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احمد عبدالسلم منصور الفقي Section (1)
CNC Machine Components: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Machine structure (Base, Column, Bed). Guideways. Spindle & Spindle Bearings. Ballscrews. Torque Transmission units. 6. Tool Changing Mechanism. 7. Coupling & Connection. Machine Structure:
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Bed: It is the means of holding and moving the work and tool. It comes under the linking structure and generally made up of cast iron. It is made up of cast iron. it supports the table mounted on base guideways. Table: It is placed upon the saddle for the purpose of holding the work piece and moving it in desired position in X axis on commanding. Page 3 of 22 . with column it is possible to move head up on down and perform the process of cutting or milling. Column: This is vertical orientation made of cast iron.
Page 4 of 22 .Saddle: The mechanical components of the machine must be rigid and strong to support the quickly moving parts.
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Today. Page 6 of 22 . most machines make liberal use of weldments of hot-rolled steel and wrought products such as stainless steel to reduce cost and allow fabrication of more intricate frame designs.Cast iron used to be the material of choice for metal-working machines.
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As the shaft turns. a bearing mount follows the spiral grooves in the shaft and produces a very accurate linear movement that moves either the worktable under the spindle. These ballscrews are bolted to the base with the bearing mount bolted to the worktable or spindle carrier. Page 8 of 22 . These change rotary motion of the drive motors into linear motion and consist of a screw shaft and support bearings. or the spindle carrier itself.Ballscrews: • The mechanisms that move the bed or spindle are called ballscrews.
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Spindle • The spindle is machined and ground. and then bolted to the movable spindle carrier. Each axis of motion has a separate ballscrew and set of ways in most machining center. mounted to its drive motor. Page 10 of 22 .
CNC Machine Guideways: Page 11 of 22 .
Page 12 of 22 . Linear guide ways with zero backlash ensures consistent cutting surface on curve or slope cutting. 3. 2. By using rolling contact instead of sliding contact. The loading capacity is high on multiple directions. 4. Suitable for high speed travel and the power requirement is minimized.High speed high accuracy linear guide way 1. Cutting rigidity can be ensured. linear guide reduces friction loss but increases positioning accuracy.
Long service life is guaranteed by its high durability.5. Hydrostatic Guideways: Page 13 of 22 .
Advantages of Hydrostatic Linear Guideways : • Superior vibration damping • Improved hard turning capabilities • Significantly longer tool life • Longer machine life • Increased axis speeds • Improved part roundness • Improved part surface finish Page 14 of 22 .
which exits between the faces in contact. hardened steel rails with special guide forms (figure.. To reduce the problem of machining an accurate form on the bed of the machine.) may be bolted on the casting of the machine tool.15 for lubricated steel sliding on steel. rollers or needles: Because of the problem of metal to metal contact the relative high amount of friction is generated.Linear bearings with balls.. typically 0. The rollers are in contact with the guideways machined on the bed of the machine. A number of machines have flat roller bearings fitted to the carriages to provide a rolling motion rather than sliding motion. Page 15 of 22 ..
Tool Changing Mechanism: Page 16 of 22 .
Page 17 of 22 .The CU system is a mechanical cam-driven tool changer that combines an intermittent series of linear and rotary movements necessary to change the tool: -cone gripping -extraction (from the tool pocket and from the spindle) -changeover -insertion (in the tool pocket and in the spindle) -release A mechanical tool safety lock on the gripper holder arm makes sure the tools are transferred safely during the changeover phase.
Tool extraction station operated by a pneumatic cylinder Rigid Coupling Page 18 of 22 .
Types of Rigid Couplings:1. Page 19 of 22 . allowing the motor. hence it is necessary for the shafts that are to be connected to be in good alignment. placed on the motor shaft between the motor face and coupling. are self-aligning. or on the shaft bearings.3 Flange coupling Easiest. lowest cost. and make a 100% connection from motor to screw. for CNC routers and cnc lathes. in order excessive loads on the coupling.2 Clamp coupling 1.This type of coupling has no flexibility or resilience. they are easily available. Rigid couplings do not accommodate misalignment and consequently should not be used indiscriminately. on the shafts. both laterally and angularity. coupling and screw a total direct connection with almost zero end play. one trick when using a solid coupling is to use a simple thrust washer. using a thrust washer will take any linear load of the screw. do not damage the motor shaft.1 Sleeve or muff coupling 1.
Driving System: Page 20 of 22 .
Types Of Drives: Page 21 of 22 .
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