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Inside this issue:

Inside this issue:

4
Countering Chinese “String of Pearls”
Tejas Mk-2 will incorporate
through naval diplomacy
5 gen fighter elements
11
7
The
Sea Harriers andObama
Mig-29kPlatter
dog fight over Goa

Women in Defense: An Indian Perspec- 15


8
tive
India’s Ballistic Missiles

19
10
FGFA:
IAC-3 might INDIAN
be nuclear IRON
powered Aircraft carrier
EDITORIAL PANEL
MANAGING EDITOR
11
21
AJAY NAIK
The MMRCA Game
Scorpene vs. Agosta 90B - A General
EDITORIAL ADVISOR Analysis
VINAYAK SHETTY
India’s artillery woes: Juggernauts
The 52 Caliber 13
25
RAKESH SHARMA

EDITORIAL PANEL
VINAYAK SHETTY
Did we really
MMRCA reachSilver
: BVR the moon?
Bullets for IAF 27
14
AJAY NAIK

SUJIT KULKARNI

SANKAR BALU
AMCA/NGFA (Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft or
SUJIT KULKARNI Next Generation Fighter Aircraft) 20
NEERAJ KAKAR
Star Wars VII - The KALI strikes back 23
DINAKAR PERI
Super Carrier required for BrahMos 26
JOYDEEP GHOSH
Strategic Long Bombers: Mission Accomplished. 27

Conventional Submarines: Their new found role 29


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Countering Chinese “String of Pearls” through naval diplomacy


Dinakar Peri security Editorial Panel

Abbreviations: IN – Indian Navy, SSBN – Ballistic Missile Nuclear Submarine


“String of Pearls” is the term used with reference to the Chinese construction of ports and
facilities across the Indian Ocean region. As one Chinese Admiral remarked, “Indian
ocean is not India’s ocean”, China has been making belligerent moves to foray into the
Indian Ocean - long considered India’s backyard and its exclusive domain. Indian naval
and diplomatic overtures have gone on an overdrive to counter the aggressive moves.
In recent times China with its growing wealth has or is in the process of constructing
ports, listening posts and pipelines in various Indian Ocean littorals - a proposed rail link,
via Myanmar to Chittagong port in Bangladesh, Construction of Sona deep sea port at
Cox Bazaar in Bangladesh, Construction of Hambantola port in Sri Lanka and a full facil-
ity at Gawadar port, west of Karachi, in Pakistan. It also attempted to gain access to Sey-
chelles but the attempts were

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INDESEC Expo 2010

India's only exhibition and conference dedicated to homeland security

INDESEC Expo 2010 is India’s only exhibition and conference dedicated to homeland security. Building on the phenomenal
success of 2009, INDESEC Expo 2010 maintains its total focus on the Indian Governments urgent need to procure the most
advanced technological solutions to meet their homeland / national security requirements. Senior visitors will include ministers
and decision makers from the Ministry of Home Affairs, central police and paramilitary organisations, the intelligence services,
Ministry of Defence, Coastguard, individual state ministries and senior police representatives – the people in india responsible
for determining and meeting India’s maritime, border, airport, transport, critical infrastructure security and disaster

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thwarted by India. Recently, it has opened an underground SSBN base on Hainan Island
in the South China Sea and indications are that the new Jin-class SSBN’s will be deployed
here. These facilities span across the Indian Ocean effectively encircling India. The Chi-
nese move is not entirely India centric though it is part of a larger India containment strat-
egy. It’s a long term multi-purpose strategy. The major driving force behind this is to en-
sure sustained oil supplies and secure the strategic shipping lanes through which majority
of its oil and trade transit. Hence, the sea lanes stretching from Gulf of Aden to Strait of
Malacca are the backbone for sustaining the export driven Chinese economic behemoth
and such excessive dependence makes it a liability and makes the economy and the coun-
try vulnerable. These facilities offer berthing rights, repair and refueling facilities to Chi-
nese naval assets and help mitigate the adverse effects to some extent and the pipelines
bypass the sea lanes wherever possible and feasible.

On the strategic side, Malacca strait is a choke point to restrict the Chinese to the South
China Sea and the countries in the region have ‘not so cordial’ relations and China has ter-
ritorial disputes with all of them and of late China has taken very aggressive posture with
all its neighbors and has resorted to bullying as is evident in the recent incidents. In the
trawler incident with Japan it blocked the supply of rare earth metals to bring Japan to its
knees and in the incident of South Korean warship sunk by North Korean torpedo, it
blocked a resolution reprimanding the North, in the United Nations.

It has no friends in the region and those that toe its line are those nations run by dictators
be it Myanmar, North Korea or for that matter Pakistan. In this context, in the event of a
conflict with India or with the US over Taiwan, India and US can impose a naval block-
ade and cut off the crucial oil supplies denting a blow to the Chinese military machine. All
these instances have sent alarm bells ringing in the Indian Strategic community and India
and the Indian Navy have been taking steps from some time and the things are slowly fall-
ing in place in maintaining Indian dominance in the Indian Ocean region. Let’s examine
some of the prominent measures taken in this direction.

Firstly, Indian Navy’s modernization program is very well on track and has acquired lot of
assets in line with its ambition of being a true blue water force. It is ramping up its avia-
tion arm with the induction of Mig-29’s and is developing new bases along the coast un-
der project Seabird at karwar and an exclusive submarine base near Visakhapatnam.

IN’s capabilities have been recognized and acknowledged time and again. For instance, in
December 2004 when Tsunami struck, IN was the first to respond and deployed its vessels
for relief operations and has received much praise for it.

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It has also been escorting US and coalition vessels on their request in the war on terror.
Indian fleet of over 130 ships with its stealth frigates and destroyers is a potent force and
its surface fleet is definitely ahead of the Chinese. The rapid expansion of the Chinese
submarine fleet is a concern though and India has to take urgent steps to address its de-
pleting submarine levels. Countering the Chinese needs a multilateral approach and India
has been making the right moves of late.
Indian diplomacy, particularly naval diplomacy, has been reaching out to the countries in
the Indian Ocean. Indian navy has off late embarked on a series of exercises and forged
partnerships with countries across Indian and Pacific oceans. The Indian Navy started the
Indian Ocean Naval Symposium to provide the Indian Ocean littorals a forum to come to-
gether to cooperate on the security aspects in the region.
This has been institutionalized now with regular interactions. Indian Navy has a very
strong and sophisticated hydrographic arm which has played a silent role in helping vari-
ous states map their coastlines and will soon assist Saudi Arabia. China views this as a
guise by the Indian Navy to get access to ports and naval bases.
IN has also generously gifted offshore patrol vessels to Maldives and Seychelles in their
quest to establish their maritime forces and has also been patrolling their coastline and ex-
clusive economic zones (EEZ). They are also being integrated into Indian coastal defense
network which helps India keep a track of movements on their side. Reports indicate that
Maldives will lease two islands to India for development and to establish observation
posts.
IN has also strengthened its presence in Africa. It has established a listening post in Mada-
gascar and has acquired berthing rights in Oman. It was requested to provide sea cover to
the African summit, recognition of its strength and role. The IN’s anti-piracy patrolling
and operations in the Gulf of Aden has been very successful and many African countries
are now looking forward to India to play a greater role.

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IN is being extensively used by the government as a toll in diplomacy. It has conducted


exercises with many countries which have grown in size and complexity over time and IN
ships have gone on port calls quite frequently from Asia, Middle East to Africa. It has ex-
ercised with major countries in the region US, UK, France, Japan and Singapore.

The MALABAR series of exercises with the US have grown in complexity exponentially
and Japan and Singapore also joined in one edition which prompted China to issue a de-
marche to know the intention of the exercise. It signed an agreement in 2008 with Japa-
nese coast guard for joint patrolling in the Asia-Pacific region.

The countries adjoining Malacca strait Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore have been re-
luctant at outside intervention in policing the channel but have agreed to Indian help in
this regard. Recently, Indian Prime Minister has toured Japan and Vietnam as part of the
“Look East policy” and has also engaged Indonesia.

It has signed strategic partnerships with them and is expanding the defense cooperation
with them which has raised eyebrows in China. India has agreed to supply those spares
for their Russian origin weaponry and also train their soldiers in its military establish-
ments. All these moves are in the right direction and will fructify in the long term.

India and China are not going to war anytime soon and China definitely doesn’t intend to
fight India in its own backyard and the moves are more of pressure tactics and broader
agenda of a long-term containment. So, India should be consistent in its efforts and move
ahead with combined approach of naval acquisitions and partnering with other like-
minded countries in the region.

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Why India needs a CDS?


Dinakar Peri security Editorial Panel

Most of the countries across the globe, big and small, have created the post of Chief of
Defense Staff (CDS), who acts as single point military adviser to the government on mili-
tary strategy, doctrines, and their requirements and in nuclear powered countries the CDS
advises the head of state on nuclear doctrines and its use. The CDS also brings in synergy
between the various branches of the armed forces which is crucial to win a war in the
changing geo-political scenario. But 60 years after Independence, India that has the
second largest standing army, fourth largest air force and fifth largest navy strangely lacks
it.

Particularly in India’s context, as the country evolves as a strong economic and military
power and as our nuclear arsenal and doctrine evolves, a CDS is must to take swift deci-
sions on the use of the military or in the event of a retaliatory nuclear strike (we have
committed to a no-first-strike).

In India the armed forces, the ones who fight on the field, are totally out of the loop in de-
cision making and policy discussions due to perpetual fear of the Indian politicians that
handing more power to the military would be counterproductive (so called fear of military
becoming too powerful). Even during the Phokran tests in 1998, the military was in-
formed just before the detonation that too just in case Pakistan resorts to any misadven-
tures on the border and the military was taken by surprise when India disclosed that it has
Chemical weapons.

The lack of a CDS has been felt during all the wars and even during peace times particu-
larly during the 1962 with China where we faced a humiliating defeat. It was well known
fact at that time that we had a better air force than the Chinese, but it was never called in
due to the fear of expanding the conflict.

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Well, had the air force been employed we would have read history in a different way. For-
tunately, during the 1971 war for the liberation of Bangladesh, Field Marshal ‘Sam Baha-
dur’ Manekshaw donned that role and was steadfast in his assessment that we had to wait
till December to strike and resisted the pressure from the then Prime Minister Indira Gan-
dhi to move into East Pakistan which was to later become Bangladesh.

We all know the course of history in which 93,000 Pakistani soldiers surrendered and the
largest such instance after World War II and is a case study on military strategy in military
schools across the globe. But in the 1999 Kargil conflict the story is back to square one
with lack of coordination within the services delaying a quick response. The Indian Army
requested the Air Force for air strikes on the high altitude mountains where Pakistani forc-
es have entrenched, but the Air Force asked the army to get the nod from the government.
That took a fortnight and by then the causalities mounted on our side. That shows the sad
state of affairs and gives a glimpse at the level of coordination between the services.

In the India armed forces, each service feels that it alone can win battles and it alone has
the primary role in national defense. There is an urgent need to address this. With Pakistan
going nuclear, a long protracted conventional battle is ruled out as any major issue would
attract international attention and the “International Community” would step in with dip-
lomatic pressure on the government.

Hence, the room for action is very limited and for this, there is need for a greater synergy
between the forces and mounting a swift and coordinating response is the order of the day
to make tactical gains by launching punitive strikes across the border but not big enough
to initiate a nuclear standoff. The CDS can bridge the services and give a fillip to this
need. The need for a CDS has been long acknowledged but that remains there.

Both the Kargil Review Committee and the subsequent GOM (Group of Ministers) report
in 2001 on reforming the national security system during the NDA government had
stressed the need for a CDS to provide single-point military advice to the government and
manage the country's nuclear arsenal. Though the political establishment agrees to the
need, there has been no concerted effort by successive governments in this direction.

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The lackadaisical approach is only complicating things with India rapidly modernizing its
military spending tens of billions of dollars and the raising strategic profile of the country
in the region and the world at large. What we need is better synergy between the services
in terms of strategy and on the field, evolving doctrine and so on. Presently, there is a post
called the Chief of Staff Committee (COSC) rotated among the three services but doesn’t
have any power over the others which is not of much help.

The Indian CDS should be a four or a five star general above the rank of the three service
chiefs with power over them but at the same time does not interfere and undermine them.
He should head the tri-service strategic Andaman Nicobar command and look after the
strategic forces command and all issues related to Indian nuclear doctrine and also issues
of procurement and evolving strategy in consultation with the service chiefs and with the
government. The three service chiefs meanwhile can concentrate on their individual ser-
vice and to keep it battle ready.

It’s high time for Indian political establishment to brush aside the unwanted fears and ad-
dress the issue with utmost priority as the country assumes a prominent role and a power-
ful voice on the world stage.

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The Obama Platter


NEERAJ KAKAR security Editorial Panel

Air Force One, Marine one and Cadillac one, he is clearly the President number one - Mr
Barack Hussein Obama. When Bill Clinton came down to India in 2000, it was the first
visit of a US president in two decades. The world was emerging from the the cold war and
the visit went on to become a historical tour, a recognition of India as an emerging eco-
nomic entity and a cornerstone for US-India strategic relationship.

Back then, the chefs at Bukhara - a restaurant at the Maurya Shreaton created the legend-
ary Clinton platter which has been an icon of Indian hospitality and American flamboy-
ance, but more than anything, a symbol of friendship. Things have however changed in
the last ten years. The world has changed after 9/11, the subprime crisis, the recession that
followed it and the recent 26/11 attacks. Both nations are faced with practicalities of a
changed geo-political climate where sense of ‘what ought to be done’ is prevailing over
what ‘should be done’.

Also, now that the diplomatic honeymoon between the two countries is getting over; the
promise of a deeper strategic relationship is coming to test. The gentlemen at the foreign
office, defense secretaries, and the secret service bosses are now at the discussion table to
see if there can be more to the relationship than Sikadari Raan and Dal Bukhara.

As the most powerful man in the world flies down to India on a so called ‘business’ trip,
lets see what is likely to be on the agenda related to foreign policy. Here is what the
Obama platter looks to me.

Simmering Afghani Kebab:


Chrystal's candid admission to Rolling Stones magazine brought to light three things;
firstly that things were indeed very tough on the ground, the morale of the forces stationed
in Afghanistan was low in a hands-tied situation. Secondly there was a seeming discon-
nect and a discord between pentagon and oval office, leading to confusion at the policy
implementation level. And thirdly, and more gravely, there was no way America could

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win this war; in fact there was a daily struggle, not to lose it. Well, McChrystal lost his
job for making unprofessional comments and offending the White House. Now, General
Pretreas is in, but can he deliver what Obama wants - to initiate troop withdrawal by mid-
2011. Afghanistan was at the center of Democrat foreign policy during the presidential
campaign. How could the Obama government now go back on something which was cen-
tral to their ideology? They thought that the problem was Afghanistan and not Iraq. Well,
I think they were very close, but missed it by a whisker.

The problem was neither Iraq nor Afghanistan, the problem was Pakistan, the lawless
lands of FATA where mujahedeen and Taliban have moral and logistical support from the
locals, tactical support from the ISI and financial support from Saudi Sheikhs determined
to trounce the Kafirs. Obama administration's mistake was to underestimate the Taliban –
ISI link; they thought that it could be broken; if they ever believed that it existed.

They thought the Pakistani military would deliver sincerely to their word. So what
could be under discussion with India is a bigger role in Afghanistan, so that US troop
withdrawal can start. Especially now that India is looking for a permanent seat at the Se-
curity Council, wouldn’t it be a mandate to have a notable role in Afghanistan. However it
is highly unlikely that India would, or even could, commit any military presence in Af-
ghanistan, considering domestic pressures. What India will commit, is continued support
on intelligence sharing in Afghanistan via India’s traditional allies - the Northern Alliance
and in secondary domains like Afghan troop training. Afghanistan is one mess that Ameri-
ca will have to deal independently, directly and strongly with Rawalpindi, and I’m sure
General Kiyani & Shuja Pasha are going to read between Obama’s lines during this trip.

Chili Dragon Wings

The Chinese GDP is still growing at more than 10%, PLAN has already started flexing
muscles in the south china sea, itching the American military strongholds in Taiwan, Ja-
pan and South Korea. A rising communist China which has ideological differences with
the US on most issues is the hot topic at the Pentagon. China is building Aircraft Carriers,
ICBMs, stealthy warships and submarines. In the next 20 years the US might lose its mili-
tary and technological edge to China. The US has a trade deficit of approx. 180 billion
USD with China.

China officially holds around 2.5 trillion US dollars as foreign exchange reserve, more
than any other country. These are very alarming figures. The Soviets could never pull the
Kholstomer effectively but the Chinese surely can. The CIA doesn’t want to deal with an-
other Soviet Union. I’m sure the US understands that the only way China can be con-
tained in the region is by increasing India’s influence in the region and shifting imports
from communist China to a friendlier India.

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• The US has already played a pivotal role in helping India break the Chinese string of
pearls and such support is going to grow. It works for America that the Indian Navy
protects the shipping routes for American oil running from the Gulf via the Arabian
Sea, India Ocean, the Strait of Mallaca and South China Sea. A number of issues relat-
ed to China will be coming up in the discussion and Beijing will be closely watching
any US comments on Arunachal or other boundary issues.

Pakistani hot and sweet pot pourri

The Obama administration more than any previous government understands that the reso-
lution of Kashmir issue is the key to a peaceful South East Asia. That is why there were
rumors initially of Bill Clinton being appointed as a special envoy on Kashmir. However
later the new govt. was advised not to do so because of the Indian stance on Kashmir as a
bilateral issue. It will be very interesting to hear Obama’s statements on Pakistan & on
Kashmir, if any.

While the US sees India as a natural ally and an economic partner, the irony of the situa-
tion is that Pakistan is its indispensable strategic partner in the war on terror. The
US knows that Pakistani military leadership was fully aware of the AQ Khan network,
while it was expanding. It is concerned about the safety of Pakistani nukes, there have
been doubts about ISI's double cross with CIA operatives on the FATA border, but at the
moment it wants to weaken Taliban and get out the of afghan quagmire for which it needs
Pakistani support, as all supply lines and local intelligence runs through the Khyber pass.

So even though US would like to make pro-India statements on all issues including terror-
ism, it is unlikely that it will do so. The US has very carefully chosen to hyphenate India
and Pakistan and thus has not clubbed Pakistan visit in the same tour. So I’m not expect-
ing much support from the US other than intelligence sharing or a few statements in sup-
port of terror victims and a general condemnation of all forms of terror. However what I
would really like to see is terms like ‘cross border’ terrorism, being used.

The dollar burger value meal


Over the last decade most of the manufacturing has moved out of America to countries
like China, Germany, Philippines and Vietnam. Outsourcing to India is threatening the
service industry. Unemployment rate is still alarming, threatening domestic consumption;
and multiple economic stimulus packages have pushed the fiscal deficit further. American
economy is at a crucial juncture and what Obama desperately needs is new jobs back
home.

But the fact is that business and trade works on economic fundamentals rather than politi-
cal assurances. Policy and reforms play a secondary role. The fact is that American com-
panies are no longer globally competitive, and the govt. is forced into protectionism till
the fundamental corrective measures kick in and produce results. Considering that Reli-
ance is now into retail and Bharti already has a cash and carry JV with walmart,

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I don’t see any FDI relaxation in retail for all practical reasons. Indian companies are al-
ready very competitive in FMCG & Telecom so that is not on American radar.
Automobile sector is already open and the Japanese have left Ford and GM red faced in
their domestic market, simply because they make better cars. Banking will never be fully
foreign owned in India and the alibi would be capitalistic fundamentals and failed FDIC
policies that fueled the subprime crisis. What would be win-win for both countries is FDI
relaxation in Infrastructure and Defense.

American military technology is leaps ahead of the others, even the export variants which
are stripped of the exclusive features, are much better than their Russian or European
competitors. But, what comes in the way is CISMOA and other restrictive agreements
which are a pre-requisite to defence deals with America. The P-8I, C-17 an the C-130J
would be half their potential without the equipment on board that is reserved under Amer-
ican law and cannot be transferred to India without signing the restrictive agreements. It
will be interesting to see if the US would bend the rules a little to accommodate the genu-
ine concerns of its new partner, and also for a lot of jobs back home.

Cold Russian Salad

The Russian Salad is going stale. Indo Russian ties do not bother the Americans anymore.
Russia no longer holds much influence in global affairs. Every now and then, issues like S
-300s for Iran make the US uncomfortable, but they, in spite of all their differences have
worked out simple formulae of diplomatic blackmailing and arm twisting as long as they
both understand who the boss is. What US would want from India is abstinence from in-
dulging in any major economic activity with Iran. Intelligence on the Bushehr reac-
tor's capacity and status of U-235 via the Russians would be appreciated and other infor-
mation on Yakhonts and Kilos will be most welcome. However I’m not sure how much of
it, India will be willing to share. The Indians would probably want diplomatic compensa-
tion for the lost pipeline deal with Iran and the bypass of CISMOA for dropping the MIG-
35 out of MMRCA competition.

To conclude it, India and America have very different goals and conflicting perceptions at
the moment. Maybe it’s just a phase and we should let it pass before testing the partner-
ship. It will be Interesting to see if there is anything concrete and meaningful in the joint
statement on the 8th of November.

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Women in Defense: An Indian Perspective


JOYDEEP GHOSH Security Editorial Panel

We all talk of giving women equal rights, and efforts have been made on that front to al-
low women to compete with men. In many areas women given the opportunity have made
good progress and have broken through the ‘glass ceiling’. But in many areas they still
face the problem and defence is one such area.
While in many western countries women have reached top position in defence forces
commanding thousands of troops, squadrons, battle ships, in India it’s still a problem and
women who are in defence services have to face a lot of hardships in order to reach a top
position or even so get respect as a leading officer or commander of a unit traditionally
dominated by men. Cases of sexual harassment and asking for sexual favors from female
counterparts by male seniors, has not helped their case either. While women in India have
served in medical branch since long; only now they are being given permanent commis-
sion that too only in law and other non-combat areas.
Despite the fact that the most emphatic victory, Indian armed forces gained was in 1971
under the leadership of Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi, a women and the current su-
preme commander of Indian armed forces is Pratibha Patel, a women the percentage of
women in armed forces is really abysmal. Even after Short Service Commission was start-
ed for women in defence they have been discriminated a lot. The policy makers must
know that it’s discriminatory to ban females from performing certain duties in armed forc-
es.

They should be tried on their individual merits and have themselves suitability evaluated
and compared to other male candidates and limiting their career in armed forces to maxi-
mum of 15 years is not acceptable just for the fact that when they become pregnant after
marriage they take break from performing their duties or opt for soft positions.

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It must be noted that a female complying with such high demands as in armed forces is
unlikely to become pregnant unawares, a time when most women take a long sabbatical
during pregnancy and after child birth. Below we will talk about situations in defence
forces in India with respect to serving women.

Air Force

While it has been over 50 years since women in western countries and particularly in
communist Soviet Union started flying fighters/bombers and with some even becoming
fighter aces and serving for long years in their respective air forces, in India it was not un-
til mid-1990s that women started entering Indian Air Force. While in US air force there
have been instances when women have taken part in Gulf War flying missions dropping
bombs from bombers like B-52; its said from mid 90s the women in US Air Force are also
flying frontline fighter jets.

But in India the women are allowed only Short Service Commission (SSC) in Indian Air
Force and that too are allowed to fly only helicopters and transport planes that too in
peaceful areas, with those in the ground staff also being denied permanent commission.
While demand for permanent commission has been rejected time and time again; with
various defence ministers categorically saying India does not need women fighter pilot, it
may be noted that even a conservative Muslim country like Pakistan have women flying
fighter jets.

With assurance to consider giving permanent commission to women the Indian Air Force
the previous air chief said women in IAF can’t fly fighter jets and if they do they can’t
have kids till a certain age as IAF will spend crores on training them and must recover
that money. In all probability it will still take Indian women several years to reach the po-
sition of squadron leader or above or even fly fighter jets in IAF.

Indian Navy
While women have been serving in warships across navies across the world, even a con-
servative Muslim country like Malaysia has women serving on warships. But in India
women have not been allowed to serve in warships simply because of the logic that there
is less space. Though Indian women did manage to break the glass ceiling recently when
2 Haryana girls became radio operators on a Indian Navy aircraft, but on ships of Indian
Navy it’s still a different story.

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It may be known hot bunking in warships where 2 people share a berth is common, but its
indeed necessary that women need to have additional space like wardrobe and separate
berth. Though till now women have not got chance to serve on surface ships, the launch
of INS Shivalik which has a cabin exclusive for 2 female officers just beside the captain’s
cabin may well be the start when women in Indian Navy will serve on warships. Even
Honorable President Pratibha Patel has asked for making arrangement for women to serve
on aircraft carriers. As such the INS Vikramaditya and INS Vikrant both will have room
for at least 100 women officers among over 1500 who will man those ships.
But still Indian women serving in submarines is a far-fetched dream, even though world-
wide most navies prohibit women from serving on submarines, except for those on the
Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Danish Navy, Swedish Navy, Royal Australian Navy, Ger-
man Navy and Canadian Navy. It may be known that in 1995, Solveig Krey of the Royal
Norwegian Navy became the first female officer to assume command on a military sub-
marine, HNoMS Kobben; and since then several women across various navies have as-
sumed command of ships, but an Indian women commanding a ship is a dream that may
never be realized
Indian Army
The world’s 2nd largest army numerical wise is woefully short of women officers. With
regiments formed on the lines of states, caste and religion it’s impossible to think women
will get a chance to be part of such a large force. Though just last month OTA Madras saw
the first female best cadet to be awarded the sword from among 150 trainees including
men and who even led the passing out parade, for a women to get a permanent position in
army is still a far-fetched dream. Though some instances have occurred, where women
were allowed to get posting in potentially risky areas and they happily accepted it.

But the chauvinistic attitude of men in Indian armed forces, refuses to accept women as
part of their contingent who can do the same thing as they can do. There was a instance
when a newly recruited women officer of Army Ordinance Core was given the charge of
transporting material to forces stationed in Manipur .

It’s said when these men heard of their replenishment supplies coming were happy but
when they learned that it was led by women they became upset. It’s said the men were un-
happy with the fact that a women was a part of the entourage and were even more upset
when they learnt that they had to set up a separate tent for the lady officer with a separate
area that she was to use as her bathroom.

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Even though across the world all major armies have had women as army combatants who
have taken part in battles and earned laurels. It’s still a far-fetched dream for women in
India.
Though women in Para military forces like CISF and CRPF apart from police forces have
been given permanent commission, just a few weeks back the first contingents of women
joined the BSF and were tasked with securing the border. Women are expected to join
armed forces in large numbers in future, and as that happens the defence top brass may be
expected to give in women officers’ demand of permanent commission and unbiased work
opportunities. Let’s hope for the best.

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FGFA: INDIAN IRON


AJAY NAIK Security Editorial Panel

Russian and India have recently cleared way for the development of India’s first Stealth
fighter aircraft which will be based on Sukhoi’s T-50 (Pak-Fa) 5th Generation aircraft,
Russia will field a real Pak-Fa Prototype only in 2013 which will incorporate a better 3D
Thrust Vectoring Controls (TVC) nozzles powered by an upgraded AL-41F engine, while
it will also get Stealth treatment near its engine section.
After first flight of T-50 many western defense experts claimed that Indian FGFA (Fifth
Generation Fighter Aircraft) will be only MKIisation of Pak-FA, but recent agreement
clears some air in development of FGFA.
HAL will be working FGFA along with Sukhoi which will require intense modification to
the airframe, HAL will have a 30 % share in design work of FGFA, and whole Avionics
package will designed and integration will be done HAL, cockpit layout of the aircraft
will also be done by HAL that will include MFDs, FGFA will be a twin seat 5th gen Fight-
er aircraft has required by Indian air force which will also require redevelopment of wings
and control surfaces.

HAL will also integrate avionics which will also find its way into AMCA which ADA will
be developing soon. FGFA which will have Second pilot or a WSO officer meaning addi-
tional avionics will have to be developed for the second pilot, HAL will also integrate
Avionics of European origins, and HAL will also be developing Indian Mission Control
Computer for FGFA.

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India would bring into play its expertise in composites, lightweight high-strength materi-
als that significantly bring down the weight of FGFA. While HAL is tight lipped about
Weapons package which might go in FGFA since it is too early to talk about it but sources
have indicated that FGFA will have Indian Astra -2 and Astra-1 has main BVR Missiles,
FGFA will also incorporate European Weapons package.
HAL will also be developing Electronic Warfare package for the aircraft too, now it seems
that FGFA will if not totally indigenous aircraft will have a significant Indian input and it
will only help India develop AMCA countries Indigenous 5th generation fighter aircraft
and first flight of it has been planned by 2018-20 time frame, just after development of
FGFA will be over.

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Scorpene vs. Agosta 90B - A General Analysis

NJS security Editorial Panel

Agosta 90 B is considered to be one of best in its class, and is manufactured by DCNS of


France, Pakistan has ordered and assembled 3 of them in which is considered to be Major
deterrence against India‘s depleting underground fleet.
Current 90 B models is specially modernized design built for the Pakistan Navy, Various
modifications has given Agosta lower acoustic signature, lower diving depth, improved
battery range and performance. Greater automation also allows the crew to be reduced
from 54 to 36. The submarine can be armed with up to 16 torpedoes/ SM39 Exocet Anti-
ship missiles; SM39 was first test-fired from a Khalid-class submarine in 2001.

• PNS/M Khalid (S137) - built in France by DCN Cherbourg, completed in 1999


• PNS/M Saad (S138) - built in Pakistan with French assistance, completed in 2002
• PNS/M Hamza (S139) - built in Pakistan, commissioned 14 August 2006

Agosta has significant improvements in acoustic discretion and detection, as well as con-
siderable more automation compared to its predecessors... Other improvements include a
new battery for increased range and a deeper diving capability of 350m resulting from the
use of new materials such as HLES 80 steel. Another important improvement is compati-
bility with the MESMA AIP system, which has already been fitted onto the Hamza and
will be added to the Khalid and Saad in the near future. Even French navy has 300 m ca-
pable in its same Agosta class .

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The submarine is fitted with a Thales Underwater Systems TSM 223 sonar suite, which
includes bow-mounted sonar and towed sonar arrays, SAGEM periscopes and navigation
system and Thales I-band navigation radar.
The Scorpene (Indian version) is the latest submarine from the DCNS design bureau and
is built in collaboration with Navantia of Spain. India has placed the order for six numbers
in October 2005; all the submarines will be manufactured in Mazgaon Dock in India un-
der a Transfer of Technology. The transfer of Technology covers excluding the tech for
Torpedoes. Along with this Indian Navy has also ordered 36 MBDA SM-39 Exocet anti-
ship missiles. Construction on the first Sub is started in Dec 2006, with delivery due in
December 2012. The remaining five Scorpene will be delivered over the next five years,
at the rate of one a year.
The Scorpene is fitted with the SUBTICS combat management system, with up to six
multifunction common consoles and a centrally situated tactical table. It is composed of a
command and tactical data handling system, a weapon control system and an integrated
suite of acoustic sensors with an interface to a set of air surface detection sensors and the
integrated navigation system.
The News also confirms Scorpene may be armed with Brahmos Anti-ship Missiles which
DCNS also showed interest in it, which has 290 km supersonic speed with high end accu-
racy and Brahmos is considered to be best and better than Exocet Missiles.
The vessel has excellent detection capability due to its extensive sonar suite which in-
cludes a long-range passive cylindrical array, intercept sonar, active sonar, distributed ar-
ray, flank array, high-resolution sonar for mine and obstacle avoidance and a towed array.
The Scorpene has an increased diving depth of 370m as compared to the Agosta 90B's
350m, and has no limitations on operations at maximum depth due to the increased usage
of high-yield stress-specific steel. When Submerged the Scorpene is quieter than most
submarines due to the utilization of advanced hydrodynamics with an albacore bow shape,
with fewer appendages and an optimized propeller. Placing systems on elastic mountings
further minimizes noise.
Where the Scorpene particularly scores over the Agosta 90B is in its stealth capabilities.
Unlike the Agosta, which is a modification of a three-decade old design, the Scorpene in-
corporates the latest in hydrodynamics, damping and stealth technologies to reduce its
noise signature, thereby greatly increasing its detection capability and offensive power.
The Scorpene can also carry more weapons than the Agosta 90B – a mix of 18 torpedoes
and missiles or 30 mines. The six bow-located 21-inch torpedo tubes also have salvo
launch capability.
While the original Agosta had not been designed keeping an AIP system in mind but had
it included only in the 90B variant, the Scorpene has been designed to seamlessly inte-
grate an AIP system. This results in increased submerged range steaming under AIP for
the Scorpene as compared to the Agosta.

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Scorpene in different Version

the Scorpene class submarines come in mainly two subtypes: Basic, Basic-AIP, The Scor-
pene used by the Chilean Navy is of the first type. India is most probably ordering the se-
cond type.

Variants Basic Basic-AIP


Overall length 66 meters 76 meters
Submerged displacement 1700 tons 2010 tons
Maximum submerged speed 20 knots 19 knots
Diving depth 370 meters 370 meters
Crew complement 31 31
Endurance 45 days 45 days

Parameters Agosta 90B Scorpene


Overall length 76 meters 76 meters
Overall width 6.8 meters 6.2 meters
Overall height 5.4 meters 5.8 meters
Displacement
Surfaced 1810 tons 1850 tons
Submerged 1980 tons 2010 tons
Range
Surfaced 13,700 km 10,500 km
Submerged 2,250 km 3,500 km
Maximum Speed
Surfaced 12 knots 12 knots
Submerged 19 knots 19 knots
Endurance
Diving endurance 60 days 45 days
Diving depth 320 meters 370 meters
Carriage
Complement 36 (7 officers) 31 (6 officers)
Weapons 16 missiles and tor- 18 missiles and torpe-
pedoes does

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Even though Agosta 90 B is inferior in capability than Indian one, but still Pakistan sub-
marine fleet is considered to have better submarine usage strategy against India’s deplet-
ing force submarine fleet.

Pakistan also was in process over purchase of next line of submarine by inking a deal to
purchase Germany’s U-214 class submarine which it intended to purchase in 3 or 4 in
numbers .which includes AIP , this boat is considered to be one of best and deadliest in
world .
India also is considering its second line of construction for another 6 submarines to argu-
ment Pakistani purchase and in the race are Amur 1650 from Russia / DCNS of France / U
214 class from Germany, but India is in preliminary stage of tender process while Paki-
stan is considering purchasing of Chinese diesel or nuke submarine in contest of India
building its own fleet of nuclear submarine, Recently Government has sanctioned the
amount for second line construction. India should realize the need of second line subma-
rine in fast track to stop depletion in submarine fleet.

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The 52 Caliber Juggernauts


Dinakar Peri security Editorial Panel

In the next few months feverish activity is expected in the 52 caliber 155 mm howitzers
trails and related decision making process. Either it is possible that blacklisted firms that
were offering these guns may be brought back into the trail process or DRDO which has
been pitching its case with its ability to build a 155 mm 52 caliber gun for Indian army as
per its specifications, may be given the go ahead. Some of the blacklisted firms include
Rheinmetall of Germany; Israel Military Industries (IMI) and Soltam of Israel and Denel
of South African.

It may be known that in August the MoD canceled trials of 2 guns, namely the Singapore
Technologies Kinetics (STK) gun IFH-2000 and BAE Systems gun FH-77B-05, a im-
proved version of the Bofors gun (410 No’s of which were bought in mid 80s) conse-
quent of the CBI announcing that STK and OFB official Sudipta Ghosh were found con-
niving. That left only the Bofors gun in contention, which MoD considered a not so suita-
ble situation for gun selection since the FH-77B-05 is a remnant of the Bofors bogey that
has embarrassed congress governments in the past due to Bofors Scam and Indian Army’s
dream to get new guns has been delayed incessantly.
Either the GoI formulates a policy where even a blacklisted company should be allowed
to participate in weapon trails with money kept in escrow till charges are cleared and if
found guilty then getting them to pay up fine in one or other way. However whatever hap-
pens there are some questions that need to be answered about the 52 caliber guns. The fol-
lowing are the questions and relevant answers.

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Q1. The 52 caliber guns fire heavier shells. So just how much heavy are these shells from
the 39 caliber ones, and what will be their range compared to the 39s on a/c of weight.

Answer 1: 155mm/39 cal HE shell weighs 42 kg. 155mm/52 caliber shell weighs approxi-
mately 50 kgs. The range for 155mm/39 calibers to be more specific tactical range is 21
kms with maximum range of 27.4 km with base bleed projectiles. On the other hand the
tactical range for 155mm/52 calibers is 30 km with standard shells, 40 km with base-
bleed, 60 km with Excalibur. The 155mm/52 Caliber fires to longer distances due to its
longer barrel. A 52 caliber gun barrel (155 x 52= 8.06 m) when compared with the 155
mm/39 caliber (155 x 39=6.04 m) is about 2 meters longer.

Q2. Some reports say the 52 caliber guns are ideally suited for coastal batteries, with only
a few countries including Singapore (effectively a city state surrounded by water) having
opted for these. So is it really viable for India to try these 52s.

Answer 2: Yes India does need long range artillery guns capable of firing heavy shells
over longer distances. For example, while the 155 mm/39 caliber holds command over
1400 sq. km of battle space; the 155 mm/52 caliber can hold command over 11000 sq. km
of battle space considering its maximum range and considering that battle space coverage
is of significant importance for any country in any terrain.
Q3. Since these 52 caliber guns fire heavier shells, won’t it need reworking the metallurgy
at OFB units with regard to fuse, artillery shell and explosives?

Answer 3: Indeed the ammunition will be specially designed for 155mm/52 caliber guns.
Fuse is not a problem it can be adapted to any caliber. Fuses like DA-162 and T&P 213
Mk V are used both for 81mm and 120mm mortars ammunition. In the case of metallurgy
of barrels, everything remains same except that 52 caliber barrels will wear out faster than
39 caliber barrels.

Q4. Will this cancellation lead in revival of the BHIM Project?

Answer 4: While the Bhim project concerns the development of 155mm 52 caliber Self
Propelled Howitzers on Arjun Tank Chassis. As per reports from Defexpo-2010, it has
been revived but nothing else is known.

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MMRCA : BVR Silver Bullets for IAF


Vinayak shetti security Editorial Panel

Lot of discussions have taken place on aircrafts in the race for providing 126 fighter
jets to Indian air force for MMRCA tender , but very little has been discussed about
the weapons which will come with this , particularly Beyond visual range (BVR) Air
to Air missiles (AAM) which is essential weapon in any fighter aircraft now .
Indian air force chief has recently disclosed that whichever aircraft will be selected of
the MMRCA tender, Aircrafts will be deployed near Chinese border which will re-
place old Mig-21s currently guarding north eastern borders of our country, and this is
a considerable shift in IAF strategy and planning.
earlier in late 80’s saw arrival of brand new Mirage-2000h and Mig-29A which were
mostly deployed in western sector towards Pakistani border , but recent decision to
base IAF frontline Sukhoi Su-30MKI and also upgrade many North eastern airbase
and runways to keep heaver fighters is the indication that best will be kept to face
Chinese air force in case of border conflicts and Pakistani border will be guarded by
Upgraded Mirage-2000h and Mig-29SMT along with indigenously developed LCA-
Tejas which will be based in western sector from 2012 onwards .
Coming back to BVRAAM’s which will come with the aircrafts if selected by IAF

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MBDA Meteor: Termed has one of the best BVRAAM is a Next generation BVRAAM
developed by MBDA. Meteor is a light weight BVRAAM which incorporates stealthy
profile and lesser drag with advance sensors, Meteor has data link capability and can be
guided by another aircraft like AWACS or by another fighter aircraft. Gripen and Eu-
rofighter are the aircrafts which will be have them has a standard BVRAAM package but
they are Plans by IAF to acquire them in any case to improve Sukhoi-30 MKI BVR
fighting capability and integrations will be done with assistance from MBDA , when
MKI’s Mid-life up gradation program which will start in another two years from now .
Raytheon AIM-120 AMRAAM : American mostly likely table Family of AIM-120 AM-
RAAM which will be offered with F-18 SH and F-16IN , latest in the family are AIM-
120D and AIM-120C7 , Saab Gripen also can carry this missile which gives Swedish an
edge in MMRCA tender since both Meteor and AIM-120 can be offered has the standard
BVRAAM for their jet .AIM-120 Family of AMRAAM will serve USAF and other coun-
tries till 2020 still a replacement which is under development become active and hits pro-
duction .
Raytheon AIM-9X Sidewinder: One more offering will come from Americans will be
Sidewinder, it does not fall in category of BVRAAM but still is a potential AAM in close
range dogfight, both of the American Missiles are standard missiles in almost all of fighter
jets operated by USAF and USN which includes F-15, F-16, F-22, F-35 and even F-18SH,
both AAM’s are battle proven and has very high rate of success in dog fights.

MBDA MICA: another BVRAAM coming from MBDA is MICA which is a standard
BVRAAM for Rafale jets and can also be integrated with Eurofighter, IAF is already pro-
curing them for their Mirage-2000H which will be upgraded soon with new avionics
package and radar and will also get MICA BVRAAM. MICA has been rumored to be al-
ready operational with 10 IAF Mirage 2000’s which were purchased from the excess
French Air force stock.

PYTHON-5 and DERBY: Israelis are keen to offer there PYTHON-5 which actually is
not a BVRAAM but is still an advance AAM missile and currently operational with Israe-
li F-15 and F-16s, while DERBY is a standard BVRAAM with Indian Navy’s Sea Harrier
fleet, while IAF has not yet integrated any of this missiles with their fleet of fighter jets,
but recently Indian navy have told they could like to have DERBY in Naval –Tejas too

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Indian Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD)


Dinakar Peri security Editorial Panel

Abbreviations: BMD - Ballistic Missile Defense; PAD - Prithivi Air Defense missile;
AAD - Advanced Air Defense missile

On 27 November 2006 when an exo-atmospheric hypersonic interceptor missile success-


fully destroyed an "enemy'' Prithvi missile at an altitude of 40-50 km, India made a break-
through in anti-ballistic missile technologies and it heralded the entry of the country into
an elite club of countries possessing this capability.
India has an ambitious plan to put in place a robust multi-layered ballistic missile defense
system to intercept incoming ballistic missiles. Though the offensive missile program has
suffered serious setbacks and inordinate delays, with the lessons learnt from them, India’s
plan to field a credible ballistic missile defense are steadily taking shape and it has made
significant strides in this direction with three consecutive successful interceptor tests.

Background
In the 90’s after Pakistan acquired missiles from China and North Korea, India procured
some S-300 missile batteries from Russia to protect important cities. After the 1998 nucle-
ar tests and Pakistan’s quid pro quo response, India felt the need for a more elaborate mis-
sile shield and initially evinced interest in acquiring Israel’s Arrow II BMD, but it re-
quired consent from the US which partly funded and co-developed it and Washington, not
keen to be looked at as altering the balance of power in the region, blocked the transfer.

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Once again technology denial turned into a boon as it boosted indigenous development.
The project to build a BMD is believed to have been initiated in 1999 after the Kargil con-
flict to counter Pakistan’s offensive missile overtures and its non adherence to no-first-use
of nuclear weapons but was kept under wraps and acknowledged only in 2006 after the
successful first test. With this success India became only the fourth country after the US,
Russia and Israel to have built an effective anti-ballistic missile shield.
Development
Indian offensive missile program initiated under IGMDP (Integrated Guided missile De-
velopment Program) suffered serious setbacks with its Prithvi and Agni series of missiles
in development, integration and launches and in fact is still grappling with launch failures
with the overall success rate being less than 50 percent but which is not uncommon with
such developments. The learning curve seems to be paying dividends now as is witnessed
in the swift development of BMD.
The entire system involves detection, tracking and interception of the incoming missile
involving multiple platforms and requires a fair amount of precision and sophistication.
India intends to deploy a two tier system consisting of Prithvi air defense missile (PAD)
for high altitude interception and advanced air defense missile (AAD) for lower altitude
interception which will be able to take out missiles with ranges upto 5000kms. The de-
ployed system would consist of many launch vehicles, radars, Launch Control Centers
(LCC) and the Mission Control Center (MCC). All these are geographically distributed
and connected by a secure communication network. DRDO with Israeli cooperation de-
veloped Swordfish – a long range tracking radar (LRTR) specifically for the BMD based
on Israel’s Green pine radar which incidentally is part of the Arrow-II system. It is the tar-
get acquisition and fire control radar for the BMD system. The LRTR has a radius of
800km and it’s been reported that it can track objects as small as a cricket ball. DRDO
plans to enhance its range to 1500km by 2011, a requirement for Phase II system. PAD
was tested in November 2006, followed by AAD in December 2007 and a third test in
March 2009. The 2009 test is the third successful consecutive tests in recent years, and
indicates a promising future for the indigenous BMD system.

India's first test demonstrated the system's ability to intercept an incoming Prithvi-II mis-
sile at an altitude of 48 km with a two-stage PAD interceptor christened ‘Pradyumna’; the
second test saw a successful intercept of a Prithvi-II at 15km by a single-stage interceptor;
the third and most recent test demonstrated the capability of a new and more sophisticated
Pradyumna to destroy its target at an altitude of 75 km.

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. These tests assume significance for the success rate, speed and technological sophistica-
tion (the US interceptor tests courted multiple failures). The PAD is a modified prithvi
missile while the AAD is a completely new missile. The project is being taken up in two
phases: Phase I to intercept missiles with a range of upto 2000kms to be operationalized
and deployed by 2012 and Phase II to intercept IRBM/ICBM’s (intermediate range ballis-
tic missiles/inter-continental ballistic missiles) to be developed after phase I is complete.
The Prithvi Air Defense (PAD) is an anti-ballistic missile developed to intercept incoming
ballistic missiles outside the atmosphere (exo-atmospheric). Based on the Prithvi missile,
PAD christened Pradyumna is a two stage missile with a maximum interception altitude
of 80 km. Advanced Air Defense (AAD) is an anti-ballistic missile designed to intercept
incoming ballistic missiles in the endo-atmosphere at an altitude of 15-30 km.
Buoyed by recent successes DRDO is accelerating the pace of development of the BMD.
Finally, with all the previous failures acting as a stepping stone and learning valuables les-
sons from them, India’s technological prowess has come to the fore and this gives a new
confidence and boost to other projects hanging in limbo and some of them can incorporate
the technologies developed for this project.

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E-ZONE

BLACK SQUADRON
Introduction

This is story based on Two ex IAF pilots inducted into a Black Squadron flying EW ver-
sion of NGFA , operated by our intelligence agencies ,is story is based in the year 2020
this is totally fractious characters and events which never have taken place or likely to
take place , this story is brain child of Vinayak Shetty , and totally his imagination . This
is done to keep interest in magazine and also for Entertainment purpose only

Plot

Story involves two Serving IAF Sukhoi Su 30 pilots who are kicked out IAF due to an in-
cident ,which will be revealed in first episode and how they are approached by nonexist-
ence Squadron operated by our Intelligence agency and it will cover their adven-
ture ,missions, and other things they are made to do when flying in this “ BLACK
SQUADRON “.

Next Month we will carry the first Episode , to keep viewers interaction at maximum , we
are letting viewers suggest names of the pilots and also squadron they were operating be-
fore been kicked out , and also reason of they been kicked out , they can also send mis-
sions and operations they are likely going to conduct in future episodes.

Any one Good in Photoshop or Corel Draw can also design a Electronic warfare based
NGFA based on Pak-FA , and Squadron patches for the Pilots

We are proud to announce the name of the first episode

DRAGONS CAVE
(Spoilers : Mission Inside Chinese territory)

Please send your suggestions and art work ,stories to

Idrw.org@gmail.com

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