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Unparticle
Unparticle physics is a speculative theory that conjectures matter that cannot be explained in terms of particles, because its
components are scale invariant.

Howard Georgi proposed this theory in the spring of 2007 in the papers Unparticle Physics and Another Odd Thing About
Unparticle Physics. His papers were followed by a steady flow of further investigations by many other researchers into the
properties and phenomenology of unparticle physics and its potential impact on particle physics, astrophysics, cosmology, CP
violation, lepton flavor violation, muon decay, neutrino oscillations, and supersymmetry.

Contents

1 Background
2 Properties
3 References
4 External links

Background

All particles exist in a state with a certain energy, momentum and mass. In most of the Standard Model of particle physics,
particles of the same type cannot exist in another state with all these properties scaled up or down by a common factor –
electrons, for example, always have the same mass regardless of their energy or momentum. But this is not always the case:
massless particles, such as photons, can exist with their properties scaled equally. This immunity to scaling is called "scale
invariance".

The idea of unparticles comes from conjecturing that there may be "stuff" that does not necessarily have zero mass but is still
scale-invariant, with the same physics regardless of a change of length (or equivalently energy). This stuff is unlike particles, and
described as unparticle.

Such unparticle stuff has not been observed, which suggests that if it exists, it must couple with normal matter weakly at
observable energies. Since the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will begin probing a higher energy frontier in 2008, some theoretical
physicists have begun to consider the properties of unparticle stuff and how it may appear in LHC experiments. One of the great
hopes for the LHC is that it might come up with some discoveries that will help us update or replace our best description of the
particles that make up matter and the forces that glue them together.

Properties
Unparticles would have properties in common with neutrinos, which have almost zero mass and are therefore nearly scale
invariant. Neutrinos barely interact with matter – most of the time physicists can only infer their presence by calculating the
"missing" energy and momentum after an interaction. By looking at the same interaction many times, a probability distribution is
built up that tells more specifically how many and what sort of neutrinos are involved. They couple very weakly to ordinary matter
at low energies, and the effect of the coupling increases as the energy increases.

A similar technique could be used to search for evidence of unparticles. According to scale invariance, a distribution containing
unparticles would become apparent because it would resemble a distribution for a fractional number of massless particles.

This scale invariant sector would interact very weakly with the rest of the Standard Model, making it possible to observe evidence
for unparticle stuff, if it exists. The unparticle theory is a high-energy theory that contains both Standard Model fields and
Banks-Zaks fields, which have scale-invariant behavior at an infrared point. The two fields can interact through the interactions of
ordinary particles if the energy of the interaction is sufficiently high.

These particle interactions would appear to have "missing" energy and momentum that would not be detected by the
experimental apparatus. Certain distinct distributions of missing energy would signify the production of unparticle stuff. If such
signatures are not observed, bounds on the model can be set and refined.

This idea of unparticle was previously considered by Smarandache in 2004, 2005 and 2006 when he uploaded a paper on CERN
web site and he published three papers about what he called 'unmatter', which is a new form of matter formed by matter and
antimatter that bind together, and in 2006 by Goldfain who formulated the concept of 'fractional number of a field quanta'.

References

Howard Georgi (19 April 2007). Another Odd Thing About Unparticle Physics. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
Howard Georgi (23 March 2007). Unparticle Physics. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
F. Smarandache, Matter, Antimatter, and Unmatter, CERN web site, EXT-2005-142, http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/798551,
2004.
F. Smarandache, “Verifying Unmatter by Experiments, More Types of Unmatter, and A Quantum Chromodynamics Formula”,
Progress in Physics, Vol. 2, 113-116, 2005;

an improved version in “Infinite Energy”, Concord, NH, USA, 36-39, vol. 12, Issue 67, 2006.

E. Goldfain, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 2006, v. 28, 913.


e. Goldfain, A Brief Note on 'Un-Particle' Physics, progress in Physics, v. 3, L1, 2008.

External links

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