PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual, Prof. Mack Grady, www.ece.utexas.

edu/~grady, May 30, 2007

1. Summary of PCFLO Files Input (note – any lines in input files that begin with a colon in column 1 are treated as comments and are skipped) • • • • • ADAT.CSV: Loadflow area input data. (PCFLO also creates temporary file ADAT.TMP) BDAT.CSV: Bus data. LDAT.CSV: Line and transformer data. OPTIONS.CSV: Solution options. SPECTRA.CSV: User-specified harmonic current injection spectra. (PCFLO also creates temporary file SPECTRA.TMP)

Output • • • • • • • • • • • ASOLN.CSV: Solved area data for loadflows. BORDER.CSV: File built by PCFLO that lists the busses in optimal order. EXLOG.CSV: Echo print of screen messages. FREP.TXT: Output of program FAULTS. HPA_LAST_CASE.CSV, HPA_SUMMARY.CSV. Output of harmonic power analyzer program HPA. ISOLN.CSV, VSOLN.CSV: Solved branch currents and bus voltages for loadflow and harmonics studies. (Sine series format for Fourier series) OUT1.CSV, OUT2.CSV, OUT3.CSV: Echo print of input data for loadflow, short circuit, and harmonics, along with pertinent messages and errors. OUT4.CSV: Full loadflow output data (if requested). OUT5.CSV: Loadflow summary output used for analyzing the impact of power transactions across a power grid. THDV.CSV, THDI.CSV: Solved total harmonic voltage and current distortions for harmonics studies. ZBUS0.CSV, ZBUS1.CSV, ZBUS2.CSV: Solved zero/positive/negative impedance matrix elements for short circuit (in rectangular form) or harmonic studies (in polar form), in per unit.

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PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual, Prof. Mack Grady, www.ece.utexas.edu/~grady, May 30, 2007

Temporary Files Created During Execution • • • • BDAT.TMP: Unformatted bus data file built by PCFLO and read by FAULTS. FFREP1.TXT, FFREP2.TXT, FFREP3.TXT. Temporarly files used during short circuit studies (produced by program FAULTS) LDAT.TMP: Unformatted line and transformer data file built by PCFLO and read by FAULTS. SPECTRA.TMP: Temporary file built by PCFLO during harmonic studies.

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File Extension _S9. File Extension _PC.edu/~grady. File Extension _S5. Harmonics • 5 Bus Tutorial.12. 469). John J. Prepared Cases. File Extension _DFW. 1982. Mack Grady. File Extension _TV. 2007 2. 139. Ready to Run Loadflow • 5 Bus Stevenson* Loadflow Example. Prof. New York. Used for power grid studies. 200-205.13. File Extension _PIPELINE. 1994. * ** William D. Jr... • 87 Bus Distribution Example with 3rd Harmonic Problem Due to Single-Phase Loads. File Extension _S6 • 9 Bus Grainger-Stevenson** Short Circuit Example (Prob. 11. • 33 Bus ASD Example.utexas. File Extensions _FIVE and _FIVE_FILTER.17. • 111 Bus 3rd Harmonic Resonance Example. p. and continued with Prob. File Extension _SCREWBEAN. _SKIC. www. May 30. McGraw-Hill. Power System Analysis. • 4860 Bus Loadflow Case. William D. Short Circuit • 6 Bus Grainger-Stevenson** Short Circuit Example (Prob. File Extensions _SKIA. Fourth Edition.ece. • 18 Bus Oil Pipeline ASD Example. • 17 Bus Small Ski Area Example. p. 139-140. pp.18. 469). 11. and continued with Prob. Grainger. Stevenson.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. pp. 3. 3. McGraw-Hill. p. _SKIB. _OLYMPICS_D (filtered). File Extensions _OLYMPICS_A (unfiltered). Jr. Elements of Power System Analysis. • 454 Bus Large Ski Area Example. Page 3 of 24 . New York. Stevenson.

one record per bus.ece. Prof. www. 2007 3. May 30.edu/~grady.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. For these Linear P Generation Linear Q Generation Linear P Load Linear Q Load Desired Voltage Shunt Reactive Q Load Maximum Q Generation Minimum Q Generation Control Area Remote-Controlled Bus Number Page 4 of 24 . Mack Grady. CSV format) Variable Number Name Type Comments Integer Up to 12 characters 1 = Swing Bus 2 = PV Bus 3 = PQ Bus Percent Percent Percent Percent Per unit Percent @ voltage = 1 per unit Percent Percent Integer Used for controlling voltage at a remote bus. Content of Input Data Files BUS DATA (File = BDAT.utexas.CSV.

in per unit Series impedance of motor or generator. Otherwise.e. Sequence) Subtransient R. in per unit Series impedance of motor or generator. ungrounded wye or delta (i. the desired voltage specified above applies to the remote bus. in percent.ece. negative for leading).e. Mack Grady. Otherwise.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. 1 = 2-pulse current source Page 5 of 24 . X (Pos. ungrounded wye or delta (i. Prof. no zero sequence path) Grounding Impedance R. in per unit.utexas. Sequence) Subtransient R.edu/~grady. Connection Type for Shunt Reactive Q Load 0 or 1 = Grounded Wye. no zero sequence path) Series impedance of motor or generator. (do not multiply by 3). X (Zero Sequence) Connection Type for Subtransient Impedances 0 or 1 = Grounded Wye. in per unit (ignoring connection type and grounding impedances) (do not multiply by 3) Subtransient R. P Load of the nonlinear device. X for SubTransient Impedances Nonlinear Device P Generation Nonlinear Device P Load Nonlinear Device Displacement Power Factor Nonlinear Device Type Series impedance from wye point to ground. in percent. 2007 cases. Per Unit (positive for lagging is positive. May 30. X (Neg. www. P Generation that comes from the nonlinear device.

utexas.edu/~grady..25) = Single-phase electronic GY-GY = Single-phase electronic Delta-GY = Magnetic fluorescent GY-GY = Magnetic fluorescent Delta-GY = User-specified type 14 10 11 12 13 14 . . . but with the 11 & 13th harmonics multiplied by 0... 33 = User-specified type 33 Nonlinear Device Phase Shift Degrees for positive sequence.ece. on system side with respect to device side.50. the 17 & 19th harmonics by 0.. This is the additional phase shift by which the current injection phase angles will be advanced for positive sequence. and delayed for negative sequence.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. Prof. Mack Grady. no zero sequence path) Connection Type for Harmonics Model of Linear Load Page 6 of 24 .. May 30. 0 or 1 = Grounded Wye.. ungrounded wye or delta (i. and all higher harmonics by 0.e. 2007 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 = 2-pulse voltage source = 6-pulse current source = 6-pulse voltage source = 12-pulse current source = 12-pulse voltage source = 18-pulse current source = 18-pulse voltage source = Diversified 6-pulse current source (like type 3.75. www. Otherwise.

ece. Mack Grady.csv) :Bus Data : : : :Bus Bus :Number Name continuing across. Q Load (pu) (pu) (pu) continuing across. www. May 30.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual.edu/~grady. Prof. 2007 CSV Header and Structure for Input File BDAT. :(I) (A) Linear Linear Linear Linear P Q P Q Desired Bus Generation Generation Load Load Voltage Type (%) (%) (%) (%) (pu) (I) (F) (F) (F) (F) (F) Connection Positive Positive Negative Minimum Type for Sequence Sequence Sequence Q Bus RemoteShunt Subtransient Subtransient Subtransient Generation Control Controlled Reactive R X R (%) Bus No.CSV (using sample file BDAT_HEADER.utexas.Area (F) (I)Grounding(I) Grounding (I) (F) (F) (F) Impedance Impedance Nonlinear Nonlinear Nonlinear Connection R for X for Device Device Device Type for Subtransient Subtransient P P Displacement Nonlinear Subtransient Impedances Impedances Gen Load Power Factor Device R and X (pu) (pu) (%) (%) (pu) Type (I) (F) (F) (F) (F) (F) (I) Shunt Reactive Q Load (%) (F) Negative Sequence Subtransient X (pu) (F) Nonlinear Device Phase Shift (Degrees) (F) Z S S R ( ( L L C T ( Page 7 of 24 .

or degrees Per unit. or degrees. May 30. CSV format) Variable FROM BUS Number TO BUS Number Circuit Number R. one record per branch. FROM BUS side wrt. TO BUS side Used for controlling voltage at a remote bus. TO BUS side Maximum Tap. enter 1 Voltage-Controlled Bus Side Page 8 of 24 . in per unit Percent.ece.CSV. or degrees. or Minimum Phase Shift Angle Comments Integer (or blank if neutral) Integer (or blank.edu/~grady. www. Prof. or Maximum Phase Shift Angle Per unit tap. on FROM BUS side wrt. on FROM BUS side Degrees. TO BUS side Tap Step Size.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. the desired voltage specified applies to the remote bus. or Phase Shift Step Size Tap Phase Shift Voltage-Controlled Bus Number Per unit. FROM BUS side wrt. for entire length of line Percent Per unit tap. When controlling the voltage at a remote bus.utexas. if neutral) Integer (or blank) Series impedance. Mack Grady. X (Positive/Negative Sequence) Charging (Positive/Negative Sequence) Rating Minimum Tap. For these cases. 2007 LINE AND TRANSFORMER DATA (File = LDAT.

utexas. no zero sequence path) Grounding Impedance R. or Percent Active Power (FROM BUS toward TO BUS) Series impedance. www.edu/~grady. (do not multiply by 3) Page 9 of 24 . Desired Voltage for Voltage-Controlled Bus. May 30. Otherwise. 2007 when the remote bus is on the FROM BUS side of the transformer.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. X Series impedance from wye point to ground. X (Zero Sequence) Charging (Zero Sequence) Connection Type for Transformers and Shunt Elements Per unit Voltage. in per unit Applies to wye-connected transformers and shunt elements. Mack Grady. for entire length of line For transformers: Type FROM BUS 0 or 1 GY 2 GY 3 Y 4 Y 5 ∆ 6 GY 7 Y 8 ∆ 9 ∆ TO BUS GY Y GY Y ∆ ∆ ∆ GY Y For shunt elements: 0 or 1 = Grounded Wye. Prof. in per unit (ignoring connection type and grounding impedances). Enter 2 when the remote bus is on the TO BUS side of the transformer. (do not multiply by 3) Percent.e. ungrounded wye or delta (i. or Desired Active Power Flow for Phase Shifting Transformer R.ece.

utexas. Mack Grady. Harmonic h (h > 2.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. fractional values OK) at which the conductor resistance is double the fundamental frequency resistance.ece. Page 10 of 24 . May 30.edu/~grady. This value applies to the combined conductor and grounding resistance. fractional values OK) at which the conductor resistance is double the fundamental frequency resistance. www. 2007 Resistive Skin Effect Factor for Positive/Negative Sequence Resistive Skin Effect Factor for Zero Sequence Harmonic h (h > 2. Prof.

Zero Zero Zero Type Sequence Sequence Sequence for Trans.edu/~grady. May 30.utexas. Prof.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual.ece. Bus (pu) or Desired P for Phase Shifter (%) (F) Pos/Neg Sequence Charging Rating (%) (%) (F) (F) Minimum Tap (pu) (F) Maximum Tap (pu) (F) Ta S (p (F VoltagePhase Cont. Shift Bus (Degrees) Number (F) (I) VoltageCont. Bus Side (I) Connect. R X Charging and Shunt (pu) (pu) (%) Elements (F) (F) (F) (I) Series Ground R (pu) (F) Page 11 of 24 . Mack Grady.csv) :Line and Transformer Data : : : : : :From To Circuit continuing across. :Bus Bus Number :(I) (I) (I) Positive Positive Sequence Sequence R X (pu) (pu) Desired Voltage (F)Voltage (F) at Cont. 2007 Header and Structure for Input File LDAT. www.CSV (using sample file LDAT_HEADER.

one record per loadflow area.edu/~grady. May 30. meter at the FROM BUS).ece.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. 2007 AREA INTERCHANGE DATA (File = ADAT.. Mack Grady. If zero.CSV. www.utexas. Integer Percent Percent Up to 20 characters Control Bus Number Desired Export Power Solution Tolerance for Export Name Page 12 of 24 . then power losses on tie lines are assigned equally between the two areas. Prof. the TO BUS area for each tie line is assigned the loss (i. CSV format) Variable Number Tie-Line Loss Assignment Comments Integer If non-zero.e.

www.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. Prof.CSV (using sample file ADAT_HEADER. : (1 for : Splitting. : 0 for To :Area Bus :Number Ownership :(I) (I) Control Bus Number (I) Desired Export Power (%) (F) Solution Tolerance for Export Area (%) Name (F) (A) Page 13 of 24 . Mack Grady. 2007 Header and Structure for Input File ADAT. May 30.utexas.edu/~grady.csv) :Area Interchange Data : Tie Line : Loss : Assignm.ece.

16. Current Harmonic Phase Angle Degrees. May 30. 3. 2. Must be 14. rather than as a fraction of the P for that bus. All entries in this file must be either sin.0. Nonlinear Load Type Harmonic Order Current Harmonic Magnitude Page 14 of 24 . 2007 USER-SPECIFIED HARMONIC CURRENT SPECTRAL DATA (File = SPECTRA. it must be 0. 33. or cos. If the fundamental is given. 1.edu/~grady.0. Mack Grady. www. the phase angles are assumed to be given with respect to the bus fundamental frequency voltage phase angle. . Per unit. and the other harmonic magnitudes for the same nonlinear load type are assumed to be relative to 1. Prof.CSV. one record per harmonic per nonlinear load type. . using load current convention. then the harmonic magnitudes are assumed to be given on the system base. The actual injection currents will be scaled according to bus load/generation. If the fundamental is not given. The actual phase angles will be adjusted internally according to bus power factor and fundamental voltage angle.utexas. 15.ece. cos for a cosine series. . etc. Important: If the fundamental is not given for a nonlinear load type.0. CSV format) Variable Type of Series Comments Must be sin for a sine series.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. and cannot be mixed. If the fundamental angle is given. . its magnitude must be 1.

utexas. (pu) (F) Current Harmonic Phase Angle (Degrees) (F) Nonlinear Load Type (I) Harmonic Order (Integer) (I) Page 15 of 24 . Prof. May 30.ece.edu/~grady. 2007 Header and Structure for Input File SPECTRA. www.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual.CSV (using sample file SPECTRA_HEADER.csv) :Harmonic : :Type of :Series :(SIN or :COS) :(A) Current Spectral Data Current Harmonic Mag. Mack Grady.

Limit Output to This Control Area? (Integer) (I) 0 and This Control Area? (Integer) (I) 0 and This Control Area? (Integer) (I) 0 and This Control Area? (Integer) (I) 0 and This Control Area? (Integer) (I) 0 Page 16 of 24 . May 30.) For Loadflow (using sample file OPTIONS_HEADER_LOADFLOW.005 pu) :(I) (L) (F) (F) (F) 2T 0. by PV Busses? (T or F) (L) F Disable Area Intrchnge P Adjust? (T or F) (L) F Ignore Q Limits on PV Busses? (T or F) (L) F continuing across.5 1. Update :Bus Mismatch Factor Cap :Ordering Gaussfor Gauss.CSV. for Voltage Control? (T or F) (L) F P&Q Mismatch Solution Tolerance (5E-06 pu) (F) 5.for Gauss.ece.005 Disable Transf. CSV format.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual.00E-06 Disable Remote Volt.2 pu) (0.2 0. Mack Grady. Tap Adjust. www.edu/~grady. Prof.utexas.csv) Loadflow Study Case .for Gauss:Method Seidel Seidel Seidel Seidel :(Integer) Start? Start Start Start :(1-2-3) (T or F) (0. 2007 SOLUTION OPTIONS (File = OPTIONS.5 pu) (1. Reg.User Title Goes on This Line :Loadflow Solution Options : Voltage :Optimal P&Q Accel.

Factor for GaussSeidel Start (1.5 pu) (F) 0.User Title Goes on This Line :Short Circuit Solution Options :Optimal :Bus :Ordering :Method Enter T for Diagonal and Neighbor ZBUS Elements Only (recommended) :(Integer) Enter F for All ZBUS Elements (not recommended and not to be followed by FAULTS) :(1-2-3) (T or F) For Full Harmonic Solution (using sample file OPTIONS_HEADER_FULL_HARMONIC_SOLUTION.00E-06 Global Resistance Doubling Harmonic (I) (I) 0 15 Page 17 of 24 .2 Update Cap for GaussSeidel Start (0.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual.csv) :(I) (L) Full Harmonic Solution Study Case .ece. May 30.5 Accel.edu/~grady. Prof.4) (I) 1 Global Linear Motor Load Modeling Fraction (F) GaussSeidel Start? (T or F) (L) 2T P&Q Mismatch Solution Tolerance (5E-06 pu) (F) 5.005 pu) (F) 0.User Title Goes on This Line :Full Harmonic 2 T Solution Options : : :Optimal :Bus :Ordering :Method :(Integer) :(1-2-3) :(I) P&Q Mismatch for GaussSeidel Start (0.csv) Short Circuit Study Case .49) (I) 25 Harmonic Load Model for PQ Linear Loads 0 or 1: Resistive-only (recommended) 2: Parallel R & L Model 3: Series R & L Model 4: Ignore PQ Loads (i. Mack Grady.2 pu) (F) 1.utexas. No Model) (0 . 2007 For Short Circuit (using sample file OPTIONS_HEADER_SHORT_CIRCUIT. www.005 Highest Harmonic of Interest (Integer) (1 .e.

PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. No Model) (0 .4) (I) Scan This Bus (Integer) (I) and This Bus (Integer) (I) and This Bus (Integer) (I) and This Bus (Integer) (I) and This Bus (Integer) (I) Global Linear Motor Load Modeling Fraction (F) Global Resistance Doubling Harmonic (I) (I) Page 18 of 24 .ece. www.5 pu) (1.e.csv) Harmonic Impedance Scan Study Case .49) (I) Highest Harmonic of Interest (Integer) (1 .utexas. Prof.edu/~grady. Mack Grady. Harmonic Load Model for PQ Linear Loads 0 or 1: Resistive-only (recommended) 2: Parallel R & L Model 3: Series R & L Model 4: Ignore PQ Loads (i. Update :Bus Mismatch Factor Cap P&Q :Ordering Gaussfor Gauss.for Gauss.User Title Goes on This Line :Harmonic Impedance Scan : :Optimal P&Q Accel.for Gauss.2 pu) (0.Mismatch :Method Seidel Seidel Seidel Seidel Solution :(Integer) Start? Start Start Start Tolerance :(1-2-3) (T or F) (0.100) (I) Limit the Output to Diagonal Elements Only? (T or F) (L) continuing across. 2007 For Harmonic Impedance Scan (using sample file OPTIONS_HEADER_HARMONIC_IMPEDANCE_SCAN.49) (I) Number of Steps per Harmonic (Integer) (1 . May 30.005 pu) (5E-06 pu) :(I) (L) (F) (F) (F) (F) Lowest Harmonic of Interest (Integer) (1 .

percent of line rating (for fundamental frequency only) Description Harmonic number Bus number Voltage magnitude . the ZBUS files are similar to below.per unit Current phase angle (sine reference) .degrees From bus name (at the first opportunity only) To bus name (at the first opportunity only) Loading level . the formats of ISOLN and VSOLN are different from below but are self-explanatory when viewing the files. but written in rectangular form) Commas separate the fields shown below to facilitate their use with Microsoft Excel.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual.CSV (for harmonics) Data Field (starting from the left) 1 2 3 4 Description Harmonic number From bus number To bus number Circuit number Current magnitude . www.for loadflow studies. Harmonic-Related and Short-Circuit Related Output Files (Note . 2007 4.edu/~grady. May 30.utexas. For short circuit studies. ISOLN. Mack Grady.ece.degrees Page 19 of 24 . Prof.per unit Voltage phase angle (sine reference) .CSV (for harmonics) Data Field (starting from the left) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 VSOLN.

www.CSV.utexas. 2007 5 6 7 Nonlinear device load current magnitude per unit Nonlinear device load current phase angle (sine reference) . ZBUS2.CSV.edu/~grady.CSV (for harmonics) Contains a list of bus numbers with their corresponding names and voltage distortions. Mack Grady.per unit Impedance phase angle .PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. May 30.ece. Prof. ZBUS1.degrees Bus name (at the first opportunity only) ZBUS0.CSV (for harmonics and short circuit) Data Field (starting from the left) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 THDV. Description Harmonic number From bus number To bus number Impedance magnitude .degrees From bus name (at the first opportunity only) To bus name (at the first opportunity only) Page 20 of 24 .

PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. May 30.edu/~grady. www.ece. Prof. Mack Grady. 2007 Example Screens for the _DFW Case Page 21 of 24 .utexas.

Prof.utexas. Mack Grady.ece.edu/~grady.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual. May 30. 2007 Page 22 of 24 . www.

Prof. May 30. Mack Grady.ece.edu/~grady.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual.utexas. 2007 Page 23 of 24 . www.

2007 Example Impedance Scan for Bus 3 of the _PC case Page 24 of 24 . Mack Grady. Prof.ece. May 30. www.utexas.edu/~grady.PCFLO_V6 (5000 Bus) User Manual.