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Muscles

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Notes Image


masseter (N54, zygomatic arch lateral surface of ramus elevates nerve to masseter, a powerful chewing muscle
TG7-31) and zygomatic and angle of mandible mandible from mandibular (Greek, masseter = the chewer)
bone division of
trigeminal nerve (V)
temporalis temporal fossa coronoid process and elevates anterior and a powerful chewing muscle
(N54, TG7-31, and temporal anterior surface of the mandible; posterior deep
TG7-34) fascia ramus of the mandible retracts temporal nerves
mandible from mandibular
(posterior division of
fibers) trigeminal nerve (V)
pterygoid, superior head: superior head: capsule & protracts lateral pterygoid the only one of the muscles of
lateral (N55, greater wing of articular disk of mandible; branch of mastication that opens the mouth;
TG7-34) sphenoid; temporomandibular joint; opens mouth mandibular division the superior head of lateral
inferior head: inferior head: neck of of trigeminal nerve pterygoid is sometimes called
lateral surface of mandible (V) sphenomeniscus due to its
lateral pterygoid insertion into the disc of the
plate temporomandibular joint (Greek,
pterygoid = wing-shaped)
pterygoid, medial surface of medial surface of ramus elevates and medial pterygoid this muscle mirrors the masseter
medial (N55, the lateral and angle of mandible protracts branch of m. in position and action with the
TG7-34) pterygoid plate, mandible mandibular division ramus of the mandible between
pyramidal of trigeminal nerve (Greek, pterygoid = wing-shaped)
process of (V)
palatine bone,
tuberosity of
maxilla

digastric (N27, anterior belly: body of the hyoid via a elevates the anterior belly: the digastric m. forms two sides of
N28 TG7-12, digastric fossa of fibrous loop over an hyoid bone; mylohyoid nerve, the submandibular triangle; it is
TG7-17) the mandible; intermediate tendon depresses the from the mandibular formed from mesenchyme derived
posterior belly: mandible division of the from the first two pharyngeal
mastoid notch of trigeminal nerve arches, hence its dual innervation
the temporal (V); posterior belly:
bone facial nerve (VII)
geniohyoid mental spines of body of hyoid bone elevates C1 ventral primary thyrohyoid and geniohyoid
(N53, N59,N63, mandible hyoid; ramus via fibers receive ansa cervicalis fibers that
TG7-38, TG7- depresses carried by travel with the hypoglossal nerve
40) mandible hypoglossal nerve distal to the superior limb of the
ansa cervicalis
genioglossus mental spine on fans out to insert into the protrudes hypoglossal nerve an extrinsic muscle of the tongue;
(N63, N59, inner aspect of tongue from tip to base tongue (XII) XII innervates all tongue muscles
TG7-38, TG7- mental (inferior except palatoglossus (innervated
40) symphysis fibers); by vagus (X), as are most of the
depresses palate and pharynx muscles)
tongue
(middle
fibers)
hyoglossus upper border of mingles with intrinsic depresses hypoglossal nerve an extrinsic muscle of the tongue
(N53, N59, greater horn of muscles of the tongue sides of (XII)
TG7-40) the hyoid and tongue;
body of the retracts
hyoid bone tongue
mylohyoid mylohyoid line midline raphe and body elevates the mylohyoid nerve the nerve to mylohyoid also
(N27,N28, N53, of mandible of the hyoid bone hyoid bone from the inferior innervates the anterior belly of
N59, TG7-12, and the alveolar nerve, a digastric m.; both muscles are
TG7-37, TG7- tongue; branch of the derivatives of the second
40) depresses the mandibular division pharyngeal arch
mandible of the trigeminal
nerve (V)
styloglossus styloid process side of the tongue retracts and hypoglossal nerve an extrinsic muscle of the tongue
(N59, N68, elevates (XII)
TG7-20, TG7- tongue
40)
stylohyoid posterior side of splits around the elevates and facial nerve (VII) facial nerve innervates both the
(N59, TG7-17, the styloid intermediate tendon of retracts the stylohyoid m. and the posterior
TG7-40) process the digastric m. to insert hyoid bone belly of the digastric m. shortly
on the body of the hyoid after exiting from the stylomastoid
bone foramen