. It is natural to procrastinate occasionally. So can many birds and insects. to survive in the animals Mammals such as camels and desert. Further. Mostly by using their long roots Hard for plants to get to water below the How do plants to survive in the ground. Why Do Students Procrastinate? There are many reasons why students procrastinate. excessive procrastination can interfere with school and personal success. survive? desert. Procrastination What is Procrastination? Procrastination is putting off or avoiding doing something that must be done. survive? rodents can go for long periods without water.

A student's standard of performance may be so high for a task that it does not seem possible to meet that standard. 7. A student may dislike doing what a task requires. How Do I Know if I Procrastinate Excessively? You procrastinate excessively if you agree with five or more of the following statements: . A student may have little or no interest in completing a task because he/she finds the task boring or lacking in relevance. Task Unpleasantness. A student may have little or no sense about which tasks are most important to do. 6. A student may lack confidence and fear that he/she will be unable to accomplish a task successfully. 4. 2. 5. Task Difficulty. Lack of Priorities. Poor Motivation. 8. Confusion. A student may be unsure about how to start a task or how it should be completed. Fear of Failure. A student may lack the skills and abilities needed to accomplish a task. 3.1. A student may have too many things around that distract him/her from doing a task. Perfectionism. Difficulty Concentrating.

" or "Nobody's perfect. What Can I Do About Excessive Procrastination? Here are some things you can do to control excessive procrastination. 6.1. I often put off a task in which I have little or no interest. I often start a task but stop before completing it. I often try to come up with reasons to do something other than a task I have to do." 2. I often find my mind wandering to things other that the task on which I am trying to work. . I often give up on a task as soon as I start to find it difficult. 7. I often ignore a task when I am not certain about how to start it or complete it. 8. 1. 9. 10. 12. 3. I often have difficulty getting started on a task. it will go away. 4. I often put off starting a task I find difficult 2. 5. 11. Prioritize the tasks you have to do. I often wonder why I should be doing a task. I often cannot decide which of a number of tasks I should complete first. Motivate yourself to work on a task with thoughts such as "There is no time like the present. I often find myself thinking that if I ignore a task. I often try to do so many tasks at once that I cannot do any of them.

Work on tasks at the times you work best. Work on tasks as part of a study group. 11. Reward yourself whenever you complete a task. Get help from teachers and other students when you find a task difficult. Work on a task you find easier after you complete a difficult task. Take breaks when working on a task so that you do not wear down. 15. 4. 8. Once you are into a task. 5. Work on difficult and/or unpleasant tasks first. Make a schedule of the tasks you have to do and stick to it. Break large tasks into small manageable parts. Study Groups . You will feel increasingly relieved as you work toward its accomplishment and will come to look forward to the feeling of satisfaction you will experience when you have completed the task. task. 10. 7. Find a good place to work on tasks. 9. 6. 14. Eliminate distractions that interfere with working on tasks. you will probably find that it is more interesting than you thought it would be and not as difficult as you feared. Commit yourself to completing a task once started. Above all. Set reasonable standards that you can meet for a 12. 13. think positively and get going.3.

A support group can "pick you up" when you find that your motivation to study is slipping. Here are the most important benefits: 1. The other group members can be a source of encouragement. 2. 6. Then read on to learn about how to start a study group and the characteristics of a successful study group. One or more group members are likely to understand something you do not. Group members will listen and discuss information and concepts during the study sessions. Finally. They may bring up ideas you never considered. be sure to read about the possible pitfalls of a study group. You can learn valuable new study habits from the other group members. You may become more committed to study because the group members are depending on your presentation and participation. You may be reluctant to ask a question in class. . 4. 3. These activities add a strong auditory dimension to your learning experience. You will not want to let them down. You will find it easier to do so in a small study group. 5. Read to learn about the benefits of a study group. Benefits of a Study Group A study group can be beneficial in many ways.A study group can be helpful when you are trying to learn information and concepts and preparing for class discussions and tests.

7. You can compare your class notes with those of the other group members to clarify your notes and fill in any gaps. 8. Teaching/explaining information and concepts to the other group members will help you reinforce your mastery of the information and concepts. 9. Let's face it - studying can sometimes be boring. Interacting with the other group members can make studying enjoyable.

Getting a Study Group Started

Study groups don't just happen. Here is what you should do to get a study group started: 1. Get to know your classmates by talking with them before class, during breaks, and after class. When selecting a classmate to join your study group, you should be able to answer YES for each of the following questions:
o o o o

Is this classmate motivated to do well? Does this classmate understand the subject matter? Is this classmate dependable?

Would this classmate be tolerant of the ideas of others?

Would you like to work with this classmate?

2. Invite enough of these classmates to work with you in a study group until you have formed a group of three to five. A larger group may allow some members to avoid responsibility, may lead to cliques, and may make group management more of an issue than learning.

3. Decide how often and for how long you will meet. Meeting two or three times a week is probably best. If you plan a long study session, make sure you include time for breaks. A study session of about 60 to 90 minutes is usually best. 4. Decide where you will meet. Select a meeting place that is available and is free from distractions. An empty classroom or a group study room in the library are possibilities. 5. Decide on the goals of the study group. Goals can include comparing and updating notes, discussing readings, and preparing for exams. 6. Decide who the leader will be for the first study session. Also decide whether it will be the same person each session or whether there will be a rotating leader. The leader of a study session should be responsible for meeting the goals of that study session. 7. Clearly decide the agenda for the first study session and the responsibilities of each group member for that session. 8. Develop a list of all group members that includes their names, telephone numbers, and email addresses. Make sure each group member has this list and update the list as needed.

Characteristics of a Successful Study Group
Once started, a study group should possess the following characteristics to be successful: 1. Each group member contributes to discussions.

2. Group members actively listen to each other without interrupting. Only one group member speaks at a time. 3. The other group members work collaboratively to resolve any concern raised by a group member. 4. Group members are prompt and come prepared to work. 5. The group stays on task with respect to its agenda.


Group members show respect for each other.

7. Group members feel free to criticize each other but keep their criticisms constructive. This can encourage group members to reveal their weaknesses so that they can strengthen them. 8. Group members feel free to ask questions of each other. 9. At the end of each study session, an agenda including specific group member responsibilities is prepared for the next session. 10. Above all, the positive attitude that "we can do this together" is maintained.

Possible Pitfalls of a Study Group

A study group can be a very positive learning experience. However, there are pitfalls to be avoided. Here are some cautions: 1. Do not let the study group get distracted from its agenda and goals. 2. Do not let the study group become a social group. You can always socialize at other times. 3. Do not allow group members to attend unprepared. To stay in the group, members should be required to do their fair share. 4. Do not the let the session become a negative forum for complaining about teachers and courses.

The information you just read will help you decide when a study group is appropriate for you and will help ensure its success. locate facts. 2. Abridged dictionaries omit words that do not regularly appear in books. on CD-ROMs. Each type is available in print forms. They include technical words that are rarely used outside of the subject. Dictionary A dictionary provides information about the meaning. Here are five types of reference sources you should use. It is important that all members have an equal opportunity to participate. math. and on the Internet. Do not allow one or two group members to dominate the group. and spelling of words. pronunciation. Using Reference Sources As you go through school. They provide extensive information about the words included. Thesaurus A thesaurus contains synonyms for commonly used . 1. biology. Unabridged dictionaries attempt to be complete by including all words currently in use in a language. magazines. and many more. psychology.5. you will need to use reference sources to find information about topics. and answer questions. Specialized dictionaries provide detailed information about the words that apply to a particular subject such as space. and newspapers.

and bodies of water. 4. The most common atlas contains maps that show the political and physical features of countries throughout the world." A thesaurus contains many more synonyms for a word than does a dictionary. deserts. . In addition to articles. 5. There are also specialized atlases for such things as weather across the world. "simple" is a synonym for "easy. A physical map shows the features of the earth's surface such as mountains. A thesaurus can help you precisely express your ideas when writing. You can learn about countries of the world. 3. definitions of some words. Encyclopedia An encyclopedia contains articles on a variety of subjects. A subject encyclopedia contains longer and more detailed articles on specific topics. government.words. the information is current. Almanac An almanac is an annual single-volume reference source that contains useful facts about a wide range of topics. A general encyclopedia includes overview articles on a wide range of topics. encyclopedias may include illustrations and diagrams. or fields of study. Because almanacs are revised each year. Atlas An atlas is a collection of maps. and references to additional information. The articles are written by experts on each of the subjects. and many other topics. A synonym is a word that has the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as another word. events. historical events. You may also use a road map to learn how to get from place to place. A political map shows government boundaries. For example.

Update it as the term goes on. You cannot change the number of hours. Prepare a Term Calendar At the beginning of a term. To be successful in school. a week. • • • Record your planned school activities. prepare a Term Calendar.oceans of the world. and even the anatomy of the human body. you must carefully manage your study time. Record your school assignments with their due dates and your scheduled tests. Wherever you study.Record your planned school activities. Here is what to do to prepare a Weekly Schedule. be sure you have access to each of these important reference sources. Update it as the week goes on. prepare a Weekly Schedule. Here is a strategy for doing this. but you can decide how to best use them. Managing Your Study Time There are only so many hours in a day. . Prepare a Weekly Schedule Each Sunday before a school week. Here is what to do to prepare a Term Calendar. • Record your daily classes. Record your known out-of-school activities. and a term.

There is also an optional Writing test which some colleges require. right after school.Enter things to be done for the coming week from your Term Calendar. • Be sure to include times for completing assignments. It has four mandatory subject tests: English. Place a √ next to each thing to do as you accomplish it. Reading. and studying for tests. General Tips . and Science. • Add any out-of-school activities in which you will be involved the next day. • Your Weekly Schedule should have more detail than your Term Calendar. prepare a Daily Organizer for the next day. ACT Test Taking Tips The ACT is a widely used college admission standardized test. These times may be during the school day. Mathematics. working on projects. Enter the things to do for the coming day from your Weekly Schedule. and weekends. • Review your class notes for the day just completed to see if you need to add any school activities. Your Daily Organizer should have more detail than your Weekly Schedule. • Enter the things that still need to be accomplished from your Daily Organizer from the previous day. and a Daily Organizer will help you make the best use of your time. • Review your class notes from the previous week to see if you need to add any school activities. • Add any out-of-school activities in which you will be involved during the week. evenings. • Prepare a Daily Organizer Each evening before a school day. Using a Term Calendar. a Weekly Schedule. Here is what to do to prepare a Daily Organizer.

Be careful to mark only one answer choice per question.) • • • • Answer every question. English Section Tips Consider the writing style used for each section. As you work on a section. • Reading Section Tips . • Reread the underlined portion with your answer choice to be sure it is correct. Write in the test book in any way that will help you.Answer the questions you find easiest first. The correct answer choice will be the one that works best with the writing style used. Use the process of elimination to narrow your choices. Consider all answer choices before you choose one. • For items that include "No Change" as an answer choice. keep track of how much time remains. consider how the underlined portion fits with the rest of the section. • When asked a question about something that is underlined. choose this as your answer only if you are sure none of the other answer choices are correct. • • • Don't spend more than a minute or two on any question. • Examine each answer choice to see how it differs from the others. (It's a good idea to bring a reliable watch. There is no penalty for guessing. Come back to the others later.

Read the passage carefully before you read the questions.

Focus on the main ideas in the passage. Underline these. Don't get lost in the details.
• • •

Try to identify how ideas in the passage are connected. Refer back to the passage as you answer each question.

Mathematics Section Tips
Work out the problem before looking at the answer choices. When done, choose the answer choice that matches your answer. If none match, redo the problem.

Don't overly rely on your calculator. Some problems are best worked out manually. Some don't even require calculation.

The questions focus much more on reasoning than on calculation. If you find yourself doing complicated calculations, you're probably on the wrong track.

Make sure your answer choice makes sense. A calculation error can lead you to a wrong answer choice.
• •

Check your work.

Science Section Tips

Given the complexity of the passages, it may help to make some simple notes as you read them.
• • •

Cross out irrelevant information.

Don't be overly concerned with any technical terminology. Technical terms usually have little to do with the correct answer choice. Be watchful for conflicting viewpoints in some of the passages.

Writing Section Tips
Organization of your response is very important. Use a five-paragraph essay that includes an introduction, supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion.
• • • • • • •

Plan your response before you begin to write it. Stay with the topic throughout your response. Vary your sentence structure and word choices. Use specific examples wherever possible. Write legibly.

If you have time, check your grammar, usage, punctuation, and spelling. These tips can help you get the most out your knowledge, skills, and abilities when you take the ACT.

Multiple-Choice Tests
Many of the tests you take in school will be multiple-choice tests. Here are two types of items you will often find on multiple-choice tests. 1. An incomplete statement followed by several answer choices. In this type of item, the missing part of the statement can be anywhere in the statement. You must circle the letter that represents the answer choice that correctly completes the statement. Usually there are four answer choices represented by the letters a, b, c, and d. Sometimes there are more than four answer choices.

Here is an example of this type of item:

The first president of the United States, ____, was known as the "Father of his country." a. Thomas Jefferson b. Abraham Lincoln c. George Washington d. Theodore Roosevelt You should circle "c" to show that George Washington was the first president of the United States. 2. A question followed by several answer choices. In this type of item, you must circle the letter that represents the answer choice that correctly answers the question. Here is an example of this type of item: How many states make up the United States of America? a. 48 b. 52 c. 46 d. 50 You should circle "d" to show that 50 is the correct answer choice for this question. Sometimes, one of the answer choices is "all of the above." In the following example, "e" is the correct answer choice because all of the foods shown are dairy products. Which of the following foods are dairy products? a. milk b. ice cream c. yogurt d. cream cheese e. all of the above

Russia b. For "e" to be correct. 1. none of the above Guidelines When Taking Multiple-Choice Tests Here are some guidelines that will help you correctly answer multiple-choice items. 5. none of the countries listed could be in South America.Other times. "b" is the correct answer choice because Argentina is the only country listed that is in South America. a. Look for hints about the correct answer choice in other items on the test. The correct answer choice may be part of another item on the test. 3." In the following example. Japan e. One of these two answer choices is likely to be correct. This will help you narrow down the correct answer choice. Mexico d. Read all the answer choices before selecting one. This will help you focus on the information most needed to identify the correct answer choice. 4. 2. It is just as likely for the last answer choice to be correct as the first. one of the answer choices is "none of the above. . Look for two answer choices that are opposites. Argentina c. Circle or underline important words in the item. Cross out answer choices you are certain are not correct. ______ is a country in South America.

Here are the steps to follow when studying for an essay test. Do not change your initial answer unless you are sure another answer choice is correct. 7. . Look for answer choices that contain language used by your teacher or found in your textbooks. An answer choice that contains such language is usually correct. Your studying for essay tests should be related to this goal. When studying for essay tests. More often than not. When studying for these tests.6. your goal should be to recognize facts. Do not choose "none of the above" if even just one of the other answer choices is correct. Essay tests assess your mastery of themes and overall ideas. Choose "all of the above" if you are certain all other answer choices in the item are correct. 8. Studying for an Essay Test Tests such as multiple-choice tests and true/false tests assess specific factual knowledge. Knowing how multiple-choice items are constructed and using these guidelines will help you improve your score on a multiple-choice test. Choose "none of the above" if you are certain all other answer choices in the item are incorrect. your goal should be to recall broad information in an organized way. 9. Do not choose "all of the above" if even just one of the other answer choices is not correct. your first choice is correct.

Doing this will give you a working familiarity with the information that is most likely to be the basis of questions on the test. Carry the study cards you developed in Step 6 with you so that you can review them frequently. For each card you prepare in Step 2. When you complete Step 6. Assemble the materials that contain the information that will be covered on the test. Each time you identify one. Now is the time to think like your teacher. and class notes and add written details about the theme or overall idea to the card. 7. carefully review your textbook. write a response to the question on that card (write on the back of the card and on additional cards if necessary). Write each question on its own index card. textbook notes. each containing a possible test question and a written response to that question. For each card you prepared in Step 5. Be sure to review these cards the evening before the test. 3. review your cards several times. 2. Once you have completed Step 3 for each card. Try to predict the questions your teacher will ask on the test. and your class notes. Essay tests can be scary. You will often find the same theme or overall idea in one or more places. such as explain or compare. Take the scare out of them by following the study steps above. label an index card with the name of that theme or overall idea. but use just one card to represent it. 6. Use the cards you developed in Step 3 to help you answer each question.1. 4. This includes your textbook. When writing the questions. you will have a set of study cards. include direction words often used by teachers. 5. your textbook notes. Test Anxiety WHAT IS TEST ANXIETY? . Read these materials to identify themes and overall ideas.

an upset stomach. a little anxiety can jump start your studying and keep you motivated. You may have difficulty demonstrating what you know during the test. Further. When taking a test. I find it difficult to understand the directions and questions. I have a hard time getting started studying for a 2. HOW DO I KNOW IF I HAVE TEST ANXIETY? You probably have test anxiety if you answer YES to four or more of the following: 1. When taking a test. 5. 4. too much anxiety may block your performance during the test.Too much anxiety about a test is commonly referred to as test anxiety. I expect to do poorly on a test no matter how much or how hard I study. I often "draw a blank. too much anxiety can interfere with your studying. test. When taking a test. and tension in my muscles. I have difficulty organizing my thoughts. 6. I experience physical discomfort such as sweaty palms. You may have difficulty learning and remembering what you need to know for the test. However. 7. In fact. When studying for a test. a headache. 3." . I find many things that distract me. It is perfectly natural to feel some anxiety when preparing for and taking a test. When taking a test. difficulty breathing.

and after a test to reduce your test anxiety. Get enough sleep the night before the test. Taking slow. deep breaths can help. 9. After a test. WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT TEST ANXIETY? Here are some things you can do before. Stay away from junk foods. 4. Follow a plan for taking the test such as the DETER strategy we describe at A Strategy for Taking Tests. Think of the test as an opportunity to show how much you have learned. Eat a light and nutritious meal before the test." 5. Use good study techniques to gain cognitive mastery of the material that will be covered on the test.8. Maintain a positive attitude as you study. 1. This mastery will help you to approach the test with confidence rather than have excessive anxiety. Stay with your plan! . When taking a test. I find my mind wandering to other things. Employ the tips we provide at Study Habits. Think about doing well. I usually score lower on a test than I do on assignments and papers. Focus on positive self-statements such as "I can do this. Go into the test well rested and well fed. I remember information I couldn't recall during the test. Don't panic even if you find the test difficult. 3. 2. 10. during. Stay relaxed during the test. not failing.

they are often presented as a statement that includes a direction word. Once you finish the test and hand it in. Direction Words In Essay Test Items Most essay test items are not presented in the form of a question. You have to know the material to do well on a test. The meaning of each direction word is provided and is followed by an example . The direction word tells you what you should do when you write your answer to the item. forget about it temporarily. Turn your attention and effort to new assignments and tests.6. Take the time that you need to do your best. Don't worry about other students finishing the test before you do. 8. Instead. There is nothing more you can do until the graded test is returned to you. Apply this knowledge when you take the next test. Here are the direction words that are most frequently used by teachers when they write essay test items. When the graded test is returned to you. 7. analyze it to see how you could have done better. Look for the direction word and be sure to do what it tells you to do. You have to control test anxiety to show what you know. Learn from your mistakes and from what you did well.

Analyze tells you to break something down into its parts and show how the parts relate to each other to make the whole. • Explain why the American Civil War occurred.Describe tells you to present a full and detailed picture of something in words to include important characteristics and qualities. specific manner.Define tells you to explain the meaning of something in a brief.Diagram tells you to illustrate something by drawing a picture of it and labeling its parts. Define . Compare .Compare tells you to show how two or more things are BOTH similar and different. • Define what is meant by "living life to the fullest. Diagram . • Analyze the factors that contribute to good health. Contrast . • Describe what it was like to live in ancient Rome. • Evaluate the impact of rap music on American youth. . Evaluate . Explain . • Diagram a modern commercial jet airplane.Explain tells you to provide facts and reasons to make something clear and understandable. • Compare the forms of government found in the United States and in China.Evaluate tells you to present both the positive and negative characteristics of something. • Contrast the Republican and Democratic political platforms. Analyze .of an essay test item using that direction word.Contrast tells you to show how two or more things are different. Get to know what each of these direction words tells you to do." Describe .

Trace tells you to present the order in which something occurred. Recognizing these direction words and knowing what they tell you to do will help you do well when taking an essay test.Justify tells you to provide reasons and facts in support of something. • Outline what it takes to be successful in school. Outline . • Summarize how Thomas Edison's inventions have made our lives better.Summarize tells you to present the main points about something in a brief form. • Justify the need for the federal income tax. • Trace the major events that led to America's Declaration of Independence. Summarize .Outline tells you to present the most important information about something in a carefully organized manner. Trace . SAT Test Taking Tips . • List the ingredients needed to bake bread. List .List tells you to present information about something as a series of brief numbered points.Justify .

(Be sure to bring a calculator. • Be careful about guessing. you don't lose a point for omitting an answer. but you do lose a fractional point for a wrong answer. For most questions.) • • • Use the test booklet for scratch work. • • • • Mark the test book in any way that will help you. Keep track of time. try substituting the numbers given as answer choices for the variables in the question. Answer the questions that are easiest for you first. General Tips In each section of the SAT. • Don't spend more than one or two minutes on any one question. It includes three sections: math. the questions start out easy and become increasingly difficult. and writing. Bring water and healthy snacks to renew your mental and physical energy during breaks. Use a calculator as needed. Math Section Tips Most of the items in the math section are multiple-choice questions. .The SAT is the most popular standardized test used for admission into colleges and universities in the United States. critical reading. If stuck.

In this case. Since there is no penalty for wrong answers here. You are required to select the answer choice that correctly completes the sentence.. not) or prefixes (e.g. • Critical Reading Section Tips Some of the questions require you to read a sentence containing one or two blanks. read the introduction first to see how the passages are related.Other questions require that you come up with your own answers and fit them into a grid. do not select an answer choice unless you are certain that both words in the answer choice are correct. Pay the most attention to the first and last sentence in a paragraph. You can always go back to look for details. If your answer is a mixed number. • When a sentence contains two blanks. If what you come up is one of the answer choices. select it as your answer. convert it to an improper fraction or a decimal. • Some passages are presented in pairs. • Other questions require you to read a passage and select the correct answers to questions about the passage. Do the problem again if you come up with a negative number. • Read all the answer choices before selecting one. Read the sentence and try to complete it before looking at the answer choices. These change the meaning of a sentence.g. take your best guess if you can't figure out the answer. • • Read the passage before reading the questions. As you read a passage look for the main ideas. • Be especially careful when sentences include negative words (e.. • . • The answer cannot be a negative number. Don't just select the first one you come to that you think might be correct. un). • The answer cannot be a mixed number.

Nothing can take the place of math. • • Avoid the use of slang. express your ideas clearly using examples to back them up. • The standard five-paragraph essay is the best format to use. reading. Select an answer choice that seems simple and clear. Because the score for your essay is based on the reader's overall impression. others to find errors in sentences." • Focus on the organization of the essay rather than perfect grammar and spelling.Writing Section Tips This section includes multiple-choice questions. Do not select an answer choice that seems awkward and very complicated. Some require you to improve sentences. • This section also requires you to write a short. and writing skills. Don't be too "wordy. • Keep your writing as simple as possible. and others to improve paragraphs. persuasive essay on an assigned topic within 25 minutes. But these tips can help you make the most of your skills when taking the SAT. • It is particularly important to read the questions and answer choices in this section very carefully. The DETER Strategy for Taking Tests .

you must have good knowledge of the information that is being tested. But you must also have a strategy for taking the test that allows you to show what you know. The DETER strategy can help you do your best on any test. • If you do not follow the directions. • E = Examine • • Examine the entire test to see how much you have to do. Each letter in DETER reminds you what to do. Ask your teacher to explain anything about the test directions you do not understand Only by following the directions can you achieve a good score on the test. decide how much time you will spend on each item. Only by knowing the entire task can you break it down into parts that become manageable for you. you will not be able to demonstrate what you know. D = Directions • • Read the test directions very carefully. T = Time Once you have examined the entire test.To do well on a test. • .

True/false tests are a lot more difficult than they seem to be. you will have time to review your answers and make them as complete and accurate as possible. Guidelines When Taking True/False Tests Here are some guidelines that will help you correctly answer true/false items. But even if you do have the knowledge. you have a 50-50 chance of being right. • Also make sure to review the test directions to be certain you have answered all items required.If there are different points for items. They test very specific factual knowledge. At the very worst. Nothing can replace having the knowledge. you may not get to answer items that test things you know. • Planning your time is especially important for essay tests where you must avoid spending so much time on one item that you have little time left for other test items. • R = Review If you have planned your time correctly. True/False Tests True/false tests seem easy. • If you get stuck on a difficult item that comes up early in the test. • Using the DETER strategy will help you do better on tests and get better grades. But would you be pleased with a test grade of 50? Of course you wouldn’t. • E = Easiest The second E in DETER reminds you to answer the items you find easiest first. . plan to spend the most time on the items that count for the most points. there are some guidelines you should follow to make sure you demonstrate your knowledge. All you have to do is read a statement and decide whether the statement is true or false.

and butter are all in the dairy food group. At a quick glance. This statement is true because all three of these foods are part of the dairy food group. Choose True for an item only when you are certain that the entire statement is true. they two statements might seem the same. while the second is false. cheese. This is especially important when the item contains more than one "fact.1." Read the following statement: Milk. lettuce. Directions given by teachers should be very unclear. A negative word or prefix completely changes the meaning of a statement. 2. lettuce is not. Now read this changed statement: Milk. This statement is false because while milk and butter are in the dairy food group. The first statement is true. It is . It is always important to read a statement carefully. Be very careful when a statement contains a negative word such as not or a negative prefix such as un as in the word unfriendly. and butter are all in the dairy food group. Read the following two statements: Directions given by teachers should be very clear.

This statement is true. Eating a balanced diet is not unhealthy. Read the following statement: The official language of all the countries in South America is Spanish. The statement has now become: Eating a balanced diet is healthy. Now read the same statement with the negatives crossed out. Each of these words suggests that there are no exceptions. Two negatives typically make a positive. 3. An absolute statement is usually false. and no. 4. only. but in a confusing way. always. but in a very confusing way. Read the following statement: Eating a balanced diet is not unhealthy. every. An absolute statement contains words such as the following: all. Spanish is the official language of 9 of the 13 countries in . It is now a much easier statement to understand as true. none. When a statement contains two negative words and/or prefixes. never. cross out both.especially important to do this when the statement contains a negative word or prefix. This statement is false because of the absolute word all.

Guyana (English). Read the following statement: The official language of most of the countries in South America is Spanish. may. choose True as your answer. This statement is true because of the qualified word most. take your best guess unless there is a penalty for wrong answers. True/false tests can be tricky. but to reinforce what you have learned. 5. This is because teachers typically use tests not only to assess what you have learned. These words allow for exceptions. and Suriname (Dutch). usually. 6. If you are uncertain whether a statement is true or false. A qualified statement contains words such as the following: some. Use these guidelines to do your best. If you have absolutely no clue. most. French Guiana (French). many. and often. The exceptions are Brazil (Portuguese). A qualified statement is usually true. Research has shown that true/false tests typically contain more true statements than false statements.South America. Tips for Choosing a Career . sometimes.

career outlooks. internships provide valuable networking opportunities that may lead to a job. Doing this may also provide good networking opportunities. Extensive reading about potential careers is vital. Informational interviews often change a person's perspective about an occupation. It's important to collect vital information such as career descriptions. teachers. educational requirements. Job outsourcing information and forecasts can be collected from sources . Internships provide excellent opportunities for acquiring a realistic. Find a mentor. 3. Most people spend half or more of their waking hours five days a week at their jobs. and neighbors. While selecting a career can be a difficult process.Planning for college should begin once you enter high school. Many colleges and employers have a formal mentoring program. It's a great way to learn about a career and a mentor can provide valuable networking opportunities. employment statistics. Further. Volunteering also provides many of the advantages of an internship. 1. 5. and which has shown good results. clear picture about the daily duties and job satisfaction of a particular occupation. members of an alumni association. and potential earnings. 4. You can find interview candidates by asking friends. 2. Also. Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions you will ever make. the following tips can make this process easier for you. Also. The possibility for a job being outsourced to foreign countries is an important consideration. "Mentworking" is a new trend which combines mentoring and networking. and visit appropriate social and professional networking sites online. You can also contact relevant professional associations and societies. formal mentoring organizations are available that match mentors with individuals. Here are things to do each year as you progress through high school. You will discover details about careers that you were not aware of. Interviewing people in the field is an excellent way to learn about the various aspects of a career. companies often hire interns that perform well.

Place a check next to each skill you possess. 10. and the job search process. Does advancement require additional education? Will additional education and certification provide you with a significant advantage over the competition? Are supervisory and management opportunities available? Following the tips provided in this article will help you choose a career that is right for you. A "hot job" today may not be "hot" next year or the year after. career counselors. 9. a FREE career search . Write a list of the skills needed for a particular field. Your aptitudes should be a vital factor in your career selection process. . Many community colleges have career centers that provide free individual and group career counseling. The skills required for a career are an essential factor for an individual's potential for success in that career. Natural strengths allow an individual to work with ease and to acquire expertise faster. and job satisfaction requirements. magazine articles. skills. employment agencies. Explore the advancement opportunities of each potential occupation. the more likely this field is right for you. A gratifying career is often built upon a match with what you are naturally good at. When evaluating these lists keep in mind your interests. college counselors. This article contributed by and exploration resource. Take into consideration the amount of job opportunities in your area for each career you are considering. 7. choosing a career. The more checks you make. This is vital if you intend to stay in your current location. and relevant professional associations. professors.such as articles on the Internet. Do this frequently since these lists keep changing. Career counselors can provide assistance with the self-evaluation process. 11. Look for lists of "hot jobs" on the Internet and in magazines. 8. 6.

These tips will help you on your way to Spanish proficiency. Learning a new language should be attempted in small. Learn Spanish Abroad You will learn fastest when you are exposed to the language you are trying to learn on a regular basis. by attempting to read a couple of small articles regularly. everyday situations. Take your time and don't expect to be perfect straight away. . Reading newspapers and magazines can help you gain more confidence in your Spanish reading and writing ability. 1. You may become frustrated when this doesn't happen. 2. you can pick up common words and phrases. manageable steps. 3. Congratulate yourself on progress made and try to steer clear of setting unrealistic goals. Be Patient Don't expect to learn Spanish too quickly. You will find your mastery of Spanish will improve significantly if you combine what you learn in school with practice in practical.Learning Spanish Thinking about learning Spanish? Want some useful advice on the best way to improve? ViaSpanish Language Schools asked some of our qualified and experienced teachers and their students for their top tips to help you learn Spanish. However. Actively Involve Yourself With Spanish Literature You don't have to read an entire Spanish newspaper every day.

if there is a word or phrase you find difficult to remember. say its name out loud. Watch Spanish Movies and Television Shows This is an easy and fun way to learn Spanish. write it on a flashcard. Homework usually only involves reading and writing. Review your flashcards frequently. Label Your Surroundings Buy a pad of stickies and go around your house and stick a Spanish label on things. Also. Try to get as much exposure to Spanish film and television as possible. The best way to overcome this is by finding friends who will support you when progress seems elusive. Every time you go near a labeled item. If you keep hearing a word while you are out and about. Use Flashcards Using flashcards is a great way to remember important Spanish words you come across each day.4. . You will never forget the meaning of 'el baño' (the bathroom) again. write it on a flashcard. 6. This is particularly helpful in picking up different accents and trying to comprehend the Spanish language when spoken at a faster pace. watch English-language movies that have Spanish subtitles. 7. Your motivation may drop from time to time. Also. Learning Spanish with a friend also ensures that you have an opportunity for practical and oral learning outside your classroom. Try to match the words spoken to the words written on the screen. Learn With a Friend Studying and learning Spanish can sometimes be a frustrating and lonely process. 5.

remember that learning a foreign language can be challenging and frustrating. if you want it. rewarding. you have to put your heart and soul into it. you must know your subject well and convince your audience that they have .8. is easy to obtain. Buena suerte! (Good luck!) This article was contributed by Ben Moller-Butcher of ViaSpanish. One hour here and there never really works. or in your local community. Making an Oral Presentation When making an oral presentation in class. Watching the odd Spanish movie will not do. and worthwhile! To learn Spanish. and attend and participate in local Spanish group meetings. Progress will depend on the effort you put in and the resources you have available. But the learning can also be fun.the more exposure you have to Spanish. You need to set a plan and stick to it. Join a Spanish Learning Community Online. Overall. Sign up for online support and guidance. you will find a surprisingly large number of people trying to do the same thing as you. the better chance you have of mastering this language. Take advantage of these resources. Remember . We live in an age where information and guidance.

Add appropriate anecdotes and humor to drive home a point. Don't use visual aids that are so complex that the audience will spend its time trying to read them instead of listening to you. not replacements for what you say. Build in some simple and quick activities for your audience so that they are actively involved in your presentation. • Use your voice effectively. transparencies. • Know your audience. Anticipate questions you may be asked and prepare answers to these.something to gain from listening to you. charts. and slides. Make it clear that you are knowledgeable and enthusiastic about your subject. • Maintain eye contact. Tailor your presentation to your audience's level of knowledge about the subject of your presentation. Ask questions that you are confident your audience will be able to answer. Making your presentation interesting will help you to capture and keep your audience's attention for a while. Shift your eye contact around the room so that everyone feels that you are talking to them. Research your subject to ensure that you are knowledgeable. • Actively involve your audience. • Provide examples. • Use visual aids. Supplement what you say with visual aids such as handouts. Practice your presentation until you feel comfortable. • Be positive. Visual aids are supplements to what you say. Try to make your presentation as concrete and "down to earth" as possible. Make sure that everyone can easily see the visual aids. Make sure you can present your information within whatever time limits you will have. Vary the tone of your voice and be careful not to talk too quickly. People can only listen so long without their attention wandering. Talk to your audience. Be prepared. and their interests. but you must do more. Use your notes as prompts as needed. what they need to know. • . • Don't read your presentation. Here are some things you can do to make an effective oral presentation.

Are you better today than you were yesterday? • Associate with students who like. There is a history of research which shows that self-esteem and achievement are related. while students with poor self-esteem tend to be low achievers. It's much better to give yourself compliments than to put yourself down. Leave your audience feeling upbeat about what they have just heard. Write these down and keep adding to the list. respect.End on a high note. and support you. Students with good self-esteem tend to be high achievers. It is important to have good self-esteem. • Stop comparing yourself with other students. • . and willingness to try new things. • Self-Esteem Self-esteem is your overall sense of your competence and worth. What can you do to build your self-esteem? Here are some ideas. Try to avoid students who are always looking to find fault with you. Be positive about yourself. Your comparison should be with yourself. Read the list every day. you will have confidence in your ability to learn. • Think of all the things you are good at and all your successes. With good self-esteem.

Once you have made the decision to homeschool your child or children. • Keep looking for ways to improve yourself. You must be sure that homeschooling is for you. The entire household (including the child or children to be homeschooled) must be in full agreement that homeschooling is appropriate.Get involved in activities you enjoy. You will likely be successful in these activities. Homeschooling Deciding to homeschool your child or children is a very important decision. • Attack what you think are your weaknesses. These are your strengths." • The higher your self-esteem. and can involve financial sacrifice. consider each of the following questions. keep in mind that homeschooling will take up much of your time each day." • Help others. Prove to yourself that "you can do it. You will feel better about yourself if you are healthy and well rested. As the old saying goes. • Make use of your special talents and abilities. the higher will be your achievement. When making this decision. "Reach for the moon. You will really feel good about yourself when you do. Even if you miss. you'll land among stars. What laws apply to homeschooling in the state in which you reside? • . • Take good care of yourself.

Set a routine. • What kinds of records will you maintain? You can use your own record keeping system such as journals and portfolios. Use a portfolio to organize and keep samples of your child's or children's written work and projects. Be sure you are comfortable with the curriculum you choose. For some advanced subjects such as physics or algebra. You may choose instead to use a commercial computerized record keeping system. There you can find encouragement and many useful teaching ideas. • What will your homeschooling schedule be like? Establish a plan for the year. It is easy to keep a journal in a notebook in which you date and precisely record what is done each day. and semesters. • What kinds of help might you need? Homeschooling is rigorous and often stressful. If the state in which you reside requires that you submit end-of-year outcomes for their review. • . Flexibility is a must. quarters.You must be in full compliance with these laws. months. You will find considerable variation from curriculum to curriculum. choose a curriculum that best fits the needs of your child or children. Consider joining a homeschooling support group. These laws vary from state to state. What curriculum will you use? If you are not required to follow the standard curriculum used by public schools in the state in which you reside. you may need to use the services of a qualified tutor. but be sure to leave time for things you must do other than homeschooling. and break it into smaller manageable segments such as weeks. journals and portfolios work particularly well.

Read about each of these learning styles to identify YOUR preferred learning style. Are you an Auditory Learner? Auditory Learners learn best when information is presented in an auditory language format. Your Preferred Learning Style A learning style is a way of learning. take advantage of the enormous range of homeschooling resources available on the Internet. Are you a Visual Learner? Visual Learners learn best when information is presented in a written language format or in another visual format such as pictures or diagrams. Do you seem to learn best in classes that emphasize teacher lectures and class discussions? Does listening to audio tapes help you learn better? Do you find yourself reading aloud or talking things out to gain better understanding? If YES. YOUR preferred learning style is the way in which YOU learn best. provide clear handouts. If you decide to homeschool.Homeschooling is not for everyone. you are probably an Auditory Learner. and make extensive use of an overhead projector? Do you try to remember information by creating pictures in your mind? Do you take detailed written notes from your . the Visual Learning Style. and the Tactile/Kinesthetic Learning Style. Do you do best in classes in which teachers do a lot of writing at the chalkboard. Three learning styles that are often identified in students are the Auditory Learning Style.

you are probably a Tactile/Kinesthetic Learner. make sure they review their notes. keep your learning style firmly in mind. Are you a Tactile/Kinesthetic Learner? Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners learn best in hands-on learning settings in which they can physically manipulate something in order to learn about it. For each subject.textbooks and in class? If YES. When you can choose a class. Do you learn best when you can move about and handle things? Do you do well in classes in which there is a lab component? Do you learn better when you have an actual object in your hands rather than a picture of the object or a verbal or written description of it? If YES. When you can choose a teacher. try to choose one who's teaching method best matches your learning style. Tip #1: Focus on Homework. When you choose a major and future career. they will be prepared to study . whether your children have been given homework or not. Helping Your Children in School You can help your children succeed in school by helping them follow these 10 tips. This will mean that when a big test or an end of unit test comes up. Your learning style is your strength. Go with it whenever you can. try to choose one that draws heaviest on your learning style. you are probably a Visual Learner.

Your children might get sidetracked and waste time going from topic to topic. Tip #4: Use your time efficiently. You will be amazed by what they might find! Often. your children will become naturally neater. Things might be clearer then. Have your children go back to the piece they left after a while. be careful about how your children use the Internet. it is best to have your children do this in the middle of the week. take your children to the library to do their research. have them leave it and move on to the next piece. The Internet is a valuable resource. Make sure your childrens' notes contain all the information they need to know. For this reason. and ready to ask any questions that might have come up. some "lost" notes or homework will show up just in time. even when they seem to be finished with the homework for that day. If your children get stuck on a particular piece of homework. Have them highlight or underline the most important points. Tip #6: Do research wisely.for it. Tip #2: Keep your notes neat and clear. Every now and then. Focusing on homework will also help your children be ready for the next lesson. While your children are applying Tip # 1. Wednesday night is best. They will find valuable information and learn many useful research skills. Tip #3: Keep your schoolbag neat. Otherwise. . they can "kill two birds with one stone" by improving the quality of their notes. Notes full of crossed out words and messy ink patches need to be rewritten altogether. After a little while. but it can be very distracting. Your children should use their school planners or their own schedules to anticipate what they will need to be doing soon. Tip #5: Always look ahead. If research is involved in a project. their frustration will rise and make matters worse. If a test is coming up. make sure your children don't leave studying to the last minute. At least once a week have your children empty their schoolbags to make them neater. Encourage them to do a little bit extra.

and other programs.Tip #7: Use technology. Tip #9: Prioritize what must be done. Publisher. at a local or national tutoring center. your children will have to find what works best for them. but for any subject and homework assignment. . there is something they are not doing right. Your children must learn to prioritize the things they need to do. Let them experiment with PowerPoint. This is going to be trial and error at the beginning. Install appropriate audio books on their iPods and watch the Discovery Channel and other educational television programs with them. while still others might need to act them out or build something. Schoolwork and extracurricular activities must come first. contact the teacher. others might have to read them aloud. and online. If positive results are not occurring. Some children may have to rewrite their notes to remember facts. Help your children learn to use a computer effectively to apply to their schoolwork. Tip #8: Find your way. Tutoring is available in your home. Tip #10: Communicate with teachers. Tutoring and Its Benefits The purpose of tutoring is to help students help themselves and to assist or guide them to the point at which they become independent. Once the right way is found. learning will improve. Front Page. Your children can do this after class or the next day. This applies to you as parents as well as to your children. Encourage your children to ask the teacher if they find something to be unclear. Help your children learn to type efficiently and use Word correctly. successful learners. If there is any doubt about an assignment. Make this very clear to your children and help them stick to this priority. Doing this will also help your children develop important communication skills and build their self-confidence.

• • • • • • • • • Teacher or counselor recommends tutoring Grades are dropping Homework seems increasingly difficult Extreme anxiety before tests Self-esteem is dropping Loss of interest in learning Feelings of wanting to give up Resistance to doing schoolwork Reluctance to go to school What are the benefits of tutoring? Tutoring can be beneficial in many ways.How do you know if tutoring is needed for you or your child? There are many possible reasons why you or your child might need tutoring. • • • Provides personalized attention Improves grades Increases knowledge and understanding of subjects . Here are some of the most important reasons. Here are some of the benefits.

and encouragement Provides review of skills not mastered but no longer taught Review the reasons why tutoring might be needed and the benefits tutoring provides. Not everyone needs tutoring. Learning German . Doing this will help you decide if you or your child should consider tutoring.• • • Increases motivation to succeed Provides intensive practice Allows progress at own pace • • • • • • • Leads to better use of study time Improves self-esteem and confidence Encourages higher levels of learning Encourages self-directed learning Reduces competition Provides praise. But when needed. tutoring can make a great contribution to success. feedback.

classic and modern art. It’s not so easy. architecture. so that German culture is diverse. The German culture is rich. Liechtenstein. But if you trust in your skills and work as hard as you can. . discovering its music and movies. Take it step by step. new vocabulary. Switzerland. you will understand spoken German. Some parts of German are harder to master than are other parts. Sometimes you will have the feeling that you’re improving your German very quickly. and take as much time as you need. But if you really want to. Immerse yourself in the German culture. but not so hard either. The German culture has much to offer in music. plays and cinema. Austria. you will have to practice a lot. you will feel that your learning has become blocked. At other times. The German language is spoken in several European countries (Germany. and written literature. Live the language. you will learn to read and write in German. a new logic. you will make it. this is natural. and Luxembourg). amazingly rich. Plunging yourself into the German culture (reading about it. Do not blame yourself.) will increase your motivation to learn the German language. You must learn new grammar rules (sometimes totally different from your native language). and you will even learn to speak German. and of course.Learning German is similar to learning most other languages. etc.

If you live in or visit a German-speaking country for a time. Go to a German restaurant and try ordering in German. and you will motivate each other to do better and better. In this way you can practice using German in its daily context and in the way that native speakers use the language. . see if you can join a German social group in your community. Don’t wait until you master German before you begin to use the language. then watch as much German TV and movies as possible. If it is not. It’s really fun to make up little games as you study with a friend. Learning with a friend is always stimulating. and some very cool bands like Tomte and Die Sterne. Learning German is like learning anything new. practice whatever you have learned at that point with as many people as you can. At any point during your learning. deep and beautiful intellectual movies. If not. Learn with a friend. Use what you learn. opportunities to do this will be all around you. this may not be practical for you. For example. German TV offers plenty of hilarious talk shows. the first one to master a certain grammar rule wins a free ice cream. What is more exciting than challenging people and being challenged yourself? Learning German with a friend is a fun experience that will provide you with another perspective other than your own. Of course. You’ll know how well you did by what arrives at your table.The best way to learn German is to live for a time in a country where it is spoken. Practice makes perfect. Also try to watch news programs that are broadcast in German.

Logical/Mathematical Intelligence . Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence . You can activate your logical/mathematical intelligence by studying formulas. 4. diagrams. Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence . 3.This intelligence involves thinking in images and pictures. You can activate your bodily/kinesthetic intelligence by using your motor skills regularly through exercises like jogging. getting involved in debates. 2.This intelligence involves body movements and handling objects. playing sports. reading. Each of the intelligences can be useful to you as a learner. and engaging in hands-on activities. doing calculations. and participating actively in class discussions.Activating Your Eight Multiple Intelligences The theory of multiple intelligences holds that there are eight different intelligences that account for the potential to learn. listening to news on the radio. You . Here are the eight intelligences and some ways that you can activate each.This intelligence involves numbers and reasoning. and pictures. and by creating mind maps. 1. flow charts. You can activate your verbal/linguistic intelligence by trying to learn new words each day. Visual/Spatial Intelligence . and solving puzzles.This intelligence is language-based and involves the ability to speak and write. You can activate your visual/spatial intelligence by analyzing the visual aids in your textbooks.

6.can also activate this intelligence as you type your assignments on your computer.This intelligence involves appreciation and understanding of nature. and singing. 7. 5. and needs of others.This intelligence involves musical abilities such as rhythm and pitch. Musical Intelligence . Interpersonal Intelligence . 8. Try to use those that are your strongest and are related to what you are trying to learn. You can activate your interpersonal intelligence by participating in class activities and discussions. Explore nature through field trips and camping to learn about things in their natural settings. Basic Science Vocabulary . and self-awareness. You can activate your intrapersonal intelligence by critically examining your strengths and weaknesses. playing an instrument. You can activate your naturalist intelligence by linking learning experiences to the natural world. Intrapersonal Intelligence . You don’t have to learn something using all eight pathways. brainstorming with others.This intelligence involves responding to the moods. You can activate your musical intelligence by listening to music. motivations. self-worth. The eight intelligences provide eight pathways to learning. and getting involved in social activities.This intelligence involves self-esteem. Naturalist Intelligence . It leads to good interpersonal relationships and allows you to enjoy the company of others.

any material through which electricity and heat flow easily (opposite of insulator) electron . atom .a substance that is composed of two or more elements conductor .a substance that cannot be broken up into a simpler substance (118 elements have been identified at this time) .the smallest unit of living matter charge . Here are some of the words and their scientific meanings that you will probably come across as you study science.if two objects each have a positive charge or a negative charge. The words are listed in alphabetical order. they are attracted to each other .if one object has a positive charge and the other a negative organism that is genetically identical to the unit or individual from which it was derived compound .Science is the systematic study of the natural world.the amount of electricity carried by an object (a charge can be positive or negative . Any word in bold is one of the words in the list.a tiny particle that has a negative charge and orbits the nucleus of an atom element . they repel one another) clone .the smallest unit of a chemical element cell .

or gas molecule . such as ice solvent .a state ofmatter that has both definite shape and volume.the movement of heat from one place to another by waves or particles resistance . such as air homeostasis .two or more elements that are chemically joined nucleus .any material through which electricity or heat does not flow easily (opposite of conductor) ion .something that has mass and can exist as a solid.the central part of an atom organism .a substance.the extent to which a material opposes the flow of electricity (copper is used in electrical wiring because copper has low resistance) solid .a state of matter that has no definite shape or volume.gas . usually a atom or molecule that has an electric charge liquid . liquid. that can dissolve another substance .a state of matter that has definite volume but no definite shape.any living thing able to carry out life on its own proton . such as water matter .a positively charged particle located in the nucleus of an atom radiation .the tendency of a system to maintain internal stability insulator .

.the speed and direction of an object's motion These are just some of the words whose meanings you will need to know when you study science. It is a good idea to write the science words and their meanings you encounter throughout school in a science notebook.stimulus .a close and prolonged association between two or more different organisms of different species (there is usually some benefit to each organism) tropism . There will be many others.the response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus velocity .anything in the environment that causes a living thing to react substance .anything that has mass and occupies space symbiosis .

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