You are on page 1of 48

English: a better wording


Edukit p. 1

NEMO is the “Network of Excellence in Micro-Optics” constructed under the

European “Sixth Framework Programme”. It aims at providing Europe with a
complete Micro-Optics food-chain, by setting up centres for optical modelling
and design; measurement and instrumentation; mastering, prototyping and
replication; integration and packaging and reliability and standardization.
More than 300 researchers from 30 groups in 12 countries are participating in
the project. One of the objectives of NEMO is to spread excellence and
disseminate knowledge on micro-optics and micro-photonics.

To convince pupils, already from secondary school level on, about the crucial
role of light and micro-optics and the opportunities this combination holds,
several partners of NEMO have collaborate to create this Educational Kit. In
part 7: ‘NEMO: Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics’ you can read more
about the goals, activities and partners of NEMO.

In the introduction of this manual you will find a short description of micro-
optical elements and a few examples of their applications.

The micro-optical elements you will find on the plastic card of the EduKit are
detailed in Part 1: ‘Description of layout of the card with micro-optical

Part 2: ’How to perform the experiments’ should be read before starting the
experiments. It describes the basic rules to be observed for performing the
experiments, and also a few words about laser safety.

The experiments which can be performed with each of the optical elements
on the plastic card are explained in Part 3: ‘Description of individual

The experiments are grouped as follows:

Experiment 1: experiments with linear gratings
Experiment 2: experiments with crossed gratings
Experiment 3: experiments with pattern forming DOEs
Experiment 4: experiments with the Fresnel zone plates

Each experiment starts with a link to Part 2, where the general experimental
set up is given, and also a link to the basic theory (Part 4). Each experiment
is also linked to the LTG-tutorial.

In Part 4: ‘Basic Theory’ the basic concepts of (light) waves, interference and
diffraction are explained. If students are already familiar with these concepts,
they can skip it. However, for most students, this part is the basic part to
study before performing the experiments. In the explanation of each of the

Edukit p. 2
experiments, there should be a link "back to the theory", in case the reader
has problems understanding the theory behind the experiments.

If more sophisticated optical hardware is available, some advanced

experiments can be performed with the diffractive optical elements. Those
are described in Part 5: ‘Advanced experiments’.

Three such experiments are described:

Experiment 5: Fourier transform with a single lens

Experiment 6: Optical filtering with a 4-f processor
Experiment 7: Experiments with micro-lenses

To learn more about the design, fabrication and replication of such micro-
optical elements please go to Part 6: ‘Fabrication of the micro-optical

Part 8: ‘Worksheets of experiments’ can be used directly as instruction notes

for the pupils.

Some interesting web links to SPIE, Society for Optical Engineering, are listed
in Part 9.

At the end of this document you will find an ‘Evaluation Form’, we would ask
you to send us as much feedback as possible on your experience with this
EduKit. Your feedback (both positive and negative) will be invaluable to us
improving future editions of the EduKit towards your needs. Please send this
evaluation form by mail to ‘ We thank you in advance.

Please also note that the text between two vertical lines in this manual is a
little bit more complicated, and may be omitted at first reading.

We hope to increase your fascination for light with this EduKit.

Please do not hesitate to contact us in case of questions:

Edukit p. 3
Content table:

Preface .............................................................................................. 1
Content table: .................................................................................... 4
Introduction ....................................................................................... 5
What is a micro-optics ? ................................................................ 5
What are ROEs? ........................................................................... 5
What are DOEs? ........................................................................... 5
What are specific applications of DOEs? ........................................... 6
PART 1: Description of the layout of the card with micro-optical elements 8
PART 2: How to perform the experiments .......................................... 10
The laser ................................................................................... 10
Laser safety ............................................................................... 10
Experimental set up .................................................................... 11
PART 3: Description of individual experiments’.................................... 13
Experiment 1 : Linear Gratings ..................................................... 13
Experiment 2 : Crossed gratings ................................................... 16
Experiment 3 : Pattern Forming DOE ............................................. 17
Experiment 4 : Diffractive Lens..................................................... 19
PART 4: Basic theory – .................................................................... 22
Diffraction and Interference of Light a simple approach .......................... 22
1. What is diffraction? ................................................................. 22
2. More about waves................................................................... 25
3. Interference ........................................................................... 27
PART 5: Advanced experiments ........................................................ 30
Experiment 5 : Fourier-transform set up ........................................ 30
Experiment 6 : 4-f processor........................................................ 31
Experiment 7 : Experiments with micro-lenses................................ 32
PART 6: Fabrication of the micro-optical elements ............................... 34
PART 7: NEMO : Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics ....................... 39
What is NEMO ? ................................................................................ 39
Objectives of NEMO .................................................................... 40
Activities ................................................................................... 40
PART 8: Worksheets ....................................................................... 41
Experiment A : Project image with the EduKit ................................. 41
Experiment B : Focussing with a diffractive lens from de EduKit ....... 42
Experiment C : Optics rodeo: hit the targets! ................................. 43
PART 9: SPIE : International Society for Optical Engineering................. 44
PART 10: Evaluation form.................................................................. 45

Edukit p. 4

What is a micro-optics?
Micro-optics is a collective term for very small optical structures and
components (around the magnitude of the thickness of a human hair) which
enable the manipulation, collection and distribution of light. They are used in
many products encountered in daily life:

Micro-optics in displays
• on mobile phones
• on GPS modules
• on digital camera's

Micro-optics for sensing applications

• in car distance control
• in windshield wiper activators
• in structural health monitoring systems
• in food quality control
• in barcode readers
• in novel surgical and medical instruments

Micro-optics for computing and data storage

• in CD- and DVD- players
• in optical data communications

From this non-exhaustive list it can be send that micro-optics is a key

technology that satisfies the increasing demand for miniaturization, cost
reduction and improved performance in many

What are ROEs?

ROEs or Refractive Optical Elements are
elements based on the phenomenon that light
rays are broken when transferring from one medium to another. This
phenomenon is called refraction. Examples of refractive optical elements are
lenses and prisms.

What are DOEs?

DOEs or Diffractive Optical
Elements are optical com-
ponents containing microscopic
structures not larger than the
thickness of a hair. The
microscopic structures diffract
incident light (generally a
monochromatic laser beam),

Edukit p. 5
such that a desired light pattern is generated at a distance from the DOE.
They have the advantage of combining more than one optical functionality in
a single component. Moreover they are so small and light that they can be
realized on flexible and thin materials.

What are specific applications of DOEs?

DOEs can be used for a variety of different applications. Some examples :

Project a line for measuring the height

Convert a single laser beam into a square grid or fan-out of beams

A reading head of a CD or DVD with DOE ( left) is much lighter and compacter than
a classical one ( right)

Edukit p. 6
Project your logo

Edukit p. 7
PART 1: Description of the layout of the card with
micro-optical elements

On the small plastic card, provided with this EduKit, you find different kinds of
diffractive optical elements or DOEs, and also refractive optical
elements or ROEs namely arrays of micro-lenses, [see Figure 6 below].

a) Elements number A1 and A2 are simple linear

gratings, with different pitch. There are about
60 lines per millimetre (lpmm) in A1, and
about 30 lpmm in A2.

They give a row of equidistant points on the

projection screen.

b) B1 and B2 are crossed grating, once again Figure 1: Crossed grating

with decreasing spatial frequency, the same as
their corresponding A number. Their far-field diffraction pattern consists
of a regular grid of points.

c) Next we have a set of PF-DOE's (= Pattern

Forming Diffractive Optical Elements), which
produce the following patterns:

PF1 and PF2 are array generators or "fan-out"

elements: the incident laser beam is split into
a regular square grid of 4x4 (for PF1) or 8x8
(for PF2) points of equal intensity. Figure 2: DOE
PF3 transforms the incoming laser beam into a
circular disc of constant intensity. This is called
a flattop generator

PF4 gives a square grid

PF5 shows the logo of the NEMO network
PF6 produces a European flag

Also on the card you will find three FZPs or Fresnel Figure 3: Fresnel Zone Plate
Zone Plates: FZP1 to FZP3. These are circular
structures which focus light, just as a normal lens would do. They have focal
lengths of respectively 10, 50 and 250 mm.

Edukit p. 8
Finally elements L1 till L6 are arrays of very small
lenses, so-called micro-lenses (refractive elements).

L1 and L2 are square packed arrays of spherical

L3 and L4 are arrays of cylindrical lenses, which
only focus the light in one direction,
L5 and L6 are hexagonally packed arrays of
spherical micro-lenses. Figure 4 : square arrays of

The distance between neighbouring lenses is 0.1 mm

for L1, L3, L5 and 0.05 mm for L2, L4 and L6.

Figure 5: cylindrical micro-lenses

diffractive structures refractive structures


L1 L3 L5


L2 L4 L6
PF1 B2 B1 A2 A1

Figure 6 : Layout of the elements on the card

Edukit p. 9
PART 2: How to perform the experiments

This section gives general information about the experiments.

We first say a few words about the laser to be used, and explain then the
experimental set up.

The laser
The DOEs are designed to be used with a low-power semiconductor laser,
giving a red beam with wavelength of 635 nm; that is about the wavelength
of the light emitted by the laser pointer provided with this EduKit. If you use
another laser, be sure that it has about the same wavelength or you will
observe some changes in the output patterns.

You can also use a He-Ne gas laser if you have one available. The wavelength
of 633 nm is almost the same as the design wavelength. Moreover these
lasers can give you much more power than your laser-pointer, and hence you
obtain a much brighter image.

Laser safety
Laser light can be dangerous for the eyes; hence laser safety rules should be
strictly followed.

In Europe, safety standards are given in the European Norm EN-60 825-1. In
that norm, lasers are classified in different "laser-safety classes", depending
on their power and emitted wavelength (= colour).

The laser which is included with the EduKit emits visible light, and has less
than 1 mW power. According to the norm it belongs to safety class 2. Those
lasers are considered to be eye-safe, and normal exposure to the laser beam
will cause no permanent damage to the eye. Indeed, when exposed to this
laser, the eye immediately closes. This "blink reflex" takes about a quarter of
a second, and this is fast enough to avoid any damage to the eye (taking into
account the low power of the beam). Consequently no safety goggles are

However, it could be dangerous if you look or

stare intentionally longer than a quarter of a
second in the beam: this should be avoided in
any case.

Lasers of class 2 carry a black and yellow label

with the word "CAUTION", and of course the

Edukit p.10
Experimental set up
When you shine a laser beam through one of the diffractive optical elements
in the card, light will be diffracted by the microscopic structures and you can
observe, on a screen at large distance, the so-called far-field diffraction
pattern. In principle the screen should be positioned at infinity, but if you put
it at about 1 metre from the DOE, then you will find acceptable images.

Direct projection of the image of the DOEs on a screen

You can improve the quality of the image by using a focused beam. First
(step 1) position a lens between the laser and the screen, such that the laser
beam (without DOE) is focused on the screen. Then (step 2) put the DOE in
the converging beam.

Step 1: first focus the laser beam (without DOE) on the screen

Step 2: put the DOE in the convergent laser beam

Edukit p.11
Questions: what happens when you change the distance between the DOE
and the screen?

Remark: some laser-pointers are equipped with a convergent lens. So if you

use another laser than the one which is delivered with this kit, first check
whether or not your laser has a lens included. If this is the case, be sure that
you position your screen such that the laser beam (when used without a
DOE) is focused on the projection screen.

It may look strange that light, after it is diffracted at the DOE, finally form
such a sharp image; however, this is what really happens!

You can convince yourself by moving a paper or cardboard screen along the
path of the beam and observing the evolution of the light distribution, from
the lens to the final image. A numerical simulation of this is provided with this

Edukit p.12
PART 3: Description of individual experiments

Here we describe each of the experiments which can be performed with the
elements of the card.

Experiment 1: Linear Gratings

You will find the linear gratings at positions A1 and A2 on your card.

In part 2 of this text you find the general description "How to perform the experiments".
The basic theory can be found in part 4.

Suppose that we shine coherent light through a transparency representing a

grating i.e. a set of alternating absorbing and transparent lines, and look at
the image on a distant screen.

General view of set up

It is clear that such a grating can be considered as a repetition of Young's

two-slits set up. Consequently Huygens ‘ Principle implies that each point P
on the screen receives light from each of the slits. All those light waves
interfere together.

towards point P on a
distant screen

Top view of grating

If the position of the point P on the distant screen is chosen such that all
waves interfere constructively, then P is a bright point. If this condition is not
satisfied, P is a weak or even a dark point. In real gratings, there are
hundreds of lines per millimetre, so in each bright point hundreds of waves
come together. All this implies that the difference in brightness between the

Edukit p.13
points of constructive interference and all other points is so large, that you
only see the bright points.

Positions of the bright spots

The figure below shows the light rays coming out of the grating. Two
successive rays will amplify each other when their path difference δ is a
multiple of the wavelength: δ = mλ (basic theory). When this condition is
fulfilled between two successive rays, it is automatically fulfilled for all rays.
Hence the positions of the bright spots are given by the same equation as in
a two-slit experiment:
y max = m λ m = 0, ± 1, ± 2, ...


towards P


δ = d sinθ ≈ d θ

Phase grating
In a "normal" grating, as the one described above, half of the light is
absorbed by the dark lines of the transparency; therefore this kind of grating
is called an absorption grating.

Edukit p.14
One can improve the brightness of the spots on the screen by using instead a
phase grating.

In a phase grating the dark bands are replaced by elevations, the thickness of
which equals half a wavelength.

towards point P
! on distant screen


height of bump = λ/2

Transforming an absorption grating (left)

into a phase grating (right); top view.

3-D view of a linear phase grating

It is clear that waves number  and ! give constructive interference in point

P because their path difference, in point P, equals one wavelength. This is
also true for waves number and ". Moreover, because the "bump" is half
a wavelength high, wave number travels the same distance towards P as
does wave number ; and wave number " travels the same distance as
wave number !. Hence those waves will also amplify each other.
Consequently in each point of constructive interference, we have now twice
as many waves as compared to an absorption grating. Hence the light points
on the screen are much brighter.

All the gratings on the EduKit are phase gratings.

TUTORIAL: these experiments are also simulated on a computer tutorial

available on this CD.

Edukit p.15
Experiment 2: Crossed gratings

You will find the crossed gratings at positions B1 and B2 on your card.

In part 2 of this text you find the general description "How to perform the experiments".
The basic theory can be found in part 4.

A crossed grating is a diffractive optical element in which two linear

gratings are combined; they are usually drawn perpendicular to each other.
Each of the gratings gives, at a distant screen, a set of evenly spaced dots.
The diffraction pattern of a crossed grating then consists of a multiplication in
two dimensions of an array of dots, which is nothing else than a square grid
of dots.

Diffraction pattern (right) of a crossed grating (left)

The figure above shows a crossed grating made of a grid of absorbing lines.
We have seen that gratings can also be produced as phase gratings, which is
a transparent plate in which the thickness changes periodically. This can also
be done with a crossed grating.

A linear phase grating

A crossed phase grating

From this figure one sees that such a crossed grating can also be considered
as a periodic repetition, in both the horizontal and vertical directions, of a
square elevation on the transparent substrate.
Some properties of the diffraction pattern are illustrated in the numerical
tutorial also available on this CD.

Edukit p.16
Experiment 3: Pattern Forming DOE

You find the Pattern Forming Diffractive Optical Elements (PF-DOEs) at

positions PF1 to PF6 on your card.

In part 2 of this text you will find the general description "How to perform the experiments".
The basic theory can be found in part 4.

In experiment 2 we have seen that a crossed grating gives a square array of

dots on the projection screen. Those dots are strongest in the middle, and
fade off slightly towards the edges. The grating itself consists of a repetition,
in horizontal and vertical direction of a so-called unit cell. In the simplest
phase grating the unit cell is nothing else than an elevated plateau on the
transparent plate.

More complicated pictures can be produced on the projection screen by

realizing more complicated unit cells in the diffractive element. The unit cell is
no simple plateau anymore, but can be a complete "town of sky-scrapers", as
it is sometimes called.

the unit cell of a simple crossed grating;

a "sky-scrapers" unit cell of a more sophisticated DOE.

The final image on the projection screen is again a regular set of points, but
now the points have not the same intensity anymore: some points are (very)
bright, some are (very) weak.

By carefully designing the structure of the unit cell, it is possible to arrange

things such that the light dots on the screen form a certain pattern. This is
then called a Pattern Forming DOE, or a PFD.

The pattern forming process is illustrated in the numerical tutorial also

available on this CD.

Examples are given below.

The pictures on the left ("phase profile") show a magnified view of the
diffractive elements, the pictures on the right ("output profile") show the final
images on the projection screen.

Edukit p.17
Element Name Phase Profile Output Profile Description

8x8 Increased fan-out

element – binary
Period is 256µm.

16 phase level
EU outline pattern formation
generating the
outline of the EU
PF6 flag.

Period is 512 µm.

NEMO outline 16 level PF-DOE

generating the
NEMO logo.

PF5 Period is 512µm.

On-axis Flattop On-axis flattop

generator. 16
phase levels.
Period is 512µm.

Grid 16 level PF-DOE

which generates
a grid pattern.
Period =512µm.

Edukit p.18
Experiment 4: Diffractive Lens

You will find the diffractive lenses at positions FZP1, FZP2 and FZP3 on your
In part 2 of this text you find the general description "How to perform the experiments".
The basic theory can be found in part 4.

A lens is an optical component which focuses an incident light beam towards

a point F, which is consequently called the focal point. A usual lens does this
by refracting the light; in a diffractive lens it is done with diffraction.

Such a diffractive lens is made of transparent material (glass or plastic) with

concentric rings on it; they divide the surface into so-called zones. In its
simplest form the zones are alternatively opaque and transparent. The radii
of the different zones are designed such that the distances from successive
zones towards the point F each time increases with half a wavelength.

Incident light will of course only be transmitted through the transparent

zones: zones number and ! in the picture. When these light waves come
together in point F, their difference in distance is twice half a wavelength; this
implies that, in F, they give constructive interference. The same is true for
the light waves coming from all other transparent zones. Consequently point
F is a bright point. In other words: this component indeed works as a lens.

Diffractive lenses are often called Fresnel Zone Plates or FZP, after August
Fresnel (1788-1827), a French scientist who did much research on diffraction.

Edukit p.19
δ = λ/2

 towards F


Edukit p.20
The FZPs on your card are slightly different: they are phase FZPs. Here the
different zones are not alternatively transparent and opaque, but they differ
in thickness.
height of bump = λ/2

λ "

λ !

towards point F

All those steps are equal to half a wavelength. This implies that wave number
now travels the same distance towards F as does wave number . Hence
waves number  and , when arriving in point F, will give constructive
interference. Of course: wave number ! still gives constructive interference
with wave  for the same reason as before. Hence in a phase FZP more light
waves will give constructive interference than in a transparent/opaque one,
and the focal point F is consequently brighter.

It can be shown that the radius rn of zone number n is given by

rn2 = n λ f n = 1, 2, 3, ....

λ = the wavelength of light
f = the distance towards the "focal" point F

This explains why the zones become smaller towards the edge of the FZP.

The three FZPs on your card are designed such that, when illuminated with a
parallel beam of red light with wavelength λ= 635 nm, they have a focal
distance of respectively f = 10, 50 and 250 mm.

Edukit p.21
PART 4: Basic theory – Diffraction and Interference of
Light a simple approach

1. What is diffraction?

Light propagates in straight lines!

When you look at the shadow of an object cast on the ground, or the
formation of a mirror image, it immediately becomes clear that light
propagates in straight lines. People have realized this for thousands of years.
Those straight lines are called light rays.

Figure 1: The shadow of an object (left) or the mirror image (right) are formed by light rays

Later on, in the early 17-th century, simple optical instruments were
developed, such as eye glasses and simple telescopes or microscopes. It soon
became clear that the working of those instruments could be understood if
you suppose that, next to linear propagation, the light rays are broken when
entering or leaving the lenses; this phenomenon is called refraction.

Figure 2: In optical instruments (here two Galilean telescopes) light rays are refracted when
entering or leaving the lenses

Edukit p.22
Nowadays more complicated
instruments exist. Although
computers are used to
calculate the propagation of
light rays, the design is still
based on those two same
principles: refraction at the
surfaces and rectilinear
propagation between them.

Figure 3: Light rays in a complex optical system

...but that's not the whole story
Shine a parallel beam of light on a screen with a small hole ("pinhole") in it.
On the basis of the "light-ray-model' of optics, one would expect a parallel
light beam behind the screen, and consequently a sharp shadow on a distant
wall. This can indeed be observed.

But around 1800 people

discovered that (under certain
conditions - to be discussed
later on) strange things
happened. The shadow was
not sharply defined anymore:
it was rather a diffuse disc,
surrounded by light and dark
circles [Figure 4]. After its
English discoverer the
astronomer George Bidell Airy
(1801-1892) this disc is called
the Airy disc. This strange
effect is called diffraction: we
Figure 4: Diffraction at a circular pinhole;
can say that diffraction is the
the Airy disc deviation from linear

People found out that this strange effect could only be explained by
supposing that light behaves as it was a wave.
You are already familiar with the concept of
waves. You can produce a simple one by
dropping a stone in a pool, creating ripples on
the water surface. Those ripples are called
wavefronts; they are circles, originating at the
point of impact, which is then called the source
of the wave. Hence we say that a point source
produces spherical waves
Figure 5: Spherical waves on a
water surface

Edukit p.23
Moreover we see that, at each point, the direction of propagation is
perpendicular to the wavefront. In a previous section we introduced the
concept of the light ray, by saying that it gives the direction of propagation of
light. So we can conclude that light
rays are perpendicular to their
wavefronts, as can be seen in
figure 5.

When you add two or more spherical

waves together, you obtain of course
a more complicated one; this addition
of waves is called their superposition.
The Dutch scientist Christiaan
Huygens (1629-1695) found that the
reverse is also true: any complicated
wave can always be considered as a
superposition of (spherical) waves.
Those spherical components are
called the Huygens wavelets. Huygens
used this construction to successfully
explain the propagation of waves (see
figure 6).

A century later it was discovered that

Figure 6: The propagation of waves can be
this same principle could also explain explained by adding the Huygens
diffraction at an aperture in a screen wavelets
if one assumes that each point of the
aperture sends waves in all directions; in other words: each point is the
source of a spherical wave (as in the lower part of figure 6). The total light
distribution at the distant wall is then found by adding together all those
Huygens wavelets, and indeed one finally finds the light distribution of Airy! It
turns out that the same trick also works perfectly when considering other
apertures then circular ones: squares, triangles, etc.

Conditions for diffraction

We have mentioned that certain conditions should be
fulfilled in order to realize diffraction. Those
conditions can be summarized in one word: the light
should be coherent. What's this all about?
Light originates at a light source; each atom of the
source emits a small light wave. A light beam then
consists of millions of those small waves [figure 7].
Usually the emission from individual atoms runs
completely randomly. This "normal'' behaviour
produces what is known as an
Figure 7: Coherent light of a laser (upper)
versus incoherent light (lower incoherent beam. This gives
figure). problems when adding the Huygens

Edukit p.24
wavelets: adding incoherent light waves gives you only rubbish; that’s why it
is very difficult to realize diffraction with "normal" light sources.
In order to obtain a beautiful diffraction pattern, all those small waves should
go up and down together, as shown in the upper part of figure 7. We call this
light coherent light. Light from a laser is almost completely coherent. So in a
practical set up, one will use a laser for realizing diffraction.

Diffraction is the deviation from rectilinear propagation of light; it is due to its
wave character. In practical set ups it can only be observed with laser light.

2. More about waves

Now that we know that light is a wave, let's look at some properties of waves.
We will concentrate on light waves, although most of the properties apply to
all kinds of waves. So, in order to visualize the things, we can use the picture
of the water wave of figure 5.

The distance between two crests in figure 5 is called the wavelength; it is
abbreviated with the Greek letter λ (= lambda). This wavelength is very small
for light waves: it is less than one micron. A micron or micrometre (µm) is
one thousandth of a millimetre, or one millionth of a meter. The colour
depends upon the wavelength: it varies between 0.4 µm for blue and 0.8 µm
for red light. A picture showing this colour dependence is called the spectrum
of light; see figure 8.

Figure 8: The spectrum of electromagnetic waves, including the spectrum of light

Edukit p.25
Each point of the wave of figure 5 moves up and down. The number of
movements or oscillations per second is called the frequency f of the wave. It
is measured in hertz, abbreviated as Hz; one hertz equals one oscillation per
second. This number is very high for light waves: about 1014 Hz or 100 times
one million times one million oscillations per second!

Velocity of propagation
The velocity of propagation of a light wave is called c, and it is about 3·108
m/s. This is an enormous value: indeed, each second a light wave advances
over 300 000 km {this equals more than seven times the circumference of
the earth}. Moreover, Albert Einstein showed in his relativity theory that c is
the highest possible velocity: nothing can move faster than light!

The three parameters we have introduced so far are not independent; it can
indeed be proven that frequency times wavelength equals velocity, or in
fλ=c (1)

Light is an electromagnetic wave

In the previous section it was said that light behaves as a wave, but it is not
yet clear what kind of wave we are talking about. In other words: what is
moving up and down in a light wave?
For simple waves the answer is obvious. In a water wave, for instance, it is of
course the surface of the water that oscillates; in a sound wave propagating
through air, the air molecules oscillate. But what is oscillating in a light wave?
It was shown by the Scottish mathematician and physicist James Clerk
Maxwell (1831-1879) around 1850 that light is an oscillating electric field.
Because a changing electric field always creates a magnetic field, the
oscillating electric field is accompanied by an oscillating magnetic field. Hence
light waves are called electromagnetic waves. Later on it was discovered that
other electromagnetic waves exist in nature; each having their own
wavelength range. Figure 8 shows this whole family as a function of their
wavelength; this is called the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. They range
from radio waves (for very long wavelengths), over microwaves, light waves
(infrared, visible, ultraviolet) up to X-rays and radioactive γ (= gamma) rays
for very short wavelengths.

Light waves have moreover a strange property; whereas "normal" waves

need some matter to propagate trough (water waves in water, sound waves
in air....), which is called the medium of propagation, electromagnetic waves
don't need this! Electromagnetic waves can propagate through empty space
{of course: otherwise you would never see the light from distant stars!}.
Matter on the other hand always retards and absorbs light. That is why you
cannot see trough a wall. The velocity we called c in the previous section is
then the velocity in vacuum; all electromagnetic waves propagate with this
same velocity trough vacuum.

Edukit p.26
3. Interference

When you shine coherent light trough

two neighbouring pinholes or slits, you
would expect to see, on a distant wall
or screen, two overlapping bright spots.
This happens indeed.

But around 1800 the English scientist

Figure 9:Young's experiment
Thomas Young (1773-1829)
discovered something strange: he found some dark bands, superposed on
those spots. This was not expected at all.

P Indeed, according to Huygens' principle,

each of the two pinholes sends light waves
in all directions; hence in each point of the
S1 screen two light waves come together, one
S2 from each pinhole or slit. How comes then
that some points are dark? It looks as if, in
those dark points, the two waves destroy
Figure 10: at each point on the
screen, two waves come each other.

This was indeed the explanation Young found out.

The two light rays coming together in point P have run a different distance
before joining each other. Suppose that the wave from point S2 is retarded
with respect to the wave from point S1 by just
half a wavelength, as in figure 11. So when
the first wave goes up, the second goes down,
and vice verse. When you add both waves
algebraically together, they annihilate each

This phenomenon is called destructive

interference; it is a typical wave phenomenon
{in fact, the experiment of Young is the
historical proof of the wave character of light}.
What happens in point P can also happen in
other points: in each point where the
difference between the two distances is half a
wavelength (up to a multiple of the
wavelength, of course) the two waves
annihilate each other, end hence we find a
dark spot.
Figure 11: Destructive

Edukit p.27
On the other hand when the difference in
distances is just a whole multiple of the
wavelength, the two waves add constructively
together and consequently they reinforce
each other: one finds a bright spot at those
points, see figure 12. This is called
constructive interference.

Between the points of constructive and

destructive interference, the two waves
partially reinforce or annihilate each other;
hence the brightness varies continuously at
the screen, as is shown in the right part of
figure 13. This image is called an interference
pattern; the bright and darks bands are called
the fringes.

Figure 12: Constructive interference

Interference: some numerical values

Let' s now return to the set up of Young's two-slit experiment, and let's look
at some typical numerical values; see figure 13 for a top view. Let us call the
distance between the two pinholes d, and the distance to the wall or screen
D. In a real setup we always have D >> d.

Each of the two slits sends a light ray towards point P. When both rays come
together they will interfere. We will now calculate the point(s) of maximum
intensity, i.e. the points where the two waves add constructively together.
This will happen each time the distance D2 - D1 equals a multiple of the

maximum : D2 - D1 = m λ m = 0 , ±1, ±2, ±3, (2)

Because D >> d, the two light rays are (more or less) parallel. Then you see,
in figure 13, that D2 - D1=d sin θ . Consequently we will have constructive
interference when

d sinθ = mλ (3)

The height of that point is called y, and you can see that y = D tan θ .

Combining this with (3) we find that the positions of the maxima are given by

Edukit p.28
y max = D tan θ with sinθ = m (4)

In real set ups, the angles θ are very small, and you know that for small
angles: sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ (if you measure θ in radians, not in degrees!). So
finally we find the positions of the maxima

y max = m λ m = 0, ± 1, ± 2, ...
d (5)

On the other hand, one has a minimum of intensity when the two waves
annihilate each other, and this happens when the difference between the
distances equal half a wavelength (plus possibly a multiple of the wavelength)

D2 − D1 = + mλ m = 0, ± 1, ± 2, ...
2 (6)

With analogous calculations as above this gives

⎛ 1⎞ D
y min = ⎜ m + ⎟ λ m = 0, ± 1, ± 2, ...
⎝ 2⎠ d (7)

Between the maxima and the minima the light intensity varies continuously,
as shown in figure 13.

A pictorial representation of this is given in the companion tutorial also

available on this CD; you can change the parameters of the set up and look
at their influence on the image.

Figure 13: details for the calculation of the interference fringes in Young's experiment

Edukit p.29
PART 5: Advanced experiments

The diffractive elements, provided with this EduKit, can also be used in more
elaborated experiments, if you have access to more complicated optical

You will need a laser with more power than the laser pointer provided with
the EduKit: you will need several mW of power. A semiconductor laser with a
wavelength of about 635 nm is ideal, but a He-Ne laser (λ= 633 nm) is as
good. Moreover you will need a lens; a focal length of about 20 or 30 cm is
convenient for a laboratory set up.

Experiment 5: Fourier-transform set up

Illuminate the DOEs with a parallel beam, and position a lens between the
card with the DOEs and the screen, such that both distances equal the focal
length f of the lens. You will find on the screen the same diffraction pattern as
before. However, it is smaller: the dimensions of the diffraction pattern are
indeed proportional to the focal length f of the lens.


Fourier-transform set up: diffraction pattern in the focal plane of a lens.

A diffraction pattern at a large distance is called a Fraunhofer diffraction

pattern, after the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826). The
mathematical operation which transforms the light distribution of the DOE
into the distribution on the screen is called a Fourier transform, after the
French mathematician Joseph Fourier (1768-1830). This operation has been
extensively studied in mathematics, because it is not only important in optics,
but it is also a basic mathematical tool for electronics.

That is why the set up above is called a Fourier transform set up.

Edukit p.30

Take for example DOE number FP4: this projects a square grid on the
projection screen. When using the set up of experiment # 3, with the screen
at about one meter from the DOE, the overall width of the square grid is
about 15 cm.

When you use the "Fourier-transform" set up, with a lens of focal distance of
15 cm, then the overall width of the grid is only 25 mm! With a lens with a
smaller focal length, the image becomes even smaller.

One can prove, by theoretical calculations, that the position of the screen is
critical: you have to put it really at focal distance from the lens. On the other
hand: the distance between the DOE and the lens is not important; you can
bring it close to the lens, or put it very far away: the image on the screen will
not change.

Check those theoretical predictions experimentally.

Experiment 6: 4-f processor



Basic set up for a 4-f processor

When an optical bench with the necessary optical components is available,

you can build more complicated set ups. A possible experiment is shown in
the figure above.

Position successively a slide, a lens, a filter, another lens (with the same focal
length as the first one) and the screen. The distance between the
components is each time equal to the focal length f. This is why this set up is

Edukit p.31
called a "4-f processor". The input slide is illuminated with a parallel beam of
red light.

When you put no filter in the set up, you find the image of the slide (upside
down) on the screen. If you put now a grating at the position "filter", then the
image will be multiplied on the screen.

For this experiment it is best to use a simple, small object at the input side;
for example use an aperture of a few mm wide. For "filter" use the grating of
the highest frequency available; in other words, use DOE number A1 or B1 of
your card.

The theory behind this filtering is too complicated to be given in this simple
text; you have to look at books on Fourier optics.

Experiment 7: Experiments with micro-lenses

Elements L1 to L6 on your plastic card are arrays of "normal" or refractive

lenses; however, they are very small therefore they are known as micro-
lenses. L1 and L2 are square packed arrays of spherical micro-lenses, L3 and
L4 are arrays of cylindrical micro-lenses, and L5 and L6 are hexagonally
packed arrays of spherical micro-lenses. The distance d between
neighbouring lenses is 0.1 mm for L1, L3, L5 and 0.05 mm for L2, L4 and L6.

Magnified view of a square packed array of spherical refractive micro-lenses

Edukit p.32
If you shine a parallel beam of light onto these lenses, they focus the beam
towards their focal point. This gives an array of points (for L1, L2, L5 and L6)
or an array of lines for the cylindrical lenses L2 and L4. However, the focal
distances are so small (only a few microns) that you need special equipment
to measure it.

On the other hand, if you look at the light pattern at a large distance, then
you find a regular pattern of dots. It looks as if you have diffraction at a
linear or a crossed grating!

You can easily understand this. An array of cylindrical lenses forms in fact a
linear grating, whereas a square or hexagonal array of micro-lenses forms a
crossed grating. The peculiarity that they are composed of individual micro-
lenses turns out to be of minor importance - at least in this experiment.

Edukit p.33
PART 6: Design, Fabrication and Replication of the micro-
optical elements

Design and Fabrication of Diffractive and Micro-Optical Components.

The procedures used in the design of the micro-structured diffractive optical

elements (DOEs) are based around the relatively simple physical
phenomenon of diffraction. However, before the advent of powerful
computers, only the simplest DOE designs could be generated (for example,
the simple 1x2 gratings contained in the EduKit). With the explosion in
available computational power over the last twenty years, the complexity and
efficiency of DOEs has increased commensurately. In this section we shall
look at the basic method used in the design of pattern formation DOEs and
present some of the technologies used in the fabrication of the masters used
in the replication processes.

The design of DOEs exploits an area of computational mathematics known as

optimisation, where the inputs to some physical process (in this case,
diffraction) are altered in some way to ensure the “best” possible output from
the process.
Element Plane Output Plane
Random Phase
Desired Output

Perform Diffraction Output intensity

Element phase
Operation and phase

Quantise phase Apply output constraint

Generate phase Perform Inverse Recalculate complex

profile Diffraction Operation amplitude

Experimental Output

DOE Profile DOE Output

Figure 1: Design cycle for diffractive optical element (DOE) using iterative
optimization method.
Edukit p.34
The optimization, which takes a number of iterations to produce the “best”
result, calculates the diffraction pattern produced by the input micro-
structured profile, compares it to the desired output by calculating a merit
function (relating the desired output to the actual output) and then makes
changes to the input micro-structured pattern such that the overall merit
function is lowered from one cycle to the next. Finally, the output is produced
as a simple text file which can be used in the fabrication process. This method
is shown schematically in Figure 1 where movement between the element
plane (the structure of the DOE) and the output plane (the output from the
DOE) is performed using the mathematical description of the physical process
of diffraction.

The profile generated using the optimization procedure described above, is

used to generate a set of binary amplitude masks, which are plates of glass
coated in a thin layer of highly reflective chrome with small holes selectively
opened in the chrome layer. These masks, which are fabricated on a machine
known as an electron-beam writer (which operates on a principle identical to
the scanning mechanism used in a cathode ray television), are then used to
selectively pattern a glass substrate coated with a chemical known as a

Figure 2: Layout of binary amplitude mask set for EduKit. Layout and designs © Heriot-Watt
University, Edinburgh, Scotland.

This chemical is altered by exposure to ultra-violet light so that, once the

photopolymer has been developed, those areas that have been exposed to UV
light (where the chrome layer has been opened on the electron-beam mask)
are washed away and the areas which have not been exposed remain. This
process, known as photolithography, is used extensively in the fabrication of
the micro-electronic chips found in every electronic product. Once the
photopolymer has been patterned, the substrate containing the patterned

Edukit p.35
photopolymer is placed in an etching machine (known as a reactive ion
etcher) and the remaining photopolymer and areas of exposed glass are
removed (etched) at a precisely controlled rate. The reactive ion etching
process is based around the acceleration of gas ions inside an electric field
and produces very precise vertical etches ensuring the accurate
reconstruction of the DOE design.




dπ =
2(nλ − 1)

Figure 3: Reactive Ion Etching of Multi-level Structure using photopolymer

(PMMA) and binary amplitude masks.

In this way, the pattern which has been transferred from the computer to the
electron-beam mask to the photopolymer is now transferred to the glass
substrate. The diffractive optical elements produced after this process are
complete and are generally used in this form. However, in applications where
a large number of elements (>100) are needed, the
photolithographic/reactive ion etching mastering process is too slow and
labour intensive to be used and so the completed elements are used as a
master in the mass replication procedures described in the following section.

The refractive micro-lenses, which are fabricated using a thermal reflow

method, are designed using a simple disc pattern of photopolymer. The disc,
which is typically of 50µm to 150µm diameter, is produced in photopolymer
using the standard photolithographic technique outlined above. Once the
individual discs of photopolymer are produced, the entire patterned substrate
is heated (to approximately 200 ºC) allowing the photopolymer to go liquid.
The effect of surface tension acting on the liquid photopolymer causes the
disc structures to form into a spherical surface. After the substrate cools
down, the now spherical micro-lenses can be transferred into the glass
substrate by the standard reactive ion etching technology described above.
The different focal lengths of the lenses are achieved by using different
diameters of microlens disc and altering the etch procedure to ensure the
photopolymer etches at a faster (or slower) rate than the glass substrate.

Edukit p.36
Hot Embossing for Micro-optical Structures

The plastic parts of the educational kit are fabricated by hot embossing using
moulding tools manufactured by lithography and etching methods and
subsequent electroforming. The principal process steps of hot embossing are:
A thermoplastic film is inserted into the moulding machine (see figure 4(a)),

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 4: Process steps of hot embossing

a micro-structured tool (mould insert) in an evacuated chamber is pressed

with high force into the film, which has been heated above its softening
temperature. Thus the cavities of the mould insert are filled by the plastic
material replicating the microstructures in detail (figure 4(b)). After cooling
down the whole setup below the softening temperature of the polymer, the
plastic film with microstructures on the surface is released from the moulding
tool (figure 4(c)).

In contrast to injection moulding, during hot embossing the flow path of the
polymer is very short. As a result, very little stress is produced in the polymer
and the moulded parts are well suited as optical components, such as
waveguides and lenses. As the moulding temperature is also smaller
compared to injection moulding the shrinkage during cooling and the friction
forces acting on the micro structures during mould release are reduced. Thus
more delicate micro structures with higher aspect ratios can be fabricated by
hot embossing compared to injection moulding. Hot embossing is particularly
suited for forming thin sheets or foils, as a small amount of plastic has to be
moulded only.

Hot embossing allows for a very simple setup of the plant, which is
particularly advantageous if tool or plant reconstructions or modifications are
necessary. This results in very short set-up times. When using standardized
mould inserts, a few minutes are sufficient to exchange a tool. Moreover, foils
made of various thermoplastic materials can be put into the machine

Edukit p.37
successively without any further
modifications. Therefore, hot
embossing makes the production of
small and medium-scale series
economically more efficient and is
especially suited for laboratory
applications. On the other hand,
relatively long cycle times of up to 30
min may be required for some

For some applications such a long

time can be advantageous if, e.g.,
inner stress is reduced by extreme
slow cooling rates. But long cycle
times are caused mainly by the fact
that the heated polymer is not
supplied continuously by an injection
unit. Such problems can be reduced
considerably by further developing hot
embossing machines and their
Figure 5: Hot embossing press
The principal limit for shortening the
moulding cycle of hot embossing is a
bit larger than for injection-moulding,
because in injection-moulding the
molten polymer can be filled into a
mould insert which is colder than the
softening point of the polymer while in
hot embossing the polymer needs to
be heated up and cooled down in the
mould insert (vario-term process).

This means that the thermal cycle of

a mould insert is usually smaller in an
Figure 6: Typical large area hot embossing tool
injection moulding machine than in a
hot embossing machine. Cycle times
are also strongly affected by the tool
design. For mass fabrication a tool can be designed with sophisticated heating
and cooling features and reduced thermal mass.

For the moulding of the NEMO Educational Kit a new hot embossing tool with very
low cyclic heated thermal mass was used (see figure 6). The tool can carry up to five
shim mould inserts. With this setup cycle times of six minutes were reached.
Additionally an automated handling system was used to place the semi-finished
parts in the machine and to take the parts out of the tool.

Edukit p.38
PART 7: NEMO : Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics

What is NEMO ?

In its 2nd call under Framework 6, the

European Commission granted the
Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics
"NEMO" with 6.4 Million Euro.

NEMO is running since Sept. 1st 2004

and aims at providing Europe with a
complete Micro-Optics food-chain by
setting up durable Service and
technology centres for Optical Modelling and Design; Measurement and
Instrumentation, Mastering, Prototyping and Replication; Hybrid Integration
and Packaging; Reliability and Standardization.

NEMO will be the networking platform for 30 European partners for the next 4
years. The network is co-ordinated by Prof. Hugo Thienpont from the Vrije
Universiteit Brussel, Belgium, by Prof. Malgorzata Kujawinska from Warsaw
University of Technology, Poland, and by Dr. Juergen Mohr from
ForschungsZentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. Each of the 30 institutes involved in
NEMO is a key-role player in micro-optics.

NEMO's main objective is to structure and integrate the expertise and core-
competences of its partners while strengthening their R&D activities in the
emerging field of micro-optics.
More info about NEMO at

Edukit p.39
Objectives of NEMO

NEMO's Mission Statement is to set up a world force on micro-optics research

and technology that strongly and constructively impacts:
• the way micro-optics research will be structured and conducted in
Europe's society of tomorrow
• the competitiveness of European research, SME’s and companies
• the awareness of society for "optics for the quality of life"
• the world-wide recognition of European research in micro-optics
• the education of secondary school and university level students in
(micro)-optics and photonics
• women's involvement in optics and photonics
• employment in European research centres and high tech companies


Structuring and Integration

Setting up and sustaining 6 integrated Service and Technology Providing

Centres that support an entire food chain of micro-optics, from modelling
to standardisation. Their goal is the technological support of micro-optics
R&D for NEMO research centres and third-party industry.

Setting up a micro-optics multi-project wafer facility for refractive and

diffractive optics.

Creating a knowledge management centre to support e-collaboration and

dissemination of knowledge on micro-optics.

Creating an Industrial Interface Centre and an Industrial Users Club for

micro-optics to enhance interaction with industry and to initiate NEMO's
contract research with companies.

Jointly Executed Research Activities

Tackling 6 long-term application-oriented research topics on micro-

optics, the outcome of which targets to increasing the quality of life.

Spreading of Excellence Activities

Creating optics-awareness by given secondary schools an educational

optics kit.

Spreading promotional material to increase the involvement of women in


Restructuring and integrating optics and photonics conferences with a

focus on the European optics and photonics research area.

Edukit p.40
PART 8: Worksheets

Experiment A: Project image with the EduKit

What do you need?

• 1 laser or laser pen

• 1 card with diffractive components
• 1 screen

How do you perform the experiment?

Put the screen at about 1 metre behind the card with diffractive components
and shine the laser through each of the DOEs in turn. Explain the observed

What happens if you change the distance between the diffractive card and the

And what if you change the distance between laser and DOE ?

Edukit p.41
Experiment B: Focussing with a diffractive lens from de

What do you need?

• 1 laser or laser pen

• 1 plastic card with diffractive components
• 1 white screen

How do you perform the experiment?

Shine with the laser on each of the diffractive lenses (the FZP or Fresnel Zone
Plates) from the EduKit. Position your card far enough from the laser, such
that the whole FZP is illuminated. Put your screen immediately behind the
card, and then move it slowly backwards.
At a certain distance you will see that the laser beam is focussed to a point,
which gives you the focal distance

Improved experiment

The incident beam should be collimated and you can realize this in the way
shown below:



Use a lens with a focal distance of about 10 cm.

Edukit p.42
Experiment C: Optics rodeo: hit the targets!

What do you need per group?

• 1 laser or laser pen

• 1 plastic card with diffractive components
• Some play-doh/ plasticine
• 10-15 small mirrors (2cm x 2cm)
• 10 targets to hang on the walls (sheets of paper with a logo)

How do you perform the experiment?

The goal of this game is simple: hit as many targets hanging at the walls as
possible with a laser beam. Explore which diffractive element is the most
effective to split your laser beam and position your mirrors as such that the
incoming laser beams are reflected onto a target. This is a fun activity where
teams can compete against each other to see who can measure most
accurately or who can come up with the most effective method for hitting the
target. This involves having several small groups working in isolated areas of
a classroom.

Improved experiment (alternative)

The targets on the walls might contain logos of varying size. Hitting small
logos gives more points than hitting large ones. Scoring could be for
• 10 points for small targets
• 7 points for medium targets
• 4 points for large targets
• The number of targets hit at the same time could be multiplied by 2
and added to the total score.

You might also restrict the time that the laser beam can be ON to increase
the difficulty and the required cooperation in the group.

Edukit p.43
PART 9: SPIE: International Society for Optical

SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, was founded in 1955 and is a
not-for-profit organization that has become the largest international force for the
exchange, collection and dissemination of knowledge in optics, photonics and
imaging. This is realized through the organization of conferences, various
publications (conference proceedings, journals, and books), exhibitions and
showcases, education (short courses, videos) and different scholarships, awards,
technical groups with discussion forums, career services, and so on.

One of the big action points of SPIE is the outreach towards youngsters. SPIE
Members, event participants, and volunteers, through their collective talents,
influence the future of optical, technical, and scientific discovery. Their knowledge
and vision help to create a next generation of young scientists and engineers, who
are captivated by the extraordinary promise of light. To that end, the Society
provides more than $700,000 annually in scholarships, grants, and financial support
to encourage scientific and technological education and innovation.

SPIE offers the resources of the Society to elementary and secondary educators
interested in using optics tools to interest young people in science. By doing this the
Society increases the number of teachers who use optics tools and provides
resources to students on optics career opportunities and information. More
information can be found on the following links:

• Hands-on Optics -

Hands-On Optics (HOO) helps kids learn by doing, making discoveries, and
thinking like scientists. It nurtures their spirit of adventure and increases their
knowledge of science and technology. It opens the world of optics as a
discipline and potential career path…and broadens their perception of what
science is about. It integrates a wide range of subjects—from biology and art
to technology and engineering—to excite students about science, math, and

• Light at Work -

Think of optics as the science of light—what light is made of and how it
behaves. Light allows us to see, but it can also be used to transmit sounds,
cut things and control electrical circuits. Optical Engineers helped design
things you use everyday...remote controls, DVD players, cell phones... even
the Internet.

Optical engineers and scientists work by themselves and in teams to solve

today's puzzles, they're working on cancer cures, clean energy, space
telescopes, and more… it's hard to imagine what the future of optics will be.
Optics careers are as varied as they are exciting. The researchers and
developers featured in this video are travelling the world; making a difference
and seeing their creations come to life. Optical engineers are changing the
world with light.

Edukit p.44
PART 10: Evaluation form

Thank you for you assistance to improve NEMO’s Educational Kit (EduKit) by
completing this form. In order to optimize the use of and work with the
EduKit your FEEDBACK is essential.

On these three pages you are kindly asked to give us your opinion regarding
your findings/experiences with NEMO’s Educational Kit.

Please send us your evaluation to or fax it to +32 2

629 34 50. This form is also electronically available on the NEMO portal

1 Basic information
First and last Name





Name of


2 Target group the EduKit was presented to

2.1 Number of people

/ pupils

2.2 Age of pupils / from to

2.3 Gender female male

Edukit p.45

very good sufficient poor

3.1 How would you
rank the CD-ROM
3.2 What is to be
regarding the
explanation of the

3.3 Which type of

description would
you recommend
to add to the CD-

3.4 Is there another

chapter / topic
you would
recommend to be
discussed in the

3.5 Was there

anything difficult
to understand in
the CD-ROM

3.6 What is to be
improved with the
in general?

3.7 Do you have any


Edukit p.46
4 Setup

very good good sufficient poor

4.1 How would you

rank the
usability of the

Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Exp. 3 Exp. 4

4.2 Which of the experiments experiments experiments experiments
described with linear with crossed with pattern with the
experiments on gratings gratings forming Fresnel zone
the CD-ROM did Experiment Experiment DOEs plates
you show in Experiment
Exp. 5 Exp. 6 Exp.7
Fourier Optical Experiments
transform filtering with a with micro-
with a single 4-f processor lenses
lens Experiment

4.3 Which experiments did

you perform with the
EduKit that were not yet
discussed on the CD-

4.4 Are there additional

experiments you would
like to show / ask the
pupils to do? What kind
of optical elements
would you require for

4.5 Do you have any other


Edukit p.47
5 Reaction

5.1 Please describe

briefly the reaction
of the pupils /
students to the

5.2 What do you

consider to be the
added value of the
EduKit for the

6 Open Comments

6.1 Do you have any

further comments,
suggestions or
to the use of the

THANK YOU – your feedback will help us to improve the understanding of

optics for the pupils & students in Europe!

Edukit p.48