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Metric System

- Grams measure mass while Liters measure volume!


K h D [u] d c
m
kilo hecto deca meter deci centi
mili
liter
gram
example: Convert 12.54 kilometers to centimeters.
How many jumps is it from "kilo-" to "centi-"? ... Five, to the right.

So I move the decimal point five places to the right, filling in the extra space with zeroes

The loops help you keep track of the steps that you're counting, and make it really easy to see where
to add the zeroes, if you need to. In this case, after moving the decimal point and adding the zeroes, I
get:

12.54 km = 1 254 000 cm

Accuracy vs. Precision & Significant Figures


Accuracy - How close a measurement is to the true value of the quality that was measured
Precision - How closely two or more measurements of the same quanity agree with each other.
* If you measure something, and it is close to how much it weighs then you are ACCURATE.
If you do something and get the same
results more than once you are PRECISE.

Significant Figures - The precise digits in a measurements. The greater the number of sigfigs, the
more precise the measurment is.

Pacific - When a decimal poin is present. Count from the left side, start from the first non-zero digit.
4 0 6 0 3 . 2 3 ft = you should start counting from "4". You should then end up with 7 sigfigs
Atlantic - When the decimal point is absent. You start from the right.
4 0 6 0 0 ft2 = you should ignore all zeros after the last non-zero digit. You should end up with
only 3 sigfigs.

Rules!
•adding or subtracting - round your answers so that it has the same number of decimal places as
the measurement having the fewest decimal places.
•multiplying or dividing - your final asnwer can have no more total sigfig digits than your known
quanity with number of sigfigs.

Classification of Matter
Physical Property :
Color
Smells
Density
Melting Point
Boiling Point
Phases (Solid, Liquid, Gas)
Physical Change - An alteration of the substance that does not affect it's chemical composition.
ex: Phase changes, Breaking, Dissolving.
Chemical Property:
Can burn in oxygen
Decomposes
Rusts
Inert
Highly Reactive or Flammable
Stability
Chemical Change - Any change in the chemical properties of a substance that is not reversible, when
a new substance is created.
ex: Burning, Rusting, Digesting, or Fermenting.

Density, Viscosity, and Bouynacy


Density - A comparison of how much matter there is in a certain amount of space.
D=M/V
Viscosity - The resistance of fluid to flow
Bouyancy - The force with which a more densed fluid pushes a less densed substance upward.
* A substance melts slower in hot water and faster in cold water!

Writing and Naming Ionic Compounds


Naming Practice
CaCl ---> Calcium Chloride
K3P ---> Potassium Phosphide
Al2S3 ---> Aluminum Sulfide
Polyatomic Ions
• combinations of covalent bonded atoms.
• Poly means many but they are treated as one or a single unit.
Rules:
• Name as ionic bond but then with the use of parentheses.
• If greater than one, then add parentheses.
• Ionic Compounds are sometimes reduced.

Naming Polyatomic Ions


Transition metals
1. Determine the charge in the metals
2. Indicate the charge as a roman numeral
FeCl ---> Iron (II) Chloride
- Zinc: 2+
- Silver: 1+

Ionic Bond
•All elements want to be like the Nobel Gases. They have 8 electrons, which make them "full".
•Li has one valence electron.
•p = 3 ; n = 4 ; e = -3 -> -2 | 3 + (-2) = 1 : It is imbalanced.
•Alkaline Metals has a positive 2 charge.
•Carbon can be negative or positive 4 charge.
•Starting from Nitrogen, atoms start gaining electrons.
•Halogens: negative 1 charge.
•Ions : Atoms with different numbers of electrons.
•There are two different types of Ions: Cation (+) and Anion (-)
•Cation are usually metals, and Anion are usually nonmetals.
The ionic bond --> Cation + Anion / Metals + Nonmetals.

Criss Cross
Periodic Trend
Ionization - Energyg required to move an electron from an atom.

Affinity - Atom's ability to attract to hold onto an electron.


Electronegativity - Measure of attraction of an atom for the electrons chemical bond.