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Dr Dorota Joanna Bourne

Learning Objectives
1. Describe several need theories of motivation
including the needs hierarchy and the
achievement–power–affiliation triad.
2. Explain the expectancy theory of motivation.
3. Recognize the importance of both intrinsic and
extrinsic motivators.
The process by which behaviour is mobilised
and sustained in a work setting in the interest
of achieving organisational goals.
The expenditure of effort toward achieving a
goal because it satisfies an important need.
 Content (needs) theories
 Process theories
Content (need) Theories
 Maslow’s needs theory
 Adlerfer’s ERG theory
 Hertzberg's two-factor theory
 McClelland’s theory of learned needs
(achievement, power, affiliation)
Maslow’s Needs Theory
Lower order needs must be satisfied before
higher level needs are activated
 Deficiency (lower order) needs
 Physiological: water, air, food, sleep
 Security: safety, freedom from environmental threat

 Growth (higher order) needs

 Affiliation: social, group affiliation, physical love
 Esteem: self-respect and respect from others

 Self-actualisation: self-fulfillment and personal

development leading to one’s full potential
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

M aslow’s Original Hierarchy of Needs

Once a lower-level need is satisfied, its im pact
dim inishes and the individual can progress to
the next higher level need.
Need for self

Esteem needs
Belonging needs

Safety needs

Physical needs
McClelland’s Theory
 A theory of motivation based on the
premise that people acquire or learn
certain needs from their culture
 Cultural influences
 Peer groups

 Popular media (e.g. television shows)

 When the need becomes strong enough, a

person will work to satisfy it.
McClelland’s Theory
 The Need for Achievement –the need to
succeed or excel in areas of significance
to the person
 The Need for Power – the need to control
the activities of other people
 The Need for Affiliation – the need to
interact with, and be liked by other people
Process Theories
 Expectancy Theory
 Equity Theory
 Goal-setting Theory
Expectancy Theory

 Motivationresults from deliberate

choices to engage in activities in
order to achieve worthwhile
Key Components of
Expectancy Theory
A subjective estimate of the probability that a
increased effort will lead to the desired performance
 An individual’s estimate of the probability that a
increased performance will lead to desired outcomes
 The value a person places on a particular outcome
Enhancing Motivation
 Providetraining to raise skill levels that
increase the performance capabilities of
employees (Expectancy)
 Provideassurance to employees that good
performance will lead to a reward system
 Providerewards that are meaningful and
valued by the employees (Valence)
Intrinsic Motivation
Is the belief that an activity (work) can satisfy
needs for competence and self-determination.
Is affected (increased or reduced) by
 personal values and perceptions
 the characteristics of the task

 the reason for doing the task

 rewards that become externalised

Extrinsic Motivation
 Extrinsic rewards:
 Limitedvalue can lower employee
 May cause employees to focus narrowly only
a task that is rewarded
 May cause a rush through a job to get a
 May cause employees to feel less free and
less determined