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THE TEXAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE AND THE US - MEXICAN WAR 1846-48
The intention of this booklet is t o provide wargamers with the details of uniforms, flags and unit organisation they require t o refight these conflicts between two nations of the New World. I t also gives a simple guide t o the most suitable figures available from our ranges. Happy wargaming! The QRF / Freikorps team, (Chas, Geoff, Jan, Les, Sarah, 8 Paul). Acknowledgements Cameron W Robinson Text and research ... D Alsop, C W Robinson Artwork ... J Donaldson Additional help and guidance, Greg Novak.
Published by FreiKorps 15 Copyright 0 1 9 8 3 Frei Korps 15 First edition 1983 Second edition 1985 Third Edition 2006 Copyright LKM Direct Ltd.
Also available in this series CAMPAIGN BOOKLET No.2 THE MAXIMILIAN WAR 1861-67
THE TEXAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
This war is probably best known to most garners through the Hollywood exploits of the defenders of the Alamo. There were, however, a number of encounters that lend themseves to both skirmish and set piece games.
The Texan insurgent's army had no uniform. Officers wore swords if they owned one, and some attempts were made by some officers to show their rank with sashes, silver star badges, etc. The only uniformed group present a t the Alamo was the "New Orleans Greys". Other than the color, nothing of the style is known. I t probably resembled MX 10.
THE MEXICAN ARMY
The Mexican army at the Alamo Was composed of regular infantry, regular artillery, and cavalry of the line and of the presidia1 companies. Details are summarized below.
LINE INFANTRY (MX 2 5 )
Dark blue coats with red collar, cuffs and turnbacks. Trousers white or mid-blue with red piping. Shakos were black with gilt badges and straps. Grenadier companies may have been distinguished by red bands on the top of the shako and red cord. Light companies might be similarly distinguished by green details. Shako pompoms could be either a distinguishing colour for each company or in the Mexican green-white-red tricolour. Belts were white. The ZAPADORES (Sapper battalion), who were used as assault troops at the Alamo, wore dark blue tunics with black collar, cuffs, lapels and turnbacks, all piped in red.
Helmet of Jalisco Lancers
INFANTRY I N FATIGUES (MX 3) Some of the infantry units may have worn the regulation shako with white fatigue suits like those of the peasantry. NCOs were distinguished by red epaulettes and gold bands on the shako. Officers wore gold epaulettes and gorgets. Stable caps were dark blue and could be piped in red or Red and yellow. (Use MX 26) ARTILLERY Had dark blue coats with crimson collar, cuffs and turnbacks. Shako were as For infantry with crimson pompoms.
Short red coats (or green for Territorial cavalry units) faced green, with green saddlecloths piped white. Territorial cavalry had red facings and saddle cloths. Trousers were either grey or blue with a red stripe. Helmets were black leather with white metal fittings and black horsehair crests. Plumes were in the Mexican tricolor. PRESIDIAL COMPANIES (MX 6) Blue coats and trousers with red trim and black hats and belts. GENERALS (MX 8 & 38) Santa Anna wore a mid-blue jacket with gold braid and epaulettes, white trousers, and a tricolour or white plume in his hat. Collar and cuffs were red, laced with gold. Sash light blue or green and white, worn over the shoulder or round the waist with the medallion attached a t hip level.
Assault of San Antonio 7th Dec 1835. Texicans -Jim Bowie and men. Veracruz Regiment. Texicans Mexicans 160 men. 200 men (could vary) and guns captured at Mission Coneption. Texicans .General Cos.Jimenez Battalion. 100 men. 44 men Gonzales 2"dOctober 1835.2 x 8pdrs. 1400 men and more than 20 cannon. Mexicans . Armv of Operations Aaainst Texas Januarv 1836. Mission Conception 27thOct 1835.2 columns. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna with 50 staff. 1 old Brass cannon (3pdr) . . one led by Ben Milam.1Officer. then surrendered.fell back to the Alamo.William Barret Travis. Cavalrv . 2 x 7" Howitzers. . the other by Francis W Johnson.Edward Burleson. Seiue of San Antonio - Oct to Dec 1835 Texicans . Mexicans . 25 men. Vanauard Briaade .General Joaquin Ramirez y Sesma. 2 x Gpdrs. Artillery . Matamoros Battalion. Texicans Mexican 1 cannon. San Luis Battalion.ORDERS OF BATTLE Anahuac 2gthJune 1835. Infantrv . Mexicans .Dolores Regiment. Juan Seguin.100 Dragoons. . 2 x 4pdrs.400 Cavalry andsome artillery.
Tampico Reserve Regiment Guanajuato Reserve Regiment.Brig.First Infantrv Briaade .2 x 12pdrs. 2 x 4pdrs Second Infantrv briaade -Brigadier General Eugenio Tolsa. 50 men Mexicans . Morelos Battalion. Queretaro Reserve Battalion.6 gun carriages. Cavalrv . Toluca Reserve Battalion. 2 x 4pdrs. Cavalry . 2 field forges. Tres Villas Reserve Battalion. Mexico Reserve Battalion.General Urrea's Division. 2 x 7" Howitzer Urrea's Division .1 x 4 ~ d r s Cavalry Brigade .2 x 8pdrs.Cuautla Regiment Tamico Regiments Durango Reserve Squadron Guanajuato Auxiliaries Tamaulipas Nuevo Leon Reserves PresidiaTroops ( 8 men). Gen. 2 coaches.Brig. Guadalajara Reserve Battalion. Texicans . Infantrv -Yucatan Reserve Battalion plus 40 men from various units of the army.Brig. 233 oxen 200 ox-drawn two-wheeled carts. San Patrico 2ndMarch 1836. 33 mule-drawn four-wheeled wagons. Commissarv and Army Tail . 2 X 6pdrs. Artillerv .Dr Grant.Presidia1 Cavalry. General Antonio Gaona. merchants etc. General Juan Jose de Andrade. Artillery . GuanajuatoAuxiIiaries. Aldama Battalion. Jose Urrea. children. Presidia1 Infantry. plus wives. Sapper Battalion Artillery . 1800 mules. GuerreroBattalion. .
Fusilier Coy (10) of Matamoros and Jimenez Battalions. Davy Crockett. Grenadier Coys of all 5 Infantry Battalions. Duque. Reserves .General Urrea's division San Jancinto 21StApril 1836 Texicans . 6 ladders. 4 x 4pdrs.Col.Col. 4th Column . 4 x 8pdrs.) lStVolunteer Infantrv Reaiment . Column 100 best men of first three Fusilier Coys crowbars & 2 hatchets.Major General Sam Houston Artillery 2 x 6pdrs (the Twin Sisters).Commander Mirabeau Lamar. 24 officers. Texas Volunteers and Deaf Smith's Spy Company).Col. 50 men (made up of Coy. William B Travis. 10 ladders.Col.The Alamo 23rd February to 6thMaarch 1836. Cavalry . Jimenez and San Juis Battalion 2 ladders. Fanin. 150 men. command then taken over by Santa Anna just before the assault. 2ndTexas Volunteer Infantry Reaiment .Col. 3rd Column . 2 crow-Bars and 2 hatchets. Toluca Battalion (minus Grenadiers) 100 best men of 4th. 181 men (made up of US Army regulars on leave. 3. 2 2ndColumn .Col.Lt. 6 coys. sthl & 6th Fusillier Coys of San Luis Battalion. 4 officers. Mexicans . 400 men. 302 men. Col. of San Luis Battalion. Henry Millard. 16 officers. Romero. Aldama Battalion (minus Grenadier Coy). Amat. Texas 301 men. Col. 10 ladders. Companies A & B were made up of these. 8 or 9 companies. znd Texas Reaular Infantrv Battalion . reinforced by George Kimbell with 25 men.Assault Force 6thMarch 1836 lSt .General Cos.Col. Edward Burleson. Jim Bowie. 12 officers. Col. Sidney Sherman. Texicans . Goliad .Col. 5 x 12pdrs. 3 x 6pdrs. 1 x light gun. 1 x 18pdrs. 33 men. Morales.l g t hMarch 1836 Texicans . Mexicans . . Cazadore Coys (3) of Matamoros. Zapadore Battalion. 7 officers.
750 men.) . (We regret the lack of details of the Mexican force but Santa Anna managed to break his army up to chase Texicans all over Texas.Mexicans . reinforced by General Cos with 400 men after a forced march on 2oth April.General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.
volunteer units often had fewer companies or smaller establishments. cantiniers. I n Mexico the army was usually under. Batteries has six guns originally. The Mounted Rifles also had ten companies.MEXICAN WAR 1846 .1848 US INFANTRY Regiments had ten companies. However. officers' servants etc. a Sergeant Major and two Musicians.THE US .Colonel (as second in command). a Quartermaster Sergeant. four Sergeants. each corresponding to a battery.48 ORGANISATION OF U N I T S 1 8 4 6 . a Quartermaster Lieutenant. two Second Lieutenants. a First -Lieutenant. a Lieutenant . Women were often carried on the muster rolls as "Laundresses".g. US ARTILLERY Artillery were organized in companies. a Major. The various regular units (e.strength and companies might contain fewer men. were also present in some units. two musicians and one hundred rank and file. Officially three were authorized. The regimental staff had a Colonel (as commander). US CAVALRY Cavalry regiments had ten companies as for infantry.(Adjutant). The US Regiments of Voltigeurs used infantry organization. only two served mounted. Various sutlers. Each company had a Captain (commanding). four Corporals. I n practice the difference between the companies was largely ignored. but in Mexico often added odd captured pieces or guns of different caliber. one designated as Grenadiers and one as Light Infantry. artillery units) used as infantry were formed into companies of one hundred men but usually contained fewer companies than the infantry. a Lieutenant . .
four second sergeants. Companies had one captain (commanding when not in action).a Colonel (commanding). two sub-lieutenants. a regimental tailor. one baker and one mason. one surgeon.Lieutenants (as ensigns). three Adjutants. two second adjutants. two lieutenants. two Musicians and fifty . two sub . Given the usual Mexican chaos it is unlikely that this pattern was followed in every case. a commandant (as adjutant). one section (sixteen men) of pioneers. five Sergeants. two Ensigns one First Sergeant. a Surgeon. a Lieutenant Colonel.MEXICAN INFANTRY (This organisation was also used in the Texan war). The battalions were organized as follows. and one hundred and twenty-five privates. Regimental staff was a Colonel. MEXICAN CAVALRY Most regiments were formed into four squadrons each of two companies. and nine corporals and had three or four musicians. one first sergeant. four Lieutenants. The Volunteers of Saint Patrick saw service late in the war as a special infantry unit (classed as "territorial militia") of two 100 man companies (organized as for regular infantry companies.four lieutenant. three Musicians. one cobblers. One saddler. a First sergeant. two musicians. one tailor.Adjutants four ensigns. Each company had a captain (Commanding). two commandants (as squadron Commanders ) . two principal musicians . one lieutenant. an Armourer-Sergeant. a lieutenant. a Chaplin and two "chefs de musique". (commanding). twelve Corporals. Service strength and organisation varied widely. The regimental staff had a Colonel (commanding). Militia units forming a single battalion had a smaller staff (often commanded by a Lieutenant . three Sergeants. Each Mexican regiment had two Battalions each of eight companies including one grenadier and one light company used as skirmishers. three servants . two armourers. one carpenter. The two Mexican Grenadier regiments were unique in having a single battalion establishment but using much larger company strength. a regimental baker.) The Presidia1 companies used infantry organization for their independent companies. a blacksmith and a mason. A lieutenant colonel. one Chaplain.Colonel). two Surgeons. nine Corporals. one Armourer. a Lieutenant-Colonel. Eight companies each had one Captain. Regimental staff should have been . Light infantry had the same organization as the line. two chaplains.
with infantry equipment. and with i t was worn a dark blue forage cap. trousers light blue with a white stripe. during the war the regiment was unable to obtain supplies of the grey uniform and wore dark blue . Militia Cavalry were often formed into ad-hoc Squadrons by combining a number of companies of varying sizes. However. All kinds of variations were common . SANTA ANNA'S HAT UNIFORMS OF UNITS 1846-48 The American Infantrv. Officer's frock coats were dark blue. as well as the volunteers discarded their uniforms and adopted unofficial details of some uniform Artillerv Units. This was a light blue. Regular artillerymen served as infantry. haversacks black. bread bags and canteens varied. Formed during the war as an elite regular unit. Belts were white. Uniform was as for infantry but trousers and sometimes forage caps had red stripes. when worn. Sergeants wore a white stripe on the trousers and a red waist sash.two privates (plus eight who served dismounted and were not part of the combat strength). US Reaiment of Voltiaeurs and Foot Riflemen. units of volunteers were raised from many States.for example the Jalisco Lancers had only two Squadrons. Many of the regulars. I n addition t o the regular infantry. their uniform was t o have been dark grey but of the same cut as the regulars' light blue fatigues. were of various colours. Dismounted Cavalrv Dismounted cavalry wore the costume of the regular cavalry or mounted rifles. gaining them the nickname "red legged infantry". The sixteen regiments of Infantry fought the Mexican War in thier fatigue dress. Blankets rolls.
dark blue jackets and pants.wore a uniform like the regulars. 3rdKentuckv I n f a n t r v - Unable to find dark blue cloth and adopted "butternut" short jackets and trousers instead. They were on the Expedition to Santa Fe and later proceeded by California. Doniphan's Missouri Mounted Volunteers-wore buckskin and leather almost exclusively.all dark grey-blue uniform with white braid at the chest Indiana with white trousers stripes. blue or red shirts. grey. 5th I n d i a n a Volunteers.uniformed as regulars. AMERICAN VOLUNTEER UNITS Jeff Davis' Mississippi Rifles.all dark blue with "glazed" caps or slouch hats. ( M X 1 & MX 1 ) 1 Formed by the future President of the Confederacy. grey-blue trousers with red stripes and a tall crowned cap of blue cloth piped with yellow. but it is not known if the yellow trim was worn in the dark blue uniforms. the 7th NY wore dark blue coats with red cuffs and collar patches. the Rifles wore red shirts. I n d e p e n d e n t Washinaton DC Rifle Company. Marshal's Kentuckv Cavalrv . white trouser and black broad-brimmed hats and white crossbelts. .wore slouch hats turned up into tricorns (and trimmed with lace) and thigh boots. Ohio Infantrv-various grey or blue jackets (differing by company) usually with red or yellow trim. lSt Volunteers. but added yellow braid across the chest.all dark grey-blue but with no white piping. Straps were white. lSt S o u t h Carolina Volunteers . The grey uniform had yellow piping on the jacket. Kentuckv Volunteer I n f a n t r v . The M o r m o n Battalion (MX11) Formed almost exclusively of Mormons seeking a new promised land in the far west. 2 nd I l l i n o s i s Volunteers.check shirts.instead. They wore dark blue of grey trousers. 7th N e w Y o r k Reaiment (MX12) Raised specially for the expedition to California. soft hats and caps. white cross-belts and broad-brimmed hats. Doniphan MAY have owned a uniform. non-regulation trousers. lSt Pennsvlvania Volunteers.
dark blue short jacket with white collar and black neck scarf. collar (including two ornamental "button holes") and cuffs. Trumpeters wore yellow braid on the chest.I n d i a n a I n f a n t r y . Sailors. Saddle blankets were pale blue. No other details.T h e state suggested dark grey-blue uniforms but only the 4th Indiana seems t o have worn them.) Belts and haversacks were white. Only two companies of the unit served mounted because of lack of horses. Rolled greatcoats. Officers' sashes were a dull orangelred. pale blue. A third Dragoon regiment was raised a t the end of 1846 and saw service. Blue or white shirts worn under the jacket could have their large collars turned out over the jacket. O t h e r Units. Rifles Baltimore . The regular army's other mounted regiment was the Reaiment of Mounted Riflemen. Contemporary drawings of Stockton's column show the sailors in all dark blue/Grey with black hats. Partial descriptions are available for the following2 nd M ~ S S ~ S S ~ D D ~ wore red shits.Washinston V o l u n t e e r s . Jackets had yellow piping on edges and back seams. and buttons were brass. Forage caps were dark blue. The 2ndDragoons seem to have adopted yellow or light orange bands on the forage caps. The naval personnel engaged in the California Column and in the "Mosquito Fleet" wore standard naval landing rig.wore regulars' Uniform. 3rd Indiana wore "bright blue jeans" and jackets in the same material. I t is believed t o have worn regulation dress.black hat (glazed). light blue trousers with yellow stripes for privates and corporals and double yellow stripes for all higher ranks. B a t t e r v A M i s s o u r i L i q h t A r t i l l e r v . Uniform was a dark blue shell jacket. The American army started the war with two regiments of regular cavalry called Dragoons. blue or whitelcream trousers. (without authority. The . US VOLUNTEER OFFICER'S CARlTIDGE BOX T h e A m e r i c a n Cavalrv. Jackets could have rank badges and decorations of white thread.used a red band on the forage cap and red collar to the jacket with red stripes on the trousers. were worn a t the front of the saddle and black or dark blue blanket rolls at the back.
The original dark blue coats with red facings were probably still in use with forage caps and red striped trousers as late as Buena Vista. White trousers could also be worn. The American Artillerv.style fatigues with red bands on the forage caps and red stripes on the trousers. I n the field they wore dark blue coats with black trim. Coats were piped yellow as for cavalry. The batteries which served in the war mostly wore infantry . Originally issued with a distinctive uniform including plumed shako. The Mexican Infantrv. Most opted for buckskin or red shirts and other elements of frontier dress. Taylor's. US Com~anv S a ~ ~ e r Miners and Pontoniers. but late in the campaign uniform coats of green faced with red (taken from Mexican cavalry stocks) were issued. The unit was primarily a "recce" and courier unit but also served as contra-guerillas. "Light" batteries which saw service in differing dress were Ringgold's. engineers and scouts. The Washinaton Artillery Battery of New Orleans had similar coats but it is not known if they were worn in the field. as were "slouch" hats and sombreros. grey and especially red. Most of these men wore native dress. especial Texans. Horse furniture was as for regular dragoons Numerous volunteer cavalry units were formed during the war. Volunteers. Variations on Reaulation dress. Most wore civilian dress with crossbelts etc. Forage caps had a gilt eagle on the front. light blue trousers with black stripes and dark blue forage caps. The American armies in Mexico were unable to provide guns for most of their artillerymen and so many fought as infantry. Ponchos were also widely adopted. Generals had buff sashes and buff stripes on the trousers. were worn by troops of all arms. leather and \Mexican costume. mainly disaffected Mexican citizens. wore a vast assortment of buckskins. One of the more exotic units in Scott's army was the "Mexican SDY C o m ~ a n y "(use MX35) it consisted of two or three small units. On campaign much regulation dress was abandoned. Field officers wore double breasted frock coats (as opposed to the company officers' single breasted coats). of s. Duncan's and Washington's. This elite 100 men company served as road builders. Undress caps were largely worn in service. The Staff Staff wore dark blue frock coats with either dark blue or whitelgrey trousers. . Shirts largely white. Belts were white. these batteries were reduced to a mixture of this dress and regular uniforms.uniform was all dark blue with a black strip edged yellow on the trousers.
However there is no evidence that this white outfit was worn in any of the campaigns. - I Barrack caps were worn as often as shakos. Shakos had gilt plates. A fourth light regiment was raised at the beginning of the war. Trousers were grey. The forage cap would sometimes be covered with a black oilskin cover. . The Mexican Regular Army was issued with a white fatigue costume. top bands were black."reverse colors' implies that the collar is piped with the color of the lapels. Trousers had red piping. Trousers were either dark blue or white. Shako pompoms were green. Pompoms were either the Mexican tricolour (green. for hot weather. ( MEXICAN INFANTRY REGIMENTS Regiment Coat Collar Turnbacks And Lapels Yellow 1 ST Dark blue Red Red Dark blue Sky blue 2ND Crimson Dark blue Sky blue 3RD qTH Red Dark blue Sky blue Red Dark blue Red sTH gTH White Dark blue Crimson Dark blue Green 7TH None gTH Dark blue Red Sky blue 9TH Dark blue Buff Purple Dark blue Red 1 oTH Purple White 1 lTH Sky blue Sky blue Dark blue Buff 1 2TH Buff 1 I 1 I Cuff Red Red Crimson Sky blue Sky blue Crimson Green Red Purple Purple Sky blue Buff 1 Cuff Flaps 1 Piping Red Red Crimson Red Red Crimson Crimson Sky blue Buff Red Red Red Yellow Reverse Reverse White Sky blue Reverse Crimson Reverse Reverse Buff Reverse Reverse 1 Note . Individual regiments were identified by a combination of different collars. cuffs lapel etc. The fourth regiment was given a unique uniform of dark blue jacket and trousers with green collars and red cuffs. Each regiment of infantry had two battalions of eight companies. rolled greatcoats were blue or grey. yellow or red. Barrack caps1 were as for the Texan war. However in December 1847 this organisation was revised and twenty line regiments were formed from the existing troops. Leather equipment was black.At the beginning of the war the Mexican Infantry consisted of twelve line regiments three light regiments and nine militia regiments. turnbacks and lapels piped white. Packs were black. The variations are set out on the next page. The first three light infantry regiments wore identical uniforms of dark blue coats with deep red facings (an alternative source gives medium blue with red piping). cut like the normal fatigues. white and red) or by company. And the lapels with the color of the collar etc. and leather equipment was white.
The bearskin was black fur with brass plate and fittings. scarlet coat with sky blue collar.black with brass trim and red plume.MEXICAN CAVALRY REGIMENT Regt Coat Collar Turnba ck & Lapels Yellow lStGreen Green Yellow znd Sky Sky blue blue Green White 3rd Blue 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th gth Cuffs Cuff Flaps Piping Trouser s Saddle Cloths Green Sky blue Green Yellow Sky blue Green Yellow Revers e Revers Grey Blue Blue Blue Blue Green Red Blue Green I Sky I blue I Blue Green I Red I Red White I Red I Red White I Red I Red I Red Red I Red White 1 Revers 1 1e 1 1 Revers e Revers e Crimso n Revers e White I Green I Red Red 1 1 Crimso 1 Green I Green I Green I Green 1 n Blue White Crimso n Red Crimso n Red Crimso n White Crimso n green 1 Green I Sky Blue Dark blue blue Green Green All trousers have a red stripe and all saddlecloths are piped in white. Some illustrations show light infantry in a costume like that of the US Infantry but in grey. A summary of some of this is given below. White lapels with yellow lace buttonholes and yellow epaulettes. Buglers wore black helmets with silver fittings and tricolor Pompoms. The Mexican army was also noteworthy for the large variety of "Special" units each with its own distinctive dress. trimmed red. Grenadiers of Toluca This was another Militia unit. This was an elite Militia unit of 1200 men (rather than the normal battalion strength of around 800). The lst Regiment (and possibly Some of the others) wore helmets . The majority of the militia infantry wore dark blue coats with red facings etc. . Grenadier Guards of the S u ~ r e m e Power. wearing almost the same uniform as the above but substituting gold lace and piping and gold epaulettes. And light blue trousers with a red stripe. cuffs and cuff flaps (all piped white). Sky blue trousers with yellow piping and black leather equipment. Others wore shakos with Brass plates and tricolor pompoms.
and Standina Companies of Mexico Uniform as for Militia but Californians had dark blue trousers piped red and yellow piping on jackets. Crimson trousers with yellow stripe. Crimson lapels with yellow buttonholes. cuffs. Still used as an elite combat unit the Zapadores had black bearskin caps. Dark green coat with same colour collar and cuffs piped crimson. green for Rifle Company) White coat with no lapels. Marine Infantrv Reaiment Black shako with gilt plate and green plume. the Mexican Mounted arm in 1846-48 Consisted of the following units. The Mexican Cavalrv Considered by observers to be amongst the finest cavalry in the world.Zauadores (Sappers). Reaular Standina Battalion of Mexico. Yellow lace on cuffs and yellow epaulettes. tricolour pompom (red for Grenadiers. green collar. White leather equipment. bluelgrey trousers with red stripe. white trousers. collar etc red.). Light blue trousers with red stripe. Dark blue coats with red lapels etc. Sky blue trousers with red stripe. Veteran Infantrv Coastauard C o m ~ a n i e s Dark blue coat with lapels the same. Volunteers of Saint Patrick. Two companies formed of deserters from the American army and largely Irish Catholics (also served as artilleryme. Black shako with brass plate. dark blue coats with all trim in red. cuffs. Other companies were similar but with all dark blue coats piped red and white trousers. Nine regiments of regular cavalry (numbered 1-9) plus the following named units: The Light Mounted Regiment of Mexico Tulancingo Cuirassiers Hussars of the Guard of the Supreme Powers Jaliso Lancers The Mounted Rifles the Presidia1 Cavalry Companies six militia regiments . Standina Battalion of the California's. all piped yellow. gold lace around the crown. cuff flaps and turnbacks all piped red.
Hussars of the Guard of the S u ~ r e m e power2 Conventional Hussar style. The Mexican Artillerv Dark blue coats and trousers. Ice blue pelisse trimmed with black fur. The Militia Reqiments and the Liqht Mounted Reaiment Wore the same uniform of sky blue jackets with scarlet lapels etc. lapels black with yellow lace. Ice blue trousers with white stripe. The Jalisco lancers Black leather czapska with red top and brass fittings. red dolman with ice blue collar and cuffs and white lacing on chest. Sky blue saddle cloths piped white. Trousers were dark blue with scarlet stripes. Presidial Companies of California (six c o m ~ a n i e s ) Black hats with white band. Black sabretache piped white. Green trousers with crimson stripe Calvary boots. black busby with red bag piped white. and white cords. The Tulancinqo Cuirassiers: Brass cuirasses and helmets with white metal decoration and black plumes and tricolour pompom. Crimson plume. Red saddle blanket piped white and ice blue saddle roll piped white. Mounted artillerymen had cavalry breeches. grey trousers. I n crimson piped white? White frogging on breast. turnbacks and piping were crimson. Dark green coat with collar etc. Dark blue trousers with red stripe. Presidial C o m ~ a n i e s of Texas (eiaht c o m ~ a n i e s l and companies] New Mexico (three As above but with blue trousers saddle cloths etc were non. white leather work. Collars and cuffs. Red coat with lapels etc all dark green piped red.regulation. Crimson trousers with sky blue stripes and white leather equipment. white lace on breast. The Mounted Rifles - Black busby with crimson bag piped white and brass plate. Green saddle cloth piped crimson.The distinguished features of the line cavalry units are given on previous charts. Blue coats with red collar and cuffs. use ASY 1 1 from Seven Years War range . This unit was armed with lances. White leather equipment. brown leather equipment. Yellow epaulettes. White leather equipment and green saddle cloth piped white. Yellow falling plume and cords. Coats were sky blue with crimson collar etc piped white and silver epaulettes. saddle cloths were sky blue with dark blue piping.
Saddle cloths blue with gold. Barracks caps were dark blue with red trim. Mexican Army Division . The Staff Mexican Generals of Division or Brigade mostly wore uniforms of their own devising. dark blue trousers with gold stripes. Militia Cavalry of the City of Mexico. Ringgold's and Duncan's batteries light artillery. . Sapper Battalion. piped white. Sky blue sash for Division General. collar. and crimson pompom.l o t h Line Infantry. Hat with tricolour feather plumes and gold lace. green for brigade General. both covered in gold thread. Shakos were black with gold bands and plates. ORDER OF BAlTLE TAYLOR'S CAMPAIGN Palo Alto a n d Resaca d e l a Palma . However. 4th. US Armv General Zachary Taylor 3rd. Generals could also wear civilian clothes. 8th Infantry.Officers did not wear lapels. many Mexican illustrators show the cadets in bluelgrey coats with white trousers and grey/blue/red barracks caps. cuffs etc.General Mariano Arista. turnbacks etc all covered with gold lace. Cadets of the Military Academy of Mexico Dark blue coats and trousers with red lapels. 7th & 8th Cavalry. Veteran Coast-guards of Tampico. 2"d Dragoons. Gold epaulettes. lSt. 4thl 5th.May 7th& sth1846. One battalion of artillery (as infantry). 6th. 2nd Light Infantry. Trousers had red stripes. The basic was dark blue coat with scarlet collar.
US Armv General Zachary Taylor.7th Line Infantry. 3rd Division -Major General Wm. 4th. Also Hay's and Walker's Rangers Companies (independent). infantry. lSt. 4th Light Infantry. 7th. Nuevo Leon. 3rd. Militia Cavalry of Guanajuato and San Luis Potosi. San Luis Potosi.Stomina of Monterav 21'' to 23rdSeptember 1846.General Wm. Worth 5th. . 2nd. 2ndl 3rdl 4th Baltimore . the Sapper Battalion. lSt -General David Twiggs Division 2nd Dragoons. Louisiana Volunteers. lSt 3rd. 3rd. Militia Battalions of Mexico City. and Light Horse Regiment. Mexican Armv Division General Pedro de Ampudia. artillery battalion (as infantry). six companies and one battalion of local infantry. lSt.Washington Volunteers. 2nd Division . Jalisco Lancers. 8th Infantry.8th Cavalry. Quitman's Brigade 1st Mississippi Volunteers and 1st Tennessee Volunteers. Duncan's and Mackall's light batteries. Brag's and Ridgley's Light batteries. 0 Butler Hamer's Brigade: 1st Ohio Volunteers 1st Kentucky Volunteers. Aguascalientes. Queretaro.
Kentucky Cavalry Regiment lSt Mississippi. Mexican Armv Division General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. 1 2 ~ ~ LineInfantry. Michoacan and Caxaca. 4th Cavalry.Buena Vista or Anaostura US Armv 23rdFebruary 1847 General Zachary Taylor. lSt & 2ndActive Militia of Mexico City. lSt & zndIllinois. Active Militia of Celaya Guadalazara. Volunteers of Saint Patrick (as artillery). Puebla Militia Cavalry. 2nd Kentucky. One company each lSt Dragoons and 2nd Dragoons. Bragg's and Washington's Light batteries. Hussars of the Guard. Mounted Rifles Cavalry of Mexico. 3rd15th 7th18th Tulancingo Cuirassiers. Arkansas Cavalry Regiment. San Luis. llth. Second Army . Queretaro and Puebla. Jaliso Lancers. 3rdl 4thl sthl loth. McCulloch's Texas Rangers. lSt. Regular Standing Mexican Battalion.Division General Juan Vincente Minon. Lagos. 2nd & 3rd Indiana. Guanajuato. Tampico Veteran Coastguards. MEXICAN SHAKO PLATE . lSt1 Cavalry.
Captain Ward Mason with 100 US Marines.Captain Jose M Flores with 300-500 Lancers and 4 field pieces. US Forces . .Commodore Robert Stockton and Colonel Kearney. US Army General Winfield Scott.Captain J Mervine. Mexican Forces . Mexican Armv Commander not known. US Armv Colonel Alexander W Doniphan. Mexican Forces .Francisco Sanchez with 120 cavalry.FAR WESTERN CAMPAIGNS Battle of "The Old Woman's Gun" . 100 dragoons. Mexican Forces Andres Pico with 80 Lancers. and 6 field pieces.Januarv 2nd1847 US Forces . 260 sailors and settlers.October sth1846 US Forces . San Pascual . marines and volunteers. San Gabriel and La Mesa . Mexican Forces . Militac Cavalry Durango Presidia1 Companies of New Mexico and local Militia Infantry. with Missouri Mounted Rifles plus 2 artillery batteries.Colonel Stephen W Kearney.Januarv sthand gth 1847. Santa Clara . 39 infantry volunteers and 1 field piece. 400 cavalry and 1 cannon. Battle of the Sacromento River 2sth Februarv 1847.Captain Jose M Flores.December 5th1846 US Forces . of SCOTT'S CAMPAIGN Sieae of Vera Cruz 9-2sth March 1847. with 600 sailors. 7th Line Infantry.
3rd and 7th Infantry.18th A ~ r i 1847. 1st and 4th Artillery (as infantry). 2nd and 8th Line Infantry and local militia. Sth.General Wm Worth's brigade 4th. General Gideon Pillow's brigade Infantry 1st and 2nd Tennessee Volunteers 1st and 2nd Pennsylvania Volunteers 1st South Carolina Volunteers and Steptoes Light Battery. 5th. Cerro Gordo . 6th. Mexican Army General Juan Morales. 7th. Cavalry 1st and 2nd Dragoons (1 company) from each) Tennessee mounted Rifles. General David Twigg's Division 2nd. and 4th Artillery Regiments (as infantry) Taylor's Light Battery. 2nd and 3rd Artillery (as infantry). 3rd. General Wm Worth's Division 4th. 6th and 8th Infantry. infantry lst. 8th Infantry (plus 2 companies of volunteers). General David Twigg's brigade l s t . l US Army General Winfield Scott. .
4th. 1st and 2nd: Tennessee Volunteers 1st and 2nd Illinois Volunteers 1st and 2nd Pennsylvania 1st New York Volunteers 1st Carolina Volunteers 2 independent companies. one mixed regiment Clark's brigade - 5th) 6th. Armv Artillery Coy K 1st Artillery. General Wm Worth's Division Garland's brigade 2nd and 3rd Artillery (as Infantry). Militia Cavalry of Oaxaca Tulancingo Cuirassiers. 2nd Dragoons. . Sth. 6th. Grenadiers of the Guard of the Supreme Powers. t Mexican Armv Division General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. Coy A 2nd Artillery. Militia of Puebla. Army Cavalrv . Hussars of the Guard of the Sopreme Powers. Contretas and Churubusco 19-20th Auaust 1847. 4th Infantry. (Re-enlisted volunteers). Light Infantry. 4th. 2nd.General Robert Patterson's Division Tennessee Cavalry (as infantry) 1st Georgia Volunteers. Coy H 3rd Artillery (each providing one artillery battery). and 11th Line Infantry.Mounted Rifle Regiment as infantry. 3rd. 3rd. 5th and 9th Line Cavalry. Kentucky and Louisiana. US Armv General Winfield Scott. and 8th Infantry. I n d e ~ e n d e n Unit . lst.Coy F 1st Dragoons.
Mounted troops . Tampico Veteran Coastguards 2nd. Riley's brigade 4th Artillery (as infantry) 2nd and 7th Infantry. Taylor. l s t . Pierce's brigade 8th. 7th and 8th Cavalry. and the Volunteers of Saint Patrick. lst. 3rd.mixed regiment from lst.General David Twigg's Division. 2nd and 3rd Dragoons. Smith's brigade Mounted Rifles Regiment as infantry. 1st Artillery as infantry. . and 4th Light Infantry l l t h Line Infantry. Churubusco Santa Anna. 9th Cavalry Hussars of the Guard Tulancingo Cuirassiers Militia Battalions of Bravo. Magruder. Talcott's battery of rockets and howitzers. 10th and 12th Line Infantry. Sherman Drum. l l t h and 14th Infantry. 12th and 15th Infantry. 3rd Infantry. Mexico Army (Contreras) Santa Anna. Steptoe. Hidalgo. Independencis. General Gideon Pillow's Division Cadwalader's brigade. Victoria. artillery batteries of Duncan. Regiment of Voltigeurs. 2nd.
7th. lSt Volunteers. 2nd. 1st Active Battalion of Mexico. Hussars of the guard.12-15'~September 1847. Light Infantry. and Cavalry brigade of Juan Alvarez in support. lSt. 8th and 9th Cavalry. also Smith's. Huger. Grenadiers of the Guard. 3rd. General Gideon Pillow's Division as a t Contreras. Watson's brigade.September sth1847. 2nd and 3rd Light Infantry.Shield's brigade. lSt. US Army General Winfield Scott. Militia Cavalry of Michocan and Oaxaca Tulancingo Cuirassiers. (local command to Quitman's) General John A New York South Quitman's Division . Garland's. and Clarke's brigades (as a t Contreras and Churubusco). zndPennsylvania. US Armv General Wm Worth (in local command). Only troops in Molino del Rey given. lStCaralina Volunteers. and (composite) Dragoon Regiment. 5th.Molino Del Rev . . Mexican Armv Brigade General Antonio Leon and Joanquin Rangel with infantry brigade of Franciso Perez. 2nd. Mexican Armv Division General Santa Anna. US Marine Corps. both as a t Contreras. Cadwalader's. Garita San Cosme Worth's Division (less Clarke's Brigade). l s t . Drum and Duncan's Batteries. Chapultepec and capture of Mexico Citv. 3rd loth. Clarke's brigade (of Worth's Division) and Smith's brigade (of Twigg's Division). Storming Column 500 volunteers from all units. llthstanding Line battalion of Mexico. Chapultepec - . 11th line Battalion of Invalids.
1 I n f Regt N. Miners And Pontoniers Volunteers Units Contributions of each state. 6 I n f Regt. Virg 1 I n f Regt. 1 Rifle Coy. 5 I n f Regts. 2 I n f Regts. 1 I n f Regt N. 2 Artillery Batteries. 1 Cavalry Regt Ken 4 I n f Regts. 2 Coys 10 1 Infantry Coy and 2 Cavalry Coys Missouri 2 I n f Regts. lSt Dragoons and znd to 4thl Artillery lSt 1nfantry US to 8th Regiment of Mounted Riflemen lSt Marine Corps.C. 3 Cavalry Regts Ark 4 I n f Coys. 1Artillery Battery. 1 I n f Regt plus 1 Coy Ind 5 I n f Regts Ill 6 I n f Regts.J. Resular Units of the "Old Armv (formed prior to 1846). 1 Cavalry Regt 5 I n f Regts OH Mich. Mass. 1 Cavalry Company LA. cuffs and buttons. 2 I n f Regts 1 I n f Regt Penn. 1 Regt and 3 coy Cavalry Fla 4 I n f Coy . 1 Cavalry Regt Ws. on the rear (see Hefter).C. MD&DC 2 I n f Regt. Tenn 5 I n f Regts. 1 Coy. point up. The yellow band (if worn) on the dragoon cap could be hidden by the folded-up neck cape. The Mexican Marine Infantry Regiment should have a crimson shako with a gilt anchor and three large chevrons. GA. 1 Cavalry Regt.Y. Dragoons officers' trousers had no stripes as worn in the field. Some musicians still wore red jackets with yellow turnbacks. N.ADDITIONAL NOTES Courtesv of Ken Bunser US artillery jackets could be braided in yellow or white. Regular Units of the "New Armv. Red trouser stripes were only sometimes worn by artillerymen and the dress varied from unit to unit.1 I n f Regt 1 I n f Regt S.(formed after the start of the war) 3rd Dragoons gth to 1 6 ~ ~ Infantry Regiment of Voltigeurs Company of Sappers. 1 Cavalry Regt Ala. American Units which saw service in the war.
Louisiana. Hiqhest State Losses Tennessee. Ohio.000 regulars were lost in the war. 6th. . 6 Cavalry Regts plus 6 Ranger coys and 1 Indian coy Cal 1 I n f coy and 1Artillery Battery Mississippi 3 I n f Regts Re-enlisted Volunteers. Indiana lost about 1. Illinois had the highest losses of officers of any unit or state.000 men each. lSt and 3rdArtillery. out of total Volunteers losses of around 12. About 700 men from all states (cavalry) Mormons 1 I n f Regt and 1 coy Hiqhest Unit Losses Infantry. A All about 33% total strength sth.000.Tx 2 I n f Regts and 1 coy. 8th and 1 5 ~ ~ total of about 5. Illinois.
Illinois Volunteer Typical Volunteer uniform.S. Mexican Spy Company U. Officer (Note civilian type hat). Cavalryman 1846 -48 lStLine Regiment. 6. Army (Coat is Mexican Cavalry).48 2. .S.UNIFORMS ON THE PREVIOUS TWO PAGES Mexican Army 1. 4. 6. Infantryman 1846 -48 Centre Company. Irregular (Note sling. 2. Texas Ranger 1846 -48 Volunteers in War of Independence would have looked similar. 3. spear and religious picture in hatband). Artillery Officer Texas & U. 1. 3rdRegiment 5. Cavalry or Mounted Rifles 1846 -48 5. Corporal U. U. Officer U.S. Infantry 1846 051 4. Infantryman 1836 (Forage cap was also widely used in 1846 . Infantry 1846-48 3.S. Caps would be worn in the same regiment.S.
I t is possible this flag was flown at the Alamo. the year Mexico established a republic independent of Spain. a lady presented them with a long kid glove which was carried on top of their flag. dress white. scroll white and all lettering black.TEXAS FLAGS Adopted by the Texans in 1835. 3. fringe gold. Scroll grey with red border. white. New Orleans Grevs At New Orleans two companies of Volunteers were formed t o assist the Texans. Green. The night before they left for Texas. staff gold. Field white. the remainder were annihilated with Fanin a t Goliad. . eagle silver. cloak red. 2. This was the only flag carried by the Texans a t the Battle of San Jancinto. red. Field light blue. Similar to the Mexican National Flag but replacing the Mexican Arms with 1824. 1824 black. clouds grey. lettering black. Newport Rifles This was the flag of 52 Volunteers from Newport Kentucky. Some fought at the Almo under this flag. sword silver and sward hilt gold.
lettering black. eagle gold. Field red. At the Battle of Molino Del Rey.REPUBLIC OF MEXICO 1. . i t would be in common use with infantry regiments. panoply of arms (which was had painted) was various colours. ribbon red and fringe gold. 4. this color was saved from capture by a Mexican Sublieutenant who wrapped i t round his body. Green. 3. reverse "Liberty or Death" in Spanish. grenade and fringe gold. red. Red. Infantry Battalion Guidon Taken at the Churubusco. Black skull and bones white. white. White eagle brown. 2. snake green. Green. snake pale green. Guerilla Lancer Guidon Taken at the Battle of Sacramento. lettering black. He was killed during the battle. lettering. Battalion Flaq This is the common form of the National Flag and although artillery Flag (being square). this style of flag was common among guerrilla units. Battalion Flaq This is probably an Infantry flag.
Field scarlet.5. scroll white. Spanish Royal Arms gold. lettering black. It is possible that other old Royal Spanish flags were carried. Twenty-five years after independence i t was still being carried. T r u m ~ e Banner t This is a remnant of the Old Spanish Army. . I t was captured at Cerro Gordo. light blue and white.
They. Centre . 6THInfantry Regiment This is typical of the flags carried by all regular regiments. a flag like this would be carried by most Volunteer Regiments together with the National Flag. 3. scrolls red. Field dark blue. Field dark blue. . lettering gold and lined red. I t was made by the Mexican women of Santa Fe. bottom . Arrows have white flights. Central design . like the Volunteers. lettering and lining gold. scrolls red. laurels and ground natural. clouds dark grey and storm-like.top blue. Shield . Three rows of stars arched above eagle (not shown in this reproduction) gold. fringe gold. f 9 e 4 0 1 d .blue field.top. eagle head and tail white. would also carry a National Flag. yellow wheatsheaves. wings and body brown. The white square was left so that battle honours could be added.Flags of the USA 1. Stars and frinae silver. Eagle. St. beak and claws yellow. Louis Liaht Artillerv Similar t o US National Flag except that it has 18 stripes instead of 13. laurel green. Columbia Volunteer Battalion Very like a standard regimental flag. red and white stripes. - 2. horses white. ship on greenish sea. berries red.white ground with plough. brown shafts and steelheads.
white. white and blue. stripes red. eagle grey. eagle blue. shield top green. scrolls red. Ground white. stars red. pipe red top and white stem. stars white lined with blue. lined and lettering black. stripes - .. 5.4. I t was first carried in his expedition to the Rockies in 1842 and later when he led the California Column.blue. red.field white. I . Canton . Vermont Volunteers . Fremont's Flaq This flag was made for Lieutenant Colonel John Charles Fremont by his wife._ . Rather a strange little home made flag.
"The Mexican War" K. Journal of the Miniature Figure Collectors of America. "The Scabbard".N. "The Mexican War" Time . "Cronica Del Traje Militar En Mexico Del Siglo XVI A 1 XX". Embleton. Katcher. Smith New York 1971. "Campaigns" Magazine No. Haythornwaite.A. "The Guidon". Mansfield New York 1848. "Tradition" Magazine Nos 64 and 66. "The War with Mexico" (2 vols) Justin M.American War 1846-48" P. "The Mexican . "World Uniforms and Battles 1815-1850" P. Part one: Uniforms. "The Bulletin of the British Model Soldier Society" "The Journal of the Irish Model Soldier Society".BIBLIOGRAPHY The following are the main sources referred t o for this range. Presidio Press California 1977. "The Mexican Solier 1837-1847" Joseph Hefter. PART TWO: Campaign History and Military History. Osprey Books "Men at Arms" series 1976. 42. Mexico 1958.Life Books "Old West" series 1978. G. "Military Uniforms in America" Vol 2 ("Years of Growth 1796-1851") Company of Military Historians.R. Jack Bauer . "The Mexican War" Edward D. Journal of the Military Miniature Society of Illinois. M Chappell Blandford Books 1976.
"My Confession" Samuel Chamberlain New York 1887.New York 1974. "A narrative of General Wools campaign in Mexico". Knox New York 1887. "Decisive Battles Since Waterloo" Thomas W. For those wishing t o delve further. Francis Baylies Albany 1851. . the Connor/Faulk book contains an excellent bibliography.
MEX/CAN WAR .
FREIKORPS 15 TEXAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 183516 Texican Volunteer Infantry Mexican Line Infantry.6 or 12 pdr gun MX 37 Mexican Infantry Command (use for 183516) MX 38 Mexican Colonels (use for 183516) MX 39 Jalisco Lancers MX 40 Jalisco Lancer Command MX 4 1 5 Bullocks and Driver (use for Mexican gun or US 18 pdrs) MX 42 Pack Mules and Driver MX 43* US Army Wagon MX 44* 6-Mules Team for above For 18 pdrs use SP2 (please state US or Mexican crew) . Belltop shako Mexican Line Infantry. shako. William Travis and Jim Bowie (all foot) US -MEXICAN WAR 1846-48 MX 9 US Regular Infantry in full pack. Command.General Santa Anna (mtd). conical shako MX 30 Mexican Line Cavalry. Presidal Company Command Personalities. at the ready MX 1 US Volunteers infantry 1 MX 12 7th NY Volunteers. advancing MX 10 US Regular Infantry in Light Order. Command Helmet MX 32 Mexican Cuirassier MX 33 Mexican Cuirassier Command MX 34 Mexican Irregular Infantry (use in all Mexican Wars) MX 35 Mexican Irregular Cavalry (use in all Mexican Wars) MX 36 Mexican Artillery (use for 183516) 3. Helmet MX 3 1 Mexican Line Cavalry. Scott and Fremont MX 23 US limber and 2 men (price as command) MX 24 US Limber Team (6 horses. on foot. Presidal Company Mexican Cavalry. stable cap MX 27 Mexican Grenadiers. Guard of the Supreme Power MX 28 Mexican Line Cavalry. fatigues Mexican Cavalry. California Column MX 13 US Sailors (California Column) MX 14 US Mounted Rifles. command Mexican Cavalry. Colonels Davy Crockett. 2 riders) MX 25 Mexican Infantry. or 12 pdr gun) MX 19 US Infantry Command MX 20 US Cavalry Command MX 2 1 US Mounted Colonels MX 22 US Personalities . conical shako MX 26 Mexican Infantry. MX 15 Horse Holder and 5 horses MX 16 Texas Rangers (use for 183516 Texas Mounted Volunteers MX 17 US Regular Cavalry (use for Mounted Rifles) MX 18 US Artillery (6 pdr.General Taylor. conical shako MX 29 Mexican Line Cavalry. Helmet Mexican Cavalry.