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- STORIES AND EVIDENCE OF ANIMAL EMOTIONS - OUR TREATMENT OF FEELING ANIMALS - HOW WE CAN HELP ANIMALS -
How Much Do Animals Feel? - Compassion - Intelligence - Love - Pleasure & Pain Our Treatment Of Feeling Animals - Meat - Milk & Eggs - Seafood - Endangered Species - Vivisection - Fur - Animals Used For Entertainment How You Can Help - Ethical Consuming - Spreading The Word - Campaigning - Local Wildlife 3 5 8 10 12 14 15 18 20 21 22 24 26 28 29 34 37 38
Copyright © 2010 by Rebecca Hall. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For more information on this book and the issues discussed in it, log onto speakfortheanimals.webs.com. 2
HOW MUCH DO ANIMALS FEEL?
Descartes famously stated that animals ‘act naturally and mechanically, like a clock which tells the time better than our judgement does. Doubtless when the swallows come in Spring, they operate like clocks. The actions of honeybees are of the same nature and the discipline of cranes in flight, and of apes fighting. All originate from the corporal and mechanical principal.’ Fortunately, today it seems most people have moved far from this belief. Humans also need to be able to carry out certain actions but we know it's our feelings that drive us to do them. It would, according to nature, make sense for animals to have similar feelings to humans as it would make it more likely that animals would carry out the functions necessary for survival. An animal's more likely to run away from danger if it's afraid, more likely to look after it's young if it feels love for them and more likely to play and learn survival skills, if it has fun doing this. However, when animals act in a way that isn’t to their benefit through emotions, this proves how they are more feeling than ‘programmed’, otherwise they’d be acting in a way that works best to aid their survival. For example, when animals freeze in fear, this puts them at greater risk of being caught by the predator. If they were programmed as some Scientists suggest, they would run as fast as they can (which they sometimes do, but then so do humans!). Also When an animal looses someone close to them they often give up eating and drinking and often die; if they were programmed to survive, they would carry on regardless. 3
Perhaps when people see animals acting quite violently in the wild by killing another animal for meat or territory, they feel animals lack compassion but if we were in their situation we’d have to do the same. Our lives are much easier; we’re less likely to starve, loose our homes or be killed. If we were in the same situation as animals, we’d kill animals for food and kill humans to destroy the competition for food and housing. Humans can also be cruel and compassionate at the same time and there’s no reason to believe animals are any different. It’s also important to remember just that the theory of animals having limited emotions and intelligence, is particularly convenient in order for us to exploit them with no concern for their welfare. If people felt the capacity of emotions in all animals was similar to that of humans, animal experiments or the treatment of farm animals could no longer be seen as moral and society would have to change radically. Making someone ‘subhuman’ or a lesser being, gives us the right to exploit or abuse them as we see fit and unfortunately there is numerous evidence of this throughout the centuaries. During the slave trade, it was believed by most that slaves had no feelings as they ‘didn’t blush’. We now know all people blush when embarrassed but it’s simply harder to see on darker skin. Women were also seen as inferior and less intelligent than men and therefore denied any rights until they proved themselves. People who believe strongly in animal emotions and intelligence can be frowned upon for being anthropomorphic or over-sentimental but why shouldn’t an animal’s feelings be considered? More zoologists are starting to believe and write freely of animal emotions. There are plenty of intellectuals who have and do freely talk of animals having emotions including Francois Voltaire, Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton and John Locke to name a few. 4
Anyone who’s seen a lion pull down a baby gazelle or a cat ‘toy’ with their prey, may find it hard to believe that animals have much compassion. However, humans are also capable of killing other living beings and we know we as a species, have compassion. Perhaps predatory animals tell themselves that their prey has little feeling as we do to ease their conscience? Or do some animals not have the theory of mind? The theory of mind is usually formed in humans over the age of five; it’s basically understanding how another might feel about a certain situation. Perhaps animals are like children which is even more of a reason treat them with more compassion! There is, however, plenty of evidence of animals feeling compassion and for more than just their own species. Lions have been known to pull darts from other lions and when dolphins have been caught, ones from outside the net have been seen biting at the net in an attempt to release them.
Vampire bats will often give some of their food to other vampire bats whether related to them or not! Several years ago a monkey escaped from his cage in a Japanese laboratory. The first thing he did was to open the cage of the other monkeys.
Musk oxen will form a protective ring around the calves of the group. This can’t be driven by instinct as if the adults die, nobody would be able to look after the calves and the whole group would die. 5
THE CAT AND THE GRIZZLY Dave Siddon “Another box of kittens dumped over the fence, Dave” one of our volunteers greeted me one summer morning. I groaned inside. As the founder of Wildlife Images Rehabilitation Centre I had more than enough to do to keep up with the wild animals in our care. But somehow, local people who didn’t have the heart to take their unwanted kittens to the pound often dumped them over our fence. That day’s brood contained four kittens. We managed to trap three of them, but somehow one little rascal got away. In twenty-four acres of park, there wasn’t much we could do once the kitten disappeared and many other animals required our attention. It wasn’t long before I forgot completely about the lost kitten as I went about my daily routine. A week or so later, I was spending time with one of my favorite “guests”; a giant grizzly bear named Griz. This grizzly bear had come to us as an orphaned cub six years ago, after being struck by a train in Montana. He’d been rescued and had lain unconscious for six days in a Montana hospital’s intensive care unit, and ended up with neurological damage and a blind right eye. As he recovered, it was clear he was too habituated to humans and too mentally impaired to go back to the wild, so he came to live with us as a permanent resident. That July afternoon, I approached his cage when I noticed a little spot of orange coming out of the blackberry brambles inside the grizzly’s pen. It was the missing kitten. Now probably six weeks old, it couldn’t have weighed more than ten ounces at most. The tiny kitten approached the enormous bear and let out a purr and a mew. I winced. Griz stuck his paw into his food pail, where he grabbed a piece of chicken out of the bucket and threw it toward the starving kitten. The little cat pounced on it and carried it quickly into the bushes to eat. A couple of weeks later, I saw the cat feeding with Griz again. This time, he rubbed and purred against the bear, and Griz reached down and picked him up 6
by the scruff of his neck. After that, the friendship blossomed. We named the kitten Cat. These days, Cat eats with Griz all the time. He rubs up against the bear, bats him on the nose, ambushes him, even sleeps with him. Both animals have managed to successfully survive their rough beginnings. But even more than that, they each seem so happy to have found a friend. This 12-week-old macaque was res cued on Neilingding Island, in Goang dong Province, China, after being aban doned by his mother. Taken to an ani mal hospital, he was weaned back to physical health but still showed little appetite for life. It was not until a fellow patient, a white pigeon, took him under her wing and showed him love and affection that he perked up. Now the two are inseparable! Two blind people wanted to drink water at the RagiGudda Temple, Bangalore India. When they were unable to operate the tap, this Mother Monkey opened the tap for them, allowed them to drink water, drank some water herself and then closed the tap before leaving the scene. In Cape Town, America, a pigeon called Karmanel, adopted seven baby rabbits after they were abandoned by their parents. She keeps them warm, protects them and never lets them out of her sight! 7
"If an animal does something we call it instinct; if we do the same thing for the same reason we call it intelligence" - Will Cuppie Humans tend to use an apparent lact is of intelligence as an excuse to exploit animals whilst making themselves the superior race. But does intelligence equate to worthiness? And are animals as unintelligent as humans sometimes make out? THE STORY OF CLEVER HANS Clever Hans was a horse owned by Wilhelm von Osten. Wilhelm was determined to prove that he could tech Clever Hans simple arithmetic. And that he did. If his owner wrote on a card, ‘4x4’ Hans would tap his forefoot 16 times and so on. After much study into hans’s abilities, it was Oskar Pfungst, in 1904, who realised and demonstrated that Clever Hans couldn’t do arithmetic. He was, in fact, picking up subtle clues from his owner and the other ‘testers’. So Clever Hans wasn’t so clever in the Maths Department but the fact that he could pick up clues from those humans round him shows a great deal of empathy. You could say he was the Derren Brown of the horse world! Scientists in Australia have discovered that sick sheep know how to heal themselves by eating plants that make them well. Dr Revell a scientist in involved in the research studying sheep nutrition says: “It could be that sheep need certain medicinal paddocks where we take them to self-medicate … or it could be that they need ongoing low-level intakes of certain plants to keep parasites at bay. The right plants have to be available to the animals at the right time. We suspect they need access to a range of different forage plants to learn which to choose.” 8
Experiments carried out on fruit flies show that when they are shown a line, their brain displays the same electrical activity to that of a human brain when it is stimulated. After a while, like humans, they get bored of it but show them something different and they will show this electrical activity again. Cows have shown intelligence by learning that they needed to press on a panel to open a gate to obtain food. Studies at Oxford University found that Betty, a Caledonian heifer, instinctively bent a piece of wire, using a gap in her food tray to create a hook that allowed her to scrape food from the bottom of a jar. Cows also form grooming partnerships as do chimps and gorillas. According to Jennifer Viegas from Discovery News; ‘Chickens do not just live in the present, but can anticipate the future and demonstrate selfcontrol’, something previously attributed only to humans and other primates, according to a recent study. The finding suggests that domestic fowl, ‘are intelligent creatures that might worry. ‘ Lame broiler chickens when given the choice, have chosen food laced with painkillers whereas chickens who are well, choose food not laced with pain killers. In another experiment with chickens, when the chickens pressed a button they learnt they would receive a small handful of food after waiting for 2-3 seconds. If they waited for up to 22 seconds, they’d receive much more food; 90% of the chickens waited. The neuron organisation in chicken brains is highly structured and the brain has an incredible ability to repair itself completely after a trauma, unlike humans. 9
While it is fair to accept animals at least feel affection, some may question whether they feel as strong an emotion as love. There is a lot of evidence to suggest that animals feel love. Many risk their lives for friends, family and partners, or greive for loved ones to the point of starvation or showing imense happiness by simply being near those they love. In England a calf had been bought and trucked to another farm. The next morning the people who had bought the calf came in to find him suckling from his mum in his stall, the gate having been knocked down. The cow had travelled several miles overnight to find her son. Similarly in West Virginia, a cow called Winnie was sold without her calf, Beauty. She escaped and was found twenty miles away with her calf in his new placement. In 1984 the famous gorilla Koko, lost her pet kitten when he was run over by a car after slipping out of a doorway. Koko cried when the news was broken to her. Three days later she signed ‘cry’ when she was asked if she wanted to see a picture of her kitten. Five years later when shown a picture of herself and her kitten, she signed ‘that bad frown sorry inattention’. Before that, when asked why gorillas died she signed ‘trouble, old’ and when asked where gorillas go when they die, she signed ‘comfortable hole bye.’ Jane Goodall wrote of a chimp called Flint. His mother died in 1972 at fifty years of age in Afica’s Gombe National Park. He stayed by her body, grooming her and whimpering. Later, when her body was no longer there, he often went to the spot where she had died and lay there, staring into space. Three and a half weeks later, aged nine, he died of a broken heart. 10
APPOINTMENT AT THE END OF THE WORLD Valerie Macys ‘I arrived at the house on a late October afternoon. The fall leaves were in full blazing glory, and I noticed that the cows were even closer to the house than I had expected. I could actually hear them before I got out of my car. When I turned off the engine, I knew immediately that something was terribly wrong. I witnessed a scene of chaos. Cows bellowed and stomped, staggering around the fields. They banged into each other and pushed against the fence, located approximately 20 feet from my car. Dozens of them stood wild-eyed, sniffing the air, shrieking horribly. Unfortunately, I knew all too well what their confusion and turmoil was about. I have lived near a farm for the past four years. I was told by my veterinarian what those harsh October cries meant the first time I'd heard them. I had been alarmed by the cows' unusual moans and their evident distress one morning, so I called my vet to ask if there was something I should do, perhaps call the farmer or even a humane society. She told me to do nothing, that such action was normal for the time of the year. "They've taken your babies," I said sadly, looking directly into one cow's mournful eyes. They rolled back in her head as she bellowed anew. Feeling sick to the pit of my stomach, I entered the house and spoke to the curator, who also lives there. Her name is Mary. "Those cows are frantic," I said. The wailing penetrated even inside. I had never heard anything like it. "How long will this go on?" I asked. "Until tomorrow," she replied. "Then more slaughter trucks will come for them, and it will all be over." I thought my heart would hit the floor. Even now, I cannot describe the look in some of them. Alice Walker tapped into the heart of this mysterious anguish. She had seen it in the eyes of an abused horse named Blue. She writes of the look in Blue’s eyes: “It was a look so piercing, so full of grief, a look so human, I almost laughed (I felt too sad to cry) to think that there are people who do not know that animals suffer.” Her words had never seemed more true or more tragic.’ There’s more information about cows losing their calves due to the dairy industry later in the book. 11
PLEASURE & PAIN
Although most of us accept animals feel pain and pleasure, it’s sometimes overlooked in many invertabrae. However, there is a lot of evidence to support the fact that our smaller, less cuddly companions feel as much as we do. Molluscs such as snails, slugs, octopuses and squids Did you know fish play?! There have well developed nervous has not been much research into systems and can experience the playing of fish but they have been known to chase, play leapfrog pleasure and pain. Did you know that crickets, for exover rocks and resting turtles and ample, are more likely to eat balance objects on the tip of their nose! Fish are also able to produce food laced with morphine and for longer; they also show endorphins (feel good hormones). signs of addiction! Most dog owners will probably agree that dogs are able to feel happiness but some scientists still dispute this. Dogs have a hormone called dopamine as humans do. This hormone actually increases when dogs chew. If a dog feels anxious after an owner has gone out for the day, they'll chew cushions and shoes to increase their level of dopamine. Did you know gorillas sing? They often do this after a storm when the air smells sweet! Fishing can be very traumatic for fish even if they are returned to the water. Until very recently when studies proved otherwise (2004), people considered fishing to be humane as they claimed fish don't feel pain. In fact, fish respond similarly to fish hooks as they do to an electric shock in the roof of their mouth. Fish have pain receptors and respond to pain in similar ways to humans. Morphine administered to fish, reduced the 12
behaviour they displaid when put in a painful situation and reduced their gill rate. When acid or bee venom was injected into the lips of fish, they rubbed their lips against rocks and their gill rate increased by 80%. In experiments undertaken on insects, they have been proven to avoid electric shocks, self amputate painful limbs and strike at sources of pain. THE TRUE STORY OF FLIPPER Although dolphins in aquariums tend to be well-treated, we never really know the effect it has on an intelligent creature to be stuck inside a contained environment their whole life. The trainer of Flipper, Ric O’ Barry tells us about his last moments with Kathy (Flipper). Unlike other mammals, dolphins aren’t automatic breathers; each breath is a conscious decision. Many dolphins when kept in captivity will simply stop breathing and effectively commit suicide. Once Flipper was finished, Kathy was stored in a warehouse as there was to be no further financial gain from her. ‘She swam right over into my arms, looked me in the eye, took a deep breath, and never took another one. I let her go and she sank very slowly to the bottom of the tank.’ Ric described how he jumped into the tank and desperately trying to revive her before realising it was too late. He never trained dolphins again. Many animals enjoy different types of games not dissimilar to humans. Chimps like to finger wrestle, baby elephants like to try to climb onto adult elephants back’s and gorillas tickle one another (and laugh hysterically when tickled!) 13
OUR TREATMENT OF FEELING ANIMALS
“The old assumption that animals acted exclusively by instinct, while man had a monopoly of reason, is, we think, maintained by few people nowadays who have any knowledge at all about animals. We can only wonder that so absurd a theory could have been held for so long a time as it was, when on all sides the evidence if animals’ power of reasoning is crushing.” - Ernest Bell (1851-1933) What’s the worst thing you can ever imagine happening to you or a loved one? Having your baby wrenched from you while you desperately scream their name and try to reach them? Being burnt alive? Having your eyes sewn up? Castrated without anaesthetic? Being herded with your friends and family into a truck to be transported thousands of miles and then being murdered in front of one another? Sadly, many animals don’t have to imagine this and if they do feel as much as some evidence suggests, surely the way we treat them should change.
“The time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they now look on the murder of men.” - Leonardo da Vinci, artist and scientist. To save money, hundreds of animals are crammed into as little space as possible. They live in amongst their own faeces, struggling to move around enough even to access food and water. The conditions often cause agonising deaths from ruptures, starvation or disease.
A recent undercover investigation undertaken by Animal Aid revealed the following at a UK slaughterhouse; • • • • A ewe being stunned and killed while her young was suckling from her. Ewes watching as their young were killed. Pigs falling from the slaughter line into the blood pit and being dragged out and re-shackled while other pigs look on. Pigs being kicked in the face and sheep thrown to the floor.
Many animals are so badly injured by the time they come to slaughter, that they can’t move and literally have to be dragged through the kill alley and according to workers come out ‘covered with cow shit.’ Some animals, nicknamed ‘scooters’, have broken pelvises and have to pull themselves along on their front legs. 15
After a life of fear, pain and crammed up misery, these animals are killed and with the high number of meat eaters out there, a lot of them have to be killed very quickly; in fact the going rate is one every three seconds. Stunning a panicking cow witin three seconds is no mean feat as I’m sure you can imagine. Not only that but if the jolt on the stunner is too high, this bruises the animals and ruins their meat so it is kept low even if this means the animal isn’t properly unconscious when their throat is slit. Gail Eisnitz interviewed several slaughterhouse workers for her book Slaughterhouse. This is what some of them had to say; ‘If you get a hog in a chute that’s had a heart attack or refuses to move, you take a meat hook and hook it into his bunghole (anus). You’re dragging these hogs alive, and a lot of times the meat hook rips out of the bunghole. I’ve seen hams - thighs - completely ripped open. I’ve also seen intestines come out.’ ‘I’ve seen live animals shackled, hoisted, stuck and skinned. Too many to count, too many to remember. It’s just a process that’s continually there. I’ve seen shackled beef looking around before they’ve been stuck (had their throats slit).’ After their throats have been slit, pigs are placed into scalding water to get rid of the hairs on their bodies. One worker had this to say about it; ‘These hogs get up to the scalding tank, hit the water and start screaming and kicking. Sometimes they thrash so much they kick water out of the tank...sooner or later they drown. There’s a rotating arm that pushes them under, no chance for them to get out. I’m not sure if they burn to death before they drown, but it takes them a couple of minutes to stop thrashing.’ Cows have the skin taken from their faces once their throats have been slit and sadly are often still alive when this happens. The cows thrash and kick against what must be the most unbearable agony which can be a danger to the worker. Often a blow to the spinal cord makes the cow unable to move but it doesn’t stop the pain. 16
There are no requirements to stun poultry who are exempt from the Humane Slaughter Act. They are shackled upside down and go through a machine designed to slit thousands of throats an hour. They are often still alive when dunked into the boiling water designed to loosen their feathers.
THE UNHEALTHY TRUTH ABOUT MEAT Due to the conditions in which animals are farmed, their meat is capable of passing on many illnesses. Dead and diseased animals are kept with healthy ones, their meat is unhealthy due to immobility and they are regularly given antibiotics to reduce disease and many other chemicals and drugs to help fatten them up. Studies have shown that as many as 53% of cow carcasses and 83% of pig carcasses, were contaminated with E-coli and 18% of British and 64% of imported chicken, had salmonella. With the way farm animals are treated, it’s little wonder that diseases such as Mad Cow Disease, Salmonella, Foot and Mouth Disease and Bovine TB have had such dramatic affects on farmed animals. Furthermore, the way in which the animals are killed can also be dangerous to human health. Because abbatoir workers have a rota of 500 animals to kill a day, the killing isn't always carried out carefully and evidence of a stressful death appears in bloodspots on the meat. Stress is a very powerful toxin, when guinea pigs were injected with the chemical caused by human stress, they died. 17
MILK & EGGS
Cows, like humans, only produce milk when they are pregnant. Once cows have given birth, their calf is then taken from them within a day or two so that they don’t drink the milk. If the calf is male, he will be killed immediately as dairy cattle can’t be used for beef; Sometimes they are bred as veal.
When mother cows have had their calves taken from them, they will call and bellow for days and have been known to escape and travel miles in search of their young. Abbatoir workers have said that one of the hardest parts of their job is killing calves and other baby animals. Sometimes calves will suck the slaughterman’s fingers in an attempt to draw milk at a time when they particularly need reassurance and comfort. Some calves go to the slaughterhouse as young as three or five days old. One slaughterman said the hardest part for him is that goats in particular, ‘cry just like babies.’ Unfortunately all animals that produce milk (cows, buffalo, goats) lose their babies as a result of the dairy trade.
Vegan actress Natalie Portman says, ‘I just really love animals and I act on my values.’
IS MILK HEALTHY? Milk has been linked to depression, diabetes, asthma, eczema and many other common illnesses. Milk also contains IGF-I; suitable for calves to grow strong and quickly. this is known to cause prostate cancer in humans and accelerate malignant growth. While milk may contain calcium, the type of calcium it contains isn’t easily digested by humans. When mixed with wheat, it makes a sticky substance that sticks to the walls of the intestines and prevents nutrients being absorbed. It also creates conditions perfect for putrefying bacteria which can lead to problems such as thrush and candida. It also leads to high cholesterol which hardens the arteries, leaving you feeling sluggish and tired until your arteries close up altogether leading to a heart attack. To get your RDA of calcium, stick to eating lots of leafy green vegetables, oats, sesame seeds, fortified soya milk, almonds and legumes. Soya milk is good for you and less fattening than cow’s milk. EGGS Male chicks, who also can’t be used for meat or laying, are disposed of by gas or shredding. Chicks that are kept to lay eggs, are debeaked to stop them pecking at themselves (a sign of severe stress). This is a very painful procedure carried out with no pain relief, that can result in chicks losing part of their tongue. Natalie Jordi describes debeaking, ‘I still remember a particularly grisly shot of gloved hands holding a soldering iron to a chick’s beak, it’s legs pedalling desperately under a bug-eyed, wild stare, a wisp of smoke curling from it’s face. A professional de-beaker, de-beaks twelve to fifteen birds a minute.’ Free-range eggs aren’t much better than other eggs. As long as the chickens have access to the outside they can be termed as free-range. With up to 16,000 hens in one shed, many are lucky to get to the outside and many break limbs or die in the process of trying to reach that destination. 19
With animals that are more relatable to us and an increasing knowledge of cruel farming practices, the needs of fish can be overlooked. Unfortunately, for these guys, their numbers are constantly dwindling at an alarming rate. Even the methods used to catch them are playing havoc with the lives of many sea animals. Seine nets are often used to catch fish. These nets trail for miles of the sea entangling any animal unfortunate enough to come near them. Many animals such as dolphins, whales and turtles drown in these nets and are tossed back into the water as they will not be eaten; their bodies are completely wasted. Farmed fish are kept in appalling conditions, with as many as twenty seven trout being kept in the equivalent of a bath tub. Fish tend to be farmed now due to over fishing putting some species at the risk of becoming endangered. Farmed fish often suffer from open wounds on their heads which can reveal skull. This is due to the constant rubbing against the side of the tank and other fish due to lack of space. CRABS AND LOBSTERS When put into boiling water, crabs and lobsters have been known to scream and their claws scrape the side of the pan as they struggle to escape what must be the most unbearable pain. Invertebrate zoologist Karen G. Horsley said of lobsters who are cut in half while still alive (another, less used, killing method), "The lobster does not have an autonomic nervous system that puts it into a state of shock when it is harmed. It probably feels itself being cut. ... I think the lobster is in a great deal of pain from being cut open ... [and] feels all the pain until its nervous system is destroyed during cooking." 20
A mixture of global warming, loss of habitat and illegal trades using the parts of endangered species (for fur, some Chinese medicine and body parts for decoration), are all endangering many of our most beautiful animals. PALM OIL Thousands of trees are destroyed for palm oil every year; this is having a devastating effect on the already endangered orang utan. It is estimated that no less than 5,000 orang utans are killed every year. At this rate, complete extinction of one of our closest relatives would occur within 10 years. Ensure your local supermarket uses only non-destructive palm oil and if they don’t, write to them and ask that they do! Supermarkets who currently use non-destructive palm oil include Sainsburys, ASDA, Tescos and Iceland to date. The U.S National Cancer Institute has identified 3,000 plants that are active against cancer cells. 70% of these plants can be found in the rainforest.
“Vivisection is the blackest of all the black crimes that man is at present committing against God and His fair creation.” - Gandhi, Mahatma Nobody likes to think too much about vivisection. For most, it’s an unpleasant thing that has to take place for the good of peoples’ health. When it comes to a small child dying from cancer and a mouse that has a lifespan of about three years, it’s hard not to leave the scientists to get on with it and ask no questions. However, there are plenty of alternatives to testing on animals and as a lot of evidence shows, animal testing might be the least if not completely ineffective and misleading method there is. Unfortunately for animals, it also happens to be the cheapest. Did you know that… • More than 1 million Britons are hospitalised due to adverse drug reactions every year (this costs the NHS £2 billion)? • There is not yet an animal:human ration when it comes to drugs tested on animals? • It has been possible to cure rats and mice of cancer since the 1960s but because their bodies are so different to ours, it hasn’t helped us to find a cure for cancer in people? • Your taxes pay for animal testing when there could be more effective methods available? • Animals react to medicines in completely different ways to humans. For example, rabbits are allergic to aspirin and apes don’t get Parkinson’s disease yet scientists created a similar disease and tried to determine a cure from that? 22
But How Else Do We Find Medicines To Help People? There are alternatives to animal testing which are; • Complex computer models which can determine and calculate the effects specific chemicals have when combined appropriately • Volunteers (when it is safe to use them!) • Test tubes with proteins and enzymes • Human cells and tissue. COSMETICS AND HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS Although it’s not required by law, many companies still test household cleaning products on animals. There are 600 ingredients that are known to be safe and could therefore be used so no animals would have to be tested on. However, these companies want to test new ingredients so their products can be ‘new and improved.’ for every new chemical used in a product, it needs to be tested on animals. Testing on animals for cosmetics has thankfully been made illegal in Europe. However, many companies including the well known Max Factor and L’Oreal, have their products tested on animals abroad and then exported to Europe. ‘I am doing everything I can to reduce animal suffering with simple lifestyle choices like being vegan...and buying only from companies that NEVER test their products or ingredients on animals.’ Alicia Silverstone If you want to buy products that aren’t tested on animals, stick with household products that have the BUAV approved logo on the back. As for ensuring your cosmetics haven’t been tested on animals, unfortunately the list of who not to buy from is much larger than the companies you can buy from! BUAV can provide you with a free cruelty free booklet that lists contact details for all the comapnies that sell cruelty free cosmetics. Log onto www.buav.org for your free booklet! 23
Fur has come back into fashion over the last ten years. A lot of this is due to myths about the fur industry. People are told the animals are treated well, killed humanely and that sometimes fur is a by-product of meat. Unfortunately none of this is true. Animals killed for meat tend to be young so that the meat is tender and animals killed for fur are a little older so that the fur is longer; any remainders of each is simply discarded. In many countries, animals can also be skinned alive as this keeps the fur ‘springy’.
Originally, an animal caught in a fur trap could chew off their leg to escape as it would go numb. In order to stop this happening, traps have now been re-designed so that the caught animal remains in pain until the trapper arrives. Any animal can get caught in these traps including ones that the trapper doesn’t need. These are known as ‘trash’ animals and they have usually die from exhaustion before the trapper arrives.
By boycotting stores such as Harrods, Kurt Geiger and Burberry, who all still sell fur, you can help reduce the amount of fur sold in the UK. 24
LEATHER ANIMALS USED FOR FOOD ANIMALS USED FOR CLOTHING ANIMALS USED FOR EXPERIMENTATION ANIMALS USED FOR ENTERTAINMENT Leather and fur are sometimes said to be a meat by-product. Leather COMPANION ANIMALS WILDLIFE products aren’t cheap and make as much money as meat for farmers; the dye used on the coats is also tested on animals. For Indian leather, dozPhoto Gallery: Animals crammed into small lorries where their limbs are often ens of cows are Used for Clothing IN THIS SECTION crushed and elder or weaker cows die during the journey. Animals who Fur LOGIN TO RATE 0 PEOPLE LIKE THIS You like Like are too sick to walk are beaten orPhoto Gallery: chilli peppers rubbed into their have Animals Used for Clothing | Leather eyes. Once at the abbatoir, cows are bound by all four feet and thrown Wool onto the blood covered floor where their throats are then slit and they are Exotic Skins left to die in front of all the other cows who are now painfullyTheir Skins of aware Other Animals Used for their own fate.
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Sadly, there is also a growing trend in reptile leather. VIDEOS Obviously, there is no ‘by-product’excuse for this Recent Popular Related unless you know someone who regularly feast on crocodile burgers. Unfortunately, these animals are Undercover Footage From KFC Supplier often skinned alive as well. As they ar reptiles, we can’t recognise their expressions of pain as we can in other animals which makes them all the more susceptible to cruel treatment from their handlers.
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WOOL At around fourteen to fifteen months, is the average age at which a sheep is first shawn and then every year afterwards. They are shawn early in the spring when conditions are often still wet and cold causing sever chilling and infections such as mastitis and sometimes even death. Mulesing is when a sheep is shawn so close to the skin that they end up with chunks of flesh being shaved off with the wool. 25
ANIMALS USED FOR ENTERTAINMENT
ZOOS Zoos have improved phenomenally since Victorian times when they were first introduced. However, the question of whether an animal is happy to spend their entire life in a cage with little control over their own life, is one that’s still highly debated. While zoos do take some freedom away from animals, they also keep them safe, can help by breeding endangered species and many put an awful lot of work into ensuring the animals are kept happy and entertained. Safari parks and sanctuaries are usually guaranteed to keep animals in large spaces with plenty of entertainment but each one varies and it’s well worth researching a zoo, safari park or sanctuary before you hand any money over. to keep animals in large areas with plenty of entertainment. CIRCUSES Circuses that still use animals, on the other hand, are undoubedtly cruel. It isn't illegal to hit elephants with an iron bar in order to train them for the circus and the 'decorative' tassels on elephants actually have spikes inside them to help the trainer control the elephants. Putting aside the way punishment and pain is used to train animals for the circus, they are kept in small enclosures with little or no entertainment. Log onto the Captive Animals Protection Society’s website; www.captiveanimals.org/ for more information on how you can help animals kept in captivity
MARINE PARKS AND AQUARIUMS Marine Parks and Aquariums actually take their animals directly from the wild so animals that previously had lots of space are suddenly thrust into a world of confinement. Marine Parks that use dolphins also have a direct link to the massive dolphin slaughter that takes place in Japan every year. The fishermen who catch the dolphins ruthlessly kill some (their meat is worth hundreds) and keep some to give to Marine Parks (each one of these is worth about $100,000). If the fishermen weren't paid so much for the live dolphins they capture, they would probably hunt other animals but the money they make from capturing dolphins makes it hard for greedy fishermen to refuse. HUNTING FOR ‘SPORT’ Although in recent years there has been some progress on stopping hunting with dogs, hunting of foxes, pheasants, pigeons, deer, hares and many other beautiful animals, does still continue. Although it is sometimes said to keep the population in check, it’s not necessary. These animals regularly die on the road and this is enough to keep their population down without the extra shootings for merely having been born a certain species. Sadly, there is little we who don’t hunt animals can do, except keep a close eye on bills that come into parliament and pressing our MP to vote in favour of the animals. ANIMALS USED FOR SPORT Greyhounds spend their entire lives caged and muzzled when they’re not racing. Hardly the ideal life for a sociable, highly intelligent creature. Horses used in the racing industry are equally treated as commodities rather than intelligent beings. As soon as a racing dog or horse can no longer serve ‘their purpose’ they are disposed of. Horses tend to be killed and used for horsemeat and glue. Although some retired greyhounds are later adopted into good homes, sadly most now considered ‘invaluable’ are simply shot. 27
HOW YOU CAN HELP
There is a lot we can do to help animals who unfortunately don’t have a voice to speak up for themselves. As consumers, we hold a lot of power over how companies develop their products. In the following pages you will find information on where to get animal friendly produce, how to get the message to others so they can consume ethically and how to campaign for fairer treatment for animals using the government and companies. When it comes to helping animals, it never hurts to learn from the best and one of the best animal rights campaigners was Henry Spira. He dealt with animal rights issues by being practical, understanding and looking at things from the other person’s point of view. When campaigning (and to a degree he won all the campaigns he took on) he worked with companies rather than against them and it worked. This applies to people as well as companies whether you’re trying to explain why you’re vegan or persuading a company to stop testing their products on animals. If you’re really serious about helping animals, it’s definitely worth researching into some of Henry Spira’s tactics. Good luck! 28
Although by cooking you can usually eat vegan food fairly cheaply, it’s tough if you’re not a natural cook! Unfortunately, vegan treats and ready to eat meals can be expensive as they’re not mass produced. However, there are lots of vegan replacements of your favourite foods and some treats that you may be surprised to know are vegan and you can usually get them for pretty cheap! Chocolate - lots of health food shops such as Holland and Barrett sell vegan ice cream (which isn’t much more than dairy ice cream and tastes great!), vegan chocolate and you can get many dairy free chocolate products from your local supermarket in their free-from range. Most bourbon creams are actually vegan and at as little as 40p a pack and Ruffles, most mint thins and Oreos are also vegan. Cocoa powder is vegan and can make you a lovely warm chocolatey drink to satisfy your cocoa cravings. Also, most dark chocolate has no dairy in it! If it’s too bitter for you, try melting it with some soya milk and sugar before pouring it on whatever you fancy; it’s particularly nice on chopped banana! 29
Cheese - there are many dairy free cheeses available from health food shops such as Holland and Barrett. Otherwise, to really sort your cheese pangs, try vegan cream cheese with garlic and herbs (also available from health food shops). For a cheaper option, nutritional yeast flakes, usually available from health food shops, also add a cheesey taste when sprinkled on dishes such as pizza and garlic bread. Milk – soya, oat and rice milk is now sold for a reasonable price in most supermarkets. Eggs – egg replacement powder is good for cooking, egg free mayonnaise is available in most supermarkets and and tofu can be used to make ‘scrambled egg’! Sweet cravings - many sweet things contain dairy and eggs. So, if you don’t want to buy the more expensive vegan alternatives, you’ll be pleased to know many jam tarts bakewell tarts, apple pies and strudels are also vegan! Wool/ leather etc - There are plenty of items you can get that aren’t made of wool. However, when it comes to shoes, there are many online stores where you can buy many synthetic leather shoes and belts. Otherwise, check out cheap clothes and shoe shops for plastic alternatives! Vegan Shopping www.duckdirect.com/Food/asp. (food) www.animalaidshop.org.uk/ (all) www.bboheme.com/ (clothing) www.veganstore.co.uk (all) www.beyondskin.co.uk/ (clothing) www.ethicalwares.com (clothing) www.shopvegan.co.uk/ (all) 30
Easy, Nutritious Vegan Meals ‘Be the change you want to see in the world.’ - Mahatama Ghandi It can seem daunting to get all your essential vitamins as a vegan. To ensure you get all your vitamins, it’s important to eat cereal with fortified B12 (in either the soya milk or cereal) everyday and make sure you eat lots of leafy green vegetables. Here’s some tasty, healthy, easy vegan meal ideas to get you started! Avocado salad - avocado, tomato, lettuce, cucumber, roasted seeds and nuts, butter beans and mushrooms with a splash of vinegar. Handful of roasted nuts and seeds sprinkled with salt - as long as you have this and some dried apricots, fruit and green leafy vegetables at other points throughout the day, you will have had all of your essential vitamins and minerals! Sweet potato with veg and fake meat of your choice - baked sweet potato with butter, spinach, broccoli, cauliflower, carrots and broad beans. Baked potato with beans and side salad - baked potato with margarine, beans and a salad of your choice - as long as it has lettuce in it, you have met your daily vitamin requirements. Lentil soup - cook the lentils for as long as required before adding black pepper, beans and chopped tomatoes, then liquidising. Add parsley as a finishing touch and to meet all your vitamin requirements! Shepherd’s pie with lentils - cook the lentils before adding carrots, broccoli, cauliflower, chick peas, beans and chopped tomatoes. When it’s all cooked, pop it in a casserole dish and pop mashed potato on the top. A sprinkling of vegan parmesan cheese (available in most supermarkets in the free from section) makes a particularly tasty dish! Add with a side salad for good measure! 31
Chilli - multi coloured peppers, vegan ‘mince’ (available from most health food shops including Holland and Barrett), chopped tomatoes. Boil the mince first, adding the others later and chilli powder, garlic and mixed herbs. Serve with side salad. Roast dinner - soya ‘meat’, brussel sprouts, carrots, broccoli, cauliflower, roasted potatoes, peas and swede with vegetable gravy. Stew - sprouts, potato, carrots, broccoli, cauliflower and broad beans boiled with a vegetable stock cube. Stir fry - pop onions, peppers, cabbage pieces, green beans, sweetcorn, mushrooms, beansprouts, peas and chopped carrot into the pan. Fry in a little oil and add soya sauce later before serving. Tortilla bean wrap – pop lettuce, tomato and cucumber into the bottom of a tortilla wrap. Add beans of your choice, chickpeas and egg free mayonnaise. Fruit salad - apples, mango, banana, strawberries, kiwi fruit and oranges all provide you with some of your necessary vitamins. However, as this can’t meet all your requirements, it’s also good to have a salad with roasted nuts and seeds at another point during the day. As a vegan, it’s essential that you ensure you eat plenty of foods rich in calcium as follows; Calcium Rich Foods; Fortified soya milk Almonds and almond milk Green leafy vegetables such as kale and spinach Swede Broccoli Tofu 32
PRODUCTS TESTED ON ANIMALS Co-op and Marks and Spencers own brands are completely cruelty free and BUAV approved. Aldi and Tescos own brand make up isn’t tested on animals. Also Avon and Revlon no longer test the final product or ingredients on animals. By ordering your free copy of The Cruelty Free Book from BUAV you can find out about many more companies that stock and deliver cruelty free make up. You can also download lists of companies that do and don’t test on animals from the PETA website. For pet foods that aren’t tested on animals, choose supermarket ownbrands. By letting the companies that do test on animals, know how you feel, you are encouraging them to change their policy. Furthermore, if you spread the word to others so they will also write to them, this will make even more of an impact and hopefully result in a ‘no animal testing’ policy. Some companies don’t test their final product on animals but their ingredients are tested on animals so they’re not always telling the full truth when claiming their products already aren’t tested on animals!
Spreading the word is one of the most important parts of helping animals because so much is spent on spreading the complete opposite! Millions is spent on telling people that testing on animals is essential for human health and that meat and dairy are good for your diet. There are many ways that you can spread the word from simple badges on your bag to information stalls in your local town centre. Here’s some ideas for how you can spread the word; Put a link or widget to an animal welfare website or with an animal rights action on your website, myspace/facebook page or email (as a signature). PETA2, Voice (speakfortheanimals.webs.com) and IFAW (International Fund for Animal Welfare) have many to choose from! Use window stickers, badges, t-shirts and stickers to get important messages across. Write letters to the editor of your local newspaper or favourite magazines, on current animal welfare topics in the media and make others aware of the animals’ point of view. If you are confident, you can talk to schools about animal rights issues. Animal Aid hold workshops to train you for this and will then put you in touch with schools as soon as you’re ready to start! You can post links to videos and animal rights/ welfare pages on popular blogs or news sites with your email address if people want more information. You could get together with like-minded animal lovers and have a vegan food stall with leaflets and free vegan food so people can see how tasty it really is and why people are vegan! 34
SPREADING THE WORD
Could you be an undercover investigator for groups such as PETA and Animal Aid? If you can deal with seeing some quite hardhitting things for the sake of animal welfare, you may be the person for the job! If you want to find out more (undercover videos are an excellent way to let people know what animal cruelty takes place in certain farms and labs), get in contact with PETA, Aukland Animal Action, Animal Liberation Victoria, Compassionate Action For Animals, Animal Aid or East Bay Animal Advocates. Order some free vegetarian starter kits from PETA and ask to pop a load in your local health food shop, colleges and other suitable places. You could see if your local college or library would allow you to set up a display board. If you can, you could put up posters, leaflets and all sorts to show all the information about a certain animal welfare issue. This is a great way to get the message across as it’s fun to do, doesn’t take long and can reach loads of people in minutes! You can order free leaflets from PETA and Animal Aid. A simple leaflet delivery in your local area, can spread the word direct to people’s doorsteps! For more ideas about how to spread the word and other ways you can help, log onto speakfortheanimals.webs.com.
When spreading the word, it’s important to do it in a positive, friendly way. Because animal rights/welfare is such an emotional issue, it can cause strong feelings from both sides leading to unpleasant discussions. Sadly, animal rights already has a bit of a bad name because of this and people will often focus on animal rights terrorism more than the animals who desperately need help.
Some basic points to remember when engaging with people are; • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Don't criticise, condemn or complain. Give honest and sincere appreciation. Become genuinely interested in other people. Smile! Be a good listener. Encourage others to talk about themselves. Talk in terms of the other person's interests. Make the other person feel important - and do it sincerely. The only way to get the best of an argument is to avoid it. Show respect for the other person's opinions. Never say, "You're wrong." If you are wrong, admit it quickly and emphatically. Begin in a friendly way. Let the other person do a great deal of the talking. Try honestly to see things from the other person's point of view. Be sympathetic with the other person's ideas and desires. Appeal to the nobler motives. Throw down a challenge. Call attention to people's mistakes indirectly. Talk about your own mistakes before criticising the other person. Ask questions instead of giving direct orders. Let the other person save face. Praise the slightest improvement. Give the other person a fine reputation to live up to. Make the other person happy about doing the thing you suggest. 36
Companies While not buying from companies that involve animal cruelty is brilliant, by letting them know, they’re more likely to change as they’ll know what their customers want. The more letters a company gets, the more likely they are to make a change so every letter counts. Peaceful protesting is also a good way to show others what some companies do and embarass them into introducing more ethical policies. Check out action alerts from Animal Aid and PETA for the latest campaigning issues. Political Campaigning Your MP is basically your voice; they are there to represent you so never miss an opportunity to let them know what is important to you. Rarely, an MP will introduce a member’s bill but most bills are introduced by political parties. Once a bill is introduced and MPs start to vote on it, you have the power to persuade your MP to vote in an animal friendly way. However, EDMs are also a good way to bring the Government’s attention to animal welfare issues. EDMs (Early Day Motions) are petitions for MPs and can sometimes lead to bills if not greater awareness among politcians. By logging onto www.vote4animals.org.uk you can find out what current EDMs and bills are being discussed in government, the contact details of your MP and how they voted following discussion of the EDM/ bill. Tips for Letter Writing Campaigns; • Be polite! • Note alternatives/ compromise/ how this benefits the company, where possible. • Make it short, simple and to the point. These are busy people and probably won’t have time to read through a long letter. • If you can put in facts or statistics that are likely to sway them to your line of thinking, this is often effective. • Follow up if you’ve received no response after a couple of weeks. If you keep on sending letters and are getting no response, try sending it recorded delivery; this will make them take notice as recorded delivery mail that hasn’t been answered can be used as evidence in a lawsuit! 37
YOUR GARDEN Your garden can be a haven for wildlife with the right foods and plants in it. However, it can also be hell with a number of hazards lurking round the corner. Bird food - will need to be done everyday as birds will rely on it. Bird tables are a good way of keeping birds safe from cats while they eat. Traditional plants, especially lavender and Buddleias - a favourite for butterflies and the bumble bee. To stop your cat killing small animals, put a collar with a bell on your cat and keep them in between 7pm and 7am when most of the animals they catch are looking for food. Many forms of litter kill animals; animals can get trapped in bottles and even spilt antifreeze which is quite sweet, is poisonous. Uncovered drains and ponds can catch unsuspecting wildlife. Check compost heaps thoroughly before burning them! Insecticides kill many animals. Take a look at our website (details on the contents page) for humane ways to deter certain garden animals.
CAR ACCIDENTS Unfortunately, with an ever increasing population, this means more cars on the road and more of a chance of animals getting run over. Most animals come out at night, so one way to prevent this happening is by reducing night time driving. If you do ever come across an animal injured at the side of the road, the RSPCA (0300 1234 999) should be able to help once you have moved the animal to a safe area.
Thank you so much for reading this book. We tried to choose pictures and information that wouldn’t be too upsetting but also wanted to convey the reality of the issues discussed. We hope that you weren’t upset by the pictures and information because as upsetting as it may be, please hold hope in the fact that you have the power to change it. For more information on helping animals, please log onto our website; speakfortheanimals.webs.com! 39
For centuries we have been able to use animals for food, clothing, entertainment and even experiments. One reason we’ve been able to do this is their apparent lack of awareness and feeling emotions to the same degree as humans. But what if our assumption is wrong? The last time humans made this assumption, it enabled the slave trade, women having no rights and even the Holocaust. This book provides you with amazing stories and examples of the huge capacity of animals’ emotions. And asks if animals do feel as much as the evidence suggests, how much are we making them suffer?
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