Muslimah’s Handbook of Purity

According to the Hanafi Madhab Adopted and Updated from:
1. The Laws of Menstruation, Postnatal Bleeding, & Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding By Rashida Esakjee & Abdur-Rahman in Yusuf 2. Taleemul Haq 3. Bahishti Zewar 4. Nural-Idah 5. Mukhtasar Al-Qaduri

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Table of Contents
Introduction to Terminologies in the Hanafi Madhab ............................................................................................ 5 Chapter 1: Book of Menstruation & Cleanliness .................................................................................................... 6 Menstruation..................................................................................................................................................... 6 Prohibitions during Menstruation & Postnatal Bleeding ..................................................................................... 6 Ending Menstruation & change in Cycle ............................................................................................................. 7 Ending Menstruation & Sexual Intercourse ........................................................................................................ 8 Fasting ............................................................................................................................................................... 8 Miscellaneous Rulings ........................................................................................................................................ 9 Laws of Dysfunctional Uterine bleeding (Istihada) and the Excused person ........................................................ 9 Postnatal Bleeding (Nifas) ................................................................................................................................ 10 Fatwa on the Different Types of Discharge ....................................................................................................... 11 What is Puberty? ............................................................................................................................................. 11 Chart to record Haydh (Example 1) .................................................................................................................. 13 Chart to record Haydh (Example 2) .................................................................................................................. 14 Verdict on the usage of Tampons ..................................................................................................................... 15 Verdict on permanent body hair removal......................................................................................................... 16 Verdict on using a Razor for body hair removal ................................................................................................ 18 Ruling on impure washing body or clothes ....................................................................................................... 18 Chapter 2: Book of Purity ..................................................................................................................................... 19 Filth (Najassah)................................................................................................................................................ 19 Najaasah Haqeeqi ........................................................................................................................................ 19 Cleaning Najaasah Haqeeqi.......................................................................................................................... 20 How much impurity is Excused? ................................................................................................................... 20 Chapter 3: Book of Istinjaaa................................................................................................................................. 21 Practical Istinjaaa: Summarised ....................................................................................................................... 21 Rules of Istinjaaa ............................................................................................................................................. 22 Things that one should abstain from when passing stool or urinating ........................................................... 23 Unsuitable items for Istinjaa ........................................................................................................................ 24 Suitable items for Istinjaa............................................................................................................................. 24 Purification of Impurities ................................................................................................................................. 24 Rules regarding purities & impurities ........................................................................................................... 27 Chapter 4: Book of Islamic Bath (Ghus’l) .............................................................................................................. 30 Practical Bath: Summarised ............................................................................................................................. 30 Rules of Islamic Bath (Ghus’l) ........................................................................................................................... 30 What is Ghus’l? 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Ghus’l becomes Obligatory, when... ............................................................................................................. 30 What kind of Water is suitable for Ghus’l?.................................................................................................... 31 What kind of Water is unsuitable for Ghus’l?................................................................................................ 31 Fardh (Obligatory) Acts of Ghus’l? ................................................................................................................ 31 Sunnah Acts of Ghus’l?................................................................................................................................. 31 Chapter 5: Book of Ablution (Wudhu) .................................................................................................................. 33 Wudhu: Summarised ....................................................................................................................................... 33 Rules of Ablution (Wudhu) ............................................................................................................................... 35 What is Wudhu?........................................................................................................................................... 35 When is Wudhu needed? ............................................................................................................................. 35 What kind of Water is suitable for Wudhu? .................................................................................................. 35 What kind of Water is unsuitable for Wudhu? .............................................................................................. 35 Fardh (Obligatory) Acts of Wudhu? .............................................................................................................. 35 Sunnah Acts of Wudhu? ............................................................................................................................... 36 Mustahab (Preferred) Acts of Wudhu? ......................................................................................................... 36 Makrooh (undesirable) Acts of Wudhu? ....................................................................................................... 36 Nawaqidh Nullifiers of Wudhu?.................................................................................................................... 36 Chapter 6: Book of Dry Ablution (Tayammum)..................................................................................................... 37 Tayammum: Summarised ................................................................................................................................ 37 Rules of Dry Ablution (Tayammum) ................................................................................................................. 37 What is Tayammum? ................................................................................................................................... 37 Tayammum is permitted; ............................................................................................................................. 37 Tayammum is not permitted;....................................................................................................................... 37 Tayammum is permitted with; ..................................................................................................................... 38 Tayammum is not permitted with; ............................................................................................................... 38 Fardh (Obligatory) Acts of Tayammum? ....................................................................................................... 38 Chapter 7: Book of Masah on Khuffain (Socks)..................................................................................................... 39 Conditions for Masah ...................................................................................................................................... 39 Practical Masah Alal Khuffain........................................................................................................................... 39 Masail (issues) pertaining to Masah Alal Khuffain ............................................................................................ 39 Appendix A: The Hijab of Women and its Boundaries........................................................................................... 41 The Issue of the Hijab of Women and its Boundaries........................................................................................ 41 The Position of the Hanafis on the Ruling of Looking at a Woman .................................................................... 45 The Maliki Position .......................................................................................................................................... 46 The Shafi’i Position .......................................................................................................................................... 47 The Hanbali Position ........................................................................................................................................ 47 http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 3 of 60

Appendix B: Female Islamic Dress-Code ............................................................................................................... 50 Appendix C: A Comprehensive Guide to a Woman's Nakedness (awra) ................................................................ 53 The Awra of a woman ...................................................................................................................................... 53 Awra inside prayer (Salat) ................................................................................................................................ 53 Awra outside prayer ........................................................................................................................................ 54 Awra in privacy and seclusion....................................................................................................................... 54 Awra in front of the husband ....................................................................................................................... 55 Awra in front of Muslim women................................................................................................................... 55 Awra in front of (Muslim) Mahrams (unmarriageable kin) ............................................................................ 55 Awra in front of non-Mahram males ............................................................................................................ 56 Awra in front of non-Muslim women ........................................................................................................... 57 Awra in front of non-Muslim Mahrams ........................................................................................................ 58

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Introduction to Terminologies in the Hanafi Madhab
Term Definition Fardh (Plural Fara’idh, implies It is an act which is established from Daleel Qat’ii (Absolute proof), Obligatory) whoever leaves it out without a valid excuse will be termed a Faasiq (sinner) and will be deserving of punishment and whoever rejects it will become a Kaafir (unbeliever). Fidya (Financial Feeding appropriate number of needy persons for designated Compensation/Ransom) number of times in lieu of each missed Fast. Halal/Mubah (Permissible) That which is permissible in Shariah and a person won't be punished on leaving it out. Some Ulama (Scholars) make a distinction between Halal and Mubah with “Halal” being for which no clear prohibition has been mentioned, and Mubah is where a choice has been given. Haram (Prohibited) The opposite of Halal is Haram and it refers to an action which is divinely prohibited, established through Daleel Qat’ii (Absolute proof) and the person carrying it out will be entitled to the punishment of the (fire of hell). A person who carries this out will be termed a Faasiq (sinner) and will be deserving of punishment and whoever rejects it will become a Kaafir (unbeliever). Kaffarah (Penance, Atonement, In Islamic law it refers to redemption from the omission of certain Expiation) religious duties by a material donation or a ritual act. Makrooh Tahreemi It is that which is established with a Daleel Dhanni (Speculative (Prohibitively Disliked) proof). A person who refuses it will be a Faasiq (sinner), and who practices upon it will be a sinner. When Makrooh is mentioned alone it refers to Makrooh Tahreemi. Makrooh Tanzeehi (Disliked) A person won't be punished for doing it, but will be rewarded for leaving it out, and it is better to leave it. If the proof is not a clear prohibition but only a mere suggestion it's Makrooh Tanzeehi. Mustahab (Plural Mustahabbat, 'It is that action which Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) or implies Recommended) Sahabah (RA) practiced upon occasionally and by practicing upon it a person will be rewarded but leaving it out won’t incur a sin. Naf’l (Plural Nawafil, implies According to the jurists it has a similar ruling to that of Mustahab. Optional acts of worship) Qadha (Carrying out or Fulfilling) In Islamic Jurisprudence it refers to fulfilling or completing those duties that one may have missed due to some reason or the other. Sunnah (Plural Sunan) It refers to the statements, actions and approvals of Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and also refers to the actions and statements of Sahabah (companions). A person will be encouraged to carry it out without it being imposed on him. Waajib (Plural Waajibaat, It is that which is established from Daleel Dhanni (Speculative implies Necessary) proof), whoever leaves it out without a valid excuse will be termed a Faasiq (sinner) and will be deserving of punishment. Whoever rejects it will also be a Faasiq (sinner) but not a Kaafir (unbeliever).

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Chapter 1: Book of Menstruation & Cleanliness
Menstruation (Haydh), postnatal bleeding (Nifas) and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (Istihada) all flow from the vagina. Each one is considered different and there are specific rulings related to each of them.

Menstruation
1. Menstruation (Haydh) is that blood, which the womb of a mature female excretes and that is not the result of any illness, pregnancy, or that is post-menopausal. 2. Its minimum duration is three days and its maximum is ten days. A day refers to a 24-hour period. Hence, the minimum menstruation period would be 72 hours. 3. Discharge of any colour—red, yellow, muddy, green, black, or earthy which a woman sees in the days of menstrual bleeding is considered menstrual discharge and her menstruation will continue until the discharge is pure white or there is no discharge. Once blood flows onto the external skin of the vagina (i.e., out of the inner lips), (Haydh) commences. This is irrespective of whether it flows out to the outer lips or not. If some cotton, a pad, or a tampon is inserted into the vagina whereby the blood cannot flow out, then as long as the blood remains in the vagina and no blood is seen on the outside of the cotton, menstruation has not commenced. When blood appears onto the inner lips of the vaginal opening (or on the external visible area of the inserted cotton wool), menstruation will commence from the time the blood is seen. Example: If a woman inserted a piece of cotton or tissue in the internal vagina at night and in the morning she saw blood on the tissue, menstruation will be calculated from the time she saw the blood. It is disliked (Makrooh) for a woman to use tampons or to insert anything into the inner vagina (Radd alMuhtaar). 4. The minimum duration of purity (Tuhr) or duration of cleanliness between two cycles is 15 days. If a woman, after completing her cycle begins to bleed again within 15 days, it will not be considered the start of a new cycle. 5. There is no maximum duration for purity. Hence, a woman will remain pure as long as she does not bleed, even if it extends to several months or years. 6. If a day or more of purity falls within the ten-day period of menstruation, it will be [treated] as [continuously] flowing blood (Quduri). Example: A woman bleeds for three days and then does not see blood for two days. Then, she bleeds for one day; all six days will be considered menstruation. 7. A girl below the age of nine does not menstruate. If such a girl notices blood, it is bleeding due to some illness and will be considered dysfunctional uterine bleeding (Istihada), not menstruation.

Prohibitions during Menstruation & Postnatal Bleeding
During the time a woman is menstruating or experiencing postnatal bleeding, the following eight activities are prohibited: 1. Salaah (Ritual Prayer) a. It is also not permissible for her to perform a prostration of gratitude (Sajdah Shukr) or prostration of recitation (Sajda Tilawa). 2. Fasting: Obligatory or otherwise 3. Recitation of even a single verse of the Holy Qur’an: http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 6 of 60

4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

a. Reading less than a verse without the intention of reciting the Qur’an is permissible, such as reciting Al-hamudu lillah “All praise is for Allah,” with the intention of gratitude or the recitation of Bismi ’llah “In the name of Allah,” before eating (Al-Lubab 43). b. It is permissible to read a word from a verse (ayat) or (according to another opinion) even half a verse, as long as it does not equal a short verse. c. It is permissible to recite a verse or more with the intention of supplication (dua’). For instance, the entire Surat Al-Fatiha can be recited with the intention of dua’. Likewise, any other verse or chapter from the Qur’an can be recited with the intention of dua’ as long as they contain words indicative of supplication and there is no sin in this. d. If a woman is teaching Qur’an to students, then it will be permissible for her to spell out the words bit by bit and not recite the entire verse altogether. She can read one or two words at a time, breaking her breath in between. e. It is permissible to take the name of Allah, read dua’, send salutations and blessings (Salawaat) on the Messenger of Allah e, to recite prayers of forgiveness (Istighfaar) or any other dhikr (remembrance). Touching the Qur’an: However, it is permissible to touch the Qur’an with a covering, such as a cloth sleeve or bag, but not a covering that is permanently attached to the Qur’an. It is also not permissible to touch the Qur’an with a portion of one’s garment, such as the sleeve or the edge of a dress while one is wearing them (Shar. al-Hidaya of Imam Abd al-Hay Lachnawi (RA)) Entering the masjid: It is permissible for a menstruating woman to enter a musallah (temporary place of prayer) or the place where Eid prayer is performed as long as it is not in a masjid. The laws regarding the impermissibility of entering the Masjid are not applicable to the prayer room which is not a Shar’i Masjid. Circumambulation (Tawaf ) of the Holy Ka’bah. Sexual intercourse. Sexual enjoyment from the navel to below the knees of a menstruating woman. a. Therefore, other than intimacy (without a covering) or looking at the above mentioned area, all other types of intimacy and sexual enjoyment are permissible. There is absolutely no problem in the husband and wife eating, drinking, and sleeping together during her menstruation.

Ending Menstruation & change in Cycle
1. A woman’s menstruation will end when her bleeding stops and her discharge is clear. At this point, she will perform the ritual purification and perform her prayer if a prayer time has entered. 2. A woman’s norm in menstruation is determined by the number of days of normal bleeding and the duration of purity she experienced in the previous month. Example: A woman bled for seven days in the previous month or previous two months and remained free from menstruation for 23 days. Her norm will be considered seven days of menstruation for the following months unless the number of day she menstruates changes. Note: Many laws of menstruation depend on a woman knowing her norm. It is advisable for a woman to keep track of her cycles as this will be very useful to her in situations involving dysfunctional uterine bleeding. 3. A woman whose norm of menstruation is seven days, but in some months after bathing on the seventh day and praying she bleeds again, she will in such cases delay her bath until the end of the musta.ab time of prayer and then take a bath and pray. However, if the bleeding resumes she will not pray. She will do this for each subsequent prayer time until she is certain that her bleeding has stopped. 4. A woman whose norm of menstruation is seven days, but one month she happens to stop bleeding on the fourth day. She should begin to fast and pray. However, it will be necessary for her to delay the prayer http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 7 of 60

until the end of the mustahab time, and sexual intercourse will remain unlawful for her until she completes seven days, due to the possibility of further menstruation. 5. A woman had a habit of three days, but one month continued to bleed after the three days were over. She should not have a purificatory bath or offer any prayer. If she stops bleeding within ten days and ten nights then the prayers for all these days will be excused and she will not have to offer any makeup prayers (qada). Her norm will be considered to have changed and all the days will be considered menstruation. However, if she continued to bleed on the 11th day as well, then only the first three days will be considered menstruation, according to her norm, and the remaining days of bleeding will be istihada. She will have to take a bath and offer the seven days of prayer she missed. The same principal is extended to a woman, who has a norm in her postnatal bleeding.

Ending Menstruation & Sexual Intercourse
1. Intercourse is permitted without having a ritual bath if the menstruation ends at ten days and nights (the maximum duration of menstruation) and after having a bath if it ends earlier. 2. However, if a woman stopped bleeding before ten days (for instance, on her norm of seven days) toward the end of a prayer time and had enough time to have a purificatory bath and say the opening takbir (tahrima), then the prayer of that time becomes obligatory upon her and she will have to perform qada of this prayer. In that case, intercourse will be permissible without having a bath. 3. If she only had enough time to take a purificatory bath and not enough time to dress and say the takbir, the prayer will not be obligatory upon her. In this case, intercourse will be permissible only after a bath. Example: If a women stopped bleeding at .uhr time with only enough time to take a bath and say the takbir, the Duhr prayer becomes obligatory on her. She has to make it up because she entered into a state of purity within its time. In this case, it is permissible for her to have sexual intercourse without having a bath after the time of Duhr expires. However, if she had enough time to bathe, dress, and complete her prayer before the time of Duhr prayer expired, then it will be necessary for her to bathe and pray. If she did not pray she will have to make it up later and it will be sinful for leaving it, even though it will still be permissible for her to have sexual intercourse without bathing once the time of .uhr is over. If she did not have enough time to bathe, dress, and at least say the opening takbir, a makeup will not be necessary, and sexual intercourse will only be permissible after bathing. Note: A woman having enough time to bathe takes into consideration the time taken in removing clothing, performing the obligatory (Fardh) components of a ritual bath, dressing and saying the takbir. Also, it is recommended to take a bath before having sexual intercourse even in those cases where bathing is not considered necessary. 4. If the bleeding ceases at mid-morning, intercourse is permitted after she has had a purificatory bath. If she does not perform a purificatory bath, then intercourse is unlawful until the time of the .uhr prayer expires. In this case she will be considered sinful for missing the Duhr prayer. 5. If her menstruation was for a full ten days and ten nights and she stopped bleeding at the end of a prayer time with only enough time to say Allahu Akbar and there was not sufficient time to bathe; the prayer will still become necessary upon her. She will make it up after bathing.

Fasting
1. If a woman stopped bleeding at night in Rama.an after ten days of menstruation, she will have to fast that day, even if she stopped menstruating just a minute before dawn. 2. If she stopped bleeding in Rama.an during the day, it will not be proper for her to eat or drink for the rest of the day. It is necessary for her to behave like a fasting person until sunset, even though it will not be http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 8 of 60

considered a fast for her, and she will have to make up it up later. This is different from the day her menses begin, it is permissible for her to eat and drink on that day and on all the days she is not fasting. 3. If she stopped bleeding at night in Rama.an within ten days, and she had time in which she could at least take a purificatory bath and say the takbir, then she will have to fast that day. If she ends her menstruation with less time than this, she will not fast that day, but will have to abstain from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse until after sunset. She will be obligated to make up the fast after Ramadhan. 4. If she had the time, but did not take a bath, then she will still fast that day, and take the bath as soon as possible and perform the Fajr prayer. 5. A menstruating woman or one who has experienced child birth must make up any fasts that were missed. However, she is not obligated to offer the missed prayers.

Miscellaneous Rulings
1. If a woman begins to bleed while offering her Fajr prayer, the Salah will become invalidated and she will not have to make it up later. However, if she was offering an optional or Sunnah prayer, it will be invalidated and qada will be necessary after completing her menstruation. 2. If she begins to bleed while fasting, that fast will break, and she will have to make it up later. This applies both to an obligatory or optional fast. 3. If she begins to bleed at the end of a prayer time and had not offered her prayer yet, she will not perform that prayer and will not have to make it up. The principal to remember in this case is that the woman’s condition at the end of the prayer time is taken into consideration. 4. During menstruation, it is recommended (Mustahab) for a woman that she perform ablution at the time of prayer, sit where she normally prays, and engage herself in the remembrance of Allah, the Most High, so that she does not lose the habit of praying or become lazy. 5. If bathing was necessary on a woman due to sexual intercourse or waking up from a wet dream, but before she could have a bath, her menstruation began, she is not obligated to have a bath until her menstruation is over. And in that situation, one bath will suffice for both conditions. 6. It is disliked (Makrooh) for a menstruating woman to bathe a dead person. 7. If she hears a verse of prostration (Sajda Tilawa) during menstruation, prostration is not compulsory for her.

Laws of Dysfunctional Uterine bleeding (Istihada) and the Excused person
The blood of istihada is that blood which a woman sees for less than three days or for more than ten days, i.e. beyond the maximum of menstruation, or for more than 40 days after child-birth (Quduri). Dysfunctional uterine bleeding falls into the same category as that of other problems which make it difficult to retain the ablution (chronic annulment of Wudhu), such as the continuous passing of gases or intermittent drops of urine. Anyone suffering from such problems normally falls into the category of the excused person for whom there are special laws for Wudhu and prayer. These will be mentioned hereunder. 1. A woman suffering from dysfunctional uterine bleeding or has difficulty retaining her ablution will perform ablution for the time of each obligatory prayer. And, with that Wudhu is permissible for her that she prays as many obligatory or optional prayers as she desires during that prayer time. 2. The ablution of such a person will not be considered nullified with the recurrence of that ailment which prevents them from maintaining the Wudhu. However, the Wudhu will be nullified with all other nullifiers and with the expiry of the prayer time.

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3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Example: A woman is considered an excused person due to the chronic passing of gas. If during the prayer, she passes gas, her Wudhu will not be nullified. However, if she laughs aloud during the prayer or vomits, her Wudhu will be considered null. A person only qualifies as an excused person (i.e., one suffering from chronic annulment of Wudhu) when the problem remains for the complete duration of an obligatory prayer time in a way that the person cannot perform the ablution or prayer without its absence. The condition for the continuation of this excused state after it has been established is that the problem reoccurs at least once during every subsequent prayer time. One no longer remains in this state when the complete time of an obligatory prayer lapses without the problem occurring even once. It is necessary for one suffering from the chronic annulment of Wudhu to change one’s clothing if they become impure. This is provided that after changing one’s clothes, one can complete ones prayer before the clothes become soiled again. If this is not possible then one can pray with the soiled clothing. If a woman suffering from dysfunctional uterine bleeding forgets the number of days of her normal menstruation cycle, but remembers when it occurred each month, she will abandon her prayer for three days from the first day when her menstruation normally occurs. Regarding these three days she can be sure that they are menstruation. For the following seven days, she shall perform a bath for each .alat, because of the uncertainty of whether it is dysfunctional uterine bleeding or menstruation. She will also perform with every prayer, a makeup of the previous prayer during these seven days because of the uncertainty of exactly when she became pure and the possibility of her menstruation having ended after the previous Fardh prayer. Then, for the following 20 days she shall perform ablution for each prayer— this can be regarded as her purity period. It is lawful for her in the period of purity to have sexual relations with her husband. If she can recall the number of days, for example, three, but not when it occurred, then she shall pray for three days from the beginning of the month with a fresh ablution for each prayer because of the uncertainty of whether she is in menstruation or purity. Then, for the following 27 days she shall bathe for each prayer because of the possibility that she may have finished her menstruation at any hour during those days. She should also perform with every prayer a makeup of the previous prayer for the same reason as above. If a girl experienced continuous bleeding at the age of nine, her menstruation will be considered to have begun. From each month ten days of bleeding will be her menstruation and the remainder will be dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

Postnatal Bleeding (Nifas)
Nifas is the blood which exits from the womb following child-birth. 1. There is no limit for the minimum duration of postnatal bleeding it can last for a day or even less, but its maximum duration is 40 days. Whatever exceeds 40 days is considered dysfunctional uterine bleeding. 2. It is obligatory for a woman to bathe when her postnatal bleeding stops. She does not have to wait for 40 days to elapse. 3. If bleeding exceeds 40 days for a woman who has given birth before and thus has a bleeding norm, for example, 23 days, she will consider her previous habit of 23 days as postnatal bleeding and the remaining days will be regarded as dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Therefore, she will have to make up the prayers and fasts for the last .7 of the 40 days. If she did not have a previous norm, then the 40 days will be regarded as postnatal bleeding. 4. If after the birth of the child no blood comes out at all, even then it will be necessary to have a bath after the delivery. 5. A woman gave birth to twins; her postnatal bleeding will begin after delivery of the first child. 6. The bleeding of a pregnant woman is considered dysfunctional uterine bleeding. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 10 of 60

7. The bleeding of a woman during child-birth before the emergence of half the child is still considered dysfunctional uterine bleeding. However, once more than half of the child comes out, any bleeding thereafter will be regarded as postnatal bleeding. This will be up to 40 days as mentioned above. 8. During labor, if a woman is conscious, she is still required to offer her prayer. If she cannot offer it with the normal postures, she will perform it with gestures (ishara). However, if, by engaging in prayer, she fears for the life of the child, she can delay her prayer. 9. Bleeding that follows a miscarriage of a fetus that has some limbs formed (usually after four months into the pregnancy, but could occur earlier) will be regarded as postnatal bleeding. 10. If no limbs have formed on the miscarried fetus then the bleeding that occurs after the miscarriage will only be considered menstruation if 15 days have lapsed since her last cycle. The bleeding should also continue for at least three days. If these conditions are not present, it will be considered dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

Fatwa on the Different Types of Discharge
In the name of Allah, the Inspirer of truth. There is a difference of opinion among the scholars concerning cervical mucus or vaginal discharge. According to Imam Abu Hanifa, because its origin is the cervix, which is the Farj Dakhil in Arabic, it is not considered impure, as long as it is not discolored, and therefore, does not break the Wudhu. According to his two students, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, it is impure, regardless of its color, and will break the Wudhu. Hence, there is a difference of opinion. Some of the later scholars based the rulings on the first view and others based it on the second view. If a women experiences excessive discharge, she should avail the first opinion which does not consider the discharge to be impure. Hence, she will not need to renew her Wudhu each time the discharge occurs. However, if the discharge does not occur frequently, it is preferable to renew the ablution and follow the path of precaution. Similarly, it is preferred that a woman wash those garments that have been affected by the discharge. However, if she is unable to do so, she can avail the more lenient option. This is all concerning the discharge which is not discolored. As for that discharge which is discolored due to Candida or any other ailment, or that discharge which is from excitement; these are considered impure by all and nullify the Wudhu. Hence, washing and renewing the Wudhu are necessary. As for ejaculatory fluid, Allama Ibn Abidin (RA) describes it as follows: “If it is watery yellow then it is the ejaculatory fluid of women” (Radd al-Muhtar). It has also been reported to be milky in color and ranging in its thickness and odor based on a woman’s diet, overall health and the phase she is experiencing within her menstrual cycle. However, to conclude, any liquid released when feeling sexual pleasure, and more conclusively upon orgasm, regardless of its color or whether it runs down the leg or not, will be impure. And Allah knows best. Abdur-Rahman ibn Yusuf

What is Puberty?
1. A girl is said to be mature if she experiences any of the following: a. The monthly menstruation after the age of nine years. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 11 of 60

b. She has a wet dream in which she ejaculates. c. She becomes pregnant. d. If none of the above take place, then when a girl reaches the age of 14 years and seven months, the equivalent of 15 Islamic years, she will be regarded as having reached the age of puberty. This is by default. 2. On reaching the age of puberty, all of the injunctions regarding prayer, fasting, etc., will become obligatory on her. She will now be responsible for her actions. 3. If a girl attains puberty before the age of 14 years and 7 months and experiences a wet dream, it will obligatory on her to have a bath.

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Chart to record Haydh (Example 1)
It is essential to keep a detailed record of Haydh to record and track your habit. It is vital that the chart below is kept up to date as when a departure from normal habit occurs, many laws of Shariah will depend on (past) information. Incase of doubt consult a competent Islamic Scholar.

Date Time (Bleeding (Bleeding Began: Began) Also Note Islamic date)

Number clean since bleeding

of Date Time days (Bleeding (Bleeding last Ended: Ended) Also Note Islamic date)

Habit (Total number of days of bleeding this month)

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Chart to record Haydh (Example 2)
Tick appropriate box on days of bleeding and record the times of beginning and ending of bleedingsThe beginning of a bleeding is when the blood flows out and reaches the edge of the vagina (or if a tampon was placed inside in the state of purity, and on removal, traces of blood was seen on it). The ending of a bleeding is when the discharge is white or clear or if there is no discharge at all.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 3 1 T I m e * T I m e &

J a n F e b M a r A p r J u n J u l A u g S e p O c t N o v D e c
* Time of Haydh beginning & Time of Haydh Ending

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Verdict on the usage of Tampons
Q) Are tampons permissible to use before marriage? In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, Menstrual blood is considered impure (Najis), thus it is important that a woman makes sure her body and cloths remain free from impurities, as purity (taharah) is part of faith. Even in the time of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace), women used various means in keeping themselves clean from the blood of menstruation. In the modern era, the usage of tampons is one of the means in controlling the flow of blood to the cloths or body. A tampon is a (usually disposable) plug that a woman inserts into her vagina during her menstrual period to absorb the flow of blood. In industrial countries, some women choose not to use tampons, due to health and/or environmental concerns. Several alternate ways of absorbing menstrual fluids are available. Women in developing countries are less likely to have these choices (including tampons) available. Some women may choose not to use tampons because they fear damaging their hymen, regarded as a proof of virginity. In some cultures, the use of tampons by virgins is discouraged because of this. As far as the Islamic perspective on using tampons for married and unmarried women is concerned, in principle it is considered to be disliked (Makrooh), for it is something that is inserted in the internal part of a woman’s vagina. The renowned Hanafi jurist (faqih), Allama Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) mentions the following points in his commentary on Imam al-Barkawi’s treatise on the fiqh of menstruation, Manhal al-waridin min bihar al-faydh ala Zukhr al-muta’ahilin fi masa’il al-Haydh: 1. Placing cotton (kursuf) (or anything that absorbs blood) on the opening of the vagina is recommended (mustahab), 2. Virgin women should place this at the time of menstrual periods and non-virgin women at all times, for non-virgins have discharge on a regular basis, so they should be precautions and have cotton placed there at all times, 3. It is a Sunnah for a woman to apply scent to the cotton or pad, so that the odour of the blood is removed, 4. It is offensive (Makrooh) to have this cotton (kursuf) inserted fully in the internal part of the vagina, because it resembles masturbation. (See: Majmu’a Rasa’il Ibn Abidin, 1/84-85) Furthermore, two points are worth noting here: Firstly, some experts are of the opinion that tampons have been shown to have a connection to toxic shock syndrome (TSS), a rare but sometimes fatal disease caused by bacterial infection. Hence, if that is the case, it would not be permitted for women, married or otherwise, to use tampons. Allah Most High says: “And make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction.” (Surah al-Baqarah, V: 195) Based on the above verse of the Qur’an and many other evidences found in the Qur’an and Sunnah, it is prohibited for one to cause harm to one’s self or another person. Hence, if it is proven that using tampons cause harm to the woman, it would not be permitted for her to use them. This can be determined by enquiring from an expert. Secondly, some people consider using tampons impermissible for unmarried and virgin women because they fear that the woman may not remain a virgin, which they believe to be a defect in the woman. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 15 of 60

This, according to the Islamic understanding, is incorrect. The hymen of a woman may be broken in many ways: Injury, accident, playing sports, riding a bicycle, penetration of any sort such as a medical examination, use of tampons, or a douche. Thus, Islam commands the husband not to suspect any wrongdoing on behalf of his spouse if he were to see her not being a virgin. A woman must not be looked down upon because of having lost her virginity. In fact, the jurists (fuqaha) state that a woman whose hymen is broken due to other than having actual sex is Islamically considered to be a virgin. Imam al-Mawsili (Allah have mercy on him) states: “If a woman lost her virginity due to jumping, injury, becoming old or (strong) menstrual periods, then she will be considered a virgin.” (al-Ikhtiyar li ta’lil al-Mukhtar, 3/116) Therefore, purely based on the fact that a woman may not remain a virgin, it would not be unlawful for a virgin woman to use tampons. In some cultures, women are greatly looked down upon or even harmed and oppressed by the husband if she lost her virginity. This is totally unIslamic and a major sin, from which we must abstain. We must also educate members of our communities that it is wrong and sinful to suspect any wrongdoing on behalf of the woman, for Islam orders us to always have good opinion about others. In fact, even if a woman lost her virginity through unlawful sexual intercourse and then repented, it would not be permitted to think low of her. After all, what guarantee is there that the man is a virgin? Having said that, it may be better for unmarried women to avoid using tampons due to the negative implications it can bring about upon marriage. However, it cannot be considered unlawful purely based on this reason. In conclusion, married and unmarried women should avoid using tampons, for firstly, it is something that is inserted internally, and secondly, using a tampon may be harmful to one’s health or at the least unhygienic, and thirdly, for unmarried women, using tampons and breaking of the hymen may (though unfortunate) cause problems after marriage. This is when it is not proven that tampons cause severe harm to the woman. However, as mentioned above, if it is proven that using tampons is harmful to the woman’s health, it would not be permitted to use them. And Allah knows best Muhammad ibn Adam Darul Iftaa Leicester , UK

Verdict on permanent body hair removal
Q) Is it permissible in the Shariah for a mature, Muslimah to go through a procedure that would entail removing the hair from her body permanently (except for the head and eyebrows) so that it would be more beautiful and pleasing in the eyes of her husband? As her intention here is to please her husband and her husband approves of her intention and idea. In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, Man has been created with this natural desire to adorn and beautify him/her self. It is an instinct that is unique with human beings, as all the other creations of Allah are void of this perceptivity. Islam also acknowledges this natural instinct of man, thus it did not place an entire stop on this desire. However, Islam laid certain reasonable limitations and restrictions. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 16 of 60

Islam also acknowledged the desire of husbands to see their women beautiful and adorned, thus permitted the wives to use the various types of jewellery on their hands and feet. Women are also encouraged to wear Hena on their hands and feet, and good fragrance is regarded as charity. On the other hand, Islam prohibited those (so called) means of adornment that distort the image of a person. Mutilation of one’s body was declared unlawful (haram). Allah Almighty mentions in Surah al-Nisa the words of Shaytan, when he said: “I will mislead them and I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and to deface the (Fair) Nature Created by Allah.” (4: 119) Also, women were given this permission of adorning themselves and using fragrance, provided it is not done in front of strange men. Among the various means of adornment women may use in order to please their husbands is the removing of body hair. By removing hair, there is no mutilation of one’s body, thus it is completely permissible, rather recommended with the intention of pleasing the husband. I could not find an express statement of the classical Hanafi Fuqaha that permitted women from removing body hair. However, the fuqaha mention that it is permissible for a man to remove the hair from his chest and back, although it is against Adab. (See: al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5/357) Therefore, there is nothing wrong for a woman in removing her body hair; rather she will be rewarded if the intention is to please her husband. Now, this removing of hair may be carried out by using the various means available, such as a razor, cream, powder, wax or any other means, as the main objective is to remove the hair, and not the means used. In alFatawa al-Hindiyya, the using of lime has been mentioned, thus it indicates the permissibility of using creams. There also seems no hindrance from permanently removing the hair, as the aim is to remove unwanted hair, whether temporarily or permanently. However, this permission is subject to two conditions: 1. There should be no potential harm to the body, as inflicting harm on oneself is impermissible. Allah Most High says: “And make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction.” (Surah al-Baqarah, V: 195) 2. The part of the body which is considered Awra must not be exposed even in front of Muslim women. A female’s Awra in front of other Muslim women is the same to a man’s Awra from other men, which is from the navel up to and including the knees. (Hidaya, 4/461 & Radd al-Muhtar, 6/371) Therefore, if will be impermissible for other than yourself or your husband to perform the procedure of hair removal in between the navel and knees. It is not permissible to expose one’s Awra except in cases of extreme necessity, such as medication where there is no other alternative. In conclusion, there is nothing wrong in permanently removing the body hair. However, this in when there is no apparent harm to the body, and that the part between the navel and (including) the knees must not be exposed in front of anybody besides your husband. And Allah Knows Best http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 17 of 60

Muhammad ibn Adam Darul Iftaa Leicester , UK

Verdict on using a Razor for body hair removal
Q) Does a woman not allowed to use safety razors to remove unwanted hair ? A female may use a safety razor to remove unwanted hair. And Allah Knows Best Mufti Ebrahim Desai ASIMAM (Fatwa # 579)

Ruling on impure washing body or clothes
When the body or clothes are stained with human blood or other impurities the impurity in termed as Najaasah

Haqeeqi. Whether Najaasah Haqeeqi (Ghaleezah or Khafeefah, i.e. light or heavy) is on the body or clothing, it can be cleaned by washing three times. After every wash, the garment must be squeezed. When impure clothes are washed in a domestic washing machine, the clothes will be Taahir (pure) 1. The washing machine Fatwa is reproduced as follows: http://www.askimam.org/fatwa/fatwa.php?askid=9afa88524658ee259c71921cf631d0bc Q) Shall women napark clothes clean in washing machine washing machine run for 50 minutes? In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh If impure clothes are washed in a domestic washing machine, the clothes will be paak (pure). And Allah knows best Wassalam Mufti Ebrahim Desai Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

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Fatwa by Shaykh (Mufti) Ibraheem Desai (ASKIMAM, Fatwa #16,946)

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Chapter 2: Book of Purity
Filth (Najassah)
Najaasah is of two types. 1) Haqeeqi – which can be seen, further divided into; a. Ghaleezah – Heavy type b. Khafeefah – Light type 2) Hukmi – which cannot be seen e.g. breaking of Wudhu or a need of a bath.

Najaasah
( Impurity )

Haqeeqee
( which can be seen .g . e urine, stool, blood or wine )

Hukmee
( which cannot be seen

e. g breaking of Wudhu or in need of a bath )

Ghaleezah
( Heavy type e . urine and .g stool of human beings )

Khafeefah
( Light type e . urine of .g Halal animals )

Najaasah Haqeeqi

There are two types of Najaasah Haqeeqi: 1. Najaasah Ghaleezah (Heavy): Urine and stool of human beings and the excretion of all animals and the urine of all Haraam (forbidden) animals, flowing blood of human beings and animals, wine, fowl and duck excretion. 2. Najaasah Khafeefah (Light): Urine of Halaal Animals (animals permitted for eating) and the excretion of Haraam birds.

Human Beings Haraam Animals Halaal Animals Haraam Birds Halaal Birds

Stool (excrete) Najaasah Ghaleezah Najaasah Ghaleezah Najaasah Ghaleezah Najaasah Khafeefah Taahir (clean)

Urine Najaasah Ghaleezah Najaasah Ghaleezah Najaasah Khafeefah

Blood Najaasah Ghaleezah Najaasah Ghaleezah Najaasah Ghaleezah Najaasah Ghaleezah Najaasah Ghaleezah

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Cleaning Najaasah Haqeeqi

Whether Najaasah Haqeeqi (Ghaleezah or Khafeefah) is on the body or clothing, it can be cleaned by washing three times. After every wash, the garment must be squeezed. When impure clothes are washed in a domestic washing machine, the clothes will be Taahir (pure) 2.
How much impurity is Excused?

1. If impurity is equal or less than the area of a dirham (approximately 4cm in diameter) from Najaasah Ghaleezah (strong filth like human urine, blood, and wine), it is excused. However, when
the amount reaches a dirham it is excessively disliked (Makrooh Tahrimi) to pray in such clothing or with this amount of impurity on the body. If it is less than a dirham then it is lightly disliked (Makrooh tanzihi). What covers less than a quarter of a cloth or the body from najasa khafifa (light filth) is also excused, but better to remove. Splashes of urine that are equal in size to the heads of needles are also excused. If a bed or dirt that is soiled by najasa becomes wet due to the sweat of a sleeping person, or due to wet feet, and thereafter traces of najasa appear upon one’s body or feet then one’s body or feet will be considered impure. If there is no trace they will not be considered impure. Similarly, a dry pure cloth does not become impure when wrapped in a wet impure cloth which does not drip if wrung. A wet cloth does not become impure when spread upon impure dry earth, which becomes moist through the wetness of the cloth, unless traces of the najasa are visible in the cloth. Nor does a cloth become impure after being afflicted by a wind which has blown over some najasa, unless traces of the najasa are visible in the cloth. An object which has on it visible najasa (i.e. what remains visible after drying), will become pure by the removal of the najasa. This washing need only be performed once according to the soundest opinion. If it is difficult to remove the najasa, then there is no harm if traces remain. An object that has on it invisible najasa (which can no longer be seen upon drying) should be washed thrice and wrung after each washing. On the third time, one should wring it so thoroughly that all water ceases to drip. If the cloth is thin or of a delicate nature then one is not required to exert one’s total strength.

2. 3. 4.

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Note: Najasa is removed from a cloth or body by water or any liquid that removes najasa such as vinegar or rose water. 8. Khuffayn (leather socks) and non-porous materials become pure when wiped with earth or soil, provided the najasa is solid, even though it may still be wet. A sword or similar items may be purified by wiping the najasa away with soil or a cloth. 9. When the traces of najasa have disappeared from the earth and the earth has dried, then Salah is permissible upon it, while dry ablution (Tayammum) is not. By the earth drying, what is upon it also becomes pure, such as a tree and standing grass. An impure cloth if washed under a flowing tap is not required to be washed or wrung thrice, provided that the water used is equivalent to what would be generally used if it was washed thrice. 10. Najasa becomes pure when it is molecularly transformed into something else, like turning into salt or upon being burnt and becoming ash, because its true nature has changed. An example is grape juice which has changed into wine, thus becoming impure, and then changed into vinegar, becoming pure again.

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Fatwa by Shaykh (Mufti) Ibraheem Desai (ASKIMAM, Fatwa #16,946)

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Chapter 3: Book of Istinjaaa
Practical Istinjaaa: Summarised
1. It is Mustahab to cover the head before entering the Toilet for both men and women. 2. Recite the following invocation before entering the Toilet.

‫اَنهٍم اوِّی اَعُُربک مه انخبُث َانخبَائث‬ ِ َ َ ِ ُ َ ِ َ ُِ ِ َّ ُ
Transliteration: Allâhumma inni a’udhu bika minal khubuthi wal khabâ’ith. Translation: "O Allah (SWT)! I seek protection in you from the male and female devil"

3. Remove rings, badges or anything else with the name of Allah (SWT) or Rasool :pbuh:,it is however permitted to have them in the pocket while in the Toilet. 4. Enter the Toilet with the left foot. 5. Sit in a manner where the front or the back of the body is not facing the Qiblah. In houses where Toilets are facing Qiblah body should be turned to avoid the direction of Qiblah. Children should be seated in a way to avoid the direction of Qiblah. 6. If you are in an open place then sit in a manner where you cannot be seen by others. It is not permissable to urinate or pass on a public road or path or beneath a fruit tree or tree giving shade or in a well or a dam or a river. 7. Use only the left hand for Istinjaaa. 8. The best method is to combine between water and wiping. 9. Exit the Toilet with the Right foot. 10. Recite the following invocation after Exiting the Toilet.

‫غفشاوَک انحمذ نهٍ انَّزی اَرٌب عىِّی االری َ عافَاوِی‬ َ َ َ َ َ َ ِ ِ ُ َ َ َ ُ
Transliteration: Ghufrânaka al-hamdu lillãhil ladhi adh-haba annil adhâ wa âfani. Translation: "O Allah (SWT)! I seek you pardon. All praises are due to ALLAH (SWT) who has taken away from me the discomfort and granted me relief."

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Rules of Istinjaaa
1. On awakening from sleep, a person should not put his hands in the water (container) until and unless he washes his hands up to his wrists irrespective of whether the hands are pure or impure. If water has been kept in a small container, such as a pitcher or jug, then it should be carried with the left hand and poured onto the right hand and washed three times. Thereafter, the utensil should be taken into the right hand and the left hand should be washed three times. If the water is not kept in a small container, but in a big drum, etc., then it should be taken out with a small utensil, such as a jug. Care should be taken that the fingers do not touch the water. If there is no small utensil, then water should be taken out with the palm of the left hand. As far as possible, very little of the fingers should be put in the water. On taking out the water, first the right hand should be washed, and thereafter, as much of the right hand can be put in the water. On taking out water, the left hand should be washed. This method of washing the hands is only permissible if the hands are not impure. If they are impure, then under no condition should the hands be put in the drum. Water should be taken out in such a way that it does not become impure. For example, a clean handkerchief could be dipped in the water and whatever comes onto the handkerchief could be used to purify the hands. Alternatively, any other possible method could be used to purify them. 2. It is Sunnah to make Istinjaa of those impurities emitted from the anterior or posterior private parts. 3. If the impurity does not stick to the sides (or anywhere else), and a person does not use water for Istinjaa, but instead uses pure stones or lumps of clay, and wipes in such a way that the impurity goes away and the body gets clean; then this will also be permissible. But this method is contrary to purity consciousness. If there is no water or a shortage of it, then there is no alternative but to cleanse oneself in this way. 4. There is no special method for using stones. But care should be taken that the impurity does not spread and the body gets thoroughly cleaned. 5. After having made Istinjaa with stones, it is Sunnah to make Istinjaa with water. But if the impurity spreads more than the size of a fifty cents coin, it will be Waajib to wash with water. Without washing, Salah will not be valid. If the impurity has not spread, then even after purifying with stones alone, Salah will be valid, but this is contrary to the Sunnah. 6. When making Istinjaa with water, first the hands up to the wrists should be washed. Thereafter go to a secluded spot, and after loosening the clothes, sit down. Wash until you are thoroughly satisfied that the body is clean. But if a person is always in doubt and he uses a lot of water, and still he is not fully satisfied, then he should wash three or seven times and not more than this. 7. If a secluded place cannot be found, then for the sake of making Istinjaa with water, one should not expose one's private parts, neither to women nor men. In such a case, Istinjaa should not be made with water (but stones). Salah should be offered without having made Istinjaa (with water). This is because the exposing of one's body is a major sin. 8. Making Istinjaa with the following objects is a sin and prohibited, and should be abstained from: a. bones, b. impurities such as cow-dung and droppings of goats, c. coal, d. coarse limestone, e. glass, f. baked bricks, g. edibles, h. paper, etc. It is also sinful to make Istinjaa with the right hand. But if someone does this, the body will be cleaned. 9. It is prohibited to stand and urinate. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 22 of 60

10. It is prohibited to face or turn one's back towards the qiblah when passing stool or urinating. 11. It is also prohibited and Makrooh to make small children to face the qiblah and pass stool or urinate. 12. It is permissible to use the left-over water of Istinjaa for Wudhu. It is also permissible to use the left over water of Wudhu for Istinjaa, but not to do so is better. 13. When entering the toilet, Bismillah should be read outside, and then the following dua should be read:

‫اَنهٍم اوِّی اَعُُربک مه انخبُث َانخبَائث‬ ِ َ َ ِ ُ َ ِ َ ُِ ِ َّ ُ
Transliteration: Allâhumma inni a’udhu bika minal khubuthi wal khabâ’ith. Translation: "O Allah (SWT)! I seek protection in you from the male and female devil"
14. One should not enter the toilet bare-headed. 15. If one is wearing any ring, etc. on which is the name of Allah or His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, it should be removed. 16. One should enter with the left foot. 17. Allah's name should not be taken inside. 18. If one sneezes, then Alhamdulillah should be recited in the heart only and nothing should be said with the tongue. 19. Nor should one talk or say anything in the toilet. 20. When leaving the toilet, one should step out with the right foot first. After leaving the toilet, the following dua should be read:

‫غفشاوَک انحمذ نهٍ انَّزی اَرٌب عىِّی االری َ عافَاوِی‬ َ َ َ َ َ َ ِ ِ ُ َ َ َ ُ
Transliteration: Ghufrânaka al-hamdu lillãhil ladhi adh-haba annil adhâ wa âfani. Translation: "O Allah (SWT)! I seek you pardon. All praises are due to ALLAH (SWT) who has taken away from me the discomfort and granted me relief."
Things that one should abstain from when passing stool or urinating 1. To talk. 2. To cough unnecessarily. 3. To read some verse of the Quran, Hadith, or respected thing. 4. To take something to the toilet on which the following things are written: the name of Allah, any prophet, any angel, or any respected person; any verse of the Quran, Hadith, or dua. But if these things are in the pocket, or wrapped in a ta'wiz (amulet), then there's no harm in this. 5. To relieve one's self in a standing or lying down position without any genuine excuse. 6. To remove all the clothes and relieve one's self completely naked. 7. To make Istinjaa with the right hand. 8. To face the moon or sun, or to turn one's back towards them while one is passing stool or urinating is Makrooh. It is also Makrooh to do the same on the bank of a river, pond, etc. even if the impurity does not fall inside. Similarly, it is Makrooh to do this under trees in whose shade people sit, or under fruit and flowering trees where people sit in winter in order to get some sunshine. It is Makrooh Tahrimi (extremely detestable) to do this in the following places: among animals, very close to the musjid or eidgah whereby the foul smell disturbs the musallis, in a grave yard, at a place where people make Wudhu or http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 23 of 60

Ghus’l, on the road, in the direction of the wind, in a hole, on the road-side, near a caravan or some gathering. In other words, it is Makrooh to relieve one's self in such a place where people move around and thereby cause them discomfort; and also in such a place where the impurity can flow back towards the person. Unsuitable items for Istinjaa 1. Bones, edibles, excreta and all impure substances. 2. That stone or clay which has already been used for Istinjaa. 3. Baked bricks, small pieces of broken earthenware, glass, coal, limestone, steel, silver, gold, etc. 4. Those things which do not clean impurities, such as vinegar. 5. Those things which are eaten by animals, such as straw and grass. 6. Those things that are of value, irrespective of whether they are of little or great value, such as clothing or the extract of some plants. 7. Parts of a human, such as hair, bone, meat. 8. The mat, dirt, or broom of a musjid. 9. The leaves of trees. 10. Paper, irrespective of whether something is written on it or not (this excludes toilet paper). 11. Zam zam water. 12. Someone else's possessions without their permission, irrespective of whether it be water, clothing, or anything else. 13. Cotton and all similar things from which humans and their animals derive benefit. Suitable items for Istinjaa 1. Water. 2. Clods of earth. 3. Stones. 4. Clothes that have no value (rags). 5. All those things that are pure, that can remove impurities, that are not regarded as possessions, and are not respected.

Purification of Impurities
1. Najassah (impurity) is of two kinds: one that is very thick or hard, and even if a little touches a person, it will have to be washed. This najâsat is called najâsat-e-ghalîzah (heavy impurity). The other is a little less and lighter, and is called najâsat-e-khafîfah (lighter impurity). 2. The following substances are regarded as najâsat-e-ghalîzah: blood; stool, urine and semen of humans; intoxicating drinks; the excreta and urine of cats and dogs; the meat, hair, bones, and everything else of pigs; the dung of horses, donkeys, mules, cattle, oxen, buffaloes, etc; the droppings of goats and sheep; in other words the excreta of all animals; the droppings of fowls, ducks and wild ducks; and the urine of donkeys, mules and all harâm animals. 3. The stool and urine of a small child that is still being breast-fed is also najâsat-e-ghalîzah. 4. The excreta of harâm birds and the urine of halâl animals, such as goats, cows and buffaloes. The urine of horses is najâsat-e-khafîfah. 5. With the exception of fowls, ducks and wild ducks, the excreta of all other halâl birds such as pigeons, sparrows, etc. is pure. The urine and stool of bats is pure. 6. If a najâsat-e-ghalîzah that is thin and flowing falls on the body or clothes, it will be excused if the area on which it falls is equal to or less than a fifty cents coin in extent. If the person performs his salât without washing it off, his salât will be valid. But to refrain from washing it and to continue offering his salâts in this way is Makrooh. If it is more than a fifty cents coin, then it will not be excused. Salât will not be valid http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 24 of 60

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if it is not washed off. If a najâsat-e-ghalîzah is thick and solid, for example stool or the excreta of fowls, etc. and its weight is equal to or less than about 4 grams, then performing salât without washing it off will be valid. But if it is more than this weight, salât will not be valid. Najâsat-e-khafîfah falls on the body or clothing. If it is less than a quarter of the area on which it fell, it will be excused. But if it is equal to a quarter or more, it will not be excused. In other words, if it falls on one sleeve, it is less than a quarter of that sleeve. If it falls on one panel of a shirt, it is less than a quarter of it. If it falls on a scarf, it is less than a quarter of that scarf. Only if it is less than a quarter of all these it will be excused. Similarly, if the najâsat-e-khafîfah falls on one hand or on a leg, then if it is less than a quarter of that hand or leg, salât will be valid if it is not washed. In other words, on whichever limb the najâsat falls, less than a quarter of that limb will be considered. If it is equal to a quarter or more, then it will not be excused. It will have to be washed. Salât that is performed without washing it will not be valid. The water in which najâsat-e-ghalîzah falls also becomes najas-e-ghaleez; and the water in which najâsate-khafîfah falls also becomes najas-e-khafeef. Impure oil fell on one's clothing but the extent of it was less than three centimetres in diameter. However, after some time it spread and became more than three centimetres in diameter. As long as it was less, it will be excused. But once it spreads beyond the limit, it will not be excused. Washing it off will be Waajib. If it is not washed off, salât will not be valid. The blood of fish is not impure. There is no harm if it falls on a person. The same applies to the blood of flies, bugs and mosquitos. If a drop of urine equal to the eye of a needle falls, and it cannot be seen except after very careful examination, then there's no harm in it. It is not obligatory to wash it off, but to do so is preferable. If a najâsat which can be seen, such as stool or blood, falls on the clothing, it should be washed until the najâsat is removed and no stain remains. There is no limit to the number of times it should be washed the moment the najâsat is removed, it will become pure. The same rule applies when it falls on the body. However, if the najâsat is removed in the first instance, it will be better to wash it two more times. And if it is removed in the second time, it will be better to wash it one more time. In other words, it is preferable to wash it three times. If the najâsat is such that despite washing it several times and despite it being removed, the foul smell still remains or some stain is still there. Even in this instance, the clothing will be purified. It is not necessary to use any soap or detergents in order to get rid of the smell or stain. If any impurity similar to urine which cannot be seen, falls on the clothing; then it should be washed three times. Each time that it is washed, the water should be squeezed out of it. After washing it the third time, the cloth should be wrung with full force - only then will it be purified. If it is not wrung with full force, the cloth will not be purified. If any impurity falls on such a thing which cannot be wrung or squeezed, such as a bed, mat, jewellery, sand, utensils, bottles, shoes, etc., then the method of purifying these things is as follows: the item should be washed once and then the person should wait. When the water ss dripping from it, it should be washed a second time. When the water ss dripping, it should be washed a third time. In this way it will be purified. If anything is thin and pure like water, it can also be used to wash off any impurity. If a person uses rosewater, or the extract of any herb, or vinegar; even then that thing will be purified. However, it is not permissible to use ghee, oil, milk and other similar substances which are sticky or fatty. That thing will remain impure. Semen fell on the body or clothes and got dried. The body and clothes can be purified by scraping it off and rubbing it thoroughly. But if it has not dried as yet, it will have to be washed. But if a person did not wash himself after passing urine, and at that time semen came out; it will not become purified by rubbing it off. It will have to be washed. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 25 of 60

18. If najâsat which can be seen, eg. dung, stool, blood, semen, etc., falls on one's shoes or leather socks, it could be removed and purified by rubbing it thoroughly on the ground. Similarly, it can also be purified by scraping it off. Even if it is not dry, and it is thoroughly scraped and rubbed off to such an extent that no sign of the najâsat remains, it will be purified. 19. If any najâsat like urine which is not seen, falls on the shoes or leather socks, then it cannot be purified except by washing. 20. As for clothing and the body, these can only be purified by washing. This is irrespective of whether the najâsat can be seen or not. 21. If mirrors, knives, gold and silver jewellery, copper, brass, steel, etc. become impure, they can be purified by wiping them thoroughly, or scraping them, or rubbing them with sand. But if these items have been engraved, they cannot be purified except by washing. 22. Some najâsat fell on the ground and got dried in such a way that there is no sign of it - there is no stain nor any foul smell of that najâsat. If it gets dry in this way, the ground will be pure. However, Tayammum on such a piece of ground will not be permissible. However, it will be permissible to perform salât there. The same rule applies to bricks and stones that have been embedded with limestone or mortar into the ground in such a way that these cannot be removed except by digging them out. That is, once the najâsat dries and no sign of it remains, they will be purified, but Tayammum will not be permissible. 23. Those bricks that have just been placed on the ground without being embedded with lime or cement will not get purified with the drying of the najâsat. They will have to be washed. 24. Grass which is growing on the ground also becomes purified with the drying and disappearance of the najâsat. But if the grass is cut, it will not be purified without washing. 25. If impure knives, earthen and copper utensils are placed on a blazing fire, they will also get purified. 26. There was some impurity on one's hand. Someone removed this najâsat by licking it off three times. It will become purified, but it is prohibited to lick it. A child vomitted milk on one's chest, and thereafter it licked the vomit and drank it up. The chest will be purified. 27. If an unused earthenware utensil becomes impure, and it is such that it absorbs the impurity, then it will not become purified by merely washing it. Instead, it should be filled with water and when traces of the impurity appear in the water, the utensil should be emptied. It should be filled again, and emptied again. This should be continuously done until no sign of the impurity remains - neither its colour nor its smell. Only then will it be purified. 28. The utensils which a potter makes with impure clay will remain impure as long as they are unbaked. Once they get baked, they will become pure. 29. Honey, syrup, ghee or oil became impure. Whatever the amount may be, add the same amount or more of water to it and keep it to boil. Once the water has evaporated, add more water and do the same three times. In this way it will get purified. Alternatively, add the same amount of water and stir the contents. Once it comes on of the water, remove it in some way or another. Repeat the process three times and it will be purified. If the ghee is gone hard, add water to it and heat it. Once it melts, remove it. 30. Clothes were dyed in an impure dye. It should be washed until clean water begins to come out of it. It will now be purified, irrespective of whether the dye comes out of the clothes or not. However it is preferable to wash it at least three times. 31. The ashes of dung-cakes, droppings of goats and other impure things are pure. Their smoke is also pure. If it comes onto one's bread, there is no harm in it. 32. One corner of a mat is impure and the balance of it is pure. It will be permissible to offer salât in the corner that is pure. 33. Land that has been plastered by dung is impure. Salât on it is not permissible without having laid some pure thing over it.

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34. If the land which has been plastered by dung is dry, then it is permissible to spread even a wet cloth over it and offer salât. But it should not be so wet that some soil from that ground comes onto one's clothing. 35. After having washed his feet, a person walked bare-footed on some impure place and his foot-prints were visible on that place. His feet will not become impure. However, if due to the wet feet, the ground gets so wet, that some sand or impurity from that ground comes onto the feet; then they will become impure. 36. A person slept on an impure carpet and due to perspiration his clothes became damp. The same rule applies here, i.e. his clothes and body will not become impure. However, if they get so wet that some impurity from the carpet gets onto his clothes or body, they will be rendered impure. 37. A woman applied impure henna (mehendi) on her hands or feet. By washing them thoroughly until clean water flows out of them, the hands and feet will be purified. It is not obligatory to remove the colour. 38. A person applied surmah (antimony) or kajal (eye-pencil) which was impure. It is not necessary to wipe or wash it off. However, if it spreads and comes out of the eye, it will be obligatory to wash it. 39. If one applied impure oil onto one's head or body, then according to the normal procedure, it should be washed off three times. It is not necessary to remove it by putting soap or any such thing. 40. A dog put its mouth in flour or a monkey ate some of it. Whatever portion of the flour got dirty should be removed. It is permissible to eat the rest of it. If the flour was dry, then wherever its saliva is, that place should be removed. The balance of it is pure. 41. The saliva of a dog is impure, but the dog itself is not impure. So if a dog touches anyone's body or clothes, they will not become impure irrespective of whether the dog's body is dry or wet. However, it will be a different case if there is some najâsat on the dog's body. 42. A person passed wind at a time when his underclothing were wet. His clothing will not become impure by passing wind in such a state. 43. The clothes that got wet with impure water were wrapped with clean clothes. The wetness from the impure clothes got into the clean clothes, but no colour or smell of the impurity got into them. If these clean clothes got so wet that by wringing them one or two drops of water fall down, or at the time of wringing them, the hands get wet - then these clean clothes will also become impure. However, if they are not so wet, they will remain pure. And if the clothes that got wet with some specific impurity such as urine, were wrapped with clean clothes, then even if a little dampness or smell of those clothes gets into the clean clothes, they will also become impure. 44. A wooden plank is impure on one side and pure on the other side. If it is so thick that it can be sawed off in the centre, he can turn it over and perform salât on the pure side. But if it is not so thick, it will not be permissible. 45. A particular cloth is double-folded - one fold is impure and the other is pure. If both the folds are not stitched, it will be permissible to offer salât on the fold that is pure. But if both folds are stitched, salât will not be permissible even on the fold that is pure. Rules regarding purities & impurities 1. At the time of threshing out the grain, an ox urinates on the grain. Because of necessity, this will be excused. In other words, the grain will not become impure. But if it urinates on it at some other time, the grain will become impure because there is no necessity now. 2. The food prepared by a disbeliever, his utensils, and his clothes will not be regarded as impure until and unless there is some proof or indication of its impurity. 3. It is wrong of some people to use the fat of lions, etc. and to regard it as pure. However, if a religiousminded doctor says that there is no cure other than the fat, then in such a case, some Ulama say that it will be permissible. But it will be necessary to purify oneself from it when performing Salah. 4. Mud and dirty water that is on the roads is excused on condition that the impurity is not seen on the body or clothes. This is the fatwa on this matter. However, caution demands that the person who does not http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 27 of 60

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14. 15. 16. 17.

18.

19.

20.

21. 22.

travel to the markets and on the roads very often, should always try and cleanse his body and clothes from this mud and dirty water even if he does not see any impurity. When any impurity is burnt, its smoke becomes pure. If it becomes hard and something is made out of it, then it will also be pure. As has been said of sal ammoniac, that it is made out of impure smoke. Sand and dust that is on of some impurity is pure on condition that the dampness of the impurity does not make them damp as well. Gases that rise from impurities are pure. Worms that emerge from fruits are pure, but it is not proper to eat them if they are alive (or even dead). The same rule applies to the worms of wild figs, etc. When edibles such as meat, sweetmeats, etc. get stale and begin to stink, they do not become impure. But when taking into consideration the harm that can be caused, it will not be proper to consume them. Musk and the bag from which it is extracted is pure. The same applies to amber. The saliva which comes out from a person's mouth while he is sleeping is pure. An egg whose colour has changed is pure as long as it is not broken. The skin of a snake is pure. The water with which impure clothes were washed is also impure, irrespective of whether the water was used to wash the first, second or third time. However, the difference in these three waters is that if the water which was used to wash the first time falls on some clothing, this clothing will be purified after it is washed three times. If the water of the second time falls, then the clothing will be purified after it is washed twice. And if the water of the third time falls, then it will be purified after washing it once. The water with which a dead person is given a bath is impure. The skin of a snake is impure, i.e. the skin which is still attached to its body. The skin which it sheds is pure. The saliva of a dead person is impure. On one side of a cloth an excusable amount of impurity falls and seeps through the other side. The impurity that seeps through is also of an excusable amount. However, if both these excusable amounts are added together, they exceed the excusable limit. Even then it will be regarded as less and therefore excusable. But if the cloth is double-folded or two cloths have been placed together, and when added together they exceed the limit, it will not be excusable. If one or two pieces of dung or excreta of a cow or goat fall into the milk while they are being milked, it is excusable as long as the dung or excreta is removed immediately. If it falls at some time other than the time of milking, the milk will become impure. If a four to five year old boy who does not understand what Wudhu is, makes Wudhu; or an insane person makes Wudhu, then the water will not be considered to be musta'mal (in other words that water can be used for Wudhu by someone else). Water that is used to wash clean clothes, utensils and other pure items can be used for Wudhu and Ghus’l as long as its density does not change and as long as it is still referred to as water in normal conversation. But if there was some food or drink in the utensils, then using that water for Wudhu or Ghus’l will only be permissible if at least two of the three qualities of water remain unchanged. If two qualities change, Wudhu or Ghus’l will not be permissible. It is Makrooh to drink used water, or to use it in cooking. Wudhu and Ghus’l with such water is not permissible. However, it can be used to wash impurities. The one who is in need of Wudhu should not make Wudhu with zam zam water. Nor should it be used by the one who has to have a bath. To wash impurities with it and to make Istinjaa with it is Makrooh. However, if one is compelled to use it, in the sense that water cannot be found within 1.6 kilometres, and one cannot purify one's self in any other way, then all these things will be permissible with zam zam water.

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23. The water that is left behind by a woman after she made Wudhu or Ghus’l should not be used by a man to make his Wudhu or Ghus’l. Although this is permissible according to the Hanafi Mazhab, it is not permissible according to Imam Ahmad (Hanbali Mazhab). It is therefore better to abstain from those matters in which there is difference of opinion. 24. To make Wudhu or Ghus’l with the water of those places where some nation was punished by Allah Ta'ala, such as the people of Thamud and Aad, is not proper. There is also difference of opinion in this matter. It is therefore better to abstain from this. But if one is compelled, then the same rule as that for zam zam water will apply. An oven which has become impure can be purified by lighting a fire in it on condition that after it gets hot, no traces of the impurity remain. 25. If an impure piece of ground is covered with sand and the impurity gets concealed in such a way that even its smell does not come, then the surface of the sand will be pure. 26. Soap made with impure oil or fat will become pure. 27. If the place of venesection (cutting of veins) or any other wound from which blood or pus came out became impure and washing it will be harmful, then it will be sufficient to wipe it with a wet cloth. It will not be necessary to wash the place after it has healed. 28. If an impure dye falls on the body or clothes or the hair gets coloured with this dye, it will be sufficient to wash them until clear water begins to flow even if the colour is not removed. 29. If a tooth which broke off is refitted with some pure or impure substance; or a broken bone is replaced by an impure bone; or a wound is filled with some impure substance; and all these get healed; then they (i.e. the impure substances) should not be removed. They will automatically become pure. 30. If any sticky substance which is impure, such as oil, ghee, the fat of a dead animal, gets stuck to something and is washed until clear water begins to flow, it will be purified even if the stickyness of that impurity remains. 31. Some impurity falls into pure water. By its falling, the water splashes and a few drops fall on someone. These drops are pure on condition that there are no traces of that impurity on the person. 32. If a cloth having two folds or a cloth that is filled with cotton (such as duvets) becomes impure on one side and is pure on the other side, then the whole cloth will be regarded as impure and Salah on it will not be permissible. This is only if the impure area of the impure side is the area on which the musalli will stand or prostrate. Another condition is that both the cloths must be sewn together. If they are not stitched together, then impurity on one side will not render the other side impure. In fact, Salah will be permissible on the pure side on condition that the cloth is so thick that the traces and smell of the impurity underneath do not come on . 33. If a chicken or any other bird is boiled in water before its stomach, intestines and other filth can be removed, as is the custom today, it can in no way be regarded as pure.

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Chapter 4: Book of Islamic Bath (Ghus’l)
Practical Bath: Summarised
1. Make intention that you are doing Ghus’l. You do not have to verbally say it but simply intend it in your heart. 2. Wash both hands including the wrists. 3. Wash the private parts. The hands and private parts should be washed even if one is not in the state of Janaabah (sexual defilement) or Najasaah (impurity). 4. If there is Najasaah (impurity) elsewhere on the body, it should now be washed off. 5. Perform Wudhu. If one is making Ghus’l on a stool or platform where water will rapidly flow away, then perform the complete Wudhu. If there is a fear of the feet being dipped in waste water during the Ghus’l then postpone the washing of the feet to the end of the Ghus’l. Ensure that the mouth and nostrils are thoroughly rinsed, three times. 6. After performing Wudhu pour water over the head, three times. 7. Thereafter pour water thrice over the right shoulder and thrice over the left shoulder. 8. Then pour water over the entire body and rub. 9. If the hair of the head is not plaited, it is compulsory to wet all the hair upto the very base and if a single hair is left hair Ghus’l will be invalid. 10. If the hair of a woman are plaited, she is excused from loosening her plaited hair but it is compulsory for her to wet the base of each and every hair, If she fails to do so then the Ghus’l will not be valid. 11. If a woman experiences difficulty or is unable to wet the very bottom of her plaited hair, then it is necessary for her to unplait her hair and wash her entire hair. 12. It is Mustahab (preferable) to clean the body by rubbing it. 13. All parts of the body should be rubbed with the hands to ensure that water has reached all parts of the body and no portion is left dry. 14. Rings, earrings, etc. should be removed to ensure that no portion covered by them is left dry. Ensure that the navel and ears are all wet. If they are not wet, Ghus’l will be incomplete. 15. On completion one should confine oneself to a clean place. If, while performing Wudhu the feet had been washed, it is not necessary to wash them again. Dry the body with a clean towel and dress as hastily as possible. 16. If after Ghus’l one recalls that a certain portion of the body is left dry. It is not necessary to repeat the Ghus’l. Merely wash the dry portion. It is not sufficient to pass a wet hand over the dry place. If one has forgotten to rinse the mouth or the nostrils, these too must be rinsed when recalled after Ghus’l has been performed.

Rules of Islamic Bath (Ghus’l)
What is Ghus’l? The Islamic act of taking a bath to remove the state of major impurity which cannot be removed by simply making Wudhu before starting acts of worship (particularly prayer) is called Ghus’l. Ghus’l becomes Obligatory, when... 1. Due to the emission of sperm which has departed from its origin without intercourse during a state of sexual arousal. Emission of semen without sexual arousal (e.g. due to lifting of heavy weights etc) doesn’t necessitate Ghus’l. 2. Due to the insertion of the head of the penis (circumcised portion) or a portion which is equivalent to the head if the penis is cut into the vagina.

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3. When someone awakens to find a thin liquid and his penis was not erect before sleeping, however if the penis was erect before sleeping then it is likely that the wetness is not semen but pre-seminal fluid. There are three types of secretions; Mani, Mazi and Wadi. a. The secretion when one is aroused is Mazi. b. The secretion during ejaculation is Mani. c. The secretion after urine is Wadi. All three secretions are impure. The only difference is the secretion of Mazi and Wadi. Mazi and Wadi invalidates Wudhu and ejaculation of Mani invalidates Ghus’l. 4. When someone recovers from intoxication or after regaining consciousness and finds some wetness believed to be from sperm. 5. After stopping of menstruation. 6. After finishing of postnatal bleeding. What kind of Water is suitable for Ghus’l? 1. Rain water. 2. Well water. 3. Spring, sea or river water. 4. Water of melting snow or hail. 5. Water of a large tank or pond (Some Jurists have explained that a large pond is at least 0.65 meters by 0.65 meters with sufficient depth that soil (at the bottom) is not revealed when water is scooped up with both hands [Al-Hidayah]) What kind of Water is unsuitable for Ghus’l? 1. All Najis (impure) water. 2. Water extracted from fruit and trees. 3. Water which has changed it's colour, taste and smell and becomes thick because something was soaked in it. 4. Small quantity of water in which something Najis (impure) has fallen, e.g. Urine, blood, stool or wine or some animal had died after falling into it. 5. Used water of Wudhu or Ghus’l. 6. Water left over after drinking by Haraam (forbidden) animals, e.g. dogs, pigs or animals of prey. 7. Water, which a cat drinks immediately after eating a mouse, is Najis (impure) 8. Water left by a person who has just drunk wine is Najis (impure)

Fardh (Obligatory) Acts of Ghus’l? If any of these actions are left out, Ghus’l will not be complete. 1. Passing water into and out of the mouth, i.e. gargling. 2. Putting water into the Nostrils upto the tender or fleshy part of the nose. 3. Passing water over the entire body. Sunnah Acts of Ghus’l? 1. Washing hands upto the wrists. 2. Washing the private parts and the parts over which uncleanliness is found. 3. Intention of becoming pure from Najasaah (impurity). 4. Making Wudhu before washing the body. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 31 of 60

5. Then passing water over the whole body thrice.

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Chapter 5: Book of Ablution (Wudhu)
Wudhu: Summarised
1. Make intention that you are doing Wudhu. You don't have to verbally say it but simply intend it in your heart. 2. It is preferred to sit on a high and clean place to perform Wudhu, if possible. 3. It is preferred to face the direction of the K'abah, if possible. 4. Recite the following dua (invocation) before starting Wudhu

‫بسم ہللا انشحمه انشحیم‬ ٰ
Transliteration: Bismilahir Rahmanir Raheem
Translation: "I begin with the name of Allah. And all praises are due to Allah." 5. Using Taahir (clean) water. First wash both the hands up to the wrists, three times. 6. Use a Siwaak for cleaning the teeth and then gargle the mouth, three times. 7. Thereafter take water upto the nostril (soft part of the nose), three times with the right hand and clean the nose with the left hand. 8. Then wash your face three times. Wash from the hairy part of the forehead to below the chin and from one ear lobe to the other. 9. Thereafter wash the right hand including the elbows, three times. 10. Then wash the left hand including the elbows, three times. 11. Then make Khilaal of the fingers. 12. Recite the following dua (invocation) while making Wudhu

ْ ‫ُم‬ ْ ِ ‫اللَّه ََّّاغفِرََّّْلِيَّ َّنبيَّووسعََّّْلِيَّفِيَّداريَّوباركََّّْلِيَّفِيَّرزقِي‬ ِّ َّ ِ ْ‫ذ‬ ِ ِ
Transliteration: Allahummagh Firli Dhambi Wa-Was-Sa’li Fi Dari Wa-Barik Li Fi-Rizqi Translation: "O Allah! Forgive my sins and give expansion (abundance) in my home and grant me blessings in my sustenance."
13. Thereafter wet the hands and pass them over the head, ears and nape. This must be done once only. It is known as Masah . It is the Act of passing wet fingers over a part of the body (head etc.) or clothing (socks etc.) and done as follows: a. Wet the hands and fingers and then: b. Keep three fingers of each hand together (middle finger, ring finger and little finger). c. Keep thumb and index finger raised (away). d. Keep thumb, index finger and palm away from the head. e. Pass the three fingers from the forehead to the upper portion of the nape. f. Then place the palm on the sides of the head and bring forward to forehead. g. Then insert the front portion of the index finger into the openings of the ear. h. Then make Masah behind the ears with the inner part of the thumb. i. Make Masah of the nape with the back of the middle finger, ring finger and the little finger. 14. Then wash both the feet including the ankles three times. First the right foot and then the left foot. a. First wash the right foot including the ankle http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 33 of 60

b. Then wash the left foot including the ankle c. And then make Khilaal of the toes (of both feet) 15. Use the left hand for washing the feet and Khilaal of the toes. Khilaal should be started with the little toe of the right foot and ended on the little toe of the left foot. 16. Recite the Kalimah of Shahadah after making Wudhu

َُ ْ َ َ ِ َ َُ ْ َ ْ َ َ َّ َ ُ َ ْ َ َّ ِ ِ ُ‫أَشٍذ أَنْ َال إنًََ إ َّال ہللاُ َحذيُ َال ششيك نًَُ َأَشٍذ أَنَّ محمذاً عبذي‬ ًَُ‫َسسُن‬ ُ َ َ
Transliteration: Ash-hadu an-La illaha ill Allahu, Wahdahu La Sharika lah, wa ash-Hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa Rasoolu Translation: "There is none worthy of worship but Allah and I testify that Muhammed (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) is Allah's worshipper and Messenger."
17. Recite the following dua (invocation) after making Wudhu

‫انهٍَّم اجعهىي مه انتَُّابیه َاجعهْىي مه انمتَطٍَشيه‬ َ ِ ِّ ُ ْ َ ِ ِ َ ْ َ َ ِ َّ َ ِ ِ ْ َ ْ َّ ُ
Transliteration: Allahummaj Alni Minat Tawwabeen Waj Alni Minal MutaTaahireen Translation: "O Allah Make me of the repenters and make me of the purified."
18. Also Recite Surah Al-Qadr (Chapter 97)

َ ١( ‫نَ ۡیهَةُ )َمآ أَ ۡدس ٰٮك ما نَ ۡیهَةُ ٱنقَ ۡذس (٢ )إوَّآ أَوز ۡنىَ ٰـًُ فى نَ ۡیهَة ٱنقَ ۡذس‬ ِ ِ ِ ۡ ِ ِ ۡ َ َ َ َ َ ۡ ِّ ٌ۬ َ ِ ۡ ِ ِ ٌ۬ َ ِ ٣( ‫تَىَزل ٱنمهَ ٰـٰٓٮِكةُ َٱنشَح فِیہَا بإِ ۡرن )ٱنقَ ۡذس خ ۡیش مه أَ ۡنف شہۡ ش‬ ُ ُّ َ َ ِٕ َ ۡ ُ َّ ٌ۬ ِّ ُ ِّ ِ َ ِ ۡ ۡ ِ ۡ َ ٰ َ َ ِ ٤( ‫)سهَ ٰـم ٌى حتَّى مطهَع ٱنفَجش )سبِّہم مه كم أَمۡ ش‬ َ
Transliteration: 1. Inna anzalnahu fee laylati alqadri 2. Wama adraka ma laylatu alqadri 3. Laylatu alqadri khayrun min alfi shahrin 4. Tanazzalu almala-ikatu waalrroohu feeha bi-ithni rabbihim min kulli amrin 5. Salamun hiya hatta matlaAAi alfajri Translation:
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1. [97:1] We have sent it (the Qur'an) down in the Night of Qadr. 2. [97:2] And what may let you know what the Night of Qadr is? 3. [97:3] The Night of Qadr is much better than one thousand months. 4. [97:4] The angels and the Spirit descend in it, with the leave of your Lor d, along with every command. 5. [97:5] Peace it is till the debut of dawn.

Rules of Ablution (Wudhu)
What is Wudhu? The Islamic act of Washing body parts with water before starting acts of worship (particularly prayer) is called Wudhu. When is Wudhu needed? 1. Before praying any Prayers i.e. Salah 2. Before touching the Qur'aan 3. Before making rounds around the K'abah i.e. making Tawaf What kind of Water is suitable for Wudhu? 1. Rain water. 2. Well water. 3. Spring, sea or river water. 4. Water of melting snow or hail. 5. Water of a large tank or pond (Some Jurists have explained that a large pond is at least 0.65 meters by 0.65 meters with sufficient depth that soil (at the bottom) is not revealed when water is scooped up with both hands [Al-Hidayah]) What kind of Water is unsuitable for Wudhu? 1. All Najis (impure) water. 2. Water extracted from fruit and trees. 3. Water which has changed it's colour, taste and smell and becomes thick because something was soaked in it. 4. Small quantity of water in which something Najis (impure) has fallen, e.g. Urine, blood, stool or wine or some animal had died after falling into it. 5. Used water of Wudhu or Ghus’l. 6. Water left over after drinking by Haraam (forbidden) animals, e.g. dogs, pigs or animals of prey. 7. Water, which a cat drinks immediately after eating a mouse, is Najis (impure) 8. Water left by a person who has just drunk wine is Najis (impure) Fardh (Obligatory) Acts of Wudhu? If any of these actions are left out, Wudhu will not be complete and will have to be repeated. 1. Washing the face from the Forehead to the lower portion of the chin and from one earlobe to the other, once. 2. Washing of both the arms including the elbows once. 3. Doing Masah of a quarter of the head once. 4. Washing of both the feet including the ankles once. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 35 of 60

Sunnah Acts of Wudhu? 1. Niyyah (intention) 2. Reciting of Bismillah. 3. Washing of the hands thrice upto the wrists. 4. Brushing the teeth by Miswaak. 5. Gargling three times. 6. Passing water into the nostrils (soft part of the nose) thrice. 7. Khilaal i.e. To pass wet fingers into the beard. 8. Khilaal of the fingers and toes. 9. Washing of each part thrice. 10. Masah of the whole head once. 11. Masah of both the ears once. 12. Wudhu done Systematically (sequentially). 13. Washing of each part one after the other without pause, so no part dries up before the Wudhu is completed. Mustahab (Preferred) Acts of Wudhu? 1. To begin from the right. 2. To make Masah of the nape. 3. Not to take assistance from anyone. 4. To face the K'abah 5. To sit on a high and clean place. Makrooh (undesirable) Acts of Wudhu? 1. To make Wudhu in a dirty place. 2. To clean the nose with the right hand. 3. To talk of worldly affairs. 4. To do Wudhu against the Sunnah. Nawaqidh Nullifiers of Wudhu? Any of these actions/circumstances will break the Wudhu and it will have to performed again before starting an act of worship. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Discharging of Urine, Stool or the coming out of anything from the Private Parts. Discharging of Gases. Vomiting Mouthful. To fall asleep lying down or by resting the body against something. To faint due to some illness or any other reason. Becoming Insane or going Mad. Laughing loudly during Salah (Paryers) Flowing blood or matter from any part of the body.

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Chapter 6: Book of Dry Ablution (Tayammum)
Tayammum: Summarised
1. Make intention, for Ghus’l , one should make the intention: "I am making Tayammum for Ghus’l to perform Salah or recite the Qur’aan etc." and for Wudhu one should make the intention: "I am making Tayammum for Wudhu to perform Salah or recite the Qur’aan etc." 2. Strike both hands on clean earth or dust. Then dust the hands and blow off the excess dust or earth on the hands. 3. Rub both the hands over the complete face without leaving a hair's breadth of space. 4. Strike both hands again on the ground. 5. Then dust the hands and blow off the excess dust. 6. Rub the left hand over the complete right hand including the elbow. 7. Rub the right hand over the complete left-hand including the elbow. 8. Then do Khilaal of fingers. If one is wearing a ring it is necessary to remove it or at least revolve it.

Rules of Dry Ablution (Tayammum)
What is Tayammum? The Islamic act of removing impurities before engaging in acts of Worhip when water isn't available or using i is injurious to Health for makingWudhu or Ghus’l is called Tayammum and it is also permissible if one is on the point of missing the Funeral or Eid Salah. Tayammum will continue to suffice for Wudhu or Ghus’l as long as water is not available or the helplessness continues and this can last for years. Tayammum is permitted; 1. When water is not available within a radius of approximately 1.7 Kilometres (KM). 2. When there is fear of an enemy or a dangerous animal or a snake is near the water. 3. When the water is so little that if the water is used up for Wudhu or Ghus’l there would be genuine fear of thirst. 4. When there is no rope or bucket to draw water from a well or one cannot reach water that is nearby (due to some reason) and no other person is available to fetch the water. 5. When it is known by one’s own experience or a capable doctor says that the use of water would definitely be injurious to health. 6. When one does not have sufficient amount of money to pay for water which is being sold. 7. When water is sold at a very ridiculous price. 8. When at a place where there is no trace of water, no one is here to give information about the presence of water and it is believed that water will not be be within 1.7 Kilometres (KM) then it will not be necessary to fetch water. 9. When something Najis (impure) had fallen on the ground or sand etc. It is not permissible to use that earth for Tayammum even if it dries up. But Salah on that place is permissible after it has become dry. Tayammum is not permitted; 1. When so little water is available that a person can only carry out the four obligatory acts of Wudhu 2. When at a place where there is no water. If a person guesses or someone tells him that that water is available within 1.7 Kilometres (KM) then it will be necessary to fetch water.

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Tayammum is permitted with; 1. Taahir (clean) earth. 2. Sand. 3. Stone. 4. Limestone. 5. Baked earthen pots (Unglazed). 6. Walls of mud, stone or brick. 7. Clay. 8. All items which have thick dust on them. 9. If there is a stone, brick or clay pot, it can be used for Tayammum even after it was washed clean and has no dust on it. Tayammum is not permitted with; 1. Wood. 2. Metal. 3. Glass. 4. Food items. 5. All items, which burn to ash, rot or melt. Fardh (Obligatory) Acts of Tayammum? If any of these actions are left out, Ghus’l will not be complete and will have to be repeated. 1. Niyyah (intention). 2. Striking both hands on earth and rubbing them on the face. 3. Striking both hands on earth and rubbing both forearms including the elbows.

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Chapter 7: Book of Masah on Khuffain (Socks)
Khuffain are a special type of socks. Instead of washing the feet during Wudhu, it is permissible to pass moist hands over such socks. This is known as Masah Alal Khuffain.

Conditions for Masah
1. The socks must be strong enough to enable walking in them on roads for approximately 3 miles without the socks tearing. 2. The socks should remain in position (covering the foreleg) without being tied. They should not slip. Socks which have elastic sewn into them (to keep them in position) will be regarded as being tied. 3. Water must not be able to seep through. 4. The socks must not be transparent or even semi-transparent. 5. If any one of the four conditions is lacking, Masah on such socks will not be permissible. Khuffain on which Masah is made are generally made of leather, a. The type of socks - woollen, nylon etc generally worn nowadays are not classified as "Khuffain". It is, therefore, not permissible to make Masah on them. b. If socks are made of a material other than leather and the afore-mentioned four requirements are met, Masah will be permissible on them. 6. For the Masah Alal Khuffain to be valid it is essential to put on the Khuffain after complete Wudhu has been made. a. If the Khuffain have been put on before a complete Wudhu has been made, Masah on them will not be permissible. b. Firstly, a complete Wudhu has to be made, then only should the Khuffain be put on. Thereafter if Wudhu breaks, it will be permissible to make Masah Alal Khuffain without washing the feet when Wudhu is being made. 7. For a Muqeem3 (one who is not a traveller MUSAAFIR) Masah Alal Khuffain is valid for a period of 24 hours. 8. For a Musaafir4 the period permissible is 72 hours. 9. The period of 24 or 72 hours will be reckoned from the time the Wudhu (after which the Khuffain were put on) breaks, not from the time the Khuffain were put on. 10. For example, a Muqeem makes Wudhu at 6 p.m. And after completing his Wudhu he puts on Khuffain. At 8 p.m. His Wudhu breaks. Twenty-four hours will be reckoned from 8 p. M. Hence, it will be permissible for him to make Masah Alal Khuffain each time he takes Wudhu until 8 p.m. The next day. 11. Upon expiry of 24 hours Masah Alal Khuffain will no longer be valid. When the period of (24 hours for the Muqeem and 72 hours for the Musaafir) expires, the KHUFFAIN should be removed and the FEET washed. It is not necessary to renew the Wudhu.

Practical Masah Alal Khuffain
1. Draw the fingers of the right hand on the upper surface of the Khuffain starting from the toes and ending (the Masah) at the foreleg (just above the ankle). The Masah should be done once only on each sock. The right hand should be used for the right Khuff and the left hand for the left Khuff.

Masail (issues) pertaining to Masah Alal Khuffain
1. If the back of the hand was used to make the Masah, it will be valid. However, one should not unnecessarily depart from the correct Sunnah method.

3 4

A resident (Non-Traveller) in terms of Islamic Shariah A Traveller in terms of Islamic Shariah, explained further in the book
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2. It is not permissible to make Masah on the side or at the under surface of the Khuffain . It is Fardh to make Masah on each sock to the extent of three full fingers i.e. the full surface area of three fingers must be drawn from the toes to the foreleg. 3. The following acts will nullify the Masah which was made on the Khuffain : a. All things which nullify Wudhu. b. Removal of the Khuff (sock). c. The expiry of the period i.e. 24 hours for the Muqeem and 72 hours for the Musaafir. d. If only one sock was removed then too, it is Waajib to remove the other one and wash both feet even if only the foreleg is exposed by lowering the Khuff, it will be regarded as if the whole sock has been removed. It will then be compulsory to remove the Khuffain and wash both feet. 4. Even if the foreleg is exposed by lowering the Khuff, it will be regarded as if the whole sock has been removed. It will then be compulsory to remove the Khuffain and wash both feet. 5. It is not permissible to make Masah on a Khuff which is torn to such an extent that an area equal to the size of three small toes is exposed. It is permissible to make Masah on the sock if it is torn less than this. 6. If the seam of the Khuff comes loose, but while walking the foot is not exposed, Masah on such Khuffain will be valid. 7. If a Muqeem who has made Masah Alal Khuffain goes on a journey before the expiry of 24 hours, then his Masah may be extended to 72 hours. His Masah will now be valid for 72 hours. 8. If a Musaafir who has made Masah Alal Khuffain returns to his home town then his Masah will be valid for only 24 hours. 9. It is permissible to make Masah on ordinary woollen etc, socks which have been covered with leather. 10. If Ghus’l becomes compulsory then Masah Alal Khuffain will not be permissible even if the valid period has not yet expired. The Khuffain must be removed when the Ghus’l is taken and the feet washed. 11. If after making Masah one sets foot in a puddle of water and water enters the Khuff wetting more than half the foot, then Masah will be nullified. Both Khuffain must be removed and the feet washed.

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Appendix A: The Hijab of Women and its Boundaries
By Shaykh (Mufti) Taqi Usmani (HA) http://deoband.org/2010/06/hadith/hadith-commentary/the-hijab-of-women-and-its-boundaries/ Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah and Abu Kurayb narrated to us. They said: Abu Usamah narrated to us: from Hisham: from his father: from ‘A’isha (Allah be pleased with her): she said: Sawdah (Allah he pleased with her) went out [in the fields] in order to relieve her need after the hijab had been prescribed upon her. She had been a bulky lady, physically taller than other women, and she could not conceal herself from one who had known her. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) saw her and said, ‘O Sawdah, by Allah, you cannot conceal *yourself+ from us. Therefore, be careful when you go out.’” ‘A’isha said: “She turned back. Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was at that time in my house having his evening meal and there was a bone in his hand. Sawdah entered and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I went out and ‘Umar said to me so and so.’” ‘A’isha said: “Revelation came to him, then it was lifted from him and the bone was *still+ in his hand and he had not put it *down+. He then said, ‘Permission has been granted to you that you may go out for your needs.’” (Sahih Muslim) The subject of the hijab of women has, today, become a significant issue, on which discussion and debate has been ongoing, so we wish to produce an outline of the [correct] view on this [issue]. And Allah Most High gives success and is the Helper.

The Issue of the Hijab of Women and its Boundaries
Writings on the topic of the veiling and unveiling of women have proliferated in our time. The best that I have seen on this subject is a treatise by my late father Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ (Allah have mercy on him) which he called Tafsil al-Khitab fi Tafsir Ayat al-Hijab, which is a section from his Ahkam al-Qur’an (3:393-483), in which he examined the verses and hadiths cited on the subject and exhausted the positions of the fuqaha (jurists) and the statements of the exegetes regarding the limits of hijab and its description. The sum of what he concluded after an extensive study is that the hijab that is legislated and commanded in the Book and the Sunnah has three levels, each above the other in hiddenness and concealment. All of them are mentioned in the Book and the Sunnah and none of them have been abrogated, but they have been prescribed for different circumstances. They are: 1. Hijab of the persons (ashkhas) of women in houses and walls, private quarters and howdahs, whereby foreign men do not see any part of their persons, garments or external or internal adornment, or any part of their body, including the face, the hands and the remainder of the body. 2. Hijab with burqa’ and jilbab, whereby nothing from the face and hands, the rest of the body and the clothing of adornment are shown, so nothing is seen besides their concealed persons from above the head to the foot. 3. Hijab with jilbabs and items of clothing that resemble them, while exposing the face, the hands and the feet. The default rule in the hijab of women is hijab of the first level which is that she is concealed in the house and does not emerge, except for a need, the explanation of which is to come. This is proven by the statement of Allah Most High, “and stay in your houses” (Qur’an 33:33). It is apparent that this command is not specific to the purified wives because none of the preceding and succeeding rules in this verse are specific to the Mothers of the Believers (Allah be pleased with them) by consensus. Likewise *this is proven by+ His statement Most High, “And when ye ask of them anything, ask it of them from behind a veil” (Qur’an 33:53). This verse was revealed during http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 41 of 60

the walimah (wedding feast) of Zaynab (Allah be pleased with her), whereupon a veil was drawn between her and the men. Furthermore, this is proven by the following hadiths: 1. It was narrated from ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) that Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “The woman is ‘awrah. When she emerges *from her house+ Satan looks at her.” Al-Tirmidhi transmitted it and said, “The hadith is hasan sahih (sound and authentic), gharib (uncommon)”. Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban transmitted it in their Sahihs with this wording and added, “and the closest that she is to the Face of Her Lord is when she is in the depth of her home.” See alTarghib by al-Mundhiri (1:136). 2. It was narrated from Jabir (Allah be pleased with him), he said: “Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “The woman advances in the shape of Satan and retires in the shape of Satan.” Muslim transmitted it (1:129). 3. The hadith of the chapter transmitted by the compiler (Imam Muslim) as Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said therein, “permission has been granted to you that you may go out for your needs,” since this indicates that the permission to go out is restricted to *times+ of need and in *times+ other than need a woman stays in her house. 4. It was narrated from ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) that Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “The prayer of a woman in her house is more virtuous than her prayer in her room and her prayer in her chamber is more virtuous than her prayer in her house.” Abu Dawud transmitted it and al-Hakim transmitted it in al-Mustadrak from Umm Salamah (Allah be pleased with her) as [mentioned] in Kanz al-’Ummal (8:259). Ibn Khuzaymah transmitted it in his Sahih, as [mentioned] in alTarghib by al-Mundhiri (1:135). 5. It was narrated from Umm Humayd, the wife of Abu Humayd al-Sa’idi, that she came to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, I love to pray with you.” He replied, “I know that you love to pray with me. However, your prayer in your storage room is better than your prayer in your bedroom; your prayer in your bedroom is better than your prayer in your courtyard; your prayer in your courtyard is better than your prayer in the mosque of your people; and your prayer in the mosque of your people is better than your prayer in my mosque.” *The sub-narrator+ said, “She requested that a prayer area be built for her in the deepest and darkest part of her house, and she prayed therein until she met Allah Most High.” Ahmad transmitted it in his Musnad (6:371) and Ibn Hajar in alIsabah attributed it to Ibn Abi Khaythamah through this route, and this is an authentic chain. Al-Shawkani transmitted in Nayl al-Awtar (3:161) from Ibn Hajar that he said, “Its chain is sound (hasan).” Al-Mundhiri mentioned it in al-Targhib (1:135) and said, “Ahmad narrated it, as did Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban in their Sahihs”. 6. It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them both) in marfu’ form, “Women do not have a share in leaving *the home+ except in *times of+ need.” Al-Tabrani transmitted it as [mentioned] in Kanz al-’Ummal (8:263). These hadiths prove with clarity that the default rule for the woman is that she is hidden in her house, her person is concealed from foreign men and she does not leave her house except for a need. However, a woman may need to emerge for her natural needs. It will then be permissible for her to emerge in these kinds of situations while concealed in a burqa’ and jilbab whereby no part of her body is shown. This is the second level of hijab, and indeed this level has been commanded in the Noble Qur’an where Allah Most High said, “O Prophet! Tell thy wives and daughters, and the believing women, that they should cast their jilbabs over their *persons+” (33:59) and it is apparent that by casting the jilbab over the woman is meant concealing her entire body even her face. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 42 of 60

Jilbab according to what was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them both) is that which covers from top to bottom. Ibn Hazm said in al-Muhalla (3:217), “Jilbab in the language of the Arabs, in which Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) spoke, is that which covers the entire body, not a part of it.” Ibn Jarir, Ibn al-Mundhir and others transmitted from Muhammad ibn Sirin, he said: “I asked ‘Abidah al-Salmani about this verse ‘they should cast their jilbabs over their *persons+‘ so he lifted the blanket *draped+ around him, concealed his face with it and covered his entire head until it reached the eyebrows and covered his face, then he took out his left eye from the left side of his face”. This was *mentioned+ in Ruh al-Ma’ani (22:89). Ibn Jarir transmitted in his Tafsir (22:46) from Ibn ‘Abbas in the explanation of this verse, “Allah commanded the believing women [that] when they emerge from their houses for a need, they [must] cover their faces from above their heads with jilbabs and reveal *only+ one eye.” It was also narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas and Qatadah, “*the woman] twists the jilbab above the forehead and tightens it, then she folds it unto the nose even if her eyes are exposed; nonetheless, she conceals the chest and most of the face.” Al-Alusi [mentioned] it in Ruh al-Ma’ani (22:89). In sum, this verse proves that the woman is commanded to cover her face when she emerges at her [time of] need. Furthermore, this is proven by His statement Most High, “Such elderly women as are past the prospect of marriage, there is no *blame+ on them if they lay down their garments” (24:60), since Allah Most High made it permissible for old women in this verse to lay down their garments and it is clear that the intended meaning of laying down the garments here is not laying down all clothes. The intended meaning of it is only to lay down the jilbab or shroud from the external garments, the laying down of which will not lead to exposing the ‘awrah. For this *reason+ ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) explained garment in this verse as jilbab and shroud, and a similar [interpretation+ was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, Mujahid, Sa’id ibn Jubayr, Abu lSha’tha’, Ibrahim al-Nakha’i, al-Hasan, Qatadah, al-Zuhri, al-Awza’i and others as mentioned in Tafsir ibn Kathir. Hence, this verse proves that laying down the jilbab which necessitates exposing the face is specific to old women who have no prospect of marriage, and that it is not permissible for young women to lay down their jilbabs and expose their faces before foreign men. It is clear that when the female Companions left for their needs they would go out concealed in jilbabs and hidden in shrouds and would not uncover their faces before foreign men. From the [narrations] that prove this are the following hadiths: 1. Abu Dawud transmitted in Kitab al-Jihad, Bab Fadl Qital al-Rum from Qays ibn Shammas (Allah be pleased with him), he said: “A woman called Umm Khallad came to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) while she was veiled (wearing a Niqab) enquiring about her son who was killed. One of the Companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said to her, ‘You have come to ask about your son while you are veiled?’ She said, ‘If I am afflicted with the loss of my son I will never suffer the loss of my modesty.’ Then Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, ‘He has the reward of two martyrs.’ She asked, ‘And why is that O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘Because he was killed by the people of the book.’” 2. It was narrated from Umm ‘Atiyyah that Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would bring out the unmarried women, old women, the women in the private quarters and the menstruating women in the two ‘Ids. As for menstruating women they would keep back from the place of prayer and would witness the supplication of the Muslims. One of them said, “O Messenger of Allah! If one does not have a jilbab?” He said, “Let her sister cover her with her jilbab.” This hadith was transmitted by a number of collectors of authentic [narrations], and this is the wording of al-Tirmidhi (no. 539), Bab Khuruj al-Nisa’ fi l-’Idayn, and al-Tirmidhi said, “this hadith is hasan sahih.”

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3. Al-Bukhari transmitted [something] similar to it (no. 980 in Kitab al-’Idayn) from Hafsah bint Sirin and its wording is: “so she said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, is there harm for any of us when she does not have jilbab that she not come out?’ He said, ‘Her companion should cover her with her jilbab.’” 4. ’Abd al-Razzaq and a group transmitted from Umm Salamah, she said, “When this verse ‘they should cast their jilbabs over their *persons+‘ was revealed, the women of Ansar came out as if there were crows on their heads, from the tranquillity, and *draped+ over them were black clothes that they would wear.” 5. Ibn Mardawayh transmitted from ‘A’ishah, she said, “Allah Most High bless the women of the Ansar. When ‘O Prophet! Tell thy wives and daughters, and the believing women …’ was revealed they tore their thick outer garments and made veils from them, and they prayed behind Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) as if there were crows on their heads.” See Ruh al-Ma’ani (22:89) for the two narrations. 6. It was narrated from ‘A’ishah, she said, “Riders would pass us when we accompanied the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) while we were in ihram. When they came by us, one of us would let down her jilbab from her head over her face, and when they had passed on, we would uncover our faces”. Abu Dawud transmitted it in Kitab al-Hajj (no. 1833). These hadiths clarify that the female Companions (Allah’s pleasure be on them) would, after the revelation of the [verses of] hijab, adhere strictly to covering their bodies with jilbabs and draw them over their faces when going out. The last hadith proves that this importance of hiddenness does not cease to continue even in the state of ihram in which it is prohibited for a woman that a piece of clothing touches her face. The third level of hijab which is that women go out concealing the bodies from head to foot while uncovering the face and hands, at the time of need, is with the condition of safety (amn) from temptation (fitnah). This is proven by His statement Most High in Surah al-Nur, “And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their ornaments except what appears thereof.” The exegetes have differed over the explanation of “what appears thereof”. It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar and ‘A’ishah (Allah be pleased with them) that they explained it as the face and hands, and this is the view of ‘Ata’, ‘Ikrimah, Sa’id ibn Jubayr, Abu l-Sha’tha, al-Dahhak, Ibrahim al-Nakha’i and others. And it was narrated from ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) that he interpreted “what appears thereof” as the shroud and jilbab. Hence, the verse according to the first explanation proves that the woman can uncover her face and hands at the time of need and this is further supported by the following hadiths: 1. It was narrated from ‘A’ishah (Allah be pleased with her) that Asma’ bint Abi Bakr (Allah be pleased with them both) entered upon the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) while wearing thin clothing, so he turned away from her and said, “O Asma! Indeed when a woman reaches *the age of+ menstruation, it is not proper that anything should be shown except this and this”, and he pointed to his face and hands. Abu Dawud transmitted it, but Abu Dawud and Abu Hatim al-Razi said: “it is mursal, Khalid ibn Darik did not hear from ‘A’ishah”. 2. It was narrated from ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) in the event of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) returning from al-Muzdalifah that he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) made al-Fadl ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) his riding companion. He came to the pillars to throw pebbles at them and then came to the place of sacrifice (manhar). It is mentioned therein: a young slave girl from Khath’am sought a verdict from him and said, “Indeed my father is an old man and the obligation to Allah to perform Hajj has reached him. Is it permissible for me to perform Hajj on his behalf?” He said, “Perform Hajj on your father’s behalf.” ‘Ali said: “he turned the neck of al-Fadl, and al’Abbas asked, ‘Why did you turn the neck of your cousin?’ He said, ‘I saw a young man and woman [in such a situation+ that they are not safe from Satan.’” Al-Tirmidhi transmitted it in Bab ma Ja’a anna ‘Arafata kullaha Mawqif (no. 885). http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 44 of 60

Abu Ya’la transmitted from al-Fadl ibn ‘Abbas, he said: “I was riding behind Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and a Bedouin with whom was a beautiful daughter began presenting her to Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) in the hope that he would marry her”. He said, “I began to glance at her, and the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) took hold of my head and turned it.” Al-Haythami mentioned it in Kitab al-Nikah in Majma’ al-Zawa’id (4:277) and he said, “its narrators are the narrators of authentic *narrations+.” Either this was another incident, or one of the narrators erred in the explanation that the girl belonged to a Bedouin. And the hadith of al-Tirmidhi is clear in that her father was not with her. And Allah knows best. [Further] detail of this event was transmitted by al-Bukhari in Kitab al-Isti’dhan (no. 6228) from ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) and its wording is: Al-Fadl ibn ‘Abbas rode behind the Prophet as his companion rider on the back of his she-camel on the Day of Sacrifice (yawm al-nahr) and al-Fadl was a handsome man. The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) stopped to give the people verdicts. In the meantime, a beautiful woman from the tribe of Khath’am came, asking the verdict of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace). Al-Fadl started looking at her as her beauty attracted him. The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) looked behind while al-Fadl was looking at her; so the Prophet held out his hand backwards and caught the chin of al-Fadl and turned his face to the other side in order that he should not gaze at her, [to the end of] the hadith. This slave girl’s face was uncovered as is clear from the context of the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas since he said therein that she was beautiful and al-Fadl was attracted to her beauty. The hadith explains that the Prophet turned the face of al-Fadl away from glancing at her and he did not command the slave girl to cover her face because she was in the state of ihram, and he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) probably feared she would collapse or something else if she was required to conceal her face in such severe crowding, so he did not command her to [do] this. This is a proof that it is permissible for a woman to uncover her face according to a need when the rest of her body is concealed. 3. It was narrated from Sahl ibn Sa’d that a woman came to Allah’s Messenger and said, “O Messenger of Allah, I have come to give you myself in marriage.” Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) looked at her. He looked at her carefully and fixed his glance on her and then lowered his head, to the end of the hadith. Al-Bukhari transmitted it in Bab al-Nazr ila l-Mar’ati qabla l-Tazwij (no. 5125). It is clear in this event that the woman’s face was uncovered at this time, and al-Sarakhsi adduced this as proof in al-Mabsut (10:152) that the face of a woman is not ‘awrah. As for the positions of the fuqaha on the permissibility of looking at the face of a woman and her hands, the fuqaha have agreed on the impermissibility when it is with the intention of gratification (taladhdhudh), or if there was a fear of temptation inviting the man to be alone with her. There is no dispute in the prohibition of looking at the face of a woman and her hands in this case. As for when the man is safe from temptation and does not desire gratification by looking there is disagreement over its permissibility. The position of the Hanafis and the Malikis is the permissibility of looking at the face and hands in this case and this is the position of many of the Shafi’is and few Hanbalis. However the preferred *view+ according to the Shafi’is and the Hanbalis is absolute impermissibility even if safe from desire and temptation.

The Position of the Hanafis on the Ruling of Looking at a Woman
Shams al-A’immah al-Sarakhsi said in al-Mabsut (10:152), “It is permissible to look at the area of apparent adornment of women and not the hidden *adornment+ due to His statement Most High, ‘they should not display their ornaments except what appear thereof’ (24:31). ‘Ali and Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) said, ‘what appears thereof’ is kohl and the ring. ‘A’ishah (Allah be pleased with her) said one of her two eyes and ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) said her shoes (khuff) and shroud (mula’ah), and he adduced as evidence http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 45 of 60

for this his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) statement ‘women are the snares of Satan by which he hunts men’ … and since the prohibition of looking is for fear of temptation and the greater part of her attractiveness is in her face, the fear of temptation in looking at her face is greater than it is when looking at other parts. ‘A’ishah reasoned similarly but she said, ‘if she finds no escape from walking on the road, then it is necessary that she opens her eye to see the road, so it is permissible for her to uncover one of her eyes due to this necessity, and what is established by necessity should not go beyond the scope of the necessity.’ “However, we *Hanafis+ adopt the view of ‘Ali and Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) since reports have been transmitted giving a dispensation to look at her face and hands. From these reports is what was narrated that a woman offered herself [for marriage] to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and he looked at her face and did not desire her. “And when ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) said in his sermon, ‘Know that you may not go in excess in the dowries of women’ and a woman with flushed cheeks said, ‘Are you expressing *a view+ using your *personal+ opinion or did you hear this from Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), for indeed we find in the Book of Allah Most High the opposite of what you say…?’ Hence, the narrator mentioned that she had flushed cheeks, and this contains a clarification that her face was unveiled. “And Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) saw the hand of a woman that was not dyed with henna and he asked, ‘is this the hand of a man?’ “And when Fatima (Allah be pleased with her) gave one of her two children to Bilal or Anas (Allah be pleased with them), Anas said, ‘I saw her hand and it appeared as if a half-moon.’ “It is thus proven that there is no harm in looking at the face and hands. Furthermore, the face is the site of kohl and the hand is the site of the ring…Moreover, there is no doubt that it is permissible to look at her garment, and fear of temptation is not considered in this, and looking at her face and hands is the same. Al-Hasan ibn Ziyad narrated from Abu Hanifah that it is permitted to look at her foot also, as was mentioned by al-Tahawi, because just as she is tried with showing her face in working with men and showing her hand in receiving and giving, she is tried with showing her feet when walking barefooted or wearing sandals, and she may not find shoes on every occasion *when she goes out+. It is mentioned in Jami’ al-Baramika, it was narrated from Abu Yusuf that it is permissible to look at her forearm also because in baking and washing clothes she is tried with showing her forearms also. It was said, ’similarly, it is permitted to look at her front teeth also, because that appears from her when talking to men.’ “All of this is when looking is not with desire (shahwah). If one knows that if he looks, he will become desirous, then it is not permissible for him to look at any part of her because of his statement (Allah bless him and grant him peace), ‘whoever looks at the beauties of a foreign woman with desire, *melted+ lead will be poured into his eyes on the Day of Resurrection’ and ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) said, ‘do not follow up a glance with another glance for indeed the first is *permissible+ for you and the second is against you’, meaning by the second that one does it intentionally with desire … And similar is the case if his preponderant opinion is that if he looks he will become desirous, because preponderant opinion in that thing the reality of which cannot be known [with certainty+ is just like certainty.”

The Maliki Position
As for the Malikis, their position is what was mentioned by al-Kharshi in his marginalia on Mukhtasar Khalil (1:347): “The ‘awrah of a free-woman before a foreign man is her entire body, even her loose hair and forelock, with the exception of the face and hands, the outside of them and their inside. Furthermore, looking at them (the face and hands) without gratification and without fear of temptation and without a reason, is permissible, even if it is a young woman. Malik said, ‘a woman may eat with a non-near-relative (ghayr dhi mahram) and with her http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 46 of 60

male servant, and she may occasionally eat with her husband and others of those with whom he dines’. Ibn alQattan said, ‘this contains proof of the permissibility of the woman showing her face and hands to a foreign man, since it is not conceivable to eat except in this manner [i.e. by showing the face and hands+.’” An equivalent [passage] is [found] in Sharh al-Muwaq of al-Hattab (1:499) in more detail. ‘Alish said in Minah al-Jalil (1:133), “Thus, it is permissible for her to uncover them *i.e. the face and hands+ before a foreign man, and he may look at them if he does not fear temptation. If temptation is feared then Ibn Marzuq said, ‘the well-known position of the madhhab is the obligation to conceal them.’” An equivalent *passage+ is [found] in Mawahib al-Jalil by al-Hattab (1:399, 500).

The Shafi’i Position
The position of the Shafi’is is what was mentioned by al-Nawawi in Kitab al-Nikah from al-Minhaj in his statement, “It is prohibited for a mature male to look at the ‘awrah of a mature foreign free woman, and similarly *it is prohibited to look at] her face and hands when one fears temptation, and also when safe from temptation according to the correct opinion.” Al-Khatib al-Shirbini said below his statement, “according to the correct opinion”, “and Imam *al-Juwayni] reasoned that the Muslims are in agreement on banning women from emerging while their faces are unveiled, and *he reasoned+ that looking is the act in which one would most expect temptation and the stirring of desire … And the second view is that it is not prohibited, and Imam [al-Juwayni] attributed this to the majority (jumhur) [of the Shafi'is] and the two shaykhs (al-Nawawi and al-Rafi’i) attributed it to most (aktharin). “*Al-Isnawi] said in al-Muhimmat that: It is the correct view because most have adopted it. Al-Balqini said, ‘giving weight (tarjih) [to one opinion] depends on the strength of reason, and the verdict (fatwa) is given according to what is in al-Minhaj‘… That which the Imam transmitted regarding agreement on banning women, i.e. the rulers banning them, [from emerging while their faces are unveiled], conflicts with what al-Qadi ‘Iyad related from the ‘ulama that it is not obligatory on the woman to conceal her face along her path and that it is only a good practice (sunnah), and it is [obligatory] on men to lower their gaze from them because of the verse [i.e. 24:30]. The author (al-Nawawi) related this in Sharh Muslim and approved of it. One of the latter-day scholars said there is no conflict in that, rather their being banned from that is not because concealing [the face] is obligatory on them in its essence, rather because there is general benefit in it, and in leaving [the ban] is an infringement of honour (muru’ah). *Here+ ends *the statement of al-Isnawi]. The outward purport of the statement of the two shaykhs is that concealing [the face] is obligatory in itself, so [the need for] this reconciliation does not arise, and the statement of al-Qadi is weak.” See Mughni al-Muhtaj (3:128, 129). An equivalent [passage] is [found] in Nihayat al-Muhtaj (6:184, 5).

The Hanbali Position
The position of the Hanbalis is what was mentioned by Ibn Qudamah in al-Mughni (6:558,9) in Kitab al-Nikah in his statement, “As for men looking at a foreign woman without a reason, it is prohibited entirely according to the apparent statement of Ahmad … and al-Qadi *Abu Ya'la+ said, ‘it is prohibited for one to look at anything besides the face and hands because this is ‘awrah, and it is permitted for him to look at her with reprehensibility (karahah) when safe from temptation and the look is without desire. This is the position of al-Shafi’i … *In support+ of our view is Allah’s statement Most High, “And when ye ask of them anything, ask it of them from behind a veil” (33:53) … As for the hadith of Asma, if it is authentic, it is possible that it was before the revelation of [the verses of+ hijab, so we understand it as such.’” By considering these four positions it is clear that they all agree on the prohibition of looking at the face of a woman with the intention of gratification or when there is fear of temptation. The preponderant view in the madhhab of the Shafi’is and the Hanbalis is its prohibition when safe from temptation also. The Hanafis and http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 47 of 60

Malikis only allow it with the condition of safety from temptation and the intention of gratification. Meeting this condition is very difficult, particularly in our age in which corruption has become prevalent, to the degree that it has become a condition that almost cannot be met in most situations, and for this [reason] the latter-day scholars from the Hanafis prohibited it absolutely. Its reprehensibility was transmitted in Al-Durr al-Mukhtar: “If one fears desire or has doubts, looking at her face is prohibited. Thus, the permissibility of looking is conditional on the absence of desire and otherwise it is prohibited. This was in their time. As for our time, Quhustani and others prohibited looking at [the face of] young girls except when looking is due to a need, like when a judge and a witness judge and witness over her…” Al-Haskafi said in Shurut al-Salah, “and it is prohibited for a young woman to uncover the face among men, not because it is ‘awrah, but for fear of temptation.” And he said in Bab al-Ta’zir, “the master may reprimand his slave, and the husband his wife if she doesn’t beautify *herself+” to his statement “or she uncovers her face before a non-close-relative.” Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas said in Ahkam al-Qur’an (4:458) under His statement Most High, “they should cast their jilbabs over their *persons+“, “in this verse is an indication that the young woman is commanded to conceal her face from foreign men and to display the concealment and modesty when going out so that suspicious people do not desire them.” My father, ‘Allamah Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ (Allah have mercy on him), said in his Ahkam al-Qur’an (3:469), “and by this explanation we offered, the texts and narrations that are apparently contradictory are in agreement. As you know from what we cited to you of the verses and narrations that some of them allow uncovering the face and hands, either with certainty and conviction like the hadith of al-Fadl ibn ‘Abbas according to al-Bukhari and the hadith of Asma bint Abi Bakr in [Abu Dawud's] al-Sunan and the hadith of the one who offered herself [for marriage] according to al-Bukhari and [other narrations] like them; and some [of the verses and narrations] allow it as a possible interpretation due to the disagreement that occurred between the Companions (Allah be pleased with them) in the explanation of His statement Most High ‘except what appear thereof’, the details of which have passed. “And some *of the verses and narrations+ prohibit uncovering the face and hands, and foreign men looking at them, like His statement Most High ‘and stay in your houses’ (33:33) … and His statement Most High ‘ask it of them from behind a veil’ (33:53) and His statement ‘they should cast their jilbabs over their *persons+‘ (33:59) according to the explanation of the majority of the Companions and His statement Most High ‘except what appear thereof’ (24:31) according to the explanation of ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud … “Thus, these texts of the Book and narrations of the Sunnah apparently conflict and contradict and in what we have mentioned to you, with the help of Allah Most High, this problem is resolved, for when you realise what we said, you will understand that all of these texts are in agreement in meaning, well-coordinated in the rulings, and all of them are in effect (muhkam) and are not abrogated, but a [particular] ruling is preconditioned by conditions, so wherever the conditions are met, it is made permissible, and wherever they are not, then it is not [permissible] … “All of this is when the reality of the difference between the explanations of Ibn ‘Abbas and ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud is conceded. Our teacher, the noblest of teachers, Ashraf ‘Ali al-Thanawi (Allah illuminate his resting place), said in a volume devoted to this subject called Ilqa’ al-Sakinah fi Tahqiq Ibda’ al-Zinah that there is no difference between their explanations upon an in-depth and close examination, since the phrase ‘what appears’, although it was explained [by Ibn 'Abbas] as the face and hands, but what is cited as the exception [in the verse] is on the [morphological] pattern of zuhur (passive appearance) not izhar (active showing). This clearly indicates that the objective [of the verse] is making an exception of what cannot be concealed. Rather, [it is an exception] when http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 48 of 60

adornment appears upon exertion and work, without an intention to show it, because harm may be inflicted upon them by concealing [the face and hands] upon exertion and work. In this case, the exception would also be in accordance with the explanation of Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) which is the face and hands may appear due to a need, and this does not contradict the statement of ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him). I say: and this meaning is supported by what Ibn Kathir said in his explanation of His statement Most High, ‘they should not display their ornaments except what appear thereof’, ‘i.e. they should not reveal any part of their adornment to foreign men except what they are unable to conceal.’” The upshot is that a woman is commanded in the Noble Qur’an to stay in her house and not emerge except when there is a need. Moreover, if she were to emerge due to a need, then she is commanded to conceal the face by donning the jilbab or burqa’ and in *a manner+ that she does not unveil her face. Yes, there are two situations that are exceptions to this: first, the situation of needing to show the face because concealing it will inflict harm upon her as in a [large] crowd or for another need like providing testimony. Second, her face becomes exposed unintentionally during exertion and work. Men are commanded in these two situations to lower their gaze. And Allah Most High knows best. Takmilah Fath al-Mulhim, vol. 4, pp. 225-234

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Appendix B: Female Islamic Dress-Code
http://www.daruliftaa.com/question.asp?txt_QuestionID=q-05102588 Q) Many women, who wear the Niqab, also wear such clothing which clearly shows their waistline. Is this permissible? Also, what are the Principles in general with regards to a woman’s dress? In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, The Qur’an and Sunnah have laid down certain principles with regards to the dress code of both males and females. A Muslim and a Muslimah are both required to adhere to the Islamic teachings both internally and externally. Allah Most High says: “And abstain from all sins, internal or external.” (Surah al-An’am, 120) Regarding dressing, Allah Almighty says: “O children of Adam! Surely we have bestowed upon you a garment to cover your shame, as well as to be an adornment to you, and the garment of piety is the best.” (al-A’raf, 26) In view of the above-mentioned verse of the Holy Qur’an, other verses and sayings of our beloved Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace), the Jurists (Fuqaha) have deduced certain rules and principles with regards to the dress of males and females. The following are the principles of dressing for females: 1. The whole body of the woman must be concealed. Only the hands and feet (and according to some scholars, the face, when there is no fear of Fitna) can be exposed. Allah Most High says in Surah al-Ahzab: “And stay in your houses and do not display yourselves as in the days of Jahiliyyah (Ignorance).” (V: 33) Allah Almighty further says in the same Surah: “O Prophet! Say to your wives and daughters and the women of the believers, that they should cast upon themselves the outer garment (Jilbab). That will be more convenient for them not to be known (as such) and not be molested. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” (Surah al-Ahzab, 59) In a Hadith recorded by Imam Tirmidhi (Allah have Mercy on him) with a authentic chain of narrators, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “A woman is supposed to be concealed. When she emerges outside (without covering herself properly), Shaytan makes her adorned in front of men.” (Sunan Tirmidhi) It is clear from the above that a female must cover herself fully before coming in front of non-Mahram men. Even the hands and feet should be concealed, if possible. 2. The garment of the female must not be so thin that her body can be visible. 3. Her cloths must not be close-fitting and tight; rather they must be loose, as to avoid the figure and shape of the body being exposed and visible. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 50 of 60

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “There are two types of the people of Hell whom I have not seen: People with whips like the tails of cattle, with which they beat the people, and women who are clothed YET NAKED, inciting men and their heads looking like the humps of camels, leaning to one side. They will not enter paradise and even smell it’s fragrance, even though it’s fragrance can be detected from such and such a distance.” (Sahih Muslim, no. 2218) The above Hadith is clear in that the clothing of a female must not be transparent and/or tight-fitting. The meaning of “clothed yet naked” is nothing other than that. 4. There should be no imitation of the Kuffar (non-believers). In a Hadith recorded by Imam Abu Dawud (Allah have Mercy on him) and others, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Whosoever imitates a nation is amongst them.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, no. 4031) It should be remembered here that not everything what the non-Muslims wear and do, is Haram and unlawful. Imitation, which is prohibited, is effected in two ways: a. One wears a particular type of clothing with the intention of imitating the Kuffar, meaning, one wears something because one wants to be like a particular non-believer or non-believers. b. Wearing any clothing which is unique and exclusive to the non-believers and/or part of their religion, will be considered imitation, thus unlawful. (See the Fatwa of Shaykh Mufti Taqi Usmani in Taqrir Tirmidhi) It becomes evident from the above that if a woman wears certain Western cloths for the sole reason of pleasing her husband, and no other men (Mahram or non-Mahram) see her, and she observes the full rules of Hijab when emerging outside, and the intention is not to imitate the Kuffar, then this would be permissible. 5. Any clothing which creates pride and arrogance in the heart must be avoided. In a Hadith recorded by Imam Ibn Majah (Allah have Mercy on him), the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Whosoever dresses himself out of pride in this world, Allah will dress him/her with the same clothing on the day of Qiyamah and he/she will be entered in to Hell.” (Sunan Ibn Majah) 6. Imitation of the opposite sex is also impermissible. Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) relates, that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) “Cursed those men who imitate women and those women who imitate men.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, 7/205) 7. One should avoid being extravagant and spending lavishly on cloths. The meaning of being extravagant is to spend out on cloths to the amount which is beyond one’s normal capacity. Allah Most High says: “And do not be extravagant, for Allah loves not the extravagant.” (Surah al-An’am, V: 141) http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 51 of 60

8. The cloths should be clean, pure and free from anything filthy and dirty, as purity is part of ones Faith (Iman). The above are the Islamic principles with regards to the dressing of females. Some of these rules may also apply to males. It is evident that this subject is lengthy and needs much more elaboration than this small article. However, one may able to get the gist of what the Islamic guidelines are. This humble servant is, at present, working on this important subject and has an intention (Insha Allah) to publish a book which deals with all aspects relating to women’s Awra, dress and adornment. It needs 5 to 6 months and allot of Duas. And Allah knows best Muhammad ibn Adam Darul Iftaa Leicester , UK

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Appendix C: A Comprehensive Guide to a Woman's Nakedness (awra)
http://www.daruliftaa.com/question.asp?txt_QuestionID=q-16282598 Q) Please can you explain in detail, what is a woman’s awra (satar) in front of her mahrams, Muslim & nonMuslim women? If you can cover all the different situations, it would be beneficial as many people are confused. In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, The covering of one’s nakedness (awra) is of utmost importance for a male and female in Islam, thus the Qur’an and Sunnah have laid great emphasis with regards to this. We also see the various books of Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh) discussing the issues relating to the Awra of both the male and female in great detail. In this brief article, I will attempt to shed some light and look comprehensively as to what is a woman’s Awra. Awra is an Arabic term the plural of which is Awrat. Linguistically, it means a hidden and secret place, and a person’s Awra is that which must be kept hidden. It also refers to everything that causes shame when exposed, thus, the Awra of an individual is the area of the body which (normally) causes embarrassment if exposed. (Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-Arab, 9/370). In the terminology of Islamic Jurisprudence, Awra refers to the area or part of the body that must be covered with appropriate clothing. In the English language, it is normally translated as ‘nakedness’ or ‘area of the body that must be concealed’. Many people (normally form the Indo/pak) refer to it as ‘Satar’. For the purpose of simplicity, I will use the term ‘Awra’ in this article, Insha Allah.

The Awra of a woman
A woman’s Awra can be initially divided into two categories: 1. Inside prayer 2. Outside prayer The latter is then divided into further sub-categories: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) In seclusion In front of the husband In front of Muslim women In front of Mahram males (unmarriageable kin) In front of non-Mahram males In front of non-Muslim women In front of non-Muslim Mahram males

Awra inside prayer (Salat)
A woman’s Awra whilst performing Salat consists of the whole body except the face, hands and feet. Allah Most High says: “O children of Adam! Wear your beautiful apparel (zeenah) at every time and place of prayer.” (Surah al-A’raf, 31) The majority of the Companions (Allah be pleased with them all), their followers (tabi’un), Jurists and exegetes of the Qur’an have deduced from this verse (along with the other evidences) the obligation of covering one’s Awra in prayer. (See: Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi, Ahkam al-Qur’an, 4/205, Ma’arif al-Qur’an (English), 3/565)

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Sayyida Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who experiences menstruation (i.e. who has reached puberty, m) except with a head cover (khimar).” (Sunan Abu Dawud, no. 641, Sunan Tirmidhi, Sunan Ibn Majah and others) The great Hanafi jurist, Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) states in his renowned Durr al-Mukhtar: “The Awra for a free woman (i.e. not a slave, m) is her full body including her descending hair according to the correct opinion, except for the face, hands……and feet”. (See Radd al-Muhtar, 1/405). Therefore, a woman must cover herself properly when performing Salat. Everything besides the face, hands and feet must be covered. The face must be covered properly so that no hair is exposed. Also, care should be taken that no part from above the wrists and ankles is exposed. It must be remembered that the Awra whilst performing Salat must be covered regardless of another person being present or otherwise, and regardless of whether one is performing Salat in dark or light. (Maraqi al-Falah, 210) The feet, according to the more correct opinion, is not regarded as part of Awra. However, due to the difference of opinion with regards to it, it would be more precautious and advisable to cover them, as it will be explained in detail later. With regards to the area below the chin, it should be remembered that the limit of the face in length starts from the point where the hairline usually begins to the bottom of the chin, and in breadth the portion between the two earlobes. (Maraqi al-Falah, P. 58) Keeping this in mind, it becomes clear that the area below the chin is not included in the face, thus it would fall within the legal definition of Awra, and one should try to cover it. However, because of the difficulty in covering it, if a little part of it became exposed, there should not be a problem. Finally, (in this section), the Awra must be concealed from before entering into Salat and must remain concealed until the end. If quarter of a part/organ that requires concealment is exposed before initiating Salat, then Salat will not be valid from the outset. If however, quarter of the organ which is included in the Awra becomes exposed during Salat, then, if this remains to the duration of reciting Subhan Allah thrice, Salat will become invalid, otherwise, it will be valid. (See: Maraqi al-Falah, P. 242) Note) One should consult a scholar with regards to how the parts of the body are categorized and divided, for at times, one may regard a organ of the body to be one part, whereas, legally, it may be considered to be two parts.

Awra outside prayer
Awra in privacy and seclusion It is necessary (wajib) (and recommended according to another opinion) in the Hanafi school, to cover one’s minimum nakedness (between the navel and knee for both men and women) even when alone. The exception to this is when there is a need, such as taking a shower, relieving oneself, or changing one’s clothes. Even in such situations, it is recommended to minimize the exposure. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Modesty is part of faith (iman).” (Sahih alBukhari & Sahih Muslim) Ya’la ibn Umayya reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Verily Allah is modest and discreet and He likes modesty and discretion. When one of you takes a bath, one should cover one’s self.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Nasa’I & Musnad Ahmad). This is a command of recommendation when alone. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 54 of 60

Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) said in his Durr al-Mukhtar: “(And to cover one’s Awra), this is a general obligation, even when alone, according to the correct opinion, unless it is for a valid reason.” Allama Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) writes whilst commentating on the above in his Radd al-Muhtar: “(al-Haskafi’s statement “Even when alone”) That is: Outside of prayer, it is obligatory to cover one's Awra in front of others by scholarly consensus, and even when alone according to the correct opinion….. Now, the apparent meaning of covering one's Awra when alone outside of prayer (in this context) is that only which is between the navel and knees, such that even women do not have to cover other than that (when alone) even if it is of their Awra in front of others…. (al-Haskafi’s statement “According to the correct opinion) For Allah Most High, even though He sees the covered just as He sees the naked, sees the one with their nakedness uncovered leaving proper manners and sees the covered exhibiting proper manners. These proper manners (here) are obligatory whenever there is ability to exercise them. (al-Haskafi’s statement “Unless it is for a valid reason”) Such as, using the toilet or cleaning one self (istinja)”. (See: Radd al-Muhtar, 1/405, matlab fi satr al-awra). Therefore, (according to the more correct opinion), a woman must cover even in privacy between her navel and (including) knees except when there is a need, such as relieving herself, showering, changing her cloths, etc… Awra in front of the husband In principle, it is permissible for the spouses to look at any part of each others body. As such, there is no Awra in front of the spouse (for this will be exempted from the ruling of concealing in privacy due to need). Scholars mention however, that although it is permissible for the spouses to look at any part of the partner’s body, it is disliked that they become completely naked during cohabitation. A cover or sheet over the naked bodies would be sufficient. Sayyida Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) said: “I never saw the Messenger of Allah’s (Allah bless him & give him peace) private parts”. (Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith no. 662) Awra in front of Muslim women The Awra of a woman in front of fellow Muslim women is the same to that which is a man’s Awra in front of other men, i.e. from the navel up to and including the knees. It is stated in al-Hidaya: “A woman may see of another (Muslim, m) woman that which is permitted for a man to see of another man, due to them being from the same sex, and the non-existence of desire (shahwa) between them normally…..Similarly, due to the need and requirement of them exposing amongst themselves”. (See: al-Marghinani, al-Hidaya, 4/461). Therefore, a woman must cover from the navel up to and including her knees in front of other Muslim women. Awra in front of (Muslim) Mahrams (unmarriageable kin) The Awra of a woman in front of her Mahram men (those with whom marriage is permanently unlawful), such as the father, brother, son, paternal uncle (father’s brother), maternal uncle (mother’s brother), father in-law, grandson, husband’s son (from another marriage), son in-law, etc consists of the area between the navel and knees, and also the stomach and back. http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 55 of 60

Thus, it will be permissible for a woman to expose the following parts of her body in front of Mahram males: head, hair, face, neck, chest, shoulders, hands, forearms, and legs from below the knees. It will not be permissible to expose the stomach, back or any area which is between the navel and knees. (See: al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5/328 & al-Hidaya, 4/461). This ruling is based on the verse of the Qur’an in Surah al- Nur: “They (believing women) must not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband’s fathers, their sons, their husband’s sons, their brothers, their brother’s sons, their sister’s sons or their women…” (24-31). It will also be permissible for a Mahram to touch those parts that are permissible to expose in front of them, provided there is no fear of temptation or desire. Imam al-Quduri (Allah have mercy on him) states: “There is nothing wrong in touching those parts that are permissible to see” (Mukhtasar al-Quduri). However, it should be remembered that if there is a fear of temptation (fitna), then it will be impermissible to expose these parts even in front of Mahrams, neither will it be permissible to see or touch those areas of a Mahrams body. (See: al-Lubab fi Sharh al-Kitab, 3/218). Awra in front of non-Mahram males The Awra in front of non-Mahram males (those with whom marriage is unlawful), which includes cousin brother, brother in-law, paternal uncle (one’s father’s sister’s husband), maternal uncle (one’s mother’s sister’s husband), husband’s uncle, husband’s nephew, etc) consists of the whole body except the face, hands and feet. It is similar to that which is considered Awra in prayer (salat). Imam al-Marghinani (Allah have mercy on him) states: “It is impermissible for a man to look at the whole body of a non-Mahram woman (due to it being part of Awra, m) except for her face and hands, for Allah Most High says: “Women must not display their beauty and ornaments except what appear thereof” (al-Nur, 31). Sayyiduna Ali and Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) interpreted this verse with the face and hands... This is textual evidence on the impermissibility of looking at her feet (for it is awra, m), but Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah have mercy on him) said that it is permitted to look at her feet due to need”. (al-Hidaya, 4/458). Imam al-Tumurtashi (Allah have mercy on him) states in Tanwir al-Absar: “A woman’s Awra consists of her whole body except her face, hands and feet. However, she will be prevented from exposing her face in amongst men due to the fear of temptation (fitna)”. Therefore, a woman’s Awra in front of non-Mahram men is her whole body except her face, hands and feet. It must be remarked here that there is a difference between Awra and Niqab or Hijab. Due to the failure of distinguishing between the two, many people become victims of misinterpreting Islamic law in one way or another. The face according to the scholars is not part of the Awra, yet, as we have seen in the text of Imam al-Tumurtashi, it will be necessary to cover it due to the fear of temptation and incitement. Ibn Abidin states: “(A young woman will be prevented from exposing her face), not because it is part of Awra, rather (for the fear of temptation)”. (Radd al-Muhtar, 1/406) http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 56 of 60

Thus, our discussion is solely regarding Awra, and not Hijab or Niqab. As far as the decisive ruling with regards to the covering of the face or otherwise is concerned, we leave that for another time. It is also worth mentioning here that although the Fatwa position in the Hanafi Madhab is that the feet are not included within the Awra, but there is another strong opinion (within the madhhab and according to other Madhabs, such as the Shafi’is), that they are part of Awra, and must be covered. As such, legally, one will not be sinful for exposing them, but it would be advisable as a precautionary measure to cover them. Moreover, (according to the Fatwa opinion), it is only allowed to uncover the feet up to the ankles. Anything above the ankles is from the Awra without a doubt. Many women wear veils, Burqas and Jilbabs that normally cover the ankles, but reveal the leg area above this while walking (especially in the wind, sitting and coming out of a car, etc), thus they commit the sin of exposing What is considered Awra according to all. Therefore, we need to emphasise the importance of covering the feet. Covering the feet is just as important as covering the face if not more, for the face is not considered part of Awra, whilst, there is a strong opinion in the Hanafi Madhhab (and the Fatwa opinion in the other madhhabs) that the feet are. Those who strongly call for and emphasise the necessity of covering the face (not that I object to them) must also realise that the feet are just of the same importance. At times, all the emphasis is laid upon the face, whilst the woman is seen to expose the area above the ankle while walking and there is no realisation that a sin is being committed. Awra in front of non-Muslim women The Awra of a woman in front of non-Muslim women is, strictly speaking, the same that is in front of non-Mahram men, i.e. the whole body besides the hands, face and the feet. The verse of Surah al-Nur that we quoted earlier details the list of people besides whom a woman is not allowed to expose her beauty. Such people (as explained earlier) are known to be her Mahrams (unmarriageable kin). Also, in that verse, Allah Almighty states: “their women” (al-Nur, 31) indicating that a woman must only expose herself to her woman and not others. The exegetes of the Qur’an differ with regards to the interpretation of this statement of Allah. Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (Allah have mercy on him) states: “With regards to the statement of Allah “or their women”, there are two opinions. The first is that it refers to those women who are on the same religion (din) as them (i.e. Muslims, m). This is the opinion of the majority of the predecessors (salaf). Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) states: “It is impermissible for a believing/Muslim woman to uncover herself in front of non-Muslim women, and she is only allowed to expose that what is allowed in front of non-Mahram men… Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) wrote to Abu Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah (Allah be pleased with him) to stop non-Muslim women from entering bath areas (hammam) with Muslim women. The second opinion is that, it refers to all the women (i.e. she may uncover in front of all the women, m). This is the adopted opinion, and the opinion of the predecessors is based on superiority (istihbab)”. (See: Tafsir al-Kabir, 8/365). As we have seen, that Imam al-Razi (Allah have mercy on him) adopted the second view in that a woman may uncover in front of non-Muslim women to the extent of what she is allowed to uncover in front of Mahram men. However, many scholars chose the first view, and it is the view that is adopted by the Hanafi School. Imam alHaskafi (Allah have mercy on him) states: http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 57 of 60

“An unbelieving woman is similar to a non-Mahram man according to the correct opinion. Thus, she is not allowed to see the body of a Muslim woman”. (Radd al-Muhtar, 6/371) Allama Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) explains: “It is impermissible for a Muslim woman to uncover in front of a Jewish, Christian or a atheist woman except if she is her slave…It is also disliked that a corrupt woman (fasiqa) sees the body of a pious woman, for she may describe her to the men, thus she should avoid taking off her outer garment (jilbab) or scarf (khimar)”. (ibid). It is evident from the text of Ibn Abidin that the main reason for the impermissibility of uncovering in front of a non-Muslim woman is that she may describe her to other men. If this is feared from a corrupt Muslim woman, then one should avoid uncovering in front of her also. Therefore, the Awra of a woman in front of non-Muslim women is all her body except her face, hands and feet. Thus, a woman should cover in front of non-Muslim women whenever reasonably possible. However, scholars say that if this is difficult, then it will be permissible to expose some part of the body in front of them. The ruling of covering in front of non-Muslim women is not as strict as the other situations, for, firstly, there is a difference of opinion between the scholars regarding it, and secondly, it may be at times very difficult to cover in front of women. The great exegete, Imam al-Alusi (Allah have mercy on him) states: “This opinion (of not covering in front of non-Muslim women) is more appropriate these days, for it is almost impossible to cover in front of them”. (Ruh al-Ma’ani) In conclusion, a woman should cover whenever reasonably possible in front of non-Muslim women, especially when there is fear that she may describe her to other men. Also nowadays, Fitnahs such as lesbianism have become so wide spread that it has become necessary for women to observe caution with non-Muslim women. However, if it is difficult to fully cover, then one may take the concession on not covering and minimising it to the minimum. Awra in front of non-Muslim Mahrams With regards to a woman’s Awra in front of her Mahrams who are non-Muslim, such as a non-Muslim father, brother, son, etc, I could not find an explicit ruling on the issue in the Hanafi School. However, it seems that non-Muslim Mahrams are similar to other Mahrams in that a woman may expose herself besides from the navel to the knee and the stomach and back, provided there is no fear of temptation (fitna). There are two reasons for this: Firstly, the verse of the Qur’an and the statements of the jurists (fuqaha) are general when discussing Mahrams. They don’t distinguish between a non-Muslim and Muslim Mahram. The Qur’an permits a woman to expose herself (to a degree, as explained above) in front of her father, brother, son, etc without specifying that he be a Muslim. Secondly, the Fuqaha explicitly mention that a Mahram with whom a woman may go on a journey of Hajj includes also a non-Muslim. Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) states: “A woman may travel for Hajj with her husband or a Mahram, even though if he (Mahram) is a slave or a nonMuslim or (he is considered a Mahram, m) due to breastfeeding. He must have reached puberty and is sane, and

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a boy who is close to puberty is like the one who has reached puberty, except a fire worshipper and an immoral and corrupt person”. Allama Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) explains: “The reason why travelling with a Mahram who is a fire worshipper is impermissible, is that they (fire worshippers, m) consider marriage with a close relative to be permissible”. (Radd al-Muhtar, 2/464) Imam al-Kasani (Allah have mercy on him) states: “A Mahram is one with whom marriage is permanently unlawful… whether this Mahram is a free person or a slave, for slavery is not contrary to the close relationship (mahramiyya), and whether he is a Muslim, a nonMuslim or an atheist (mushrik), for a non-Muslim Mahram normally safeguards her, except that he is a fire worshipper, for he considers marriage with her to be permissible”. (Badai’i al-Sana’i, 2/124). It is stated in Fath al-Qadir: “It is permissible for her to travel with all types of Mahrams except a fire worshipper, for he believes marriage with her to be permissible”. (Ibn al-Humam, Fath al-Qadir, 2/422). In the Shafi’i Madhhab, we have a clear text permitting the uncovering in front of a non-Muslim Mahram. Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (Allah have mercy on him) states: “It is not permissible to look at what lies between the navel and knee of one’s close relative (mahram); everything else is permissible, provided there is no desire (shahwah), and even if he is a non-Muslim, because the close relationship (mahramiyyah) makes marriage unlawful, so it is as if they were two males or two females”. (Tuhfat al-Muhtaj ala al-Minhaj) Therefore, it would be permissible for a woman to uncover besides the area between the navel and knees, and the stomach and back in front of her non-Muslim Mahrams, provided two conditions are met: 1. That there be no desire (shahwah) or fear of temptation (fitna), especially when we live in a age where evils such as incest among the non-Muslims is becoming common, 2. That the non-Muslim close relative not be from among those who believe that it is permissible to marry close relatives, Finally before parting, I would like to mention in relation to our discussion three points. Firstly, it should be remembered that all the parts of the body that need to be covered (in the various situations discussed above) must be covered with clothing that is loose and opaque. The clothing must not be close-fitting whereby the figure of the body is visible or transparent by which the colour of the body is able to be seen. If this is not taken care of, then it will not be regarded to be sufficient covering of the Awra. Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) states: “Clothing that is considered to be sufficient covering is such that, it is not possible to see thorough them”. Allama Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) explains: “(It is not possible to see thorough them), meaning in a way that the colour of the skin can not be visible. This exempts thin and other see-through clothing… However, if the clothing is thick in a way that the colour of the skin is not visible, but it is tight to the body, then this should not prevent the validity of Salat… However, it is still impermissible to see that part of the body”. (See: Radd al-Muhtar ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar, 1/410) http://www.central-mosque.com/ Page 59 of 60

This excerpt of Ibn Abidin explains that if the skin of the body becomes visible in prayer, Salat will become invalid. However, tight clothing would not prevent the validity of prayer, yet it is still necessary not to wear tight-fitting clothing. Secondly, in all the foregoing occasions where it is permissible to uncover and expose the body, if there is a fear of desire (shahwa) on either side or there is fear of temptation (fitna), then it will be necessary to cover. A woman may make this decision herself in accordance with the surroundings she is in. Thirdly, it will be permissible to uncover and expose parts of the Awra in cases of extreme need and necessity, such as medication. However, care should be taken that this is limited to only the part that needs treatment. If treatment is needed on the actual private parts, then it would be better to receive treatment from someone of the same sex. However, if this is not possible, then it would be allowed to receive treatment from a specialist of the opposite sex, with taking due care of the injunctions and guidance of Shariah. Allama Ibn Abidin (may Allah have mercy on him) states: “It is permissible for a male physician to view the affected area of a woman for the purpose of medication, provided it is minimised to only the area that actually needs treatment, for necessity is restricted to only the actual need. If the private parts need treatment, then a female should carry out the treatment, as seeing someone of the same sex is less of an evil.” (Radd al-Muhtar, 5/261) The above was a comprehensive look at the Awra of a woman. The extent of the Awra differs from one occasion to another and from one person to another. The whole concept and idea behind this is that Islam desires its followers to live a life that is chaste and free from any type of corruption or immorality. This is a basis for every sound and pure society. May Allah guide us all to the straight path, and that we are able to act upon the injunctions of Shariah in a manner that is most pleasing to Allah Almighty. And Allah Knows Best Muhammad ibn Adam Darul Iftaa Leicester , UK

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