FUNDAMENTALS OF MODERN VLSI DEVICES

The grcrM[ l.ld\ ancc made in VLSI technology in recent year ha-re been underpinned b, rapllI de\ eluprnents in the design and fabrication of CMOS and bipolar devices. r~icuJarJy al rhe deep submieron level. This book examines in detail the basic propernes and design of the e dev ices, includl ng chip lntegratl OD, and di cusse the various [actors mat affect their perf irmance.

The authors begin \~ ith a thorough review of the relevant aspects of serniconducmr phy i ndproeecd tc adescriptien ofthedes'gn of CMOS and bipolar devices. The oprimization of these de, ices for VLSI applications IS also covered. The authors highlight me intricate interdependencies and subtle rradeoffs between those device parameters

uch s power consumption and packing density, tha~ affect eircult performance and manufacturability, They also discuss in detail (he scaling, and physical limits to the ',.I .. aling of C OS and bipolar devices.

The book contain many ex rcises, and can be used as a textbook fur senior UD~rgmdu~m or first-year graduate courses on microelectronics or VLSI devices. h WIll a be a .. aluable reference volume for practicing engineers involved 10 research and del 1 prnenr in the electronic-s industry

nan 1: ur received hJ Ph D. from the University of CiilifomJa. Berkeley. m 1974.

From t975 to ~ 979 he worked at ASAt Goddard Institute for pace Srudaes and from 979 to. J981 at Rockwell International Science Center. Since 1981 be has been with. lhe! ilicon Technology Department at the IBM T J Watson Research Center. He bas

ilUthDred or coauthored over 100 technical pa and b(1lcls 7 .5. patenJ:s He 15

~ n ( W of the IEEE and has been an editor IEEE £1 llPlt Dev, ~ l..dters.

FU'NDAMENTALS OF MODERN VLS:I DEVICES

YU N r R TAK H. NING

I

- CAMBRIDGE • UNlVBasITY PRESS

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PIV-SICQr Cans.umra and Unit CtJmlrf',fJrJlJZ Ibt tfSymlJr.,',

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1 INTRODUCTlDN

Ll ew'hllii:iD M VLSl Devb 1iii:hnol~ 1.1 MDGJocrm VLSI Detlces

.u..t McdatI CMOS TrIIILdIIonI t.:U ModemIHpalilr~

:U ~~~Il IbCIlaot

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J-l.,i CONiENT5
III CMOS DEVICe DESIGN
.... 1 MOsFe1' Smllng
",,1.1 Curu.lUnl Fitld !k4llnll 1M
.U.2 (".mImlb~ :iCllliuG ~
4.1.3 NQn.\~alhlll! P1t~ 170
u 11m: hl)\~ VoI~ J13
Ul 1'hr$iold \1:>. Rbquu.:mc:ru l1l
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4.2.3 0wtncI Profi1c Oe!;ISII 1M
4.lA Quamum Eft'ClCI on Tllrc5tw1d 'AlII. IN
-4.2.s Diiade Dcp.an E1Jo.:o 011 ~ld \I(>~ 200
.u MOSFEl' Cblumd l..erI,glh 20l
4.3.1 Van.,.,. DeflnJlXlIlI cf OImnd Lomglh 201-
4.3.l ~llrW!Effi l'l ChaMt'llen.i:ltI 20C
U.J 1'by&iW MeIII1il1&of'~ Civumtl Length ,n
~clM'!l
IS CMOS PSIFDAMANCe FAmUAS
5.1 Bask CMOS C'i'rcmI ~
SoU CMOS ItMfteB
5,U t'MOS ~ lind NaJt GIla
5.l.3 ~_fW«)~
5.1 ~~
Ul !lti 90 90 94 95

91 99 100 106

112 U It U W

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BIPDLAR OEVICES

6.1 0-[>-11 Tl',.n., 1,11)

1 •. 1.1 ~~OJ~ Oj1","I"'1 iii U ~11l:OJ.r.[f'Trun'I<lIlr

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elPOLAR ~ DesIGN

7.1 P"'t!lf\ of me BnrlWlr RegIon 1.1.1 Dllfu;ed m 1ni1'11IIIb!d.mHI Dj~ 1!iIIDW 7.1.2 PCllY~lh~"'" Emilie(

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292

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CDNTEN1i

. CMOS PROOESS FLDW

A j:Je:nduc: 1

CESS FOR FA81RICATJ NG di 2 DUTl..JNE OF A PRO

AJop n OOERN!"1I-f1 BIPOLAR TRANSISTDRS

A ndrl( a eFFECTIVE. DENSITY OF STATES ~PDndl !!QI E NSTEIN RELAnONS

EI.E!::TRON-INITJ"TED AND HOLE-INITIATED t::He BREAKDOWN

Rp- "<I"" a Alii A.IllflLVTlcAL SOLUTION FOR THE SI-tIlRT -CHANNEL EFFEct IT\! SUBTliREsHOlQ

I

392 396 397 398 399 401

4Q.I 4Q~ 401 408 40~

418

419

427

pi YSICAL CONSTANTS AN'D UNIT CONVERSIONS

Description

Value and unit

Symbol

E~ec[mn c charge Boltzmann's constant Vacuum p nnuti ,j ly Silicon penni I £Iv~ y Oxide p rmiLdvHY

Ve~(~L.J ity of light in vacuum Planck's constant

Free-el lion mass

Thermal VO'Ll\&~ (7 = .l00 KJ

Ang.i.;[ ern Nannrneter Micrometer (mic, on) Mill meter

Meter

Electron- volt

Energy == chargex voltage Charge - capacltancexvoJt.age Power::::: current x voltage

Ti me ::; resi~lance x capac ltanc ~ C urrent .:::; chargdtime Resbtance = vollnge/currenl

mo kTlq

A

lll11

~tm mm m eV

E = (}\I Q = \' P :.:;; IV

I >-=- RC J -= Q/I

R == VII

1.6 X 10-11) C

].38 x (0-13 .11K ~~85:x I o--I~ FJcm L04 x. IO~12 F/em 3.45 x 10-1'\ F/em 3 x ~ OW cmts

6.03 x '0 34 J-~ 9.1 x to _~I kg

0.0259 V

= 10 "(;'m

1 ruu = J!O-l em ~; ~.L[11 = J 0 -I em

I mm =- o. i em 1m ~ ln~ em

1 ev = L6 x I (J IQ J

JllUJC ~ Ceulombx Volt

...... ............. ----"

Coulomb = FantdxVolt

........ - _....

~an = Amperexvor.

!ccond = n (ohm) x Fanuj Ampere = houJombi.second Q (ohm) = Vall/Ampere

LIST OF SYMBOLS

Die'icn p ti un

Un..il

~ ern

Area Emnter area

CI nnmon-base current gnin Srmu: I:~ rrunon-bnse I",LJm:nI !FllIJ

I orwartl cormuon-base current gain j11 dIe £b~t!f-i\111U mDdel

(J; It Re'lir'l"i~ ('1 rumen-base current gain in the Ehenr-Mnll

ill)

r

1110t:ieJ

tfu."iC ~ ransport factor

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B re:cl1~d( ~w" '\ u1 T i:lgl!

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R~VCL"'C c~ '111 !Qon-(,I1lfUt'!r current g.Q.1O 111 the EbersMulj mode I

VclGt:ily uf light in vnauum (= 3 X tolfl c.m/sJ Capacu:ancl!

Deph;::tioM-llly..;:r l:1ap)Kltml~ (per unk area)

I

em-

None None

NOI1~

v

v

v

None Nunc.

None

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l' F F

( ( c

p p p

c

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I) n IJ-1)-a

lkotrlptlml

llll1l .;""II;U 'In.dhj~rllll .. rll~(illr current TJrrI"1lr.I'~'IIJt"ll"11111Lr ~~lInnl in ;J bipolnr IrHO t~or

C'lrrlnl

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L~LI LllliclU In .1 MO .. ~f'I~T

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~

I~ J I J

T~.Ic~e;)X'funil ~ In !,W~~n l")j:pldil!fl rbllJ'g~ per unil i1~ to\'~r>iI1D r~;1{~e per UJI~~ ureu

l1~ed ll>Cl~C clllII"';: JlI'I' unn ~rcJl Mllhil~th= per ulll[ ~!¢O

I n[erfoo: tmpped chlll!l" rtf lIIli! ~!i!ll o~,Je ~mppoed dl:u]gO [Id urill arc:I

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Base-ftttar~"""B~~~ ... tIMil

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To,

r,

v

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IT

[

comes !TIm' .He !".!.tioh::~~ rull flill-w·ndllllglc 'Wi"" WhiCh ilnllII'<I,lN!Ir'lhl!:ill ..... EIl1II'W II ~~t11'!111lr.es II CMOS <:1';1' t!S5itr IQ detiin·

AI linear diJm'n~!011~ WIcl'rcd lJ1e 0.5 lUll I:!!v¢I In tbe emir i99Otl. Ih* ~ rnII!1<'"e rul~WlIIIge <It bIpOlar ttIIJISi!iIQr.I WIIlll)UlwelJb.:d b)I the 1iPl~ ..... cl~"ll dc:Dsil)' of CMOS cIe"'l~ The ~ peIllUt .......... bcIIelh af~ J'unrii(lI1tt.1lt)' laI)'MgdE)(! tl1ll1 of.-..w InUlIIMllt ~ aDd fI~ 1I11 abe V'-'\lr.:h!Jl!IinpnldllCtltmtodnYMCbwie4onCMQ!~il8Y 8Ipobr~ ~n:u.-edohlywh~~mw~hspel!dlM~a.1tIItU ~~,. blp<)lar tntm;i~ilm are llIIIlII)' WiW 1n ~ ~'1 dtqIf; m' iltso-o!:lk!d UjCMOS dllp§ when:: metl of th,e I\mctimI$lIfIl.~1lIIl¥CMOS~ Ion; WId only 11l1:!Wtivel)' "'*1 muul:1t1' 1It~ IlJ ~ Itllu .... bhL

AdvjIflcd1 In Itlbogt'l1(lhy ana ~ ~ bIII'O euIII~ lie 10 ~liIe LlaWIl tmI5f!ltm'SIIIIJb~ ~ "lO_~~:~~~, in the Wtle drip 11m. SIK!II fitOgress. ~ wjJb II; ~ &II'II~-firi

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1.3 SCOPEANtI

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~""'I1lI~"

...,. , .... ~ croU ~ ~. IIIO!Iom J>:1H' bipol.' ~~.)I1t.

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iIIHl p~itil!.:lIpIIcl1Jml:1:l,

1.1.1 MQ~RIII CMOS TllAN91STDR'S

CHAP1t.R i!: BASIC aElJICE PloIlfBlCS

UIIWIi;.taI1 .... ~ the more itnpm1l4n~ bul mtne e6IUJI18 ~bon~ which hl1w \'l\1.'t£ l,'; .. pnCIIOJlC~. IHld <llrry hlgh1::r dIC!'eIIb per putl'Ultllp 11..: "':<.:lIDd piUl nj chnplllr ~ L'Oye~h I~ ~pocific r~ of iilmrl-dl1laMl MOSPF.'f~ i~nT"'t1lltll for devlce design puqlO~i;'i, 1'~ SII~ 11II:bJdc_ iliad; chOllnel d'fet'" vdocit]' SIll~fllIIUI1 and o .. ""hoot, dUUllll:l-ktlgth 1DOIhdDI:i~ IDId ro~e4i11l1fl oo:r!e res; ~t3l1G~

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Imp'ttaD"" ~J U" , " '

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"1lIJcrJLI IJllling." ~1,d!Jlll~ Clr ill ~~llC"CJ.J lInu~I1!dU~.lLl.:. q'Lll1iCI in ml,""t!U!C1Iii!Iit.~ n'tr )'fd". I III ilP \,J II be d:n~~IW" n f~' thd,olJlid- uue physh!'!l0r~, :znl"cm~,",. pbJ""'" Fur 11\0 rlrIJ;:1lrln~ ~neln~f!1". lbi~ bO(>k pWl'ltle!l nn ~~ll!.nllJVC refl!JCll.;11 mwffiItJ lIml ~,w~jh: JiIDd~menml'8 at' ('1I.IDS nnd mr"'Ir.T' ... ..,. dJ,,~ ... ,md ~i@J~, h sl:iQllM be u.d'ullll VLSI [1ro;1cc..'~,."'ngrrn.l~r~ I.,.ml~~ bOl!;i~' '''''1''' p~la(Tp1~1lIld ID cl. \'1 C~ design or characterization wm) 111:.,,[( Il1IJfi." uHlcri111 klm\\'kr:l!!~ m Ihelr ~<!"loliil,1Iti limns, Below ... ..".,.J¢l<ll! ~r~ocll ,'ru'l'tl.'T

cHAP1'E'1 .1 CMOS DEVICE DII8U.IN

chupter ~ ~on~lfkr.! the n~jOf devkc dWJlI !&~ In II. CMOS Itdmoilw !t~ Wlm the 1.'L'n<:!:pt of MOSF6T _~n~-tbc- n_lmp:.lrilml~.1 prmgIp)lt for: ~Chley.ing d~n:;ltY. ~,1iIl<1 ~ i~1lJIlIIIJ11l VLSI ~1uticU.~1IIII1- ~C,Qhn1\ fao(nro lIIe lllIt,IT\'lI~ fIOIlIbly. the IbI:rmII ~allrl8O aM 1M ~ ~ wbJ,h haw r;I!lnlft~lUIl iml"ic!ltioM 00 tfIr: dev1DD1XI of ma CMOS GUOh.Jlillla pdb frm'llI!Ic<Il",;:c:mling Two kr;y CMOS d~ .. ~ ~~ und L:hAJ1n~llenglh-," lI1en dJ.~ ill c!cDiI Sub$'o(it- 011 tM!sI(old w'lJaSfl

Incllllle nlf.cum:nt n:GW'lmlClll. IlCllimlfarm QbIIMoIIi dIIfGtI - ~~ clfc<;l~, dilinnl!l p,'O!\~di!:siJn. aad~-~'_'~ 011 thrCIItmld voltuJ!:v SubllltGtiOM aaduiDId ~~ ti"l:'d1IInncllen~11. lIIex_\1I'I'i!)tlbamftll!a:IlWiOidlIdl~PIiId __ ~~~·-~"~W. mclhod,wxJlhc~~ ~

h[J'"I~r lI>M~i.'lidri u>i!d in t!,~~w_l m'LI~L' an: ()f th'" \'CTI .. h::1I1 n-p-il 1h ~.hI d,,\/l'l: "per.lI)UH ~,'nC"P~ und o1e vke p!l ysles can lie '~I;'lh~ I~ ~rbip"l~rlrllfl'1r.t"tli. uch c1li r--~-Il hi):1Ol:ur

1rirotw Iml~rIWI'"

ThI' hIlll~ LJ1):rOIJ<J" {II bij1l;r1ill tmlmi AllIr 1Ji de .. ori bed In ICI1Jlll

dilloilo:> W" (~tc!l b.1C~ 1., h~~.k 'J"Ie i!a~JC Ihtrrry "f ~ r n dlQ1Jc II 'JlI'II~ I" d<r1'11e lbe: Cll""m ~Qullll"'u; IDr ., birr11.,r trnn~IMQr. From rtlll eI1lL1lll<m" "ll,erlmpllfl"'lr ~i~'~ !'I1f!lrnCWrr- und rmfllUll\I!nn. ~ eUJ11. [..:1,1' \'Il~[Dp.;. hijijlH.:LI"cdnr J~"~lirHi al'lll sache, lhIonM.In'" \l,Jd.Lml~, m1~ dJf1\uI(ln capacunnce. nre ~~mJnerl .. e<1~hood"'JIruiL ,""Lid rel~h~g ~h" d~\JL" psrnmeters 10 dt'lllllt

dr:; 100000d Th~ "'l~i'ill nl-cuo;utl m, ,del tnrrn tile 'I>ltl.mg jl(Iinl

lhe pt:.ll0JIlIrlru:J: u~ ;j hlf1DI.r 11D1I,\1:5UH III lC)J"tU11 ,ljlpli~!llIOl1..~

BASIC DEVICE PHYSICS

Thl~ dUlJlblr ~ICW~ the hu It: wmc:pI.JI r r.anl~ Ill!\> ph)'tl ~ In! whh di:4;'1nm nl'l!1 hl)~ DOO (bcir ~ IJI IIcau. WI: roc:ut en IDe ~ elemen ~~~ I YPeJ (If dJ,\ 1CeJ in \lUll LecluudQS}r. p-4I junI:tkIQ .m! au:tal-oQde. ~mlormduclor !MOS) Jl~r Thf to'" of die cbIpCcr 4eIIlt ..... ~

Impo~ 10 VLSI d~vl"" rdl4b11lt)' ~Id • dis SJ-mO: -

dlcl!:ctrlc M!alidDWn

. . . .. .. -

U:!?m!D

• 1[!lO .. lcu~lIIH [ ree h)ll~~ I I

~1<IIlI'c..w ",.iglU Itoo,. <II' lIlou,.,ulelkttl' t\!:!IJI~ry '!tom'> )

C:)i~ .U\l<:Ul~

l.lI!t~ QUIlIllJlllI iAl Imt'Bl' !!III' (.V) D~tm~'1I!lUl1

J$ilUio OlIIricn.lCCoJ~nlIlMlcm~ )

~ttltf1Jd1i!II, ''''''~)

U09 5.ox IOU Ul OIamt'I~ SAS' ll3

il.J

lA. 1Q

Ib:m:mI 430 Hole: (/0 <:WllldlRII ~I( ~lI!!IId,N.1

J to'

I1.M:3 I~N5tc: CARl'IIER QONj::EN'rRATION

B "d nu B:! s, r:!.2J ~DJ (~1, <ln~ C~[(I ",riel!! dUWIl the l'OI1<:enlrnlion of

ln .tu_, ,·ood"~!.I1Q Imnd ID

IbJ

rI =N,,·II fllM

I'IJURII z.a. l'h"Q Poole hlmd l"i:IWa <II .. 11<",,- II 1JIirinIdc SI MIll no ~ (Il)" 1l'1'" 11I~~n wUL do.orr tplmpllo ...... I.I' I p4~!X' aIIlom ......... ~ tJ..kISur, I!)HI I

p = N f IE ~£,lltT

bigl, p""'_!~ MtiSI LmpUril.l~ In llihcOJl wl:ro!1uw ~ -aY ~b In tIllS rQ\'knM~n Ei'IP iUI¢ caiI be .-l1y klniud lD 00d citbI!I' I!IIIdfOOS [0 !be «JII1\uI;bOIl to~nll or holes 10 tbe valenu bud tkpcDding 011 IIIbcQ 1hIIImplIrity!"'l"lll " (Kind. 19i~). TM.~~tJ/rllItH.""""""'''·. IUId concrnl:l'll1lml oJ UM ~ --. 111".,... aut Ihe fiIlm'l a. ~

Wrin.ri(.

;. In(!!_)

- IV.

It 1 ~IJNS Allm HOlES IN 91U~

AllURE 21-.3 En!'!1 '1-t til! ,II =1111;11 lqIl\'~tri~n'I" IH)'l" 1_ (lit "''''fl,,, 1l'1l:I I:: ~n~ Ferrm I 'ol.li I" ~-fY11." "~n

liIW ru I oWL:l.! ,.1 J"'"' ~bu~ th~ pJ.-~~·Ound IlIJ grl Donor l"",clI ob"'r"~ i'b~l~ linn l'£I ~:mpl itjll Au:~plllr I~ el! nre 'J~ll\.l",ol.'l ~qIIlN'I!! i·l!til\J'·lI!UJ The I "1I1J~lon~"trg. JT~d~n(ll~d \1;' li<~ lid f\lfooDOl'u:m

II r,ll3:Ilp!llJN, ~Qj)li,d l'i_gLII~ ~J how, 1"~~~,vafllIldIl~,""'wr .

~"'" Inrp~~ll~ III .lH~UlI "nu t!]cll j nrzauon Itnertu~ I Sm. ."" ~ • ."

I!JlJ IG onw ~I~ cl1mr 0Jl1~ 111«1 tlooMi, (II n-tvpe dopuot!; w;'Ih':la1inili t'~.~o,"" 1II~ nnlu\lt ~kT "'I lie brmm I~ II '~mmo[Jly l.I!C¢q.Qlf:A dg IDJ IOI.n lliC11 .'~r.'~J.I~IIJ~~lllm on tM hgur~ ~.5 8Iu)W;lthtf~!lfCJ\II] llJII'Ihrulnl lrlr'~1111~ 1]1 ij'~~n, a I'un I 1! I '~~~~I!(

191j\1) tllS-1 , n n "-rmC-d 109 u

. . '''l~ rtrD. II~ phi phl)lu l1u' II<. highOJt.~Jj4.'J;4.

111~e 1';p1Inb. Ii{lHct! ~'f'

1r.J.1nm~ . In I th m ttre J~ llrl IITlJlru'ImlI doJMI1'I1111

'IIIhu:.h is iUllIIgl:bniiD cqlJ.atiOllIlULt ClIO be solffif rut EJ. In Hype sUMJa. ... trorI,5 W'C! the mDJorIl)I cwreJU ~ wbUtt bok!s In! the minI:!rity GUrt'ld CItIietI. whi~ pllli\(1$ lballl'l; ~ tam (iii the rigtI~lwId Iide IRHS) ot'EIJ (2.'W)_ be lk!IJ1ectm. For ~lI1low IklDOr 1JJIPI,In~ wi1Illcw to moQel1SIc ~OO. mcm~(N.tlN.)elCpl(.~,,-Ed)/m« 1 aJOOd~~ for £/ j$

!I - IV,; (!

I.

Eq ~~., I) nnd ~. (;1:.1011. In utha\V~. UlI).¥efmllCVl~ m~~~rn"l1l\1~." hllnll (llr 11' ~j 111;'00. und inlu the: vnll:t1CC ba~ for r;t ImpurnYi:unccnml1llln t.r; hlsho:rl.hlln 10" IOt9 \lm l. tW~ckll)Or(lIlucii:ti .. ~rr.~t, bmuden tnm b~nd~. Thl~ n:w111o in I4n off~lf~ ~~ Illllillinally the ImpW'lI), bnnd merges w-nh lhe C;Q~ (1;1( .... ,_,..\·""",d'· ...... lh~ i('~117.nll"lI rnJ:rg)' boo;cmu l(!1'O UI'IdoIt LhHo! .:tro~~!be IiIIQXI to ~ d~JI~mlr SbiL'ily ~poUlt1.!l. Felmt _MIa dlClIIlli be WII!d fQr dtd ~ cancenLr~tlon In cul1:ulllifln m tlu! Pmrtl Lewl when K,. 8 i;T (GIIII!dbl. 19(>.8 j. Foi' prw"lcnJ purpO!lC'i.1t II II JOOdJl1PfQll malitlll twi1htn 1 Z).tfJ ~ thai the Pctml level or !he de~ n 1IIl~ t at the ~oa-t.nd .. III1d thll1llf tho: cl~grnCT1tle p ~ill(:OII!II, a.t lila ftI~ odJe

III

r,~ ~·t;l~ 111

'.J ·'Iw' ii;;1 ilJ ~UlL!

w~m q = '.6 x 1 (1-1. C IE.I~C el~nlu ~htUgc ~m.l jL. I lhr r:l~mobIl'I:tf. The re~5(!VJ[y. p,,, pI n-type !dIJ~rn1 defll1cd by J. J'III = !p. (II forJ1l ofObDlll law) Is then !O~d1l1y

(2.21)

(212)

'llruRi ;U. El<'<lJ1JtIlIlId bGic 1lI"~ililit!IIU billk w<<Jji ~I ]{II I J( of"""",,, e,(~g~nlrntIJl'l

1

PI = qp~ •

wht'fllI'1' 1\ !be hnle moblllly 111 gellaral. Uw tplAl W 1M ty i,hooId lnclpdl: beth Ill~ Ifllljonty ill"] the mlnonty ~1ITTier ~~

(W)

II'Jll U'li)' •••

"

fh - I

ll!I!1tt I fWlJI"bul'1X'r' qULlRI. rben

L rb= Will"

1Ii+ l~

I:J«ak fIcJ~ f ... III

U. ~Jt)'--lieM~ jI;._

le, lilt lIlWJ rl!>1',I~ '~11lIJ1 T" Ih~ number of Squllre!l (L (U 1I Imf li'llell illo \llI.'e~ re:s, IIVAT) NOle ih[l( sheet te!;jIieMl;;,~ tillhe "r~ n !be ~~Ilil~ TI~ mil t ~(Imm~n technique ~lIhl'ilrillu!ll1glil]ll il IIIe 'Cll1rrn,m method. rn whidt."_lWtlI IbroliAlllk 1i'lll1JU~r (!IT1~ urn! fh~ ~"lTi.1!lc i p~ IS~ 1-\i:~11 I.Ilb~ 'POCIII;g ~I1H~ll the probes 15

rl~tn Il.,.illCS'l mIL 11lcli ~nhul'C'l: l/'wn the ';Ill! )r the ~'Or.dt~~[I)I1

m 1!M~"nbEJ[!I1II)\I~ ) ~!I=Phf1n'l, 1f

OlIn~I'af,'1 ~i'llined

tnr 1 kg; TIle~~ iIDl ~llL)W 11 ~, :1 h.c £)iIS,,}ill !elm/tlns. TIle Ii.oJ~)11 ~IJOl1IlI ttmjll1<l\tarc C'illl h~ I~'lrl {nID1 Flig. 2,.7 Uifing the

rlg.hL-~1Uid !lu"-

If Q

=- py)d~--

I 1) ,1p

i -'WiJ~ -if J'd~

f~lIK' h .. l UlUTe~[ lIenmy, 1"~ toJllI ~n~I~~"t'''" lJ~l~ IIiI r2 ~~J and rhe Em"lcln r lllllt>!l' ~ tirH~ I"~ urrem ~c:n Ule-;

mmden!;ll 1 J J +1 311 i hM P.q CD n. 13111' em

~,~ 4 II DEBV~ LENGTH

h lillmi ~t'Il~l1.I' i[ILon. Ih~ IhlP"l!! cl;llil ~nh'miun '',IT!e, Plltiall

Utll1ll'r, F"""I l~w,IIIn;J Itli: b,m~. g~IJcr::ill,. rQI1iJw the ~nrl!UJOII ~, ' i '" lluwl!'Il!f II ~ ~I~'i il.'l I: ,"lu1"WllMI1 o.:lmllJiC nbrupl ~y Il4I k-"~I ale Un 11:'111.:1 dnllLOi l r~'rliJ IITTrru;i.lI:ucJ, • ~m~.: holh t/t amd

, I G",,,,,,fl" "l'II!I~Il'lU~ uWilig 10 the 1m.'TIT11l1 dhfuw)n cITe

, ~ LJI WI n t\ I'~ h"'m, h r ill'J lc ,Hili'll: e>LirIlUL~~ b ul1~llh.tl...

II &1 [1..11'1 '-"<1;

2.1 ELEOTRONG AND HOlES IN SlUCON

2.2 .,...., JUN(m01\I9

•• 1iI! p-n

p-I'I Ju"~lInn' aiM:! ""II ~ I'-~ .1I1.1J.1 ... l!lC im~l d¢>Ijl:l!5 at. 'olIclI Jl& ~ oomp<III.:"III. (,I "II MOSFb"11Iw1 bl(1<'hlf tlc~icc 'l'bcclllirlll.:laI~of~ dl<Klc!i an: \h<:relrm:: Tmponrllli III .!tlemnnlng Ih~ ~hilCllCtl!mll"" or VLSf dcvlre& .m. clftWL" A p-n I.!~odc: b tnrmrn! when (me I1!glon or .. M:tIlj~(lDductm',..~ If; dDf!Cd lL,ryl~ WTd un IrlJm~wly dj<1CCn! I1'£)00 I~ doprtl P-t))Ie. In ~II!I:. • ~1Ik.'(I1l p-n ulo'Jde I~ \Jtaw1ly fUTlmd bv ~"'"lllen.kJp!Il&g b.;~1 ~ f1( lllartcf rogIua I;1f dc\~ ~iliC~}l\ Fur In .UUlt:I!, a rrgH}ll of" p'IYJXl JiIWtm lIbiitraIC Ilf cD" QlIII \l, mml"n.Jllpcd ..... lltl n·wre imputlllj!!; to [om ~ n l)'pe' ~10lI of Q p-n dulda Th" n t~ fl:!:LM tl1~ fumll,d n ... II ~latl(1r cOJltclltJ'nl,it1n higllcr tIlJIlll!J acccptm CPIloen tratton

A d(lPOO senn rIIITlw.:I,,,, rCgJOlI ih c.allerl ( :ompI'1tSJlti!/J if It (DIIllInl! bath danor IIflLJ acceptor lmpllllilu ruah rlmt neuber impurity ~1nlbDrI tlllIC(illlP~ l!OIJI purul te the other N:JI ~ rompe!l5llTeiJ !iCum:~1IIdIu:ttlf tIlIi it 1I1hc IItt dapn& CUlltl:lllNltlOil. l.c., N~ /Il Ir It ~. n-type IUId N - 01 If it p-typo=. dud dc:aertnlWJ; l~' F=tlj Itvel and Il~ toobil e cnrJW' coal%lllU'll H~~I!I' fur IIoimpI.IdI;J: we shill! denve the ~luinItt~1I ;uld bc:hIMIIr of p-'!I dJocIcJ auuming IXIDC of \hIl 0.'1)&1 n:&mM ~ 'omlll'rtlllllvd. I.e ,!he ~ or ~ ~ ImfeIlIlM ckv.1f rom:I!IUfl1UOIl p.f N Rnd \b.;' JHide:s bavi:. COl ......... or II. ~ ~llIII1t ~qWIIII'll r;m ~ et.~nded IU diI.Jds 'IriIh ~ ~ ....

ramp~y by rcplllCing db N N foctbell' ... h .... !:ln&.H ~ -No

lhep'~

C"n.i,l~r 1111: 11 .. ill: of a p--l'1 dl~Lk HI It.~rmlll ""IIlihhf)um. Ifd" lI-M11c IKIQo dall~~~rJld'" ""poLl m " "t'ln,,~rIlr~1I0n llr N~. inen the !lI:pIII1IUQfl bcl.WecIiI lei! l'bm11<:1d. w~llih '" ~lll Hm~ the tJ1l,\l..". und II mtnn'il( Fermllll'vtrl u IJIWa t.)I r;.L1·1~ 1f»I.ftomj!l~

liffi 6,,, -U lite':') - kTI"C;')

(2~)

wlwrrtl),(1 ,I l"j""~ ~h~ n- rd~ ~l«IJ'I)lJ "llnclmlr~l~on!lt lhnTlllll~uHlbrium_ Samhlrly. for IIIe n INlc-g nL1';lId}, Lktp..'Ii p. IIIe PI' U fHI dlod~ 111 themulI ~

I!brl~m wHh II rJ"'fTI"~ OlW1J:~ntrJllun,.,f we ,,~\~

J;'r f~ -knn(~1 ) =kTln(~,)

w~ PpiJ I~ I.hc ~~Itle IKde j;on.;<ml~hqn I thennrill!qulllbrill1U The bt.tih-ill po!IlClltW lIero,~ UI~ p-n IliA.tIk IS

12.:57)

V""'i'lI<!urrol n-~f~n

U:JI!II(:ellllrll',ill".lI£Id when: lite mobii,,·clmnm IIl1d ·bo.ll~ ~Rll'Iwk Wi III U!['l'. ~,)'fI~I~cnl with till: d"P~etlrm .11JIfO~lmRtkn1 1"« IimpiIclly. III~"'" 1I!IIU1I1~ llm~ all the ,lollo",,:md u<!CCp!t'll1l wld,.n tile. ikpletirm ~cIn..-e 1ImI..a; IIitd II;IalIl'" jIInt.,ioo l~ Ilbropl and nt)( o;umpen"lllcli l.e .. then: 1m' III' doMf 1mpuriIi.IS oa !hi: r-~ILl~ mtl no bltoClllOT impLllifu" Ill! Jhe D~ld~ wttll ~ DSQl11PIfOll5. ;sq, {1 fill)lIeL'l.lmes

III V! qN~

--;:0

dr'

roc II _" _.t.

("2.61)

11111

for -~ _ ~ 0

[!II

lnl1'grnlll1!o! E.q, a Cli ) once from ~ = U In .. = oX. IWd £q (1.11Z uacc frtn:p,1' ,..

_ ~ 10.1 = 0, W\JjcJ..1.lo the boundlry C1lIl<fuigD.li of dWI d ~ = 0 111 '"" -;f, II1II

we nl;uun th~ nuOOllUIm ~c 8eJd, • 1IiIm:ll u Ibcn:d jjI = 0

~ l:'.q J 2.~I. rw the 'l

,,[per) )'1 I

II [II'I l IQ,~~

""'IIfVa:lJtl8. ... :

11;~rd\l", tl1<.' IIUJ ~I on !If11CI11llll I j!1''"'' hy

h. en Ii 1('11' rhl: 141>( ",'ll~'" the j rlT1tll11n i" ruverse~bl a~-" Oft"

~ n,n; l ~ . '1 ... ,. . • OOU """

"I~ II _ "len I~ r"r Ilk LT,,!, 1\-11 1'L'lh~ )1l11LIIClll h rrlt'Wurd-hiIl1lll!l1lQ4

~ 1'/0 ,I ,.11 >111,11.\' In Sannll 1 :'.,.,1 < Im'g~ mrr~lIr~ l'.Ul tllil'/ rn II lIlQde r{JJ1l/~T.I b!J...,J,\\·hik wm' 1l;rehl[llll;ly hnle currem th,~ wh .. n It lIIl II hll. ,".lJI!!J I, ll.e<! in I.~ 12 651 it .Ilf~~ I',i.: Il'lal da:pielloll l~rC!l':

ILmI'ill U' L f r~v~tliC·b:i"'I~d dm~e

'Tl,,"Jl~~ pelllll""fIli.l~1l ~lIrttr ,1d':(1flh~ d~lllelWn rllp0rl'

I J ..r~~11 R. Ii. klln( ~ )
I:: n 'II rt In( N )
"
o III(~)
II, 10
1 j
:!= :ij
~ ~
~ i
e, -r-
! j
.z
""
0 F)l;IilIE MS, Do,*u~er ~ .. J ikpl.Ir~M·1 ~.r~~rll'''''' ", .."." ~ .... f II'IllIU~r.IljJlIJtI!O",'·~""'IL" flh~llgl'!I.yiliJ!l"U "IT,~. "",,·;';olod

ft-9lJUIH'~fiI

m~e!l'rtlJlDg 11", IIljUtlllOOR mit:e. ub,lm W the ~ l~rnl:lM tIlid. UUl e\el!lrk (jd~ i~'I'~ro 1)1 r = - .. ~ Jim.1 at:( <= t" ~~

(2741

where 'OJ I';; lhe lJlIIlI.unlllll ~Iecui, field whkb CII! In Ibo !I!aiDb a " d llilegnillftg the cqumom; tWICe g>Vf;S Ihr; 1I;llA! ~ dnJp 1 .. IICn;IM Ibr;~

es

i Ihr '1UII.~I'l'erml ~llc:ntiJLI (m h"'l~ owl oJt I IN: 11I1mI5U: P'fl~aI. b111m111o Qf the I.jl.lll-" F~nnl iX)lenual~. !he pI! prqdUd j

~Il" Q~" J! Ih~ ~rr1.1"ltI I~)"!r, 1111'1!~ r,il ~Il.: dlllJl' 1\ illHili1 ,m i-I~~ n,c' u\plol1rrn I:lyel ~~Jl!\>Lmnl:~ (',111 r,- ~1,'ljIIH~tl trnrn dlQrllldll''It l1li N",1i

J

Ibl

::!"-'"----~'-,

~~==~ ~

Smce ~(,( 1. wluch 1'fo 1b~' ~"rqiinn ~I~trn~ ~"n~llll\lTit:lp. I~ '1\wl.h l11rgcr lh4D n\-l~ I, ':hlcl! ,u!l,;l- r..r~~i"n d~~rnill ~lln~"<lU'~\lI)U, ""hile 111~ elc.I1!'!P mohHl J!Cj DI ~. and ~I -.1 ~ ~r~ ~l~mp.ilr.llll~. d4i. td r lIi '" ~IW·1 be rnuch ~fi1Jll\er IIuuI ti~/d~ nr lR' Alolo. n.'. iii" sh"l~ ~~IIW Illlul~Lilillc_l~ bt'l.w.'· d.tP.Id.· .mn be * (i'tda!:d"- 1~~Hl"!.he qu.w,'in'lIlrnIIH\:gll'~ ~ofL', .pi. c~lnllil1~ ~ssall.~in1Jy bf LW(.:<Il' ml! .~'IC~ .. h~lg,e t~~itln, until ~l ,,~gl{N It' lh~ deplelilln-l)ly~r tKi!l! en the

p-sldo:

FiIl~lI).lrt us tOl'i-'Il.lcr rlrft./t/ ~-\n 1h~ 4un.'iin~utl'll1 fl'n:Si(\~. ru we ,1lUiII ~hOw in

ll1I: ntll! ,ut>-<~M""'lj~n< .hHO'I1"'O.'J1\1'1~iW.~ "fE!>!C~~elQ'lfn~~ :\~d jll tI~ [hi:: p.sidt: !If lire <l'OO~ iUt'. Dml1J1:1Tl ~",ly wilbin '>Qn~e ~,,g(!IIli:~ frum tile dl=rh)llvn 11IyN cdge. rru, di,tcn~'l: ,r. delJlrrninc~ Il) the cl~~II'oj' l!lfT~~ltm l~nlJh- A. th~ Goor-wtrnlion ",r c.c~'<; ~Ir(lll' 10111- ...,rt "Ii~' ilisulD",: trorn l~~ Litpll'tiClu-lllyer .,ngc., f/.In ~arillll ~1li\ll'II!illlP.,,,,,,,,C'Or!llilg to ffiJ. i1_8~), ~uu do/l,,(dJf ~ari~, with .Tn aC(;{]rdillg 10 Eq. 12 ~31. WI\;m l~e c~",.;a11i n,Uc," or C!""'>S dl-'(U1J~' l't'~~he;S Zero. - ql/J. I~ ~IIClll1= Fa'IIri I ev~l J$ di,,~,sed ~~Her.

1 n ,umlIl;J.!'\' ••• t 10\\ to ':ntcrm~l.h7<\l'11 h~h elCdIt!fI l'.:l.m1:nI dl:nsitill~, <h iJ;. es-

¥nn.~'~ n I tn'ldt the o-!\!~;WD and ~ ilie ~(NIt:t-<ltlll~l! "!Ion of ~ p-ll diode /'ructrrrdlJ nllrltr ~JlQW11 viIrlon'cn W .;p. (ir"/,I,r~ in rhe p-regio" cr.1Us.lf to ,It. dql'liu~.iJzyfl' N1"f. Simi!",ly i'!r ~~ e~1>tnU.1Hy Ilnl on the p"O'Ide and wilhln Iho

~-dmr~e rqlIOTT. ''I'((+hr'iJIJy ~!J IIIr' ~paJltd vonutiart oj ¢ IICcun 011 tfur n-~~ rlt) .. 1"- tilt dtpl~II.lay" ~d~r. Th~ vurlul ina 1I[ rp~ und ~ J with ~

,$ lilY IfU_IJnl m Fig 1.15 I

~'(Icl~I~( r ~ rtltwilm"hlutlell p-11 d 11lCI~ Elv.:1rmIJi IQlllnjocto;l ~ \t» ~bIu tbc p-~I~L<, ;ull! boil's ure ioJQcf~ lrom U1~ p-~dt: mlQ Ihc D~"" IfpnmdJonand ~nJ1lhlt1l1~ln~ tl1lhe~eplellOll NljiOlllll'C nel\lalllic. then til!: ~Qk: ~1ItmIt ~ the P ~itlt i. the ~nnl~ UY the hole eurrent ~otenll8 the n·Mlde, Sfl1lllarJy. rlIat'lCIIItIW eunent 1~llvln~ lh~ n·~ida 'k ~~ol II) me £H::o;tron cum:mI ClIlarinlollll~ p-1Iide. 'Ibd~lcl'mjlle the IOUU current !lolVing III the LHllde 1I1l1llt!~" to del '" to ~1M ~ hole ,,~m::tll enterins the n--!,;ldi! i1IId 111m c!la.:lrOn ewrc"'~ ITI'IterIni Il'tIl ~Il&.

The "tnl'llng point I or ~blng the ~1i1Wl1I VQIlJ8C chllfl~wl:!Il till: ~rra. 1lU1\y ~IUlIlIll\'., F~ ~h:ctnm~. n I~ I!IYeII by E.q, (1.4l}) Whid!. ~ I'IIIpcatAd Itun!

R. G.

291)

whe~ R. IIml G. ~n! Ihl'! alc~n rccombl""al.ll1 ~1Id. l1cnuIiJ11,.., ~ Bqillllll\l, (2.9 J l t'lU11)a. tnlrilUllIlIJI

M1J,h.:1I1' hi: I'1l.Wrm~e a'

IFljl' ,,~-Ijplf "" (I Illl - L~

(2.\17)

r: __ (tTl/"r" L.~v[~D,-~ q

I d '1ii'"I·'''' ''''''RII, In the l' '''~LL''II It, 1)1'11 101 M. ml.lcd unu the qW;lnlill~

Ir. (Jj~ r ~J. rn:m 1.V' iJo ~ +

In lliJ ~IlR!·III<; JJl Jor nunonty cill"r1~P;. not m~Jrml)' v·~mlIDo,. ,

11 ~ 1nlin~I'- v .... 'len' III h~ f,:jIGl'i'C~ here. Earlier l~ Ihl' thujllel. thl:

A 1101.1: (In l;(l ~ l' ,..-.. ,

P~¥<I"nJ ,uecllon 01 1 P"'11 diUtk 1'1." "~U111~lj I~ be 111'""tml utr - O,.~nd fhep-s~oo <W~IU'lfl 1~~cr",l~ero he JN~wl:d. 1 =" C", 1111= c~c~, ~1(~l""ll rn th~ r:~!l10ll of !hI: ,JI'I1:k ;y~n: InJ~O:lclt [rom tl1o;: R-,ilk I r w~ 11~lLm~ Imghglble !I.<=n~mtn:m lind ra:.mlhin ~I~Q In the ~~Jllui(111 I ly~r 1~~J1 "iJ thi!. elecm-ns [cavmg Ihr n-side will nu:rlllo! qIlIMIlt:.u!ml P-tBlli<>D..t\ the r·b"ldbJcj:fJetl<,[J-hl,.vuooundw')'.111e<;;~ I:xtllS$

~~eo;lroM 1\111111"" m''''" rIJ.,ll,,,, Jill .. \~~ p-fPgi611. (!un\1'"iOOtlllf! ill clortrcn.curreru ~n~ ~ •• 'mLn~ Il"l!Llm1'tin~ :IILldg; ~\C ,~ }, TIhl,hlLfu ll~pl~ll{)n lUY.Ilr ~{/UIlcl.nl1' I ~.cl""lt rcull y the ',1or1Jn"J~",~tilll1 1m wll~id~nn~ t~1O dl~iri I\ut]{J['[ ,,,,d IIllilIip."IIt of Ib.~ OliOe;!~ d~ct1m9.~ In the [l-~gll'tll I'nr <t~'pIICIIY, Wt ,;t!i1H dlllng~ our C(l<lnJinl1k! ~~""''Il ""d I~i " "" II ~iilc locunun 111 itL rlepletion ~gl(ln boundary ~~tJ ,= W thr ) 0Cll~j(ll1111 Ihr:' ohml~ <'1:)11",,"1 L.r ~~~ 11- ILle uf tha jJh'd~

Th e e 1 •• I .... n 1l1]U,nrnr]am 1ft !lIven hr hi) i" W) '"~ t = rl ml,r equal to n itO

(298,

" -n,,,-,, ["~I'('I;;'I'l) SiJlo: Ihmt i ~l1 ~Imn ~tld u, tilt' IHe io.q

rnpDIlem \I11IJ llI1 ~I'" on di.fh1."l1 IH'\J~nt

~ II L!Il~n~ the p region t

2.2- IH' JUNCllON8

where m writong the lrut! I:!qlla(ion W~ bllvc .. ",d the fllCt lhltt rlpOP.IIO -ilf. &jU~lll'm:s 12 1(1) ~nd 12.11J21m YIIll.J I'm 1I I""mgllll'l of 1Il'bitm"y wlQlb IV Nolo Itull J. i~ n~Il"liv~ sinee ~In~lron, h~ ~ ~lwge of -q .... ~ lin: fluwlng 1ft 1&e +.c dIT~"tlfm

The hole dortl:lIy in !he n-rog4ln and the hole C:tJrnnt tknlIl(y DnlCnng n~de.lllsm the ~Ilme forms es F.q (2 101) lind Bq, (2 1 CI2). resJ1eC\i~Iy. and !:!Ill be IillriYed II an nnulogous manner (of. EJ.ercif>lll.151. TlIII'lOIal r_mjlnmr thrtnll" tI P-II dilHk i1IlJIr!1WI tJ/llttl tlU!drYm QUnlfJlllUllwhtt:fm'dl. SII1«"Il m ~ Itl sum ~ IWO eurrenu, the !utllt L'1l!"rl!JIt wlllllO! bet ,nuwn dllpliclltly ~

a.lf.IIl.2 EMfm:R AND BASe OF A DIOCE

Siru;" P IJII ~ N. Eq (2.1 (2) ~" 0Jm UJc mInarit)'-cartiI:r tlIImn is 1IMrsd)' PlQJ'Ol'tioIIlll It! Lb400piIl@cOIICcntmtllll\.. Tho5. illa~deddladr;. IlIc miMrity cnrrier current in 1M IIgh1ly doped $Ide I~ mud! lJuto!r dIIuIlhatm Ib: heaVU}' ~ ~I.JC. TItfI dkldu Clm1:llI is domimtred by mefltIWQfm~ ~1ll~, !lllped 81Q., D( tho dlodt wbIl<: Il1IlJQl'1ty"t:«meT ~1P 'b ~ dQped Nde lllIuldJy can ~ ~ ID DOIDJlCIl1J!I1). ~ eh:I Ib~ minonry-t:Un'mt fi(WIq: In the dopIR1I. ~ u piUtku1atl CluIpIt+ 6. The lIffoct (If wjll be ~ ~~~;m(ll"llo,_,:~~,i~~~~~".~~~)~~~ bMI! of (IX! diode.

dlo<Ic!, IIl"Ca! tbI! .... , ...... J ....... ,_ ~itirtJt~~!~~~~~~~ tn ~~ t:ie:'I!##e1~~ .• ~~~

Thut k the minority-carrier electrons In llle base wil.hm. a dlJJI>5inn IeDgIh (If 1M Ikplrlinn.rCigLon tmund.iuy dit'fUKe tcwlll'dt; th~ dqll&1OO I'q!l'oo, ",;11'1 & .1Il'I1l1IIiaIt .1JrM11 dem;ity givm by Eq. (2.110, wh!rIh I In~entcfLbe blI~ewTdlh.

(~ll

</D,,~' J lr-lJl------'--

• - I'plll" iJ;1!l1t \II!l:.nl

N"'le>.: llim II) n 1"ll8 M!!~tTv.:, OIn,I I, t~rclsltl~·~.111~ r;:\·~c.blR cnu~~. u gradUDI. ililplcllon I!( dr.olrQI1~m t.I:J~ p'I~Il'rm neur l11c d~klllltl-r~glqlll:mumillf) . and thi~ eleuron ... ,,(W,lIrI!!ILln gm'~I~m ..,.J .. e "II eleetmn ""m!~t to now from LllcDell.lIlll P Ti!!',i,,~ ,,,warn rna tJurl~l!"1L r.:glJ:m. 'nil" h llie electro 11 lIitl\l!;wl'l clll!l1j:mnerlt of lb~ 1~1IJ;u~ curreru 10 II r;)\'Cf!!~blUB1:'~ dil)l~e, II h also rclerredtu JIi the I:Iei!tTolt wlmU/II'" ""',,'/ 01 n tlJod~

[hI! htll~ 1'.llt~mtml1 curreut hruJ IIJ1 rmu]Qgou~. ilmn The tmul LlIfliu;HJJl ICllkHgc current in I] ~IL'~~ {;. the ~unl <11 Ih~ ~1~llSdn .LllIl11l110: IUI1JrtlUOn ~L1l'ilimr.<..

2.2.4.1 lllARRDWo8ASE n "13 DIDOES

A L1iode ~ 1:i!l11Id rlUI11'Jw-/ltul1ifilll bUe wldlh Wi! mwll campmd Jiillbc mInorIi:)' cemer dlffUliIOO h:agtlt In ~= base.1n ~CIIiC tIUs ~ WI L" «I FR- .. fixw. bl~ IIl11l'<lV1-b11ie iii. Hqr>. (1. I03lud (211)4.1 J'lducetQ

2.2.4.5 WIOE--8ASS"~-;;l DrQlJES rnlt 'tit 1~ mJI'·/ml(l' it 1I~ hQ'IC"\\:ldl~ H I" Illfge CDJlrpared IJJ the IlIInDnL.y-~:ntrlflT_ ditlLlilllll 1~1]llnl m Lbt lJa<c. In Inl~ uase Ihi' 111~11'I~ W IL. » I ~ OIJwi~~o.h:I"".!J,.u",Eq,.a.I~ l~ndl~][J4'n:du'.IO

(t rwnn:'! wide bnNe)

d

J f -0)

I'IIIURI: &1'. 1I,c:t;I1F( ~Ir,~ 01 [~~ ""'Q oilirrrtrlY .... ""'T ",,,,,",,,,",, "I tn r~'~ ~ ,I.r dlr>J ••• I, I\""LO;" <Ii J"""", H .... rtl Itl~ ~~ ,Il'l']rol(;~ I "~ ~o,)II rIl W f I .:11' ~ purumeter w~ L

I u.:. LlilIIOrt~} i:.LL:InL:f ..mr.!ij..1~IJI I ~1i::'lJI III On.: ~'1 ~ IL.GII.i ~ I d31;: ~,,·q r !~r sothh, Ill< <IlIl::<>J IV'I =:Q' g"O" by O'E"~Y i

1

Ira.

FlGlJRi 2.17, R.e11llll~ Il'laftllltUdt at tJIQ 1M'II)rtl:)'''''''''"' <lJIU'1II ~oIy itllbr tw.: mpuir of u dIooJe ... !'tm<1m III W l. alii" mn,Uttd 10 LbI: CllmlllllII WIL eo H=: l. "" IIIc hIIMri.,....miI!r dTflIild"" IIIII.oIlh In ~ tJm. Qi W if It.l'ridIh of Ibor,,_ .......

Ij

flIDJ'IUfIlt'lwJ Ln o~I'I-E I kJ 1 I,hcr.c r I, the biilUlgpp ..,m:rgy. Th1.~ temperature ~cprndonc~,OO"!:irll~ldln&lo!lll,jl1l'Vmi",l1~m'rID' .. rltb, Ul I JeV,i oftenu~to dmrn&uf lLLhL d1ffil.ltJn curr~", lrnm ~JIl: !;(1Pet'Hliun cl(mnlS'o:on:ungol'lpm Within lilc ~qlleli!111 L~ij"" t,J cli~~~ (k~ .. ruucn ~r"'l'! ...-.: prqpoOlomtT 10 ii, I1JId hi!lJIX ... " !'fl'''' ntinn Ill" e\pl ~E 2k r I, [(JT[C'1'11llllmg W lin urn vru.iOl1 enrrgy Of ;,hr,ull'I:S "V ((irul!e end f'lly\:ct"J.t. I~J1'>61.

F,re ~n fI+-fl dlIJJ(' \!trW a I~'I!.C <lUJl'lng (JJn .'llrnlmTl of , 10' C'Tn-'

tile 1';Ilues or D~/L. = L '/ '. jn Fin ~ I ~ roo be o;kn~ later). Eq t 110) m'flr:tlrU~ ~Jjfu'ml/'l CU1T<~nl of a!;t1U1 H. 10 AI m st reom lotIJPcmlure

I piC'll n --jld"il1; IhelJl,.;~[wdlllfl!'liLllHUIT~nl Will bl Ih IJm ortht! .... a the h"l. ,lllf[L,mn Cl,ImJ 1 l.!i) " ~"~I~r~hl~ 10 Ih~ g"'m;.I'I11(1n ':11m.'n both

n tl~ order of III r' N~l1Il JU m'Jm l~l11f1er..t1Jft 'Km:he~ I q 15 H'nw.m:U-.:lfi

dl!f~~H J ~,

~ rum rn, lie rIO II I [~I:r 3CJr~L!I!11D CTltom I~ U ImH I OJ"

~eD"nnJDn "lIMn! "l.:I~I'uJ~d ~mpcr!ltllre~. .) Ufj;

2.2.4.. ~ee IlF MINOFIOY~ CURRENT ON BASE W1Dtli

FIgure 2.17 ~ I plot of'!.be: ~I!t CQtI'OIIt ~p- by Bq. ~ normab:zcdw~VI:ide-l1aewme..JU;hIJWMhMwb W L-<. 1bII~ ClIl'I'I!m iDc~ YeO ~ III.~~ widllfdec_l.

2,2.5 T1M~.gE'PElilbENT AND SWR'CIfII'IIG CHAAACTDII61'ICS

.u LlI~El'!';~d In ~"dnlll ~: there 18 a C'Elp.LCJCLl!Ce ~~1IL"'r",ew v.itll tlle d~letlCX'l hr),<,r(ll d din>le A, the ~lr)ljeiiu\\'il~l1c<f fr"m uft rll'J,-",btrutd or 1'c~l:r.'>1::·triJt.~d) II) un I rqrv.aTil.lll~), It Wic!lc!rOnIC trmdld\:rr~I11~ IJIOt.l~ I~ 1Um"tI nn lind rLl.m'bes .. OCt ,~~ \LIlli:. Thl~ ume !' '''~Ilei.,t~ll lIIilh 'I11iIr!J.ImlIJP the LlcpJfl1L.n-I~~r 'lIpa~ik:f. "uLl flUiog up Ih. jl< ~lILj n·r~fll'Ili will] tl.\C"COS millllri(V ~1lITIil.." SiI1lIIOil'J): wbOll a oIJllIk I" ''Wildl~ from ihe In /iL,,[_( to IhO' (llC 'IlJl~ II 1.1Ik.~~ ~rlrne trme befote ~IC .1r".J~., lijm~ "If rluj;,tUIlL4> nS!;(Oc'irued II illl L.h~~blll'!ll~ the ru,plction-IBytr Cnl)M:LLliL mJ dj~chMll"ifi» Lh~ bq:"~mln~nr~ enrrrers ,1t;reJ ill the [I. lind ll-TegJon~ I)I~ lIIilJonly CJL rier r!!'F'Yt~ 1111)(,. orrlj"I~c.tIl.· tdJl)("Llun lime. I n ... gjigJbr)' liMIT,; 'ILl ril!l ~r"ffllj' III~-' • J ~bnwn rrr S.<tlli1l21 ~

C'lln Ider tl!~ lil!l~ n '.:iI.CJ !o C~'\(g< JI~ I J!,;, huige the dtr)klil Il-I~Y.:r •. uJ1.lld~ f.,,,,, Fi!l" 1 tJ lhe J.ep'~lj~fi-Iufi:· UHJ.1il. ~lnlJ"~ £" I tY~l"alil ~H' the order of

I 1"W1ll1I" To TUrri u YIlJljt Irllm of! 11\ on, aQ~ fmlll IHI hi iT 1110.: "Oltllll<' ! t)'IJIQjI~ rI!DUL 1 \ tl !h~ dl"d~ 1" co tm",,"'" • '~J' I[ C.lm "UJWnt .1~n~ILy j nt ] II1MLtm then Ihl! llmll il.>.~~I"Il:d '>llh 1IIIr81lll1 nd Ijl dllll'gmg IhIt

oo]'lcrJ''''·JJt~~fC~lllld1nr ~{J~ (h~ <11<Jcrol (' I • which I uu the a tier nr I

W .0111 ~".llir~ 11111. r~;U1rCS In Plll~~nl(.n I~' the CUfn,IH O~n.'11 J HOlli1!vc ~\l Pm!1 9nmlo htr'1w. r:h~ ttrne Do 'U"~ In ~hW"~ mill <Ji¥fuug~ Ih J~ I~LiOfl-hl

(~"'~.I!"r I. U5u"llv .~,). ~hmt (('mp~ll'rJ '~llh If! nrne iI~ I"t! ~(h ch :

urrd ~I».:h"Jl!,I"l! rI,~ ,,.. 'IUd II negmrl~ "I L~Qir tlllllnntv Ii IItiJ g

I
. m-pn. Milia
, - -
,
,
01-: r- -

: ... ~-- "" -
r-. ~ ~ .. - ..
I


0 IIj~l. 111+19 111+ ~RIWUk Jw.rl == -fl(lI~ - i1~uJ'-=6l." ~ J,,(l -0)"'0'

W)

ihlnam'''' Iru\.~ ~ I/inr -llrI'l -II ( "1

=.;.! =-O)I~.

'" ~~re Ih" h'H~-ll1In.llllim. II il~flll~d h} (hln~~~~1 I=~~

l.U.1! AVE.IIME TIME ~ t'RA\IERSNo A IIIARAoW IW5 h,1m f-;q, I III, I~ \~" d~ron turux rlillOn I n I'MIIt P-I~ till I~ II~' I

lal

FlG\lII:E ;2,18, ~~IiC"'II~" .. h""'"r tho ,II i~I:~illilo "~ ,j " "1' d,,>lli: (mtTl tI1t_~j.!J1 J "1,1.11 h~ 1'I:\.:;r 11ru til U.ic. cueuh r.ChLUIIjUl: HI~llii d •• ide I(U~ n L.I frmcu III ... , tiJ!E" II ... d (el tt'i~ ""ctI-d~. oi, Ih""t"m In 11>0 h;, fot Ml ..... LliJlv:

the trrne dllI1lltl- which tbe reverse current is DPf'!'Olimlttel:r ~.nd ..... whieh the dlf.!Lle remm"~ in the >In tcnlirlilllL Since tile jullC'tion ¥~ IIIIIIIbI& :'PJlwiirmltdy CU!l~\~DI dmm.ll thh lime, clJm-jJillljllllld di!!clJ...-ging qftfle~ ';IXai' cupne:itrrnl;.e nf the JUI1C~prl ~Wl be IgIl"",,.! !'rum Eq. (2_92), tbe ~ ~~u.luon j(!,C eleeirens in the !Hy"e Im~~ regirm I~

fI(1Ir - nl,o) _ 1 ,I[,,([) lip - "11'1

DI - 'I ~ ~ -~-.- (1.128)

whine 1.11 J i. Ih.:: I,lWl."t.:udY--~l4Ile elec!rnn l:ilt'n:nlln tml ~ repm {CW'f1:,ft\W eu rreru Lkfl!;ity have lileen ullCd inu:n:hlln~bly for our diode of \Ullt ~1ieCQoM Mulliplyln.ll FAl- 12.12BI by -q:iil1d illl~l:l1"Wlnll ove.-the Ill¥' n:p!!I. we bm!

((01

,~ I,

!Ill

Of

dC/I1(t) Clsltl

-;;;- '" -(.IW IHJ.{D t f. fl.1:30)

W~CII1' Q III') '" tile eaeess mmoJ'lty dIa:rie- ~ lIt Ib<: ~ fCgItIII. Po bJ Ell 12 119) '11uI ~~ ~ II,l (0. r) - MW t) IS ~ dill ll'UnItItItflowll3j throusJ1 the I:Ktrm4.I resUtor R. T1mt il. Sq. t1.13O) alii tibD be! 'IVliUm! tI

dQIf,1 + Q.(I~ = 1'R W,)

fit lilt

l1tc!.c oqUlltiorul it"e Wnp1y tbI! ~ ~ fA 1Jle._",ieiIid;1III:diii c~al\tmI rorm. ThI!_ .mDl'iott fl'Ir 8q. (% 1M) Is

J r.-+!Q.tO)-W,.q(

Iron_~t time HVI9l for I~/I~ 1= I the dI~ 1in~ll_I.>I!IIIIUI:.llB111"'1I to r,... whl.eb, lIS d~u~!\t:d fuUowIng J!q. (1.127) b ~, The ImportIUIl point ilI1t1~IjcrnrGnf..bi.u" 1UII,."'ruilllN __ il',.

IJ1'IiIth~ t>J1/f¢..

f~.u+~ ~10r D 1)101 (lith" chw'll~ I'ILtin Q/j~1l1 Qlfl111 ~ "fimdi{ll1 "UiT• ~~

" I I 0 n • .-.rm~Il!I II "~OW!i (hill ~ rL1rWlwJ-bUJJ dl ......

~III' .. u=lldU~ ~' "I~ ,

(lli;clJlII¥c ",'1~1 ~ ~,m~ L 11,lal11 "I1fH!I~lm!,J tv ~UJI lO the lTIl

I j'n~ tDll [Il~ Ia\'''''~ JI'th~rg~ currertl l~ IIl~tli I~~llllun_ the

, U , ' de III b ~ 1n a

r:b~II~t:1I11~~' B\~1Ir~./~!{ ee, 1O,!b~dJu ~I.: n ,

:lJIf'1",xnll;lTCI) ."/II~ II hfeiJ, 1I ,[II] be nIl {111m fig, _HI(l:J!. I~ III[]K!I',fhII

111 fur ~mot iJj~ at 1lr;l.f~I"IJ IJl'l'ln~ cr1l1~ntl'IltJ0II~, TIU!I urce

hlO~':l'mFflID'\t 10 ~Il~ tY!Jl~~r ,,,,,ICnIIlJj d~lp~ l)fVLSI CIICIlIli. The 1"11ll1~ Ll'~t 1"'llkt~ a [Mil lim" IfI'l/rol" off the r~"" rnrlUlritJ' I" 11 ~f"haft! dlmJrumil;n'fl ts Qff, II I~ unpU!1llJ1! 10 mmimlz.c c~ quneT1'1"md ln f;'tTWLIl~-bl!~...,;rt Lll*, ll Ihc!.c diodes !In! III MII.W.lml'Ml

un

• [)t" Irw II_' fi r~ "~mm''''' /lQJI 1~ Q~tfJI =-I~JF :m~ ~ {!.U ) ~1~15

for ;,IcctI'<1n CUlfC1l!, W(; hc~'

CQO ~ ~~ [2.142)

Gt - I~Tr~

0,,8 J..1,ENI.' 5- = M ----n;:;- W.IJ'r rl

h ;V the b~.r<'''lm\ d~'ri n~ e,mtentr;llh -n, :mu N/, \. 1 hI! a"p I ng ~0II.;e1l-

~JI:::'(': 1l1~ ~m;lId r~JII~' tJ~iitg ELl ~1 ~S\, FJ;j, 11.142) cnn he ~itnlllil\~d to

(;1), NE I'<.~ (~.143}

em, '" -';;;;;11'1'"

Siru:~ili~ £UnD N .. I ,II '" Is lY1'J~'Li1y ulm;,1 tOO ,hE1I)~t~' fh},,1 Ci/I i~ ml,l~b IIlIgI!I' I.Itru1 unrty r~~ m<l5l n" I' diodm"'- ThlJ! i~ \J,t> dijru"[1~ c:iI"lIdl,;ill~ llf_1l mre-~i.di:d p-n d,<>de b ~"mil1Jl~1 by the 1lli[tIl{1t}' dlnlJlI! 5ttlntd In lbe h:w.: I'I.'£,""\ ot the (hmd~; tb~ ullfo!uL1" C'LlIl'l.'.Iwnee ,h16 LO tho rnitlm1tr chnrge ~lore.d LI1 ibc enuner n:gitlll l~ u!1.I.,II~ ~JIlIiU .1l1lcrtl~!ITi!il!ln. (Tll~ "fred. d-be.1~Y Uillling. when lo~IUl,h:d, ~iJl mere .. ,,,'tIJe ~lm"JTIkI'tI' IJJii'd cbarge-.JIId hence the illlfu~ll;'llcJptil:lwnc~_ llmcecili.e m,.a~}'.du!llng df"':;lll; IUfgt.E in we mnre J],;,~vLlJ doped I:mitlC'f ibnn In th" base, It ",11I1T1;.k.: lh. rann Cn./C'"I1!' ~IILIl.IICI ll\311 Ih.u lj!""il b~ Eq I:.! 143}. EvJ1lll1l1ian Qf the llJlTuiilm <;j~atil.llI"~ U14'luillnll the J>t,.,~ >'-Ul1JringefflX1 it; letu(J E;!:en:lS!:

2.3 M05 DAPACIT08E

Tlli' rm:1:J1'-(>l,11iI: 'lCwlCl1nduCIOT~ MOS),;1rU~Iut\! I. ~hc ~i, n{CMOS T1j~"i-Slal.MOS ~~~tmI'Ii].~ bee •• ~rudilNl ~_~u:Il"l\':lll~' (Nlctllhan!U1i1 ~" it 1 \ ~fl:'ClJ 'J r(]n~ lQ nnN rfunnr dl:vk~, and inu:I.'IlI1Cd \~1:1 HIlt. we I'OI'iW th~ hmummel1Hu prupctlle!i llf MOg C!lpw:~tOT!l ADd

~QLlII~'m& lh.ol govern Jbflr OpCfllll(1n Th~ dfc.;a ur churge,~ 10 the w..QQ.,t.g:~~

lil lhe OXldt-~ltICDD Q1;m:(lIce IlN dll(U~!>ed In 8ccIi111l Z ~b-

2.3.1 SURFACE. PDTlNTIAL: ACC\ffI1ULATiON DBILI'nDN, AND INWABION •

e.3.1.~ FLA'T BAND AND ACC:I.IMUl.A1'101ll

whfrllll~< ;, n~ Ll~r~ru v~"'j11!. "'lweell lh~ 111el;J~ ~m] ~1l1L[ln, tiI~il F.~nnT l~o;bI

ll~f ~J'. Sill<'<' the wm1; f~~cri(lM W' .:tjunL tl~ekf WlQU"lfll 'e~d~ l.i"~ up L\" we11. [JIll.! ~h~ ~ 1I1ilio en n"lll. thI: ,Il~~ und th~ LI\i~~ ure 11~1. ~~ N!1~Wfl h, fig- :'..23(a), Tbfi 1< -.:Jldd rh .. ifm./lI~JJ ,·"",illum 1'h~re·j. no cha~t:, nd lickl. I!il(! the L'arri~ <"ru:o:",r~Mn 1> JL L~e C4Llillbrlll~ ~iilu. thrll~gh'RJllhe ~LHe<>!1. Now CDI1N,dcr (ne "it!'. ",he. " n"] ... U~~ v~11o~~ is ~j1jJ11L,;d 1~ th~ ~It 01 ~ p.1yp" MUS e:~p1Wll"( as ~Il~.-"lllfi\l. i,23th.> Til:tl!f.,i""~ ~l,I:-me!J1I.f"l1Il\ l~vd (i.e: "ltctrpn<;J1rtg)ll will! '"'f"N'L , .. ill" ~ilil7"n Fem1i It~ehnd Qe~l~~ '~lld~L1Ij" fJ~lil in t1'I~ o.lXI.de tbal would

C,;!L:I~fili<l u nr;g~il vc dtLli'S~ 1 (lwlln:l the ,illl!~n ,ub.«rille A fjrltJ is also lficlu~d UI d~l!..llh!OPll.ulfiJce II' lhl: ~~m.t: Jirnuo~ us tl]e~ISlcl" ~oIhl £I"""'Ll>~ ofthc loW carrier ,Vflr",,~ii!lLJII i~ ih~"111~~mp=1l1";1h 111~1:;J1I. 1M hilncl~ bend IJ~WHIllIOW:1l'1.i (he 11K IP" m!(:rm,;.c n .. Ymlri I~~el IflJ.f' .!W.I ."'/hill tl,u !li1i~OIl, ,rillCf (beN! h nlJ lid jI~~' R.f~mlt!um,," r~mill, U' 'l'''-~ di.~I.;~I~""Llln S~.:U(1I1l!.J, I TJu: polenlnti at !he \~JcUII LIIfJte j; ~lk..J ltlll ,.~dl1t~ Ilnl"IiIlfi! [)~e ~j~ the hm1il ~~m.hnu tM Fefml 1~1J"1 "'Ihe. ,~cc.~ much do>!:! lillklc ~~I~I~C~ Q>UKI th~ll '0 the Il.:'JTl17lt:vcl In !he ~Lil~ ,,1l~""', Ihl ~ _nIl!. 111 U h"r~ conce n Lr<lU.ln much hlF-her~' the suriace then the <lI1wlll~llrn Il"k "n[~lllllbd~l In lilt bull. S;TIQl "'~"., II'llles are acca ul .... _,

Lh1: ,iUrtru:e, l If!; I refuneJ 1 II' III ._ It

TI' '"'' ~ l(r.umrtirliro'llT ,~'ndHio~ On~ ~:I" l!rlnk or

~X'C."9i U'~'lll_ "Ill~ J1LnI~",1 mwmd lla~ ~urfn,c by Ihe negall\'lllilltc. vollllgC. ~~uJ1l.tm0Unl ~f lI"gU11~~ cnJr~e :1L'j'oel'Lf'l em ]h~ n~t~l SJ~ ill ~ MOS clqlilKlilX110 as rC>quuw j 01 dLorgt I Lrurrahl)'

laJ

IOJ

l' 'YV"Si,r.lOOKI Notll~4 .""tm J

1

u

aml

1:1..1.501

[n lIre. n\""~ ,kl"""'~ _ v' w,(,1' "" JIO; IIml o~plll""lfAn ". N" nj fWIII

r~" I lJi' I w~1'i! 1.IM,'fl

Sub.~IU IIII~ U",.,J..I IJ:I]""l «IL"J11~n, 111\" Jl"l, l' l.j 71 ~ l~ld.

~1t"~1 1 - 11]

N,

('2151)

~1~ltlJ11)'IrI~1Alljfl \ i ,I. on b'ltil ~IJI' \111-., 11.1 ~ U .ul~ 1I11~l!nUllllll'(]m fhe hulk 1i>=~,rI~/i/.,~-(I1!"""l.((}IIT ~urI"l:~ ,n ,iIll,ITn

1,1, d~ ,i (.It)

I ,/ r'll

.s. n- ~

\\hlclJ 'II '11~.I~~ rrc 11'1.1 ,,' ,

-d~, 1,/ , 111'1Tl1 Qf

fIPIl w Ibc- dbpICltuD ~l\lII'[Ie d.ert~lI~ N _l¢rr .... ..., illmae itt Slit lJJrf~t pprttrriDl rtlsuUG ill II /are~ hildJlp of flea.. ,..a ~ III III, 1!411l'~ Tht' ImN~hm 1~~rl .. ffo,_'1l\'dY ~hicld~ thli !ltlu:(JII from f\lr.!IIr ptlli:U1iolm (Irlht~tt tidd, SJn(~ ~lmt"l nJl or ~ht: m".:nlmllll dllll'lO.b ~ ~p ~ ~, mms. there,~ 110 furtllcr on~~r.o: ul ~i\JJ~r 111£ do:pleti n cf.~ ortlll! dqltcdllf.-llIl1~ll"ld\" H,~ ~P"~ '1llI1lll Eq j2 15:'i. 10 ,I fd'hcr -..clik (unctlGa: of lite ~ ",!lie d('!11n~ ,'m • ...,tllr1I1II'n 1,,,- .~plc,1 ~ lues or II" = ItIh~'-IOI~ Illll

'Z D JlQe on~) Ij 'h\'~. rmm 11711 la II '}i V.

a. :U.R DI!Pt£1'K1N ;lPpRIDl~MATlON

In l!omcl I E4l [~ I~ J mWol b~ ""l\,~ ~11111l\:rwllJl) 1" obIJiln ~Itq In rtutkuiw

~1I!or ,"I'rrolliU.I\IIM~ un ~ InUcl~ I" ~1l, Ih~ ute rnl 10 be I.'tItI'lcd 001 lIAIt- 11l¢ollY. f'" c un iplc, ,II \~, ilcpklim, rc!li<1I1 .... here 11}l n ~ kT q. unl lbe • rI- T 1.:l'l11 III Lh~ !llllre lmIu""~ lte.,u!o) br ~ ~I.d

f.llJ H Ihel' fnll 111~ lIlt f""ti unU 1m r\ll~
1 t ~r 1 \1
1r
Illtl ~ J til, utiac r-,trMI J 01 1 _ [I b • LWlCd W, !'he Th

The dk.lVc lmmlm I:i)'~r th~dl1U:s tciJl, il'lll lHOOl!i) can be ~~ from Q. qJjl01 = 2."kT qQ ' wh.lc~ IS Irr.asd propprnolUlllo Q! Similar e~pn'IS iJO!l!I n1111J baW lI1Jeillr the W1iIte c.h.trjJ.e Ueru! It)' of cxtrn lwles und~ BCCWIlLllIItl.Oar eJ«"pl tI.wI th(l fn.:1QJ' n; / N i l'\"jJl~ b No

2.3.3 CAPACmlNCE'8IN AN MDS STRUCTURE

J: ~~ I

r

f!I!lUAEc2.U, ~;q,",v.u.l~ll' cl"'~'" l1li M~)S '"IlJJWrtr ~~, All lh~ "Ii ""~ LIljJ!l' it.'",,~. = 1ulllp lrun t'or. fl:i\ c. j~ I""l~~ up [M., ~ deplCIll'~ ~110l1\. ""~C\I; i1mli:c C J und IiII H'~llniiQln.J~~·CI' i:"1IP~t:lu.mI:UI C1 C;., t1!i~~ rJIJJnr~~ m,lIrl(il~ L:iJml:t'!: ilNbIcb

fi<1/1 r~I"'nd '" ~,,!lt-I" rplll~c~ ~, ... ~ 11. II~ l~IJl·III,.~ ~ilt!lIHI, ('J ~ from IIL~ I~[~pril¥ CIlni""', \'illkh OI! ,~, I ~ ""pIIltd to 1(!W·r~quolWl'.'" ~~.,.. L1rW ".):111<" 111'o'd"nn .h.,moll .-,mnol;l<iI II' ,I ~""Bf ul ulillmhy C!I." ~I tu sn II ~r:-rl tloo!! t"tmfiMJ.I r;lIlhm. nl~ thm d .... tW ml1l~"1Ion I" t~ I lJO dr_"'" ,!"I ~ or I~\. r"",q~'dcn~l; ~Ihl;fn ni::l.t"fJ'1J:Y .utL1 111EtJ,lLlaLj!

,I.", ll4l ncllJJ.go wlth ""'OllHhor

It "'~ .l!fif~renLl~!C! B:!, (~,1~11 111111 '''"Pea In - t/, ;'!TId define th<> ~~"n pnr! of ilir -~P" dl~nr,: n~

l!i INC! oldy if thr. rrcqu~nl:)' of Ihe app!i.I!il .. ~ l~ I~_r f.Ium duo I'IlCI~OII:cq ro!ntJrit ~ """'1l"r I'l"W1IHC u me The mltlmllY~~lM"'II]f'Ql1;;e linHl,::;a;!I'bo'otII'timll*l fl'"m llwf ge~t~OlI--i'etmnbiNlll~fi <;lIlTaIU ~_Hy. J II"" q n, W. fr, w1utre t '-b IItwm i:y"cIllri01" IIfetl!)1c di~tlu~~ in St!eIlO11l. \.4 TM lilllc 11 mu. III ~ NIQUg!! llllnonty ~Dmen to 1bJII- !OmlllMII!: eompamhlo to the~ .... !}~ = qNpWd' ~ en tim ~ or Q4JR = IN.ltlllr (IW1d And Pmm..1966 'hils ~~ lyplc!ill:r CI.1-\{l s 'l1-oen9'~flIr ./lYfIImdrK 1li&7m IbN 1119lh 01' .... I"~ l,.ottni~m c1uugf cmrrwl mptmd t.1 U!~ ~ Gt .rirlltl, Only Ille ~ .:h(ll'!!~ (mlljorit)l carriers) """ relIpOlltllO tiIi! ~tpI.Ill ....... kb mearu. \~l!.he ntlcut! ~upndl!IIlce:is 1l1Vl!l1 by CJ nr Hq. (l174) with W~ "11l1li1 to IUoI!IIIdmIIm .... Wo/m. in FAt t!.ll1t) TIn: high.~1leIIIl)' ""J'IU.;~ ~ ~ II ~ rnrnunum ~.I\Ie, CiIIln ~ mVJ:!XIOllII'l<ln by

I,2.n7}

G LOW·""EQUEN{;Y C-V GHAAAr:TERI9TI~: INvER5lON

2,3.3.. '1 • "" dc<:TIiIIIlgI

A th gm ~ ~IIII J~C ; n.ctt~"C" furrbcr, b!ll',,~'~r. Ib~ cnparnnnce sto .. "

1\ hen I/t, = 21/1/1 lijq (;!.I S5111~ reached aml i "wT'IIon ~Ufli (hI.~6 th~ /n~r jnrnlf, ,h~ I!lIptlruJIllC.f ,111m III inUl'nsl'. ~'n« C I L~ 111111' gillen varinrir/JI ~f I/J~ jm'~l:til}fl tIll/flit' with I'I'rpt!t1 W Ii. , whiclt ir much rht drfl'~rinll MpOdfirlfc~ A~~mmll~ Ihur ll\o! ~IH"1O IutrBt u; dOllllil:UlUId In\'rn;'''Jj1 c.IIolJ:c, n.'~ 'r'ill' ~1Irl)' r>~1 "~nnnilim lIS 'In 1ht IC.C:an~~,

ad h\~\",jtal tile M os ~ IImce In trCJQ8 '~K'I.1IJ IS CII3il J1,"lm I!Y:J:4,;.W; Om: .. ,nrnllC~'~ rn:"l ~I nI mwr~ u ," ~ m I)J~ rung.': of U 7 to I D hIgher ,han 111M t accumulnuon In My C"" .llIt: dlpwtlUlC'l! nq)\dllyt"l!I!

10 C ,,'h~n!he ~ ~~lJt~g<l ~ 111~"'" lh~n 2 u, 3 V III!~ Ihe ffMl-DI.'1I

.hDW" In ilie It1I1i-frequl!lWl' V UI ve raj 1(1 M!!,. l!l

1.I.S.'1 ~~ CAPAClTANCE-\IDlTABE CHA~IS(tcS

1'b: 1Ibo~ d~ !If Lbe kn\o>rlCq~l M05 .~lIlI!IllIair~ lIIknltityc:!tnN'.1 the JlI\Imlon QMiIIF-ISUH hl:fOilOW".

wpadlf.l~.t C ~~ sh,lVill in P'~~22Slbl. wb~ CI can IJ.i: e1Ipre..,er1 iW

iI'-Qd l12d

Cj = ~ = J.J,;.T!q (2.17.81

.... h uw help "rI'l{, (,!_' M~. II is p,,~tble LQ Fl'leliRUre CJ and CI ~"purollely In a ~II'" C -r <",lip (SmiJ!li cI ~r , IQ~ I. SUdlll'l~dlni~u~ lli u~d. fur C():.\l.mplf:'. in cl!annel I1l!JlImry me~,,"r<::nU'nl!l whw ,n" I~"er>l\)n LCbill"~': rlen.ll~' must be dbtc111JlncQ

1I,:~Ui]J!di"

2,3.4 PDL1fSILICDIl WORK FUNtrr10N ANtlllEPLETlClN ~i=FE'CT9

2.3.4.1 \IIf01'II( HINI!(ICN AND A.AT·eA!'llIJ VOlTAGE Il~ puL ys,UIJON 1i,it'f'O'S

111 s.:OUDll1J sc h(T, we lta"e- l"lmllltlred.1I1 I oloil I MOS "af)ru.tiLO[ in which there

" l1L' u [de dl~[g~ ~ll<l nn 1'1l1rlv-function illJI"ttno~ b~lwe(ln rhc nlew.Umd ~m.con Il ;1!.l-~n In p,i!n=1. hnl\'e~·~'!". Ih~ 11'i~1 work fun':lion is' "Ill [be same as IhIl !l11i"lIl worl 'LlnCtloO :m.tl111Im1 III ~ m.ltil'I'ID 11:uili: tii)W \10\1111 SllJ1'1e band b!!ndil1g. m s.Uicoll' ill fj,ro ~(e '\I"'II~~. Tl11~ i~ shown, for qpmpl~ fur an .,-I-_",,,v • .JLlc·,,," Jl.ll~'~ p"IYrc MOS ~""p<l,,1mr;~ fl1l.1.~lfJl~), TIiC"F':11ll1 le ... el 01' rile heaVIlY o-l'"lJ"III,:rm Is near Ul>;e .. pdIJUljfl~"buml ~tItc, ..",!llth rnust lirre up with uh.: 11:'i~'1 "f!ho 1""lJiI~ i11i\:,m II) ~1'I'l g;ili: \'lllt.ogl'. Thj~ causes the: VW:~lUtn le ... el Qf nul~ l"ll'l'il IliC1]D Il' ~ h'l!'llcr .0 electron elll:.r1!.} than the 'V~t:uum "",..I of !be 11Q1~.~'1.:"II g.~w by an np10WlI equul [u l:. ! 1'1 + 1J H Th~rel arc. there J an 11~'i.l1I1 Lilf din:"IIl~ ill \lL:aler~liflg ~1~I!Ir ll,wurtllhe gate, ~ 111 WI!!

V~=VJlo

Ii<

E., -: .... ::.:.5- t----E,. .,

p-lyp(: .11Jt:tm

~~---.r;;~

FIGLiR!; 2.:1 1. t!lIlId dI~.!l\'llm .h~m:g

p"I,'I!I,"~"-I1I'r.: lloi!l<.tilm ~rr~ wk.i. D JIOI~d.., wi",!\< i:> ~I'pli"d. ta 1~. If' 1'<>l~1ilJ1~(1II ~ 'Or ~ p4:"r'1'" Mas QJiIIu:, IlJJr

Thi'~ iJ; C5po;.clnllv u C0llC~(O 11'1111 till:: allll1n+-p+ I"'lY>'~limn-!J.ll.\e ~ ... ~ In wb.ioh I~~ gD>e~ ,,,~tW~tl b~ ion JD1r.l~[lU!U(III ,Wo .. s ,,,r oJ .. I ~l&l· Gille dilpl~~"ln ,!'eStill! m un a<.lditu:mnl caplJ1'i!nJlJ;c I .. kr'l~ .... 'i.ih the ~~Ide cap:n"I'UlCC, wbieh '11 turn leacl.!i to ~ rmlllli:l!d '1I.1'<I1"l'lm1-!~)'i!f ~n~~ ~~'Il" MC d':l!rn:d~bO~ of tlJ.~ MOSFET I.l1IllS1:Q1"1J!JJ.o:llm~C

l]l.e ~nnl}'~I~(Jf MOS ~Q~ncitD.no: 1 .. U,~.ill~LmJru;':':l.klll("U,Il be ~X1:endCd IO'intlllci.:!

Ihe pnly.Jli.:on d~~e.ti(lll ~ffijH Ill1d ~U[[III.ify cenam Dbs'IT~d r~(Lm= in.tln: C- V r"'lll;ilol.n~llt:l Coo:lI ~eT !J:i~ band dingrll!ll of nn n + -POlySlhcDII' ga~ed p.!;tP£ MOS. CRl'J!:ltl)r ~iJI!.I:tI ~n[f' r[l\'PlijQiI ~~ ,hawn htl'lg. ~.31. Sillll1' ,'he'"X'irl~ field !,alnlJ in lhll dil't~Hcn of Bo~elE:n1tin~ 0 '1egpti,., "frnnie Im>t'wd zhe gate. In~ b!md~ln ~ n~ p~I}o~llkOJ1 OOiJ ~li~hIIy upwuro I<lWnro the Q~I~1l: interfucc. ThlS d~letes tIuI I1lrlcr.c of droul:irui Jlml forms ~ u,m 'PDll"'~~:m'"gt r~j):iDll HI the pc:d~.!lilil';lln Ia.yer, wJlkh lllWm.,. tb~ ~\11l1l o:~pildln.n~~-

FIOUIR 1l.32. LDw·~."~ C-l' ~urn:~ ~c 1"t'I(Io: MOS OLIjBIQtJll wrth n" ""l"yslll.lID gol.<O dDfI':d .1_ ..... 1 cftfformt «WcI1b1Wo~ .. r I\IIn Ria.! JI1Id. A""", 1 <nt. ) •

Thrc bia. eq_1iatl<'m ror l1li apPlied volbIgC V. l~ ob~ained by ~ un m.tdltlOOol term, Vt'r. tw tile bllnd IieI1ding m the poly~II1W1l ~ IDB) f~,18l)l

a.

V~=~+\!I ++"'-C'

Diffcrentia.ti.ng llq. (2 183) with ~ to -(1; IIIld IJSIJIg !be ~ IWbritiOOll {2.1 ~ ad (2.170), we obtain

1 J I 1

_=_+_+_ ~M

C C... C<I c,

". -dQ,'d~1' "" dOl' dt~ t.StlIe~efdll;!POJpllic:orrclcplo-

~1t3)

r2_186)

IIIGUAIi IUS. ~dl""'I!I'p-t)'p¢MOSw.m~1I 11q!idjI1tl~1 ilhftnm(l<;",~_dlelHlJ~' 'rb.rp!c.~ow..e.!.ll.'IIaI.;..u IIIld r~llllvmi<lll1:fllldlli<:m (AM. 0I'u'ia. i9ll't.1

JtIJl1IheQtherhmd,ti1cP""'l~II~I1D~VIfU~

m FiJ. 2034. !be MOS is m I ~ ¢qItiIiGn 1ft Iiiclt 11., <{; . Pnmt

Eq. (2..-89), thedWIQ!1C~lm lhe~lideof"'~iI

2.3,5 MUS U~EA NON£DUIUBRIUM AND GATED DIODES

"en i"'r~r1llnihmld,~~ blll4!~ (It VLS! d~vl~"'i IS the 11~~d diode or 1la!:e,c:oDltrollled:ii d~l!<k. C"",iJcr un Mds c-.rrlli."'i~or whl!to there i~ tm ~- region udjllJ:cnt [0 the p-iype ~on IGroY~, tY(li~ The .rn~!!IM !mu the ~-~ regsun form !PI dlEldo: Tlus strucurre I~'!J~IJ\Y~ ~~h"m~liwJlJ ill Ag_ :t.B and Wi>!! m~=nlio-nl~Jxlcitl)'" 111 tl1>!-~~d 01 ~e('lll)u ~:::!,~

-

Til "",ch m;rl!'r>illfn In til<: noncqnllibnum ~a~, a mlic.b larger gall:' voltq~. M~<;I'nll~ ~~~tllh" hands b.l' Z,~~ ~ VR• flHi",1 bt applmd Th; 1,!hI: ll1IIIe FiM-U4~~\, II(h'lL 'b~ electmn ~"n","tr~llIlTI :1I!he rrurf~ce i3 now

IItI: same d_~ Ill,:, wUliition [j'r jn~(If1ill'ln 1~rt\1du~ III Section 2. 3 2 lht url;,l<.'" ckr'.Ulln layer I mUl!h wld"r !hl\n m li1e~lIillbrluto - .... ,'-'~":?:\m 11:\'e~"lll"""d p-n Jun~llnll

t------E,

2 3 8 cJi.l.RGE.N .sIUCON DIOXIDE AND AT TJtE SILICON..oXIPE rrIrrER'ACE

II j. <,ftr:ll ~uld Ih.Ll lh1: r~~1 m"[!.1ll 10 iilil~"n W(i~n.d~~)' ties ~~ kJl ~ "ihc:oa' ct} 'lalJi"~ 1l1U1~nlll bul in ,ilk(l~ J[""iac Sili~{)11 ili!,,,t~l~ 1{]j1Tl1:\'l:"rilj~1Il C1JIn~ 01" ,ill""" &VI""~ "~rl'l" J' lI1,ul;ctilJU :md 1"15S1~;lfJlln '''~~~ and ~~ Dfteo 1i§l!d It .l!I err •• 'liwnw<k.illl! WlIllIJ( dfllu,.i,l11-bmillr ln~'L:l 111 del~t..: [ahricaliun

"l11u~ r>u' \11£ ~"\'~ U'ClJled "Ilcon din~ldJ: ._, uu ILklll inauia[()f, wah !l-O ipaq; "h~Q!l< 111 PI ~"pdLl~1i wuh LI. nrul no L.:h~ ~~d\lUl~~ bdw~n illlnd the ~illi:llIt il ""' ~n. T~. ~Llil.Hn dlIL~ld~ unLl t!m.DNIJ,Il-,.Lii".-.n inll:rfucc in real dcvie>es Il:I'd "~wr "",rirl~~ly cliJctl1""-.1ly l1"U InI~ _ TILe« lmll be ninbi1e I{Jm~ ~mltJ;!~, ,,~ ll!~> 'I "pjl<:d I ~ II I~ flx_Jlle lfiyor There ean ,11 Ml he

Iuccl ~,'(~L1" ~hm~t:ll near Ll~1! {llLIlt'-",lic"fln rnft'rllll:a ~nJ dltl~6 tnppo.J 11\ I:I<tI~d iirld~,~ ~llrl." .,1 111"- \lJo.1Llr-"SWcon in!J:rr.,~t: Ekdtun~ an.d h(Jle> can II1I11\ltl('m 'tmnl lire c.,.~(nllitl~ ,I ill I!' fIJ:'~r lhe oxldt>-sihCI)O U\lerf"~'" 10 rhe ~l~(e s, Lind \'IC~ vel~tI SI act \'Cry I.k."J~~ h~~ some I'(!~u~:> IlllU )ITt covered

.. IJJlI.'ln .H()~11k, the dl:'ClI'klll dlHrII~lcrl'I'~ "r u d~"l~C urc .UV .~n~lttve to ,kftili1y l<l~ ~1lI1>erti" '01 rll~ ~hdl'!l~ inside 11~ o"d~ ~Kln~llnd auts ~H'i~ofl--<Ol!.tiil [m~r1'lm:_

nIL' nomenclumre r", Ill!"" ribl,,! the dll1l'£~ ~~.oo nl~d W1111 the- _gHron 1I11;CN~t dl-l-1~"_ I\'~ ,~_mIM.IWJJ 111 ~ 91a 10rnI. I ~IWJ, The nUl ~hlltge per

L~ uc~nlo:d DY (), 'I'll u •• Q~, d~n'*. lh"II11,hill' dlllr!(/;" per unit =. Wj."' .... """_' IIII<!t't"<lI.f"ttl.(!IIIr~J1p.irlrml.uw. Q d<rIl\1lL.~llwfi.-u,Jm"lfdt.QfJlt .1JI1l Q,l (kn,lttli the mit rf~ ~ r"'IIP<''' Jw~ p1!f um! ~n TIIr: IIIIDlI!!I;-.,M Ittd

IIj Ihc~,' ~llllrl1~~ ai'll illu~1I1ucllllt Fill, _ 16 TI~ rrupcrti jU)~ ~nw=l.

lbc ~ r~, are ~1 ;u"t,ed further ~h"

-

'2.3.8.2 FOO:D IlXHlE CHAR68

l'l~c'ti <I~lo:!J:1 C~i~C' ilni' ~\iLiw C!llilg~~ h)r;1lJ~~ In me ol~lClg IIl~r vt..'fJI c\,,~e 19 the 5i -s,[l onl< 11)11:<l..IIl 1~1. lor ml;l4)",[i nit purposes, the fix<.:.il Cl)\ld~ charges 91"e tlsuall, ~111'11'd 1(l1]C loeww ilIlll~ SI-SIO Inlerfno.:u Th~y :IJ1; prirnarily due 10 elCe$: ,(I,Ql,1 'p«llllo mlroduL-",J !I~lring 11IlOJ.lUQn ~ml.hklinl! 1I"~1(1 ~1!l~lmR heal ~ I D<l31 tlll~., I ~fi"~. i1llllkr~ndL"1iU~ of IJI~JCn5lty of !ix~.d O~lde ch~~! on ~\Itmra11O onon1Illirll1 i~ L11~ "'~JII~ 11: IfhllOf '~lc:rfaca trups, mll1ld~ (100) _< (I W) -c ~ 1111

The p",m,<c or JllIl>d o~ide ~~~rj;\'''' .11 III~ Il~1 ··sJliron Interfru:e nffccu tbI. p"1~n~l~j in 11", ~~liC(ln, II h,~h will be dl.cu;;;;cd In lh~ ne;l.l subsecnon. In iUldbiO*; 11t~ f~~ W l'Xid~ r~lOIrl><:'~ "'til!< ~~ed ,:;;all~ni'lli ~tnl1'.1'F ~r.d thus reduce the moI:IllitY ,r t~~ ~fl.lJim in " ,~rf~ 1lll!l;"Pli\ln d'!,mrl<ll ~S ih ~J IJ/.. j 972 I

2.3.8.3 rotOBJLE IONIC C~MI[lE

}l""I1c HlJI'l; ch~ in SiO are u UIIH~'!.IM III S(IIfililniu poluWllm OOIiwiRlclllilll'" dll1r<ill~~ d~nns: iJcvlc~ lahri~~Lll n. Unhkll hled rI~ide cl!1If1IU. wbidl flliJblk-. N'~ un~ K I~ru; 1.I1t' qaue mobil~ III S ~O lI1Id ~ hi! !IlI)Ved: f'n:Id~_ end !if I.lu: 1':l.1d!: 1 iI~~1 10 t11~ (ftller when en electric field If applied aoroa I ~ pmtlculMl~lll fIInoew"~ldr\.ltd~p!:I"alum I~ A~ lhoiSt! po.'!Ili~ely dlLlIJl~ ions drift 1:105e 10 Iht!:

• hIIltfi from.1IIlll altrK"t clf.!(.IlOO~ 10, ~ silICOn mfuel. oIl'1e11:CiiltIl$llIftil

~ dtctmn Mmlt Ill. fll)W lIlMIIg n dlftblioo w welt. Aka. ~ IhcHe JIOliave1y cbnrged Ions......,,~ "1ilW roall!r.ll~

u.y CUI *11. t:iIqId ~IIJ CCDlen for 1tiI __ ;iif ......

..... -~\lmrmabi1it)!

1,:1.11.4 Q)lljjE ntAPPeD CHARGE

If eIECIJ'U11-holil' pmrt W"I! Ill"ncl'll~ in :Ill ""llde lIi"er' b nl _ .•

, ,k IJ,,, l' 10 ling 'lIIli~Ull!l.

,;arne. of tbc...e ~ ;nd IlQI~ CIU1 he .ubkqUcJlUy IrIIpped III IU. oiId" A.I~tl. ir ~lrurollS !'IE hUlo:S """ InJe:(~ miD an odUti In~«. by IUMillinjlollr by hJli..gruner (n)ecbau. ~MIe of 11Itm. elm hi! trupped In the o.\j~

ElecU'tln lind bole !nI~ in SiG. CI)JI ea.I.lly be lmmducl!li by b6mb~mml WillI hIgh-energy photon~ ~ pllrtkles ~BDl1l'ioll1. 19B~" Snu:.l-omhwdr!!Clm by high' J!IteI:SY partJcI~ tmd pl"lgtoo!; IS Im'Dhed In TIllIIIy ~ In the f~briC1.llQCl tlf modem VLSI de'viaclI (du.1lII8 1<JI1 ImplllllWIOP pbm"oll or m'tl~laD CIt~og. J!PIIUCDl1i drlpMltiOO. e1ec:U'OO·benm eVllpouliOl"l or ItJCtlIl. d~-QeuI AA4 ~-IlIy l\llx1l!J"l phy. eie.), elcCl1'Oo IIIId b~lc trap!. III"C ofIIm imrodlJll.ed I" IhD .rude Ituriu& devia: flltlnClllioo 1'9nuntItt~. most er Iheoc ~ elM. bi! c1nnllllllcd ~Ib wbRqu=n anncal(l-«I ~l\IrC$lbovc SSO"C (MnJ, ~;'a

AlsO. dc!peodlllg 1111 1M olidElcD rondlriDn. ~1tIctro1l Utpt CGJI be. ~ dUring !he exida growth pracc!I' Itself (BMlS, 19a). PorenmpJc. DUde JIW1h III mois'lure-clDllllinit'l& ~ is kDow1t to ~ ~ ~(.NIc:ocd1Ir.t! n rtI .. 1971)

• C~"l:IfTSf.--rM TtGps ilia lJMIIIl.y~bY ~ ~4"I'OU .f""w~.~IrI[i!IYo1IhgtoS!~Ul1b:e:I:lllle~ 10 "-to-I' ~m:

II5IIJ1ly C_~ trIpI:,IA.gw,.,..amtIIIlPJ~~ pr1or~~~(l'IiQ("". 19i~~'~~~ ~. tho. 10 tLlc-14'4}. .... ~~ !D:IlIIPirJl.{Lu; ~~ .. __ ~~-W-'jjCff.#IO~~

IIIOIlwi:thC~"'Jv# .. ,;.a..,,", .... IIt--= dIItpd~tOUaIJVtI~~~'8IIbaIdn. J"""!fliI;I

~--~i~~~m.B tr.ycn1to.:~~6~

~--------------------------------~-==~=-

. "]1:JrUC.Wrl~tics, Huk rr~p:s luwc mil been "LUlijj:!d In

d~~l"'l' tr.1p!> Ittl \II<'ILLC • l1i.iJ """, b'" dw: 10 the fu~1 llw.l hol~ I'II't ,,- TlI"cll ([tIll,1 ~~ d~~ ~p~~ If'" ::I""!~d 101('1 tlO o~jde ~Qycr (G9!X1:m<l!1 \'r:I'I rf!jj~l ry ITl,pp;'rl \~h~ Ii:, l .' it ~O~ ~-llPLU"" !'.I'M' :;&"lio~ 01' ~~

"" .... Iil·· Dr 'l(;nrw,Ul ~I)e I11l!l1iil1f<: . .' -

1 ",(\1. IS";~ '~.~ . 1 ~, rhe lm:~,"lelllron I'''''_P" m_s~cr:i ~r-.""g.

:'! " I{t 8 ~l1r. ,"1111)" I; as M'&~

19:1p'1).. ('; mer the CiljJLllm ~L 3 mplple ~~Llmj~ ;n\~ IIp

• T~/JJI.71II"':f' "'f"'IIJl"lf:~, m.~~ . 1

" ,,!!S~ 1m3 iW<l \ll1nlp"U!:Ill ~ompo[l""'I~. name ~,

~ltrlIt'" trnp TIle trap'(!f!l~ 1m! ". . •

en plloD lll~ 1l1""lrnn IDlfo ,-;wm~ hli\IIl.l hi;!.h~~fl~rnY ~Llln; '[If tile trnp C~llkT,

J~'~ "",~iLlin~ tIlut !!.1IIl~ d~o:!W,'fi t'wm the imtl;Ll Clll'IUJ'Ild "lhlt: b~ Ihc~~l

If"~ ·t-Lr"'" in "11 JniJ:,~1 .--upluted ~~al~ h~" ~ b]~h~r ~lVhilllilu~

~K('~Wrlcm, a" • ~ ,. . 11 r b

nf OMC'Jl.Lll)ll dtJ\~n ~'I.IliI1o:ls lhe gI:llnm! stute ru Ih~ II'OP ,lIDto::l' l an o . Ilm'

):e'el'l1~led, il,,, =1~C!I\l~ becomes ITIIP~~- Q~ il1~ ~tllff hand, If the probll~iJ. [I;)' ~f ree fIll-,~l9,~ by m<'rm,,1 <:~dllltlull f.Nm LlIe, ; nitlnl il<!rtl:lre(j "I~te \~ Iligb ~ouQh. truppiIij! W'lU II"L ~ I tolll, 19liIll. Tl~~""JlIU~ ('rn<f:,_,e;~lWn.lk~ r~rt. dt~TUJiei. Will, 'TI""'~ifl!!, 1"!l'p"'1'lIlllfe.. smee l~~ pr.fJbrl)"hlY fOr ll1~nnlll I'Ernli~.itllJ .Incr~""'" wlrh rel\l~rulm-e 'L~~, 19()111

• Flt'iII J"IIIJJJd~IW'. 11 an el e(:IriO:- ~",[d '" rrpp ~llij a"rtI,~ en o~!tk l;lyt;I. Il h. ~",,:lIf'''1 ~J incrctl.~l~ UJ~ enm'&l' d[',Jl1' ~lEITi~r.I' 1fi1l,1t1:g 111 Ehe,oxlijl" 1~~et. A~ lhc.s<: ~t$ ll"W c~OID< Iwm Ille ,,>...iil~ fichl, j~e 1'OOb.1:llIli.~, \Jf ,heir "",~ 1Jll~r.un::d III ~DIl!,e Illfli.;tl~·ij!1 .llilD h Iljl'l""':.:I;. lnce til~ esrncrs fI[)W ltIIlIM I"se mare eo"'!,,} rn th~ illltl~1 rnplure [JffiI:ol,~~, AI the "lillt' tlme. nn tJ~.tIt fiJ:JtI tl~~ th~ ~ lWll "r [rn\\'~.rlng_ lh<' ene rk\)' bam~'s i'Q'r WI: carri crs mip,," In 'I r~[lmliul '.1'.:11, I.hi.l~ II'I~r!lJln~~_ tbo;! fllUbuhllil~ Cor ~muWlg them from their InJli"i rnl'lJit~d ~l~'U lL1x, 19utl], A~ ~ re~uh. lh1!l ~Drtu cross SBC'tlOIl det)f~I!.'i!S' I\iJUl mrnl'l"m!ll>~lli~ field rNlIIg. nl7t'b. ! ')7&) Thf! MmllW,q, 1J_~m mrllwd ~ji}'}~ding "an'i~rMl intll 5,0, Ity tltll/Jf.'liug aliligh ~ • .fid* u'ld~ 11I1Uldi!N/Srr/ll1Jfo 1hL' IJIlt","'1 n!trupa ill SiGh since lh~ ~r" cros:I ,\Xl mn:!l al ~m:.b high ~~lLfu If,,! ,f~ m~ irun: h srnuller than tnose nl normal rJcvigp operation,

2.3.7 EFFeCT OF INTERFACE TRAPS AND DXIDE CHARliE ON DEVICE OHARActtRlBTICS

l'b.:(lte:>l!ll.'t.,r "jUde oh~~ and rnrcrfnce L:mPliH:J5l.hNo!mJljor1!IT'~iQl',~!J.~ ~~1cri~tJC:s of Ik'VICl;ts.Mn1. t~~,hn.r!1.~m the oxlde.or In !he inl(!ffUull1l[~q!ft!l w.tI1the ~ ulll!J!'I1!lcon nCllI the ~urlacr "rII,j thus "ham~!he &!i!tribu!iOOIlD"- ~ gUrrllC01'~Tltlal Sec<Jnd, es the deWiity m ~*jifil! doIatc clI~ with cllIInges In the ~ po!lmll~ 11 81~.me C'JI!*"1lII1.'U am!pmrent m pAlWkl With th~ lllcon. d' l[lllloitaIl1@ ~ 2.3 '1'h1td.1he ~ tnprI aullICt III ~~~@liij

_II!: -..ist I:fi tlw bonlko·bitnd II\!IIId1rIJ ~~, :PQ,',~

2.3 MCS CAPAClTmlS

l'Q BV~ =--

"

5quolmn CJ9Jl,w1 th"l1 be TtIl'TJttl:n m Ihe "ImplLl (onn Q ,~V' ) ~1 1~1,~=---~

'",

\Oi!lL'I, I ,= or I, I the 1Il(Illc C!lpjOn~ilnl:c per urut ~rc.;J gm;lIJ i9 Eq (2.I68S. !"'W~111 n (2 NS, ,[.ll~~ U10I lhi: ~lfecl ,'f an ;lrh~II,'')' (1~.d~ dmlJl~ di~[ributiDQ 4u1w.!cm 1(1 nn I)I;ld~ h"'l ~blirg~ Q ,I 'iI, I IQleUte~ Jilh' ()~idl~--lIIhcm~ tm~

2.3.'.1i! lIliTEfll"P.C,"" TIiU!,P CAPACITANCE

!I~ ~ ,I n:] J !II$" ilir;("'I'~n O[ ~11< e r cnan C Jll clofirltd 1I Jlhou[ inclllil~IU!~

mlnf .L~ Inlppet1 .'hJlrte /VA ~ Inl~I(~ ~ 1 r:lpl rll led lind emptJeQ m

1(1 tl~n~ in If>.; ,uri", P'1~llt al.1h·~ gJye ri C" to ~n 1:1fJl~ ••

:r "''' mI. C\J.I.krmed b)

Cur

The total ~bargt on the p ... el~~ 11; at?¥! Q Ix:ao~

C'= d(Q, + 0",1 dV,

snd Eq. [:2.1111 beeomes

1 1 1

-=-+-C C~~ CII+C"

ThalI~.lhfi mtIDru:r;-lIw o:apm~ IS in piIPIlkJ willi !hi. siIlI:on ~

As di~l1lIml m !be p1lI'Itllll$ ~~tlon. the probabillty of Q JIIrii!cc ~u: beilI!, 1llied WJIh an ell!£lroIi is governed by ,t .. llIIf!IIY 1a~1 ~ m Ibc Fetmi Jcw:I Omy t.l!OJl' -rfoc.lmp! t/iQI ftIr ~ JJlIctl-t ~.II rfRtftuJn't1ta: tile arpIiIt" .... ~_r.rip&l""~,II;IcJl, ~(OO'~toroblhc .. apoo1~ Iipal WIll aoI ~I1)C 'Ibc:raC1W~~ ell IS not 0lIl)' II ~ or !he iIltan.:e-UIIp ~ but IIao II faDct!oII ilf Ibe MOS ~ £*k w4aF. whIdJ. call1n1ll the ~ poieIIIfIl ad bancc die prob4bility or IlCC1IpIIOOD Qf die: lap$. mil • ~ of lila ~ .1Wkb Lht~~I5~lnUldotb:.~IUt-:~ and~cDptitltIDM~;a,nlJ~lO"~ ~ ~ dDtl'llbdAlla~~

fu_ n", pN'!J.e'1~ or (U1 ~Ie®ir ficlt.l, c.~~~1'I' gdin ('.ne:ll\} from \J'u: field. IW tl1Cl' Llrii[ nl(ln~. l1~esc ~n:rn~ rs In IIflT! t,,~ e'flcr~y ")1 l:mlllinil phLIJ:I"ru. A~ the fiela H1,;re~"", 11~l! II.) CI"1l!!~ cMfgy uf the tJ1JTim inCml.llid. Al "uffiCJmlIl Y higl1 f1fid~ Jl 1100100- ")fph~~OIl pl:i.otmw1u-whH,h 11n ... ", iTtlpon1JJlL illlflliOBLtOO1E 1m tile. desip ~Ild ~poerotH:m ~rVlJij d~\ i""-'H'll~ (IClJUL In [loll C:u,;,! or lligb filolds in 51I'I:(1D, tbmI! ,~r.rn<l1l\1!1lli mdudc ~WPIll"'f ,rm];.UJtian. or ttt"n~rntflln>lrillecll'o!l-lwie "w:ts;Jun"'lIIJn bfl' k,1m\'ll t.aULl.-IO;'i:J.:lIlJ []lIlIicli.lll.\. o nd ] ejertirm llf hpt camers from k,callllliJ ~e"1" IEm o.TJl.~(I~1.Ik1 rU!erf;J~lll"hJ the 'i-lltwn t!il'~ldl! n:Jtw:m (n!he C1Ue of hiP !Wid<. Jn 'ih,")1'1 diEJXiclc the' imprntlLlll phen .... lT1llli~ jn~hlk lIltmdlng lhl'mJgh !ill! IDiili; lll~~1" and lliddW b'reuk~rrl'>'D Th~ biJ~IC jlh.!'SlIi1:\ ()!' [hew pbenamena III IlIlt~ reo-1 ~1<"10 VLSI d""itr:. i~ \:II !o'I!"ll~,ed In III L~ :iII:"(IJOJl.

2.4.1 IMPACT" lCNlZAnON AlliD A1iAJANCME BREAKDOWN

CJJu!>id.:rlli~ d~ll'tH>l1 rc:fl~ 11 ola p-fl dJ o!;l~ f\! ~y in~ Ul'lHly n ~gh ~t:ld~.lln olcctnli

m tb.- lI'Cl~dll(;IILm Drnld ~w, gJil~ en("!1)gh £11!l"t,g.V tn "hi' llIl elecuon fmm *- 1'Odt",,~ hOj'~ 1 mo lh~ rnoducnOIl band tim,,; ~"nt>'nuJllg one trt'e Ilicl:tmn in [l1ndu(lHm blImlllll~ ()_m~ r ~ 1101 in the \ lIli!l\ct' b~ 1lti5 p~ i5 ~ ILIlJ>tIU 111m-aluw Slnillarl~,,, 11611' in the vll.h:~n c -e h:mi:! ~ W>1n eDOlllh ._-""'"'"" ... -

CIIlllll: mpru;llnlilt:i.!i!Jn Iflh~ 6~ld is fnflh enough !bvre:SejtOllOluIVI'* _

Jml~ IdlllheJru,:l,,,, o;'lIll!It: CuniKr Impact l>lnlmtirln earner ruuluph<l:iIlDll In UIC ill ~ held re'gwn TJu: p-.fl llwllipIH:::llmn pror;e$.S 1Un5 \I;~y or ~omes'1llllmlll1n'd!e. ~ r wplII:llunizalh:tf1 10;> the. etmdirlon fot ll'lUnc:he bn!~IQI$:n:IIII~iII

~.~ biUedp-ildiOdo:'!IIItbm biPtIIK:Io,8IL Lo ~ IJIIPIItt lbnWIiiUIL la. =elllCQ:.taIi&I:k'ftdlIIaJIaa-dildliili

~e L"WTm1 c~nmll are IlIn!lhatIli1 Ul Fig.1.1W The Iifl~ is S1J,Ch IfmlIIoIes move ~ !he right ( = W) 4IId eIectroiu; DiD'Jo I!JwWs !he 101ft (.f; ~ 01

CClfI!I.idef Il-diffr:l:ntm~ bl!t'wDllll Md..-+dr.1'hlIRI1lre 1 £Xl q b.

I!!Id 1ft x) 'I a~ gr()S5UJ8 ~ ~~ per UIIlt dme-Jn ~ rhi ~~. d1eh!JbClllllCG" )1 ~ Ii 'I ch:dfm4Jab,pMUi

bl:~~led ~Q! ~lhehok~I'IIItr{~ptlir~ JH.'I 141111 di~ SlJUilat)t. ~~ cI ~ pUn ~ II)' lbe ~ IS «..IX M~ GX .' ~a. IIItID ~WtilMJIrI,. 8/~ Irtk pm,.~~flfJit~ _ttIis ~ In tlm bo,kQlCKllludit

dtctnms mlJllJlel;~ d¢~ dbI!III@ II

un~tnIrIml 1,7~~ Itl' -c.

hfld u., MJtn 4 JJ 10:; -e

Grahl 2 n II.' 2..4 W< .U"l~

Situ-limy. ror 'mpBI3. 1<lOiurl'1TI UlililltCJ 1111 .. h:\"11U'~ Illl'"lOr U. b ~I\fllil b~'

~='~~p( L~(r~" - <i,.,11 )

-l~ufe::o;r( _1"(" -It' !'ir}fx+

A.mhlll41.1lc bL"OOk~!'Iw~ n'"'-"'" IVhi:1J CUTJTcr muJIlf1hcD~lon "J" ImP?'!1 iOll~~ 'runs J"'~~ jJl. "-h¢p Ihr mHlliplic"tjl1fi fUCIUf" become il1!ln!t~ It " 4.rj1(rnll~ S 1l11\1 tilt cfmdiruJn Jur 11M1a11ch~ /lrrddflw" if fII, S4ift.

Ihr iTrrnliduwn I!tOC~JW lJ injllaJtd by mn'trrJnl ur bJ hill,s. Th~1 Ill. jUflctM1 bt"l:'J>;; dUWiI 11 do", nilt matter I r the nwlnnche bmllkdllWll

lmtJoti!d bv n de>;I1t!O or ~y Ii.liolc

In wrory, Eq~ r _.10.1 IILh~ L:!..2(l:l} can be u~ II.! ~h:u..Ille the fllIl~tI~~.~ It!r~.and hrnl'" lh<! bll;akduwn ...rnlug~ !"'or tile spoc:lllI CWIe f rII'. - -".:-0-0""""" mllY!ch~ tna1.down (lqUn. wla !Ill! prodUt1 tw. W _ a W lIPJ'lmd" pnwlice however the Hm!UIID~ rol M wcll !he !lmply nm knlrftll oc.:un.!el~ enoogl1 f~ I;'lI] 1I1atl"oa

mtIdc Wllh ~~flkli:lll _,urdC)' f'nr VLSI de~ dC$Ip .. _ ..... , .

pin modchI \'LI)I dc\>J IR U ~i' dc!mnWiod~!riIIl ;

1."'.1 ~ IMPACt~ AA1eB 1'IIr1lllUUltd ~ _ iUIl tmiIIHIlJIlUled.iil_.

1! .•. 3 TUNNEUN8 INTO MID THROUGH 8ILICaIl ......

Cd!1.'ld~r D!1 MOS -eapacilor ftlI ditutl!o6Cd III S(.;:ttoo 2-3, Par simpIi.ciqI._.-. d"alJOdc IN lIS~umed 10 be ~ily ..topc.d IH)'pCl paIyJ,lloon. Wbea bI.e:l.!he J!r.t-banol L'ililllililln, tMmcrgy-banddiDgp.m UlBUbOWl'1II'1F~l,43(a) ~ denot~ the Si-SiO! UlIU1~ c!le1'!:t Iarriet rrr a1l11:W1Js wbi.c!1I, ~ ill FI~,1-12, i~ IbotU ] 1 e'l Wbeo llarga pOOI;'It: biul.'-~ 10 !be plul~ declron.~In the llrn!:iSly inlJCrLCll..m:feu CMI tlJIIl¥:! liil(l Of ~ ~ oddc' ~ QDIl bencc give rue 1.1) • &QlC eumr.t Sllftibrly, ,r ~ Iar;£ ~Ye l'O!IqIo" ~ to the: &ate al«trode. ~ from Lbe n pl)1)'1Iiiii:on All lIIIUId iD10 QI' ~ !P~ o~idc layer .liltS I!J!IlII gi ~ 10 & ~ 1;1Hl'mt.

"I'~ N. 1 the tloptnz crmcenrruuon of the hgbdy dop~ ~idc. {DlIiU1l~iJI ilrlb~dtnd~antJ ", lhc I;IUllr.lDpm,entl~ldfthe.d!OOr. W1lh~I.JlJ~g t~rlrll!1d;a-bw-tlilUnn~bDl!=tllnl&ru.ily; aOOU! 1 Afcm1fotN =:JX"W;'A1 lUll! \ = j \I ITlIIlr .. t "I 19~~~

As will ~ diR~U~ In l'lmpten 4 an<J 7, In 1Itall.tq: down lfte trnrul.tot tile dopmg CO~ TIICTI:lISe IUId l1'li:: JU~IQfI~~

bfttllnC man. abropt, IlJId hrm:e the lwId-lo-baJld tunndmg

e.4-3.2" 1JIRarr TU~NeuNG

I r the ~..,d,:: l~~er ~ very I hi n, >flJ .j. urn LJf lffil;, IJldl. iMI:Clld uf u.I1ll1e)b .. :t rhe e ~dJJttion 1mn~ ol the SIO, lny.:r. d 'Ira,' r,.ilm the inverted sil CIlll nl1ITwl JIMltl} JlJI~U!ilr d~ forbidden eflcrg)I .mp tlr lhe SiO_ dlustrnted in fiE-, 2.A3{() The Ih~1ll)' "r IIi "I"I wrlodini/ IS even more

Il1nnlt\[!I of FbwlC)[-NnllliJ<;im tUl1l1ellllg. nrul thml, no simpl!! dt:J=~itml{«i runl1tling aumnt densu,y (>II voltllgll Dr electric field (Chung 111 til" 1 "/ "I, IlJlJ2.1 The .ti!T.tHWlncli.oll l.Irre'nl ean be ~uy large for I.hjn

l1~~re 2 4'11 ~ pilli ~f th~ 11l~U.'1.LJro.i and ~lmuIU(cd thin-llxit:1t twlllKlibq~~

... Ju:.rc ,. l' ID1 dfc"i~ m~~n r~ palll [or ~n~rgy loss by bal ~el:U'i~ und rl i ~ ,~n urn fDr Iltrmg 10 th~ i:.~pI)nmcnf<ll dnlB. Tbc 11~llIJllt:l~r J Il1e eUt:J,;U~"C hlll..('I~".trr'lI ~m!!> Ion rne:rgy bu.mer.

[Xile "uul ~ nJ:Tg)' ~. II lU~lIillro 10 F~ll 2..4$ nll~ paI'Ilmet« d CIJI r"uu\Ol Refemlll' III P"1~.1A5 qY :\'ll~ the pntentill cDIIJJ i\TI t~""UU~ n1 = d hil.~Ju~t cnnllt!b !)r}tlltltl I ClleiE)' 10 ~.~ CJ1(rgy barner 1'.'1 ennssicn I ]t ~'nI1 U'1I~ 1 from .r =d to "llMUIIJllLl~fEllln~~ f.f\O'iY.1rKil1g nlHSIQn Thllt Is. n1jr(if<i!B cff«ti\'t tru,'lJ~ tnlT1t' Jor trni~ IOn.

1~\\~.d.1tii:tl,ftw mplril::JlIy fN10lll!I III fill '""'''lIm ClI!1 be \llTlII~n lIlI

-

\\ hen th~ ~fl.\ft' ~"t,e h,,,,,'!i t;u'p- =nIJugh, !he n~ re~Dn under the I!~~ ~

bm;,)1T11: ""r~Il!J, ,Ln'tl even w~~nc<l- Th" i" 11l1l.,~1i1lle~ In f'l~_ 1.4!i(~1. ITt Ihl$ L'<I"". ilil}Cu!C luiU the n rc;g'''~ bcl1"~e lik~ nn MUS Cl1v~n.'\"~ WIUJ II _h~O"lIY dt1t>W n-l~ pe "~~mlh;." 1l,,,ft " n>t,re _BcJ'd CIT,v.'dml!. end ~he P~ J1t:d in"ritts"",.

),:, H,. ~J~ctfk ~~I~ In ~lItl J£<lUIIct II,," ~ p-Il J1JnCIl"'O 1;< Increased by tilt glll~ '(IIIIl~e DH the h,gl'illdol df~t~- .>8,[h as n".wurtt:hc mlilUphc.IItion and bond. m-hollu l~n~~IH'i~ run il1~i"!:l14: .~'TY drltIJ .... 1,;J1l,y. 'Thus !hti hml.lI!,!1' -"LlIreSII or I'e\'cr'" h111'~~ ~u~~J dlotic,-"" 'ni,T"'l.~~ Orullllll1~IiUy wh~I11h~ guit' '\<1;111. br:P\I to c~Uh~ fi~[Ll l:r(l'WJir.Ig in 'lilll mnun~ Itl~ WncU.1Il ~'1mJ When !btl; QI!I.'Ul1la the .. ~,~ jlln~U~'n ul u MOSF.;E1'. rhc ,m'r~,,-,Lld J~IIC[I"n l~fl~ "UITI"-I11 i~ ~alIeI ~'II"IIWJl""1 dr,,11l fj'r,~"S .. or GIDL r('l1PI' .:.:/" IliB7u: r'{oble I'f Ill. 19~ f'"r J~I""1J"nll"'l)n t'MU~ device , GWL IS IJ "Cry imparlnlll ttDka,(',cW'It1!t

romplII.rnl tJlDj 1I1:r.!S1 /It' mn"mi::,d.

II ~Imnld 00 'Wh'" i1uIr for the g,llt:d n -f111kltl~ "nhS-ld~ hen: when Ihe ~

I bJ;,,"d 1>1 1''''~lmul~l~ Ihr "h~oo urfa .... ~ ~I.: ~I~id~ tlett! fJl""l'S tile U1JfolCIIOl! hb~ Iml~~ rr~lll' [~C <ill,'nn '~"~\lr~W inlo \J'[ !nl'('lln 1Ilo~lJe I~YfT V/WNcy. 19~ SimlLul~ ',Ir u jW~d r -n ~llIllk Ill~ oxide fitltl rll\l,r~ the mj (ll"n or 1'1\'1 e Ir"'~' wt'tlllh~ IIDUJ * hiu "~ I" J~UlU~llhll Ih" "u..-Dn ,~I.e. nnl , mja.1JolIl m~I"rlt camrl". 1Il'.I~mI uj mm(ln[~ .;,IImer [rnrn Ih~ \Ih~m lun U1II.C LfIlO "III~"n dl" )d~ 11lc~~r wk! 1'1 ce ",jo~n "l~nln m l!tJ!e "IlBage mdUt~.J "VIIUAIIlllll~

mllll'I'IiI' linn "., m~ In filled d",u .

__ ---E.

B,

the l1,.~t IkrClulcn~e lOr I he CnlL~1 III cl ,lJ\1n lr:lf'!I'.lg dunn Ih~ IMndl"' me ... ur.:~ ~'LiTC~1 l~gc phIl

1994-: Di Mmillllllli StatJru, \9Il7} tlmn 10 IW<dO{> phY",r.ol modeh rc1lmlg tuna ID bN;akdowD 1,0 lnese pru4l~1<e~ Tnerefore we WIU 001. ~1IlII~S." limo 10 bmI~~

L1l1)' fUIlh!!1: MIl' IlWII

A~ di~cll.~ iIbIlve, a w.nnclmli ~1ttU'an =nt an gmcrlitt: 11 ImIe CII!TtIII.

Thus, the dl;u;g<:" lU brakdown. (h!l. b UJe Mlm 01' We ~ IiIIc tD aIccuoa.J illId Mle~ U QQ MOO ap;i!l10l' Idr\IIItIIn: 1$ WIed to ~~ Qao, ... cIIIl! 10 Ihe Iwo-tmDUnlil DIlUP: of the device. caly W loW ch:qt ~ ill IIII!IIIIim1. I:l.owI:Wr. if an u·c:iuumcl MOSPHT a: an II -p p~ ~ 15 u:!i ~ meuwe C!~, !hen bOlh till! mW CtIiJiI: ad 1M ~ ~~ I!c ~1mnine4. f'I)f IhellUllcfU)n~ MOSPE1' Wi bt8!l~1iir. ~ is iJl';IJInnedm fig.l'S ~ at_ .. ..

11»11 ~ l1li4 ~or:tM~~eWet.--"_' bolll$c.

of~~;d.k·' glW!Il;n;iIIaxJdc~_ilt;BIm.;2(:~':::·'~'::I::;:';I:i:~·:/~·~K'~_~~~1lII'

-

~. t'l1'I1

_l__.._.l.~L..--~ L_I--

.-,-_.L..~'------'" .' u II' 11 I

IJulk II "' 1'1

FIGURE L52. "I)ol'ilu11,1<" IIIi$1l];1: '" I ro,ll!.Ilrp" ill ~,I,k' ", IIII:.~ ""

, I I..i.Lh:.:L.II~r.;1 \",I;I!iJ~ I ~'h:r ~ll:'JJlId • mlHu Itjl)4 ~

c TIll

.,

u

2.4

~)

210

1.11

2.'13

Tl~ (! i~ni\i~ "II: u~ed on A,P~i :r l~ ~''I\' ti1l11lb"-~~I\IU!lIlIur ~1IlC>-

I mllillal Ilv"lnucll. b~oow n, n~nlgl II M _" 0, rI In. tilnJo khOI

¢,1~lmn-mltJ~ 1'l,'u~III"~b~ bfmlul,,"'"tI n .. n<l~ 11M, 0

The dl!:pklioq-lay". eop.dw~ C1~ "I ~ ulilrmlllly 4f'1l<1l ulRupl p-n dIodI: :Old lUI d~pJlllLll!~cc 'on dDpmg otlD""ntnlllM :III~ III'!'litd 1'Il\l~l" ~ ~ in fil.j~ (2.65), 11,MI, Qrid tl,611 S!;fJtc\1 llC " B iu~~ ,If lbe IIppllod fi'",,,,"",,-b!~ voll.llg~ 1'"", !i1'll1W hoW \hI ~Im tlUl be lJIIcId 111 ~II~ N and N,I,

~ I1!rrlltW",-lll)"toc '1ll'""'IM~ ~f .t 1IIIa- ~ (>-11 dr(llle, "rim u&a4 II) 'kl~rml"e Il'I"J"Pffi,!:jpmfllo 0'1'1111: ~lghtiY.1lopcd Ilk. CQ"'lihMn 4ldkidt. ""lIh 3 nllUlllllfnnn (1- !de! dupi~~ ~t1oo of IV j I !h\~l" 1M JepletJon-1 ~~ chlt'Jt' jX!! unll un iii hIM '1I1u. V Ibc apII3WI<lC' POf liltil ll.reJ!. at bWi V'lJIJJr,e v IS C :, IJ Q Ii V In _ of tb:: MpJt.tkm 1Il,er w.d~hW ~bavI!CO")'" fW,..,_WlOdullCtliiildV tfb~ we hn~ dropped the lIIb1!crip1lo In W IKU! V hm,) ~ {!.I $. ~ conc:mtnlllm fJ. the bplCilloo1liym: adtte Pi'll b)

2

N.(W ::; -~\/~;-:m·

2..14

.. ,.

~.19

Thol<=m11mmJ pmrull",~I'!'i' 15 ,lkd tne ~1lV~~1 bun~~ ~\IIl '1l1~O h~~~'y-llliJrm!lalfe" ~nd J L~ v~1 ~". arc plmu:d m Fie. 6J RqItt 1 II) 1~~JmJ,n!, 11, • .elr<'<I'~ urll~vy .J~'llg

2,111 Crn!.~IJ~r, [I n' -~ J'I1UI;, wllh 111~ II eJlltllt'r side b~l~ Wide ~ ,if. I,,'I~ ill~~I,~r;;1 k!l~l~ oncllhe I' Ii .~ ~; I<' !x'mg IUlttIlW CQ~ t'l~~IJTNl "Hfu~Jm~ kJl~lJJI. Th dilln "l~ ... IPLIo: 11l.IIC~ due to t:le.ctrIlnUllllf!l In t!.u, i5 C'J' .• 11'" IIIBI ,~II. II ook -,orll c in tIle emmet I~ C "mill ~r~" hB~" ~ (loping cqllcen1lnrH", ,,1 10 ' em Md!ln:_

Wid", ,r ~llli HIT< till u II1'PI~~ (pnc.;nlrlLhm i r Inll em r.l II ~~I~ h.c-~v~-~~F"ll Llfttl I l!'ll(lriW III t:II*ll4I\tI:!Illo

&J, 12, l.!lJ~1

., r') -1' Jain ,

P'-U'ljl = --dr

11 II

l'r

~!'

MOSFET DEVICES

.n~ lll~ ."IIh~lr.lfe ihe I'~nru JlDl~lild hf tbt! <w= lit.. ~ D .~tll;U-~Il!' Tberetnee, iH Il!J'Yfts of tIt~ ~'lab~"'Il'-,rdmnrr, rIIod.. W"'~ rote as ,hr rrlli'ru hki~ YJi! In S«JI<m ;U.s ..... M(JS CUllldim'_ r!lIInrI/LllUbriq",. A> WUlI dllll!:u '>aI m Sccllbo UJ.1llc qila Il'trrru ~<'Iltl:ll.l"1jIII ~~~JI'II~lIY. CMn \ 111 ;1Cm~, tlll: ~ .. ~I~li II 1"C:l!lnu ! e •• '1 ) oJ.." IJUI clWIse ..... 1 III lho dl re~Unn f'C'rp.Clltil~d\:If l,\ t:Iie urh« At Ih" I1r.tin Clnl ~r '1M chanml ~I.' ='1.1= V~

:J.1.'1.1 1r.M:~ION eHARtiE DENSITY AS A FlJlIICllON Of GUAShfl;flMI Pa'TENTlAL

From &I. 12.150) ;11111 Eq r2 1S11, 1h;~1«1rI'1'I CQw"~nll'lllJ.im ~I iIIIY ptJinll.. I lVl:!n b~

"

(3.2

IIll.\)="' ", -1~lf N

I I

3 1.1 O~AIN-t:UIi!IUNT MOtlEL

Followmg ~ht SlIme lIjlprulll:h In tn 5cLwn " l.:!. obl.qjn lIll n~ fur the

clel,:lp field mllatl !hilI of Sq. 11.1 'ij

",ller III r 11 ~ tIlq ~[erII(I" dL:('I!;.IY ~u II , i~ lhe ~knro~ n1llhlht~' in !he tluullltl He earner m"hllily III Iht ,:hOI)J]e" I' gehlirLLlh Wllflll!l1wer rhun !he mobihtr iii Iii. n.,I. ijur I" ~'Il"ljpiwl ,,,, 1"," .... IIWm~ IH d'J~I~ Ill •. IlIi w,jI he addrea~ In Seo:!~I"" 1 .~ Willi l'rYllklmrdtJJJ/hr IJm!,j·&s:mip(~r~ntWl. i.~.>pIi>Jirtllth"or; JJj q,. 111 l_~ r'1, 45), eq, (J 5) jru"I/JI'JI fullh tilt' drift IUlIl diJfIJ,~illll turnnh ~ l(I~ I ':11m:LL~ m L IJl'Iilu I' ... ~ Ih~ "~~ml<,1 I "hL'lItb~d!}~ llluh'plYlOg Eq ( S: '" ill! 1Il~ , lHUJn~1 ~'ldl h W LI~,j m1c~"'-Wq: UVi:J" llw dtpth (II 1h~ inVff'<l\m Iny~ n. mrl'f",h:m " l'MII",1 (lLiI IT"~! "" (I III 1 , lhe bo w,m orlh~ w;e""lun IJl~ wbcq:

"i'- ~'II'

111

n(J, )') = nlw, V) =__!_~\ ~V liT N.

1lRd 'llb,U1L.I1ed ~nl;) fiq. (3,7!,

Q,II!.) = -q r: "(w V)~dy,

)~ d+ (3121

~ 111'1 (n~ / Nu)t'/I ~ /JJJ'j

--q t. 'it V) doJr

Hal'll .;. JHhl:aurftlce-pumrtialtd ",,(Iud 'Jf tJ)",,-d'/l/tl:r ti'fo!lbytbe &ql1afC fV'.l\!)f Eq. 32) SUbiSl\1llLingEq (3 III iChlEq.(3.Kl) ~

I = qJlr6 7 f (L ~)dll ~

I~ 1\)

{h = Q - fJJ

_ ('", v -1Ii~ lV'~ \II I 2£ t/Nr'2l/l.]! + I),

Sill' ~iIUl1n~ c.:. P ~7 inw L'q, II 10 ,~mj ("arryll"b uur th In

111 Jf I" 'tU~~nl ~I, ,111111,11 II Ilf ~]Ie j!IJLe 1 1 Jnull ~(lh ~.

tomlP'l1r)g this cqUlIli,," wltb P.q, {:l_ I TI;j 1IIld Eq. P Ism nllOl t.;m -!hal V, ~ rimply Iltt glUe ~~., wilt" Ihe Jill~ pP(mIitrIlrr ItIwI ~ rt.GtlMI ~ IJIId Ihll tl/iGon e~e. (tlif JqIMlrf J'q!Ilj iII.,quallD ~ bulle bttIrtiim ~ /<11' Ihlfl POWftinl All a rmnirHkr. 2'h = (!I;1/qIIlllN.Jn,), which" I)'pl;"ally 0..6-0.11 V: WlIom V ~ i below V" WI'<! .,_ \lay Iillit ~1111'0111- 'aw "And ~ MOSFEf I~ ~;lid ltIile in !he !lubINre.1wId region, 10 be diac:~ Ii) ~ l, I 3, liqdOlnDn I ~, 191 mdu,.ru...-lhaI, in t.V lbw4r ~. tM_ MOSPlIT..." 1t1114I! b !'Uisla, wilh II ~"yI mitrMt" Plit = t Ifp~.rv. - VjJj, IIItIIWIaut iJ'. gIIlr IIOlJtJtr. The tll=hold vollll,!!e VI amt be ~ by pl<min$l _ v~ Zli tdW dcain Y~ II! $.ltaWllln Fig. 3.3. ~ WrnjiGIM1I~« Ih: hUCllt lX'fl'oo of the I".~ v.) curve W1lh the V "ua ilVCli Ihc ~ qIa;: l}f V" til re!illl;y. W(b A linflJriy ~d ~Id 1'fJl~ (Vl ) II~ hf her !haD the '"2\f1a • V, dne m ilMlllllCll.-k}'l:!l ~ mad 1ltbcIrch.. will be ~ In ScctiOD 3.1 6;NOIio:J&t!be t.(V,) E:IIm IIIU11bom:OW the Uuumold wlqC '['bb iii bo&:~ 1lIe ~ ~_ ifIikh Eq (3,19)ls\;l~lIQ1l~~iIIlhI:I~Low-cIr:Ibl.MV ~~ a1sc_,uliild klextTlI.allu: ~6dIY c/!t;tntftllilqto\ or~ .wiII ~ii CbIIpttr 4-.

~( 1-

I =J' C. I

, -I"~,

Q I v j plotted In Fill 3.5 F.qW!IiWl (110, "'* !!lilt ~ <hin I'UlreIllll ""'poi' uonal I" the Qre1l under the: -eMil), ~ benveetl II = 0 and VI!> ~ Y.

JnIIIllhnear fe8lonl. the IJMlrnOJI ~ druWty IIlIhc dmin rod ol Il!oo clwud

(>I'll IlPUY 1J.JWer thai !bat fit ~ ~ _ ~ o1rIia wllaJl! iDi:ft:IiiIiI

fQr A Bud ga1II wClllqc !he CIItfCII& I but ~ ~ dJIrF ~ Ii

I~ on ~ until finally II .. to 7Jtm .. haI V. 'l = V. - V.

AL Ihi& point; J reallhes it§ rnwnwm ~ hI.. 'NOI$."'~"'" ..mil,. tit 1Iw ...... ad ~t'" tbutI w.W ~ 0CHI'1 l1Ii$ UIlkIIi "indI-q6'and ~ ft&. ],.6 Wbm v: ltJc:MIcI:~~" pinch4 point mmallIIWMt Ihc ICIIIr'Ce. Witie' diIirr~~~

lbt n bedIouit v. * ~ tbc~paIjIt

Bl ~ .~ om! !hI: cwxlII.l!iv~l' by f I, Ii =f~ W f 1-<t!VlLdV tU<~~ th~ same aNJl1 trom fl. ~ill!h~ 1Ic=a'iC m L (to I ,::H W!wlI ~ I"Ii!.. T)Ji pltlmtolJlcoon,. called CMMJ'i rrnSlh rmldlolm .... ' iIDd wlIllw ~ til ,sOl:iIltiOJ~ wilh '\han...;.horulc,! MOSFET~ In Secti.QII 2

Fur .. h~r iru.lg.illinio the MOSFfIT bcb~~\OI' m pnl£b-<lff hi: pillCd try =.

IlfIIln'1t!! tile fum:ti In V I. lm.:gr;tI'ng.fmm 111:1 .afieTmu~ IxIIh ~Q( Ell rUI hy d_n'icMs

1,'='11 wLVr Q IIjdV

=" C~ W (V - V. W - ~ V ).

Ir-I

~

;;I 11'-1

j 111 ) ~ IF ...

I'··-~ ~ I~·~ r:;

UO 1

r~4r;I--~--~n~)------~------~----_j

[ 11'L1~m r,:.fII!lt"'~I{

(IJllltM~lX'lll

l~IIlr v ~~VI

I'IDUAE 3.10. Onfl .,,01 <lift" jCln ~"I"~_"I!; pi ~I In TIll I ~ ~Ii'" Th." 0'" I rh. 10",1 """""I '<1"""'onlr~ hy III< "'1<1 ru"'~

much k:~. fl11ln!he [jr~ll~nn frnm thr o<!?lotmn ~blll'Vdl:mlLY F..qIlILIlOll (l ~H I;llIl men be e~pand~ mto 0 ~ffl(r t;Crl"" Ihe lCl'tllll ~ term I~ Iha rle¢erlw ~~ ,le!I,:nIY Q d uoo the liM ·ol'di:r term gno'C!; tllc 1m'et,;j(]~ bII!:Ilt Ikmlry.

pD.rltm,,~n Lt. IS anly II fmlClill1l. nf l~Ul\'., 1'hl ,~n cl<!"i~~'i!lt:ulll1g I~ will be uh<~ In CllllPLcr 4

3.1.4 aunTRATE BI48 AND TlMP!UTUA~ DEPE""EN~ OF 'n4J!E8HDLD VOLT_

The. thresh"l;! ~p~lllgl' .~ une t,r me. ~~ [lIII"Qn1Jllm ~)f L MOSflIT lfu.kl: In Illb ufWec:t:i()n, we ell>'m1 ne the IkpendenL:.e of Ihw.,.oooo \'ol~e on YJb~1C mm~ mul. Lemp::rJijIill:

I"

3.1 .•• 1 SU~lE IiENElmVrrY [BCOY EfFEc:n

l1tc \b"I1ul-0.ll1'ell1 equation In SC"llan 1 11 \WiI ~i:(lVcd ..,;rumlll~ eero !'J~1PILc Iml~ (I' J. If VJI ". O. one "'lUI modifY lhe p~~ioo~l~ diSl,'IIss&i MOSFET ~~Ul!lllll!~ ~y oEl1lderinl!! llmlll!Wlymg - Vp,. te the sulntrDu: ~~ cqulYIllrnllU rBl~l!is II1lolhd ~DlllI~ Inilm~ly \IlIk. SIlUn:e, mel dmln \'tI1~1 b!t' + V" whl1c ~~l!fllM Iht ubslr$ &rounded. Thill" n''''I1I \JI. F'I ) 11

Ul'lll& rhe c!lIuae-sncet modelll.'l ber~ !iq. ( I n ~~

Q = -C ,(\' + V - V",. - '1.tll V .f'il;.qN;.rlh VI. l.38l

where V IStMr~_bIlIHQll:IIl!ebetVieau~llilHbt<ibaiUlltl~tIIo!~

1\ [(t

-II, "'T

At h,w JlL@ ~l)ll~~<!S I hlll:I,1 ~~I01'I), tJM eurreru " ,1111 gl~~I' b}' Hq, 3.11l I ~ Ih ll',C ~lJm kmlJ \'lJll;!~~ .. flOW

Il 11 boo 'cC,1 lrom ELI. i,~\ll ,lL"ull' r/ftrr pJrm'l (",'11") <trlalttlld.14' it 10....". 11,( ~IIU. d~pJ~IWIJ rr~~ on 'al1d nl~I'" Iii ~ Ilndh r,/,J w"'IJII~ Figun! \ I plot! I':

I""~I" n ul I r, , Thu ~I~p" ,,11Il~ f~f\'"

tl'JI liT <.lWlli from the lrmptfal\ll\: dCl'enoour uf 1hc m!nIBU: >JIIT1tr cmIflIC:tI-

lmlll(1 Whld~ ~W1 I1e t:"I'll.llU1i(d lIIilni Eo! (_31) IwI E!4 TI

3.1.5.1 EF !'l>CTIIlE M(J 91UTY tlND EfFEC'nVE i!lO~MAL AELD

, I I I·II~ ~~ ""L I Imlhl]'!Y IIIU W.IlleJ!. S II roll'WIl I by dahruna II' ~~ II~n J. • ~~"

Il.~tl~'c Im~,1 hlJ a

f ~"rlit.l! iu IItT HI.'

II/1hl~111 c~'''''m""~ un ~'/(:II_I!¢ \' I~ w IglMll tly I h~ curn 111\<1 'lin Itl'r'~~ F.:mrlnL.1.IIj. it hn rn:." j,lrmJ 1~1'l1 M·II,·" 11m ir plottul fIgfIiJut_.<fJe~,/I'~ Imml1111MI1 '-fl, If,~r. "~I.\ ~ IHlI'lfnal r laiinns;hlp iNltpM4uJ1f/ Ihr ,~b"l1It~ 1I1IU, .lllJ>ilJg (lfll(lIIltmtln'l, lim! t;(JI~ I,;rid~ Ihictnts~ (S1Ibn CI~_11rn, 19iQI, The dl"~lltt UI1TTTll~1 f, 'I~ I! rl<!lIU601 s the veruge tectm ft<1~11ill '~Illu' I, It.: Si-StO_ mkrfa c e~f'CII"J ,~~ b)' the curriers on !be L ;II~ GllU'''~ I \I urn! ~an (r~' '« III I [11 (II Ibt:!: Ucplctlon lind ,h.rp~ ~tll~~ll"<

r
~ ICI1"I
0 " III'
'\ • 1.1{IL
11 ' I'"
.. ~ ~n~
.. . 1111
i' \ c ~.
'.
~oO".i~. ";/.. ',
• Jl"!i~: ........
~ r
I ~-".
I •
l •
...___.,_ ~
III
Iii u 'I 1,.Id ,M~ ml 3.'.8 MD8RT CAPACITANC!& AND INVERt • A

CAPACITANCE £met VD

C ll1l1.: ~iiW In 1:.1. r.1 ~1) ~~o~r~ then ~ _light!} lower Ilmq --"qlllilal'. 11th ~~II!"~ end,

• Ullfrl{ rr~il"'. lInG~ Ih~ '1111'1.1"" ~h.!M~1 f, .... m'. fhcrt: IS nflll10rt ';(1IJj'llr9K I1crw~~rI the !f~I'" tll~J the (1ItJdy ;;Iu," 10 ~~re~llm!! bt ~he , .h,rt'r otlllllCg.11C uJ.r,"WJ)Jr"n"e~~mr() rh c channel. r.e ... hi 1.he.!!IJ1Il'Ile ~ MltHII.J, _ Wir"'rl Iii" JfRnr~"".:Jtk Id" the d1W'll.Hh~er mOOcI. Eq I~ imn'l"" t"I"\[!t U''''II} Q, .I! 1,~1i' tlrrun hUl"~ ~unl"li IrnClll'l)' frnm-c lJ I ~r 111< ""u, 1"(, ~Q,I rr r ~II" i~ - /III JJ! 011 the dnUn end n.: ll1~~[~lnil dUII'!!ll ~U1.J£r ,h~ l!ulll. i~ then W/'£"II:< I, rn II. !2 W'''''' ~lllllrr~I'~ll.ldIJII e j 'l.lIpl, ~tWI1 h} the uxide "U~1!li~

r. ~1I'i.C

'1'.1
~ :'If~IO"T(]Jlotm
,_ II~'A
- n,~,
:lI
b- qjo ~
iH
!l;
-"
-a
! 0 ~
j
QQ qJ • ~,oIl' UH'tl /"" WII "JI ",jj ~. BPPIlXI,lhk IJJ !IWfl'liron c~

j Iy\ \ nes 1""~huJI" HI ,\h)ll~ LIl(' ..111111ld H~ 110\0 n In Fig.. pmcb "II q'lILhlmn, ~ J, = \ I,' = r ~I - ~ J!II ilnd Q _ 0 III the llllh~'

1'/ "

Jc:1'1 Hlm ~rr~:UI,

-0, = C:, [II!

Vtr ( tid',. - Vj ~)

1I1_-1~ I_" '1' ....

1/ -""

~3J

21,,,q/l'~

i~~n.' ~ I' J the ~1~('lril;: ll~r .l~lil ~ uu~rl'g c"'lr~lllrlllitln uf lhe (It,IY~ili~OII PIt. .1I1~ Uli; gBI~ ~~" .1i!1!"ly 011 ~~ ~~I':n ~prruHrn lI~tI by C.,: 1'~ - VI J !i~ UU ,k~lclllin c""-rte rn hill" ,111atml N\II~ thru the Iactor (.f 2 HI lhc PI.II~&!~ ill: pi oU 1IJ1 term "r~~ IT")!! Illtc8lJllfl,t\ L ~llll."-\ (ll!llgo::...rl"ll~Jlcl~I!J ,IIP;Jl;II"II~ wI4l 1~'l)l'-L I, I Ih~!MI1 ".lIl11:~, In link! to ~coll 111.: h~1 ~I~nlil.utinn term n~glJ

N" I~"uid h" In the rnngl' III jl1l>l .'II-J• ~~~lJJ'" hlJ UII" Lo~IIl~ MQSFE'l"

:l,1.&.4 UNeAR I~-~ CKtlFlAI:.TERISTle5 r.i~lIL p,rl' 1 LI[[,J IJ<1!" ,J 11c1j'. US!J and 1:1

I" I-' ~ltr1i l~ .illlr'~

NQ1e Ihnl the inversion-layer ~'IIp$1~ ~ffut is lumped l[lI~ 1/ rv: J, ... 1Iiel<1II genernl I, dif&renl from j>,jfi v J m Eq, [l60~ ~cern ml high JII~~~

"~5 V llht fQUIth ~vntl~LiC rnlln she 1100tntn. ) "I Fig 11'"

I ~Ij~hth t,,'ll.r ~, • ..I III i . "'~

If I),~S Vin Fl~ ,;, I ~(~,. Til" d~p[~['[(m re~!Ji1 wu II, a,' ndI!:nt~~ b~ IlIc

b<:ln\ . I-I. _I~ 1I5 \I) !:roJIllhd,(lltqrll. 1~ i:!l~n\'ml.:r IIII~e;!j""-~ , ~ f1rdl~ nrO\ Ltllll"m I' - , - """''<'i....._

,... II '11111 ifl " 1(I\O~r l.btl"s~tlltl vtllljlj!;e lT1 !he ~hCln-liihllIlneL Mhj,~

•• 1S' ,,~,.II p. ~ . '- I "-I!ll

Th, [WtI dlm~iPll"l firld 1';IUi'J"f' Iii tl '11"r'l-t".lrInt lk\'I~" ar!!ICi fIIl!U

I 'l' 4~"un.~ aruI jlnlllll'1."giM~. Ju~l tDk,e the Jeph;".<lll region n~ .... JI.

,11"~ lICI. .... ".~ , ' -Ill

~Ir< ISt,110~ 2J), uwu W.\l.il~L' tkpl"tJnn ~u:m~ ~UITnYndU1g the :<t;lureelllll1~

JUJl.r,r>ri 15~C[](f11 ~~ IIIIJT4! 2.:,\.:1-1 III .11L'1'tlr chn;lnl1ci device. IhQ ~1Il'l:e.lII4o are i\lre:nt'll¢l ~riInJL,'CIll'!"L Iherr d~plQ1_iClII I~g;v" nU1-'~ nn ~fk I (llTlhe P'lIaIW or IIcld f!"~i<:111 In ml'GI pun ul nlli llc:il~" 111 rI ~'mrl.o:JIIJIt.n e 1 dC'vi<:~, .wll'flw,.~ .''''lnNf'I)UI .tt\ll/~tt iHmIJP/ll'l1bl~ Ifl r!lf MfJS dl!{f,frn'HI IIIIdtIr. in tAe lIIIiIIi JlI'rcll'llIl, mid IMsau!',r-dfliiu pall ",~ur l/ell /I ~iJ'lIl1g t/ftrll'm ,It~ /!viii ~ rll'U n ~1J;1!!JiUJIrl purl'"" (If riJf du""c~ I')~i! I/Iil'i III 1lJ'~tnbc: II i III II:J~"~I dhllll" nLln1tCLl:l(c'rlm1Qr~no"1~' (he depletion region o{rhI:

The lid ~ lin., tmninltllP~ un IJL~'~ fixed ch;rrp!& UI".1"tllilr~ ~ubO" fmm Iht [WI" II," \Io1I1~ :md DI'PJI1. 1'i1~' " rd<"rreJ ill L' liH: ~"!/'1;!(' ,/II!-nn mndfI 1'11"!,.J> 'D~I\'IIln r:~ .. 19 AI(l low .lruiu \'lJh.lgC. tlplj the field Iillli!Skil'llliD6iI'. ~J~ ~I~ okpl",i,;L, dJfl.rr~'~ 1\ c~lIn [llc Ir~I~~)ld,LI rll'll;lon nre ~=d 1>1 lrem ",. G"~"_ Tho r~!1 n] li,~ lidt! 1111 ~ I'ngtnill~ ~Uh"r from lIle ~"'''''',''-.I.~. ,he ~mlll Th~ 10[<1.1 Ch,IL:gI! W1111m the Tr~r old II regmn tih c< WII\!I b 1ll1J[Jo.Jl'lw1)ully le~ IllBn L~e IOwl ""I~ depleuon ell rge.. QII Ol lll~!!-(h;'tnn~l W<r, ,\~.I Mull. IL LLII,eS u 1l1\ .. cr g.lIk v"lllige 10 rNd! ('~['llilil}ll L)fu 'IIl~t1-~hlnLu:1 Jl)~,~"

_Q'II WLt

[I

Only loniUd Qcceplnrll ncc<l to Oe (OIlI;~okttd. For. Q'Jnctll1 ~~tio,.. N ~\ PD 1 ~lKln 'I e<j1J.IUJ-on ~~ Ill: ~ IIIII:I9nJc1Y'~IIl.*'I

B + ,1 ;;!.= q/ll. ij til r •

wb~re I = -il.p,/iJ,' I the det!lrk fief.d r., IIIJ! Yef!ltaJ 4~ The ~ ctuIr!:a rJenJ01 ty. " "" -rj N~ f'mm IQIIjUld ~ CIm be PQrllidcrod. .. ~ 'III" Inw two JIIlItt the finl pM, f! ~t~:r l.arnlraU~ by dJ~jIIl' IIeIdi!ll1ie~ &11"", t"l1'I. th"lIGrorId piU'I. 1';11 Jfly. II; COlitrOUc.I by ~ ~ Ile)cH"~ 1~letlll directlon (NIU)'lm ItojlJll1Illlmct 1~1) lIIal~1 *"loa,lINt!.Alttal Ilcl~ IN 1II1g1I~blc QIiCr m,m! uf lhe: ~.11111 aimo.UIlIIf IfII dc!pk!!Ina ~ I¥ "'lrtlrol1~ by tile pit: I!l!ld. In 11Ibari~ dlMec.1he IlleruWd ~ Pl'rerul!lkle. Pii:Urt 3.22{1I} &!'!ow III eullJplci at 1M ~ n! Ihe IllcttlIiel4

\'~~t~~~'-'\ ~n~ lltt~!IlC' '~PI'te\:Hlh" I,'" ~l.In lhl h~jIT~d Impurity ~1uJric CIt1IIaiII Ic~lmn.IJ ~NWJ)I.'~I :lrl~ Phll'IIII~!, 1~!>11 fF,\rmll~1 t~l' ~I.!nplng profila., ~

"~,I Hill \' ll~\<: Ih~ ;lnle .lgrl "~I' I JU~I ,IS 11l1h~ nfl"..Jlm~nJIUMI MOO ror discuescd In Secrion ~.~.!. on I!C~IIY lv k,\\'c, dcpl nun thruJe C01I:t01!=~ ",'''ull, i[\,~~"c ".ut~m~ lidlilll11t \\id~L d",pll!.l'LlH wI,llh foro given ~

li.1 which meanv a I'J\I'~r'M:!~IIILI \I'h.~rrlr 11"'H:~lIn\1cl LIe

ami Eq 11.1161 ",,1"1 r.. ~ pm!!Cd l,~

~r _~(m-~l~'

I.h.

-1i.~fWIL1J9' Q.\~ Id\ t+ ("<tV. /"!"iLl

I .1S1

= ~~~

I orr.

!1 "'11.' JI,'-"'M~l i" ~ •• li, 11 i.r.s Ill"111 ~ .lrCC"~C rrlllblhry JJ.

11M ,,~u.u1 V,r ,1=11111 II~I~ II ~m, e I' l:im~ 11111 IndieplllL'liclldtm.'WIIf

cri.tl~"J t,dL! i.~ [ullcll"n 01 • !I.' I~cll M"r~ f\'lC'ti.:uU)'.

firM, ph. ~/J,','i ,,' '" tJiJljjl~ l~ '';~'~r; hnl Iflr ffiI.t'tli Jitlltl fIN' lJdll"fjtl':'i11i!1!1 b~r~III~1 high..,. (SI ,II I m r oJl. 19f141 !'iHI1II~rly Iwl~ IllI I

ilion Ih~I'11" .k,.1"," '. "n<c hnl III milil ,,~., rw<,,'T

~, lI1ili"ato~ h. 111 Wili@hl I n ~abtt~ L = [J 111 Fi If 'n~'''lIt,,, of '!U.n,,,, Itnlllh L fJ!ld l'CIrlU f"mrrmjl willa qliMNJJ/fnlly ~ (Jllht IOllg-r/IGnnd ,au 1'11, lll~ •• \'~ uri ."''Ij:!I D Fiu 3 25. F,)f \ 'tl11'~!l.t, Eq II J7) ~ be ~Jl'rRU:tin ",J b

~
~ rw
~
~)I
J\~'
,,", "1'-'>"1._- •

filii

\1 I ~II I '

\I ~~n me dtlll n ~(l~ Iltlle ellt~ V.1.,~.1llI ~l1nwn III f1~ J.g.'Th~<lUtplll(XJM1U<tutn:

Ii f", I "V~t' Ii zero In lhe,~~Ulliltltm I'e!lUm. In ~Illlln&t, ~ QrlUl1 ~~ of a ~1Iatl:' ~bluml!l MO"SFET eln ~ttllln~re;u~ .llglnly hey.",d the P'r.cb-<Jfr or the \O:1l)titl' ~tJI[iltJ011 po,nt With ~ nonzero OUIPllt I;:tI!ldu~ ItA ill fooiiIc:nlfnlm m.,. ,~mal CiIN"'l '0 FIg_ 3.25 l'l'm. an."" bi!cMlllC of twtl flil:ton, II>< \IIQn-dumld effa:i IU'Id channel length rrlooullilioll The ~tIan-dmnn.'J clflll:! W~ ili5w_ ill ~~Icn :l.2I. w~n Illedralll \fOl~itu!R~bcyond~ IIIi ~cl device the thmhold v ol~ de~.1lIlIl ~ lj1e dmln ~~1mIt InatIi5q, In till IiU!p;eL1.1on., we foeusoo dtllllTlCllcnglh mpOObItirl~,

1'16URt :1.1111. S.h"'!lIlUq(i gmul"l lh~ '~Q<;.l' ntilWllim ~h" Illu~ ""~!"ll dl< p""oJ ... ~-a mlld,,1 no.. , 1) O.alJ"·' I"~ i •• pjlnod 1<, " ""Tll.;;i 'tri"" '" wldiliA.I' "'~,..kll by ''<VP" .1101 .' IlO[U[[]~ I AlkIlW. I'll\? 1

3.01.32 A l"B"UIl~Il MQIlEL rnR THE VEUlCfT'I' SATURATION REGION

TI.' ~nitl 001 M ~~ J r,m~u()n of lili - '~l .. ,. IY~ mh'IH II p:u:ru:lo.:;>_.D model Ow d ,jl I ~~ I, 11m ~iel!b ~imrl~ ~ulr~ V~ ~~I'!lIt~ the ~"""tlW phllJ;l~ Inkiul' r1ru:e r.oYl'tod Ii,. lu!\ll,"n pmrn, F1~.uI-': 3.1~ ~!m"'~ J schematic cm$.~Oi1 vi II,., r~~I'1n ~I mo::'.'~"rb~ \d"cllv~lUj:ilmm ~gl(ln II>i'Yl1lleUby \ = O( tlU"lllJ~n r-:'ltllJI'l =ALldl'"J:I~).~nd~ -IJI~Urfqo:ltli'\ - Idf1llnJ~m1depthl Th~ ,""Me Q".m"'"~ me n.~1l1l=l U1 'f'r"e;HlI(J P ~"flt!l "'lWIl 111 ,h" drnin JlD1ttJr:m Ikp~'" r. i ulso .'m'mt:l'i thJL 1l1~ ~~VlI~ UL ~i~d drain JllnI::m:m I.§ Infiru~lya~R4'r wilh J "'Iu",~ tl'lilcr

AI"'I~ lite 'urf,j~ !h' ~u:tl;I·~tl'll11 1~lIrl ~'I '1111"""""," fmrn \~ aI -0 AI L -.loL TltI ftlull 11111 n:J'I~lrrm ,," Ih~ FlmnllJi drop I =u!b:Q.(1 d~i!o: ~w IHI~llhJ.Il,hrIT~t

Ii

;r d I19t)

l'tmn&.~ H7 IUId 3~.!U~b»~_!lC~

M<I'~t'I"~ll~",H)'. 1htrr I. no U1l"mbl~nOU~ "~lillln(1n far '""" the Iml!l'lll. flddil tl,,, !mwm110~ 110101< 'm~~ 'Jlrrl.:'r, lW,.,H l1lacll ,.~r.lOon ,'duelly until =- OQ r prJ,llce. ~(lrl'i~ro rrn.~Jifjg cI"~f III /I!~ Wiiiraliml "e/moil,\' ,~Isrl marinS DW6J~ tf). J'IITIIJr.~ who" fhl! hlumr firM Ior,f/iII<'!' IIPl'N!uiNliif f:~"'PflTtd '0 thf ullbr JUM .\ .1;<100 rhoice 1m , '11 ls U ~]~Iu ~lr"ngll1 011 tb~ order elf Of kvmd lima

Ih" ~"(LColl h~lcl ~~~~c<l h~ELI' (',711, FN a~lm1rk" " ... , =::l < - 211•

whl~h I~ liD 1I1~ order "j 'i c IW V/Cill tnr dC.,~I'I111~, hu bum! WICd 10 the Iil:ratmt (Kl:! PlB2),T~I" ~~'I ,eP_,mTItbl~ I.lJu~ ~m.·~ ~1~ v~rli~~IIi"ld rn u MOSfIE1dt.j I~ffl~"[l)' ll~~ In 111.;· llliIl!r ot 111 -j 11" Vlcrn,

a,2,~.<3 PeAK F1EL.J:lI1T 'I'11E DFIAIN

Om!~ \ ~ ~1" kl11'\'in,lAi .Im be lI'~ln 1 h~ !oI'I~l[Ig I \1 "" tJ.L) - 'loll

\!_/I'{~I-~I"' ~Ir~

It i ~ !UU*"tf,'1"\\"'~ IIJ uMl1'~Ic!l.1 In!o Etj 11,g~) 0; I1lIXO ~

l'-rl:1l:~ I. whh L t:.L ", 1~ I ~ 7f, , .. onl 111 11i~ W1lr~'I!rl1ram c:wrut

',"hl'''' F'r 1II1 Eq \~P),,\,II1~ de.ctlli 1",[11 ILm~ the 'h.mnd", _by

, "\'I=-~ rlJ

3:2 sHWFlTo.OHANNEL M~R

,,'n'f~

, '~

1~i1i"1 I'

~InIE 3,1l1, ~rJIo-I" -I', ,ut'i",Ur.1 J ",-ciII" ,,,IIlI.HJ''''El' 'Im>'i"ll Iwrr~W" III ~ gb ~r.;" I,;., ,nli , I/ltt", ~"n ",'/ 19~7 I

The breakdown ~ In an cMOSP!IT ~ iItIown !CllmIa!fual1~ lu I'll!. 3 3~ Elrctron. grun "'~ from Ih.!! ti~W 8ft ~ mD'IC clClWn tile c~cl. 8llfu~~ ItlIO en«gy through rnlU.ioo~, !My ~ ilAgb tlu!k mern II1d II[!!. eapr.bkI)f g~llernhll!: ~:~ndary cleWmUI _lid bch:i by !nqNid t1>ll11Ilion. Th: ~ ~lci:lrmu; ;1m 1111nl"'00 1'1 ~ drniII. AdI:I.IlI! l.tl ilH: drIiII nIImiL wbik tbi! bDlts.1* wllmed by du:"gbslJ'l1ll: COIIIltlI. resuUJqg'lll.'fIlI.b:ImIIII~ TIIIl~ cutnmtlDl\Im~lIDp~a Y~1RJo:frtopfnua~""Q&'~III~hIIk. which tl!ll.dti Ib I'rorWmnI-bits the

of Ih~ MQSfET and !rlgea I IbI: c1w!ocl 00I1WIL ~ &«imIed by low-l.cYcl ~

~IJIIlllQften~iD cr bat camcr. JIm ~ M05nT~

1(1,1

.11,1

J. "I ldt)

I;W, TI1~ 111\ • 111·1 ~

3.011

3.11

3.7

3.'

a..

11. , MDSFET SCAUNC'

CMOS DEVICE DESIGN

l1'l' ~~p~1!1 u;JlIImt~ !h< lu:y ~~,.,« ~C' ~j!.ll 'Wl~ 111 11 modern CMos Vl:1i I~<.hm h1~ II ~m.~ 111(1, llil e~Ii!'tI~iV~ ,."",1 .. "", 1l11h~ concept orMOSm~ 1\", lmpl'tilllli CMOS device d~'I~n rar.Ifl'l~I~f1\. IhlQhhUld 'o'ollllgt II1d ~ I "![!llil ;JHl l~~ lli~L'1l s,:,l in dI:1m I

r,""""-.~II

M&IAE ".1 • .f'rtr<I:lll'n 0{ /r!OSfI:'! ~'IO~.liIIII_' &1d oool~IM."""""

4.1 MOSFET BCAl..ING

tnU11b dnlnt rlilMuu (W ~ IlJIIi ~ .., I1H _ f*tItJr, ~ (:>11. !D tMIlM rl«rrilcjimll'tlMiul!ll~ 11Ii:r i!IIlJfeIlhstmn!lWllUI)' o.f lbc mII~ dc!\IlCl! lJ; not "'DI'Io! IbM! thll ~ die m'l~ dIMa!

IMIl Uj (~.1U! !,L';,dol'S dl..vn ~rrr~~ll~I~' ~.V Ii. prn"ldetllbullbr !'owI:I. ,,~II(lgc V, r I~ ni~[lj g[.:aICflhmllh~ ~i,llh-lJj r('il:lJll"~ 111", All fll;p.aCrlW1C~ (I:

In"- wlri~~ 1~;u:l.J 5';Llle uliwn by.l';. "m"l?tI1~)' artT'rupI,nIUnllllt' nru iIIld 1l1'li:1341 ~'110l1~IJ~u1l[jtltlr1i1le;.;~, nl~ ~11~po.:llI~III~~ I '" C ( 1'1 scales dllWllh~.I' .W~ I ~~ .~~'t'",lOn"llly<f ~bars" ~<'l1511~ I per U 1111 gUll: ~ J. Q s, rLm~1 Jl' LI.!IclIiul1l(d lib 'CUlilig. 5inu the c1octr,1 I: fi~td m. Qn~ g1~.e" potfllll I ~ u Ihll1ml~.~J< We tlIrtTer r.tbi) II = 14' I nl ~Qy l'"o:n f'I'ITII 1, ~I,o unchungcd 11111: momhly i~ the IIWlJI) '" nrne I!I:m • ..tI ~i~l~ I '"lll:l"olf)T c, am ,,,,It.'IC~I}' ~[urol'''!1 ,;II~~~ will Ill: 'il1:1II1111'

"rll!iu,1l ",nd III~ sealed Lfuv,~cs

111<:' Jrifl rurnnl per MOSfLT ,1'I~dlll Qhhl1ncd hy Ul!egntl1ng!h1: fiT'il'b'lll the ~I~ uon ollm:n~ u~"'~I~ ~(I.il,,:m 12 ~]l Wtl Ille iILV<o~!iIDJ1 IUyl!! LIIl.I;ba&.

IJiiII W = QI~= V'II

nnJ 1 ~n~h,mgl:cl \4inlll~~p~U 1'1 8I .. ~1111!.\. T1I1 1M~.lr th 1 mil tfrIf't cum:nI

,I(,wn I,)" .~n ~'li..TlI WIll' Ifle beh lI'r 01 horh the Ilntlll' and Ibe

~IOSFET C~TT~m In Eq ~3"~J' oml b:; ( .231 A 3..I:y ImplicIT UJ"VmpliQ:o

LI1I' Ihr~,{jJ,JI!l "~'UJ.H. JI.IJ .... dl~~ iliJwn P} ~ ('01", liM lhe WlII)Cj~ 1III1I1I'SI~.

mil III ~'7~t .LI' II '(,11 'L"~ "m '" y ar tc e hoth 1 lUlL!, ~

"1Jtfll!nd~nl ~ l~lI1TI~, 1-111'\ 1l1'U. lJI~ ,,!;f,u Ion c urrent per liN MOSfE'f "\'lljlltll ill' Hl1~~tntm ~" • cr[,l\I.I !rLm )1 Ih~ 'urn:: I I '" .... "1-" ft~ gl~~n I!~' n ~ mw • ." ., __ 1""

whete V i \he substrate h,,,, V{JIIlt~c Tn iliC!lJn teclIn~ICIID 1M mmtilll·!fJJ£t:;l pIII'IllDClm (~y Z~I'< worli function. etc.j do mil c~ \\;llucatill,:.bt'n.:c.1JI ~ VI doe 1I0\ scalI:. H~ilf, In 1I~<lII~IlIlQlllpP)Cm.n+·~~ 1Ire~ flIT n-obmmcl MOSFIIT~ and V~ -EJ'..q -tlfmmEat,~ll!ll).1l tmlI5: out: thm Jbc IiP.lt !WI' Il'I,'IllIl on rbe RBS of ~ 1441lid4 ~ a v, whlcb 1= be ooatetUd One CIIII aJa], .. at fDellalll'd, a.Arl.';

by I!lJWlW!e v _ se thai 2,,1;+ ~ ticakrHC"'III1~'~~dtc' Imi! 1eoi1,j{)m, 4d1b4l.

~~ wlUallIOple:llirl'liftb)"lt. ~, V'" bills recbfj:it to i.'r« .ilqtBr:'lcIil:,'Il~I,fi!Ii!\~II#'· ~MbM~~~j~~~!~,~:~~~I~~~'~

~ l'IInbIr -'I,,,",,,,,,, "I'~"''''' ••

tol'~ _/ ,IQ, II )'T

«t QI

/1 -

q tr

TAfi.E "'.if C'Ma~ YUH T~HJl~'''~Y (j~"1II1l11~n',
I'<I'o'rh~uppb G~!t (lid\!< Oxide }'jl!k[
haJ~1'l' n"d!."~fA) [J\J'I"/o.m}
~"t 11",,1 '1,11"~~ ,Vl
s l~n 1.4-
l
I~ "$[1 2)1
011 ~ IfIIJ ,2.~
1,j nn U
II
U ~~ U HILI H
Il,l'j :!_~ 10 ~.rl d~~lce rill""UIIJ ~~hTwt,"HJJ'I 1~ I(](I resmcuve "CCIlU5e (It ,~bl)Jr,,"bolll oo~ LI1ld r~J ucu nee , n r!Pl'"l1 I rom ,111' ,j.1I1l1ntil tUtl ~'(~1 rllgl·l~."dli of the pn!VII:lUt ..... ~n)::1TI III J1Q'iI'~r ~l'rl'ly lI(\lt!j!~ I'm' ',~I,lum ~~u.ll:.tl in rroport.il.mLO clu!nncll. Th~I~ 411i"~ j~~ ~uPl'lv 1',.,IR:l~ ,Inll Ut:vU!II: Pl\r.llllfll<.lJ; (If several ~~ CMOS Vl.,!ilIC.'UII .Iogy It ls ( I oar tlll,t l_he ~)~ ide ueld hL1!i ~ IIK'mQIIHlJlMI

jler,,,,..IIIIJll, njilltl thun "H~ rnJ! ~nll tunl ~ 0Jj' ~\'Ice Lk ign purpes ~

,~nc(c,".ry tn clo:\.llp a nil' {:l!ncl'lli ~~I 01 ,&UIJd111 , Iluu4110Wli lhettll!driC'&IIl "Jlm'l~~!IC In LlC~ ,I RClter.IHtrJ sC:Lling tBocl.':lium l'f III (1)34). it I1idllillimltlal ~IJUI ~I~ \ ~1UcuJ :.nd Ill<' loIt(r;ll dtlltic N~ld~ h.ln~ b) the !IanIe lDJllbp" Ind" .. 1ft • .! th ~h"f1jl l,l Ihe rloclric j1elUI'.ltl m I pre I"V't'd This QHIIIIit!i :!.·n d ll"~L, • "ell. ,~rnt dill nMI e tlce I.!i J" nrn i'''~lllne W(J1l1C wh~ ~ m~lkf~ 'llOn~IDD 1-11.1111 r rlcld~ however ,1. [,~U<oC I'd ubUJI ~.

I umed In lilIdn'" ~ ~

lIer ... JJiC~ noh.v""l {If J~~1~ pnhlmC1en!

~flI:ldl ~ [}I!j>ichOll-lay", ~idU~ I W r'pIlC111W<!< Ie = 'Ail) Il"~"'fIJil"IO)'<r <1I>'l1! <kmny IQ,

C.lm,or '(!ltooly t , ) CEttIl:I>l.dritrrl1

IkJ1vod "'--.IIn~ p.,!ulVI';r pf rujllnl

~

C1rt:WllkloyiliRlr ell/I) P'lwc, cr ... ,pollll,i1 pII' ..... ,.~ (P VII I'cw ... .".~ pnodI&a pot .",,",1, F r) ~tIIl1h~(tlt~1

Pcw ... lklu;:yIP AI

,.1. v~ "IN,,('lJh + I'll,,) "1"~' +-- C, '

~I "'''Ol.lInufld:ll\lI~~J I'rom!:;lj.I:!"lt,I)) Il.rm."",h ~-I~}'eJ'~hnr:l!epctU1l11 1& r~I=~j I" rbe dC~lW" eunceuuanrm ql the si1i,n~ ,,~dJl~~ 'ttl)l, b,):'

I,M v = 11, ~d. = V",ll = U<'UC• ~('" - I! C': r ~l r~H Be\:~1I1l1'. (,1 Ih~ exponeminJ Ll!pl!n~on<r tb~ i~~"I.J I

. _ .... y "'\I tnj;r =not be m;~

JlIwn "['llincunl.l~ ,",'lllI-eml ''IIu.mg ti l1.Ill!;tIIllIiaIlt1CT'e&: In the (ljT,,=1. n f~ C"~11 if ll'~ Ihu,fJ]nW wl.llilg~ l~ hel~ untb""l!-~ IIIt"qff ,;JIII1:Il1 F cIov"", Jt!ll Ir.c=!~-' h)' H rUClot or" I trem IllJ: Gu• f1\1!K1f) when the ~ dim~ m ~lIled dtJ:W~ by ~. Thi~ ITIlpOl!eS 11 !lel'iot.lii Ilmillll~n on bGW low ~ lIIrMbokl ~lIJl1IJ1c cnn ~'Ie. ~cially in dynnmlo ~11'I:'~ltJ a1\d ~~ IIlIImnriH. 11It Wc~t1l.lld ~!lh"lIge limilnt.ion ill turn I&. II ~r I.mlt ""Ibr: powm-~y Yo~ Ii: in.c~ Ii'll! dn."Ull delily ~e! rapid! willllM _ \.\ V. wbca till: bau

"""~, ~bQ~l tl ~ a,; will be ~ It! Chllp!l:'~

Another nll!ljlemling !'aclorrel!tted 11) 4 'F l'l b!bc~~r ~ v&lt IfIllIJdJanged 10 cQIIS!.wIt.tivId~ Silwcw~-Jl..Y1Ir~~ hu11i 1M finlre thlClmc:u I!l III _ .tth 1M. \1IIIllI= QPICI~ 1Ii! II'bIJIIr eapu tan<:C per unit ami'" * 1iCaIiII ikVk'e:'lnclmul:s by , IiI*r 1$ ~ IIIld ~MIDft. _iII-" ~~~~~.~~R~'w~~~~~~~~'~'~9'~

~~~~~~=::~~~~~:;;;;,

~I\)l

then ~~I~~Jp,I\'~ h~' II' Here 111(N. tn, I '" .~ w~<ik 11lJ1~li"n ,,} No "ml tan ~ ITtlIICIJ :II' ~ ,"{In ~1'1l'1, TIH~ all\IW~ tho ~h'JI1-t~ilnnd \'J rall-n [t I n'l I' oflf> II.

J,J - ~"I~, Trp""""i'+Vj..-r-ll' I , ,(If,,, ~I,,'

l-W:V~'~WJU J~ •

Ii' remain uII~h~'Igt'd :I!> 1",ln I", LJld ~lr[m are Mui~t1l1r:llnl hy tbe slim. fllQlJ " II,,: L:l1lln~d l"ngHl L Dmh tlJ1::P'I""l.!,-,lIrjlly \'nliag~ ltl'" the thr~mo!tlI'll1tlxt

I (!l.! 14 ~~I.

".Il THFIES~Ot...O VOLTAGE

1111, """tloo fu~U"'1 lltl n kt~' d,,~)gn p;m)IIXtI:r 10 CMOll ~hnol"g} ~ tIlUl~" Alth. lUgillli~ ltue;hnW ..,..,hJl1ie WZi1ll!nld1J~1:l:3. tlre di&c:u!YOIL'O Ih= were resmcted to the C<I.IC pf unifoou OOping. ld IbL~ Il<!CtIoo, ~Id VIllI~tS II!Idc,r namrmfmm Ik>Plng rondiliOils ll'I: dL~ 1~ II) !lr ~ Ill' MOSJ-C'l ~h~ll""'ftil'

4,2.1 THRESHOLIJ.VDLTAGIE ~

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