FOR BEGINNERS

Text byJoe Schwartz Illustrations by
Michael McGuinness
'-"
P;:mthpnn .;;, ,,',
Text Copyright © 1979 byJoe Schwartz
Illustrations Copyright © 1979by
Michael McGuinness
All rights reserved under International andPan-
American Copyright Conventions. Publishedin
the United States by Pantheon Books, adivision of
RandomHouse, Inc., New York, andsimultane-
ously in Canadaby RandomHouse of Canada
Limited, Toronto.
Originally published in EnglandbyWriters and
ReadersPublishingCooperative.
Libraryof Congress Cataloging in PublicationData
Schwartz, Joe, 1938-
Einstein for beginners.
Bibliography: p.
1. Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955. \. McGuinness,
Michael, 1935- joint author. I\. Title.
QC16.E5S32 530.1'1 79-1889
ISBN0-394-50588-3
ISBN0-394-73801-2 pbk.
Manufactured in the United States of America
02468B97531
About the Author and Illustrator
Joe Schwartz, who is Associate Professor of Physics at
the City University of New York, received his Ph.D. in
higher energy physics from the University of California
in 1964. He is the author of many scientific articles that
have appeared in Nature, New Scientist, and other
magazines.
Michael McGuinness studied fine arts at the Royal
Academy in London. He is a former art director at
Reader's Digest and designer for the Observer.
'If relativity is proved right the Germans will call me a German, the Swiss will call me a
Swiss citizen, and the French will call me a great scientist.
If relativity is proved wrong the French will call me a Swiss, the Swiss will call me a
German, and the Germans will call me a Jew.'
A\be,rt Einstein was born in
ulm, Germany on March 11.1875
'Into a war Id not of his
own making.
.-{Just like the rest ofus. ]
hat was going on 'In the world?
The 1880'5 marked
the beqinning of
the ag5 of
imperialism and
mon0p,0ly

LENIN
11
1870
Franco-Pru..ian War - Prussia annexes Alsace-Lorraine,
declares a German Empire, receives 5,000,000,000 francs
indemnity and blows it all in financial speculation.
1871
The Parla Commune - Workers and soldiers take over the
government of Paris for 3 months. The Commune suppressed
with the help of the Prussian Army. 30,000 Communards
executed by the French authorities.
6
1873
The Great World-Wide Financial Crash. The next 17years
meant hardship for ordinary people; great profits and
consolidation for a few. Small businessmen, like Einstein's
father, were badly hit. This was a time of labor struggles,
immigration, the rise of militant socialism.
1878
Bismarck passes anti-socialist laws to suppress working-class
political agitation.
The great questions of
the day w'llI not be
settled by resolutions
and majority votes but
by blood and
CItt</%It
181J-
I
83
8
Chcmcellor of GermGlry'
1811 -1890
Jews qet
the bldrne
for the
Finoncicl
cnsis.
Wilhelm Marr coins the word
anti-Semitism and founds the
League of Anti-semites.
8
Bi5ll1orcK's
friend
~ n d
contidant .

The Jewish tribe has indeed adifferent blood
from the Christian peoples of Europe, a different
body, a different constitution, other affects and
passions. If we add to these peculiarities the
thick fat skin and the volatile, mostly disease
inclined blood, we see before us the Jew as
white Negro, but the robust nature and capacity
for physical work of the Negro are missing and
are replaced by a brain which by size and
activity bring the Jews close to the Caucasian
peoples.
Mamma rnic,
/' w'lth us, they
blarnethe .
Sicilians!
t'5 a period of tremendous overall industrial expansion.
People throughout Europe are forced off the land
and into the cities.
The rural Jewish population of
southern Germany falls by 70%
between 1870and 1900.
Many emigrate to the Americas.
n 1880 Albert's father's business -fOils because of the
depression and the fOl1lily moves from lJlm,
p'opulat!on 1.500, to population 2.3°,000.
Aloert 15 oneyear old.
Pauline,
Ithink
things
are5e.tter '
in
Munich.
5fe,.l11atJfltffl6fa1v
181T-1.902
AI bert's father.
Freeman of Buchau.
Jews were not completely
ermncipqred until 1867,59
being a freeman was special.
Fine!
You congo
into
business
with your
brother
there.

18.5
8
-1.9
20
A/bert's mother.
Daughter ot a court
pvrveyc;:>r, JulIus Koch-
Bernheimer;
9
entral to Germany's industrialization isihe growth of
the chemical am' electrical industries.
10
........ Slgn81Ingby Electricity 1837:
telegraphs, cables, batteries, terminals, insulated
wire coils, switches, measuring instruments.
Electroplating 1840:
for fancy tableware and household objects for
the prosperous middle classes.
Electric lighting 1880-80:
arc lighting for streets, docks, railways and finally
homes.
ElectricPower Production 1.:
electrification of railways, furnaces, machinery,
construction of power plants and distribution
systems.
12
1881. In the suburbs of Munich, Albert's father opens
asmall factory with his brother Jacob, a tmined
enqineer. They manufacture dynamos, electric
instruments and electric arc lights.
Hermann and Jacob are part of the German
electrical industry 0000000
II .,
whioh is .
I
I
I1
I!II a peric58 of
intense
monopol-
ization.
Darmstadter Bank 1853
Diskontogesellschaft Bank 1856
Deutsche Bank 1870
Dresden Bank 1872
13
y 19135 half the worlds Ircde in electro-chemical
products was in German hands.
&.. ''''..•
''f-
Who
had
the
other
half?
Glad you asked.
.........."",...... The U5ofA.
General ElectricCo.•
a combine of
Ihomson- Houston
& Edison Co.
ermann and Jacob Einstein are in for trouble.
Tneir small company, cannot compete against giants
like Siemens and flalske.
ii
t808·1(J86
Scientific
instru-
ment
maker
at the
Univer-
sity of

Joi ned forces
with Siemens
in 184"1
Since electricity
Figures so strongly, in
our story "It is worth
looking at the firm of
Siemens and Halske in
more detail.


t816-1892
From o
prominent
Hanover
family.
Educated
inthe
Prueson
Army.
Artillery
and .
Enqineerlng
Scnool.
Inventor
ofmodern
dynamo
in ISGr.
15
iemens' firsT invention '
and siIver plating. was an Improved process fur gold
With his brother Ch I ti
sold the ' es ac <;15 agent,he
in 18+3. rights toElkington of""BIrmingham, U.K.,
------ ..-
)hy be in CIlu,stantoperati\)R, daily, ellcepted) from 9 tin R. It ,111'
TELECRAPH OFFICE, LONDON TERMINUS, PADCINCTON
AND TELECRAPH COTTACe, SLOUCH STATION.
Au Es.hibiLionadmitted by its nercerccs to be the most iotern.un1;\:
and ATTRACTIVE of an,. in great In the list of arc the
iUWltrious Il.llmel of several ut' the Crowned Headi of Eurol,e, and nearly the
wDo\e-oCtbe lIiobility of Engteed-
"Thill w'airh IVJJ _l'J mlle't PllUk atttntil't"t ,,/ lalt, i, M:ll
worthy 4 tli,.t fr"OTII all tt'/w {Ol" to ,wi tiu wr)"d.no! POST.
The Electric Telegnaph is unlimited in tbe D_tur. eed utent of iu ecre-
municatioll&; by its tltraordinary agency a penon in l'/lndon could COD\'eUe ",jIlt
allothu at Ne.... Yor1c.or 310lnyother place however tli'ltant, lUI euilyand nurly u
rapidly as iTboth parti.es ",ne in the seine room. Cotue'tion"proposed by
...n1 be asked by means of this and eeswers thereto will instaLf&neoull,.
be murnett hy a person 20 otr, who will alto. at their requel't, ring a bll{
or ,fin a cannon, in an increu.:bly I?ac!! uf time••nu the signal for his
dOing so been given
The Electric Fluid travels at the
rate of Z80,OOO Miles per Second.
By irs i
1C
\'I' f'rflll "'geney have teen appl'l:'hcnll"tt l"'l ill rhe late ('lit."
of detected; and :."t17. wbid\ i. oi no little impvrh"Y'ce. the
timely :'IledicallU-dhu been procured. in ca..es which otl1... would
have crcved
T!;.. grut llaliof.llt or w.)nderful in"('ntion ill 1IO well knewn
thAt allYfur'in,-f here to hOimerits ""ould be supf'rf!.uo'J-S.
N.D. .." jell! t'" .lId fro with the most cOllfiding secrecy. 'Menenr"'\,,'
in condA\1t attendance. '0 tbat comrllunitatioDS recei v.:J. "eleg
raph"
woehl
be forwlU:d..d, if to "ny part of Lendou, Eice, &e.
ADMISSION ONE SHILLING.
T. HOIllI:, Licf1It«.
Under the speci3.1 of Her ltIo.jesty &. H.R.U. Prince Albert.
QA,I!,VlAll'teO AllfO
TBLBClBAPBS,
GT. \VESTERN' RAIL\VAY.
'J'BB WONDBK of the AGB r !
INS'rANTA.'lEOUS CO)B!UNICAnON.
5
f
iemerys thecircle
o UnIversity
He develops
an Improved telegraph
system. This is a
ofcoveri ng the
'!'lIre vxrth seamless
mode of cheap
morenoI Cgutta-perche]'
arubberlike plant .
SUbstance.)
In 1811 he
Telegra.phen
B9uensTadt von
SIemens und Halske to
'!1anufacture and
Instal telegraph
systems.
16
n 18t8 he gets the Prussian government contract to build
q network in NorThern Germany.
1 ; ~ 1 h e Frankfurt
Revolutionarv
ossemolv h05
JUS! electeq the
KIng to beI
emperor.
Siemens loses ihe Pruesiori conTract in 1850.
But 'In Ruesio he succeeds in seIling fhe Tsar
on an extensive sysre-m.
11
18
1854-56
Thanks to Siemens we can find out
how that. Crimean war i'5 doin ~
~ ~ ~ ~ Siemens
useshis
profits from
Russia for
thenext
Big Deal-
underwater
coble
telegraphy!
- ~ - - - .
he first transatlantic
cable is laid
between 1857-1868.
-
---....
'\ vJhats the
I price of cotton
\ in London this
",-week?
----
-
~ e better
(pullout ofthat
\ 'gold deal. I
~ n .
Siemens orqonizee the Indo- European telegraph in 18ro.
It connects London- Berlin-Odesso-Teheran and
Calcutta. He becomes consultant to the British government.
His ship, the faraday, loys 5transatlantic
cables between 1875-1885.
19
lectric power becomes a cornmodity.
The first market 15 lightIng for docks, rai Iways and streets.
Schuckert,
who combines
withSiemens,
worked with
Edison in
NewJersey.
Edison organizes the construction of the first centra I
generating station in 1882.
Th'l,) should
turn d
nice
profit,hey?
20
Pearl st. Station of
Edison Electric Illuminatinq Company
feet· .
E
r/clty is II
veryo .0 the
ont ~ ne tnes 1- rage.
fie oct. 10 get in
21
n 18B7 theGerman government opens the
Physikolische - Technische - Reichsanstalt for
research in the exact sciences and precision technology.
Siemens donates 500,000 marks to the project.
His old friend, Hermann von Helmholtz of
the University of Berlin circle.is appointed head.
21
So Albert was born when electricity had
become big business and the most
popular of the sciences. His future would
be greatly influenced by the
commitment of the German state to
technical education and state-supported
research.
OUf fumily
was very
close-knit
and very
ho.spitable.
In 1881 Alberts sister
MojC\ is born.
Albert proves to be a
slow,dream'ichi ld.
Even at oge 9 he
spoke hesitantly.
Al bert's closest
friend in
childhood.
24
Ach,
donT worry.
Perhap5
he'll De a
profseeor
onedoy!
Alberts Germany is a very military ploceoooooooo
There,there.
W'el/ worry
about it
later.
Arms expenditure nearly
triples between 1870and
1890.
The officer corps increases
from3000 to 22,500. Three
year military service is
compulsory. Socialist
Iiterature is forbidden.
Youths are subjected to
fear and humiliation.
Veterans organizations are
state supported.
Membership increases from
27,000 in 1873to 400,000 in
1890and 1,000,000 in 1900.
Heads of state all appear in
military uniform.
Even the taxi drivers wear
uniforms.
Albert
doesn't
like it.
\
25
_----I Christ was
nailed ro
the cross
with
nails
liRe
thiS.
Albert
goes to
schoolooo
000 which
is. very
military.
2.0
Albert goes to aCatholic school.
He is the only Jew in his closs.. ••
(Albert's father was a non-religious Jewwho
regarded the kosher dietary laws as ancient
superstition.)
· lbert had a much
better time
at home playing
with his
sister
AI bert, what do you
think' of this?Ifs
called
q
compass.
---==:---'
Hush now
and go to
sleep.
21
, lbert's uncle Jacob introduces him to math e e e e o o e e-e
I \ i ~ e my uncle
Jake. He always
shows me things.
/
:/
Algebra is a merry science.
When the animal we are
hunting cannot be
caught, we call it x .
temporarily and conunoe
to hunt it until it IScaught.
00000000 And his mother introduces him
to music and literature.
2.8
Oh.no, not violin
lessons! ~
Its Just '\·11
liRe
school.
Go on.you
~ n o w you
~ \ik?e to ploy
~ L when you.r
cousins
.J-: ", come.
t was a Jewish custom
in southern Germany to invite a
p'0or Jew to dinner on lhursday's.
'Max Ta\mey, a medical student in
Munich! visited the Einstein
home when Albert was 12.
Great public interest in science
in Germdn'y.' produced
poputor science best-sellers
ana vice versa,
Talmey brought some of
these with him.
29

do you
think
Albert
reads
too
mucn?
With assistance,
Albert worked through
Spieker's Plane
and later went ontoteoch
himself "the elements of colculus.
Better- he
should
read
than do
nothin9.'
lbert's reading undermines hi5 faith inauthority.
Through the reading of popular scientific books I
soon reached the conviction that much of the
stories in the Bible could not be true. The
consequence was a positive fanatic orgy of free
thinking coupled with the impression that youth
is intentionally being deceived by the State
through lies. It was a crushing impression.
Suspicion against every kind of authority grew
out of this experience, a skeptical attitude
towards the convictions which were alive in any
specific social environment - an attitude which
never left me, even though later on, becauseof a
better insight into causal connections, it lost
some of its original poignancy.
31
· r presence
Einstein, YOL!5 disruptive
i n t h e f ~ a ~ i t h e other
and 0 re
etudents.
'(odll stay
for t.
deten Ion.
o
Emperor
Charles
N
1346-1378
Emperor
Charles
s:
1519-155
6

chorles

1711-1140
The teochers in
elementary school
appeared to me.lil<e
) /'" sergeants, and In
/'" the Gymnasium, the
teochers were
lik?e
33
n 1894 Hermann's business fails. The family moves
south to Milan, Italy.
Albert, you'll stay here to
Finish sc.hool and qet
your diploma, y,0ulr
, ~ - - - - . neea it.'
After two months
on his own, I\\bert
obtains a doctors
certificate saying
"that he is suffering
a nervous break-
down.The school
authorities dismiss h i ' l ~ - -
Just whot
I wClnted!
o
4
Papa,lm renouncing
my Oerman citizens hip.
1m off tothe
rnountnins. I
thinK I'll visit
our cousins in
Genoo.
Albert spends a free harRY year in Italy.
But hisfather's business fails again.
lhe family moves to Pavia where ogain
it fails!
Albert, I can
no longer
support you.
You must
become an
enqineer
anc1go into
Business.
f
35
Evenwhen I was a fairly precocious young man,
the nothingness of the hopes and stirrings which
chasesmost men restlesslythrough life came to
my consciousness with considerable vitality.
Moreover I soon discovered the cruelty of that
chase, which in those years was much more
carefully covered up by hypocrisy and glittering
words than is the case today. By the mere
existence of the stomach everyone was con-
demned to participate in that chase.
ithout a diploma, Alberi can't enter University. But the
Eidgenossiche Technische Hochschule, the ETH, in
ZUrich, the most elitetechnical school outside of
Germany, would admit him if he passed an entrance
exam. Hefuiled miserably.
Einstein, you've roiled
French, English.
Zoology ana Botany.
But you have a
superior knowledge
of mathemat iC5 .
37"
· Ibert has a good ti me in Aarau.
Ooh,that
Albert
Einstein is
Cute.
=
He stays with the headmaster of the school,
Professor Winteler, who has 0 son,Paul,and a
daughter Albert's age. Alberts sister Moja later
marries Paul Winteler. He studies physics with ••• 0
0000 Auqust Tuschmid, considered a fTrst-
class te'acher of physics.
The centml problem
In p'hysics Today
is the resolution
of Newton's
mechanical
world view
With the new
equotions of
electromagnetism.
38
· t the end of the year Albert graduates
and passes his ETH exam.
. Jat1
~ / ~ ~ ~ f ! . J )
;Aatat' J
8
9
6
• n 2.8January 1896 Albert's official opplicotion for the
termination of his German nationality is approved.
He becomes a statelessperson! Albert convinces
his father that he should be a teacher instead ofan
engineer. In October 1
8
9
6
he is ready
for The.... 1h
.... "big time" ebigtime-
what's he mean? Dunne,
let's see.
39
40
he ETH was 0 Big League outfit. The Physics Institute was
planned by Heinrich Weber and his friend Siemens.
00" It
attmeted
world-
wide
attention
Description by Henry Crew, PhD, U.S. physics professor in 1893:
"H. F. Weber and Dr Pernetare at the head of the physics department in
the Polytechnic. They not only have the most complete instrumental
outfit I have ever seen, but also the largest building I have ever seen
used for a physical laboratory. Tier on tier of storage cells, dozens and
dozens of the most expensive tangent and high resistence
galvanometers, reading telescopes of the largest and most expensive
form by the dozen, 2 or 3 in each room. The apparatus cost 400,000
francs, the building alone 1 million francs."
But the
,Aengineers
/ottneETH
-: / complqmed
" ;;'/' motfheir
teachers
rff; were too
%' abstract.
The students
, orqonized .
J;jj demonstmnons
~ agoinstthe .
I "mathematics
. \\·.lectures.
\
\\
- - - ~
+1
· Ibert qUickly decided
mathematics was
far too specialized
to be interesting .
Those engineers ore
right on.'
'. : qnd spent
his time In the
U .superb physical
laboratory doing
experiments. He had a
cavalier attitude toward
formal instruction .
42.
........ and naturally he quickly antagonized some
of his instructors.
You're clever, Einstein, extremely,
clever. But you have one great fuuIt:
you never let yourself
be told anything!
yes, Herr Weber....
Some old stuff!
Here's the notee.
43
I lbert gets icofinncs a
month from his relatives.
He saves 20 francs of
iteach month toward
his Swiss citizenship.
E x ~ n s i v e . . . . ond
restricted to afew
appliconts.
e forms friendships with Michelangelo Besso.
"jhe finest sounding-boord in all Eur0p.€:' Marcel
Grossmann,who later helps Albert get his first .secure
Job in the Swiss Patent Office,onCl Mileva Maric,
a mathematician from Serbia whom he marries
in 1903. They have a good time in the lively
political atmosphere of Zurich.
xiled revolutionaries from Germany and "Russia 01\ come
toZurich. Alexandra Kollontoi, Trotsky,
Rosa Luxemburg,and later Lenin, are there.
Albert learns ( f ! ~
about f ( f ~
revolutionary ~
socialism from ~
his rrierd ~ ---
Friedrich Adler, ( { ( ~
ajunior -./
lecturer in
physics.
Friedrich is the son of Victor Adler. the leader
of the Austrian Social Democrats, sent by his
father to study physics "and forget politics"
But Adler remains involved in the socialist
movement. In 1918he assassinates the
Austrian Prime Minister. Albert submits
testimony on his behalf.
Friedrich gets amnesty
and doesn't serve any time.
15
Opt ick.s .
consolidation of the laws
dominated for ihe
Attended Trinity College,
Cambridge. Whig MP for
Cambridge 1689-1690. Long-
term interest in metallurgy
led to his becoming Master
ofthe Mint from 1696to
his death in 1727. Founder
of the theoretical basis of
mechanics. Using Kepler's
summary of the measurements
of the motions of the
planets he formulated laws
of motion of material objects.
Cl o ck v work .
n physic5.Newton's
of mechanics had
previous 200 years.
Newton's mechanical world
view is part of 18th & 19th century European philosophy
and vice versa.
Albert was skeprical bui nevertheless impressed by
the achievements of the mechanical world view.
Albert, like most beginning physics students,
particularly admired the ability of mechanics to
explain the behavior of gases. The relationship
between the pressure, volume and temperature of a
gas could be derived by treating the particles of a
gas as projectiles constantly bombarding the walls
of the container. From this treatment came a
number of impressive results: the way the energy of
a gas depended on temperature, howviscous a gas
is, howwell it conducts heat and howfast it can
diffuse. Comparison of this model to experiment
also yielded the first estimates ofthe sizes of atoms.
But what the 19th century achieved on this basis was
bound to arouse the admiration of every receptive person.
Dogmatic rigidity prevailed in
all matters of principles. In the beginning God created
Newton's law of motion together with the necessary
masses and forces.
,
,
')
~ l
\
-.,
II
I
\ I
41
ut it was the p.hysic5 of electricity and the
electrodynamics of faradoy,MaxwalI and Hertz
that most attracted his attention ....
Faraday: the most
accomplished
experimental physicist
of the 19
1tlC.
56n of a
blockemith.
liJ
3 Sir HumphreyDavy
was headof the
Royallnstitutlon in
London. Faraday
become Dovy's
ossistant and ha.d to
endure the recline
insults of the
British class system _
throughout h'lS
early years. Davy'5
Wi fe refused to
eat at 1he same
table with him and
demanded that
Davydo "the same.
48
Heworked Txears as a
bookbinder betore .
coming to the attention
of Sir Humphrey Davy.
(f)In1
8
3
2
Foraday
published the
experirpental and I
iheore1ical work
ihai p'avedthe way I
forfV1axwell'5 ih8or.
y
.
ofeleciromagneiism.
His work was
hampered in
laier years by a
failure ofmemory
_caused by
-T.r -=
_. ..F:::"
-- ,

91 -186
49
Hmrn., .. Faradois
picture of lines ot'
force:traversing all
SgaGe \s a gooaone.
I ihink I can use
that.
Maxwell expressed himself in
obscure and contradictory
language so his results weren't
accepted in Europe. In 1871,1
waded through his papers and
realized that he was probably
right. I put my best student on the
problem of showing experimentally
that the electric force propagated
at the speed of light.
Child of a prominent Edinburgh
family. from 185110 1861' he
worked aT puttIng farodaY,'s
results into mathematical form.
Maxwell's equations showed
that elecTric and magnetic
forces should move
through empty space
at exactly the
speed cf light.
- ~ i
~ " , , ~ . . -. ~
~ ~ :'\
K ~
~ /
Son of a la\l\{yer and SenaTor of
Homburg.Trained as on engineer
he became aifrocTed to Helmholtz's
lob in Berlin. In 1886,ofter 8Jears or
work on fVlaxwell '5 ifJeory, fie
demonstrated eXQerimentally
thor the electric force propagates
thro!Jqh space crt the spee4
of Ilgl1t
/dlertz
o'\18Jl-
18
.9
f
experiments were
widely popularized and insp.ired
100 20-year-old Guglielmo Marconi.
Working with "Professor Auqusto
Ri9.hl,o friend and -+he British
in "Bologna, Marconi pUllt admlrolty a
signaling devices. self-propelled
torpedo In 1896.
I Ibert got VeAy exdted about ihi5 line of work.
The incorporation of optics into the theo
electromagnetism with its relation to the
speed of light to electrical and magnetic
measurements ... was like a revelation!
EJectric1y?
Magnetism?
optiCS?
science
is
rfw
st er
-
IOU5.
5cience
is a force
In
production.
Hey,
wnat
about
curiosity?
science
is
social
relations.
.51
52.
ow fur would Alberts childhood curiosity. about
the maqnet have gptten without a social basis?
Withoui'the organized work ofrmny people like
Faraday., Maxwell, Hertz and others?
knowledge accumulaies
ihrough worK
'CuriosityJis ju?t a way of sayin9
thot human beings con change '
their environment,can improve' "
things, can discover wha1 is use- "
fiji or not...
If only we
could use
-those
volcanoes
to worm us
in winter.!
atural magnets. or
lodestones! were reported
by the Chinese circa 2600B.C.
When youdiq
for iron! YOlJ
find lots ofthem.
odestones are magnetized
by ihe E.ar1h's own
magnetism. Also called
magnetite. It isan oxide of
iron(iron combined with oxygen).
lhe Chinese used them firsT
for burial purposes and only
later for novigation .
1here were occult
speciolisls in China called
deomoncers.lheir lob wos
t6 seethat a per:-son's grave
was correctly lined up fOr
pcoper entry to the -----.//
atlBr-lire. FarI
out.
.53
· round 900 B.C. magnetized needles began to be
used 05 direc1ion irldicotors.
LucretiU5(ciRCA55B.c.) wrote 0 poem about magnetism;
u!he sfee/ will
Or up orchW11 o1f!erfkwe- "
FItOM DE RERUM NATURA
And that W(}.6 that ror 1600 YeQrs. Magnetism was C,Jood
fOr dIrections and as a curiosity for the leisured .
"My brother told me that Bathanarius produced a
magnet and held it under a silver plate on which he
placed a bit of iron. The intervening silver was
not affected at all, but, precisely as the magnet was
moved backward and forward below it, no matter
howquickly, sowas the iron attracted above."
from me
utt!
yod
lectriety has a similar history.
,...---'-"''----- ----_--/'_------..
The Greeks circa 400 B. C.
And that's where thar sTood
fora very long time!
In 1726 a student of
Newton'5, 5tephen
Gray, showed! that
frictional
electr icity....
.... can
be made
to travel
along 0h
hempt reo
....
Etruscans
hove a
method for
contrail ing
lightning.
55
56
y the end ofthe 18
th
C. a number of people like
Coulomb in fronce and Galvaniand Volta in Italy,
supported by wealthy were exploring
the phenomena of elecTricity.
Volta invented a battery which made steady currents
available for thefirst time,

17 'r-------
l
, I,nterest dropped off in
frictionoI electricity and every-
one rushed to make batteries because
they were so much betrer.
5f
12
D
D
Experi menters tried to
see ifthere was a
connection between
electric and
magnetic forces.
In \820
Oersted took 0/
oulornb made detailed
measurements of-the
electric force. His experi-
mente> showed that a
formula could be
written fur the electric
force simi10r to Newton'5
formula for gravitation.
·.0 piece of ..... and a •

ond showed that when current flowed in
tne wire the cornposs would deflect from magnetic north.
It's

easy.
'(au 1IO
Wit
for
:::;)
your- I-
self.
I ndre Ampere made even
moreprecise measurements
of "this newforce exerted by
currents flowingihrough wires.
Amperes discovery. wa5
eleganT buT Oersted's was
commercial. Electric
become pOSSible
because 1he electric current
could be used to deflect a
magnetized needle
somewhere elee and hence
pass on messages!
Havinq..,shown fuat electricity
in "the torm of electric
current could produce
magnetic effects, it now
remained to be shown
that magnetism could
produce electric effects.
This provedto bea touqh nut
which was not cracked
unti I 1831 by Faraday.
oraday was able it> show flnally -that you could get
en electric current from magnetism.
(The maqnetism had 10 change. Astatic magnetic force
couldnT'do it.)
It had been a big gamble and a lot of hard work.
This discovery, showed that
you could get an electric
current fromthe
mechanical motion
ofmognets.
Most everyone dropped
research into batteries and
storied building qenerotors.
HippolyteHxiis was the first.. ·
69
· ... which was Q long way from Siemens'
First dynamo in 186(":
And ot thesame time
people sorted
experi,menting with
electric motors ....
60
. ... which didn't payoff
until wide-seaIe
distribution of power
become profitable
inthe 1880'S.
.' ut the keything for our story 'IS how faraday tried to
understand ihe effect he observed.
Faraday was oneof the very.fuw working-class scientists.
His bockqrourd of rich practical experience served him
well in hie experimental work. And his overall
Derspective was very down to earth. ,
Instead of trying 10 make up elegant force rl aws,
Faraday tried to visualize what was happening when
a magnet and a current interacted. 50 he
made pictures of what wos happening.
(
Iron filings placed near magnets D
tend to rline up'. faraday proposed .
that a magnet or a current- carrYing wire
sends out lines afforce in a definite
pattern~ depending on -the shope and
strength of the magnet or current.
61
Faraday's I?iciures showed
that the vdtage generated in
a circuit was totne
rote or whichihe lines of
force through the circuit
were changing.
Forthe ftr5t time
theory moved away from
forces actinq at a distance
as in glUvitallon,
Now lhe spoce between
the bodies was seen 05 the
active carrier of-the force.
62
A5 soon 05 Faraday discovered ihis effect hes1aried
asking how 'It was tnatthe lines afforce 90t1hrough space.
Here's on example.Check
it out. ~
When the ~ is closed
ihe ~ attracts
the e 0 nd deflects it
from magnetic north.
Certain of the results
which are embodied in the
two papers entitled
Experimental Researches
in Electricity lead me to
believe that magnetic
action is progressive and
requires time.
When a magnet acts on a
distant magnet or piece of
iron, the influencing
cause proceeds gradually
from the magnetic bodies
and requires time for its
transmission.
The influencing
cause proceeds
here and
requires time
for its
transmission.
63
25 years later Maxwell made very good use of this picture. He renamed the magnetic
lines of force the magnetic field. He renamed the electric lines of force the electric field.
He produced equations showing howthe fields were related to each other. And, as
an extra bonus, the equations predicted that under certain conditions the fields (lines of
force, magnetic influence, it's all the same) should move like waves through space at
the speed of light.
Yes. Maxwell's equations
implied thai liqht wos on
electromognefi"c
phenomenon,o hitherto
unsuspected form
of the electric furce.
lhe study oflightwo5 now
to become a pari
of the study of
electromognetism.
instantaneous
141,000miles/sec
Measurements of the speed of light
modern value... 186,279mi/sec
1670I. Newton
1941C. D.'Anderson 186,269mi/sec
1875A. Cornu 186,400mi/sec
1676O. Roemer
1926A. Michelson 186,281mi/sec
1727J. Bradley 186,233miles/sec
1849H. Fizeau 194,000mi/sec
61
ut not everyone liked Maxwell's equations. Even
Faraday was a bit piqued.
He wrote to Maxwell:
There is one thing I would be glad to ask you. When a mathematician
engaged in investigating physical actions and results has arrived at his
conclusions may they not be expressed in common language as fully,
clearly, and definitely as in mathematical formulae71f so, would it not be
a great boon to such as I to express them so7 - translating them out
of their hieroglyphics, that we also might work upon them by
experiment. I think it must be so, because I have always found that you
could convey to me a perfectly clear idea of your conclusions, which,
though they may give me no full understanding of the steps of your
process, give me results neither above nor below the truth, and so clear
in character that I can think and work from them. If this be possible,
would it not be a good thing if mathematicians, working on these
subjects, were to give us the results in this popular, useful, working
state, as well as in that which is their own and proper to them.
65
It wasn't until Helmholtz in 1811 decided to put all itle
competing "theories in order flaT Maxwell's equaTions
emerged as ihe p'rime candidate fur ihe correct
1i1eorv. Helmholtzslab become the center for
research into eJectromagnetic waves and the
propagation ot light
Every,one agreed
that liqht was __
a form of -
electric and d' - "'-
magnetic"'" ;,;i*1} -,
interaction. • • • ••••• but nobody
c o u l ~ under-
stanu how it
qot from I
placeto place.
66
he mechanism of -the transmission ofelectric and
magnetic forces was now a mqjor Rroblem. Everyone
believed thot some sort of medium (or substance)
was necessary to eupporf !he fjelds.
rr We have
reason to
believe,
from the
phenomenom

heaf,thot mere
isan
oethereal
medium
filling space
and
permeofng
bodies.
This was-the
fomous,
luminiferous
nether that was
to occupy some
physicisfs for the
next40 years.
UntiI AI bert
did away
with it all.
lhe oeiher was supposed iofill all space ...
. . . and had to have the contradictory properties:
6,
But did
ihe aether
really.
exist?
2at the same time,
infinitely rigid in
order to support the - t ~ ~ i ~ J J i
light properly. ~
1completely permeable to
material objects, while .:
n 1887two U.S. Americons, A.A. ty1ichelson and
E.W.Morley, tried 10 detect ihe motion ofihe Earth
through 1he oether using very sensitive apparatus.
Thb massive
stone block,
floating in IMI'
mercury, with
onll-rnefer --
inierterometer....
.... srould
'=",10/1 settle this
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ once and
fOroll.
18jt.-19Ji
Traveled 10 Europe 1880 -rssz
where he began aether
experiments in Helmholtz's lab.
68
\
I
\
\
hE?Y found no effect. 1he motion of-the Earih throu.9
h
ihe
oefuer was undetectable.
. .alreodj?
So, what did Albert do.••..
When Albert comes on the scene in 1895:
1Hertz has experimentally verified
Maxwell's equations
2 Marconi is busy trying to get
money to build more wireless radios
3 The aether is assumed to exist but
no one can find it.
¢'
Albert does
experimentsto
try to detect
the aether •••••
'$
••••• and
n e o r ~ injureS
himself
eeriously....'
trying to
pusnthe
opparatus
beyond
~ . - - - J its limits.
69
.l.
I

•••• he wanted to
understond what's
qoing on when
fight propagates
(spreads out) tram
placeto place.
like faraday,
AI bert r-referred
simple pictures.
Remember,os q
child Albert
wondered how!he
comROSS needIe
couICJ line up
pointing to ltle
Nann Pole
without anything
touching it.
50 Albert tried to form a simple- picture of how
light works.
~ ~ ~ M . l wonder what would
~ ~ f ~ ~ o ~ ~ 6 i
0qht
olong with itcrt 11Ie
eoeed of light?
from 1his perspective,
and ofterQ lot of hard
work with his friends,
Alb..ert come up with a
differentogproochJoihe
problemdt'the oen ,er:
11
, f course we don't
know exactJv how
"It because
aItho' Albert could
mke an
aport with just one
punch I he tHdn'r
like to talk about
it all fuat much.
No. Albert never got
used to being treated like
a qenius. He aidn't like
it. -So he avoided going
into detail about 1he
WOy hethought about
things.
d b
'd " "
An e51 6S, .... In sCience..
...the work ofthe indivlduaI
is 50 bound up with that of
his scientific contemporaries
mot it appears almostos an
in1P6rSonol product
of his qenerotion."
he key puzzler in his discuesions with his friends
WOo •.. , What exoctly would hoppen if he rode along'
with a light wave ofihe speed or light?
Waves throush
the oether
Supp,0se Iwas
holding Q
mirror·· ... '.
.. .. and
moving
at the
speed of
nght
13
You remember.
Mike Besso,
one of
Albert's
friends.
15
No listen.
I
JhiSi,s difrerynt
magtne youre
movmq at the

light....
Wait a
minute.
OK I've
got it.
Hrnmm,
50 ?
Again? Didn't
thot accident
inthe lob
cure you?
well? whatis
it this time?
Now ifyou're
moving at me
speed of light
and
') mirror 15
. moving at F
'" I sp'eed 01
IJliqht
J
lhe l[ght
tani catch up
to the /
mirror.
Listen Mike.
lve been
tryinq to
understand
the aether
ogain.
I
5o,doesn't
thotmean

1m e
six> Id
disappear?!

Hmmm.
You mean
that if
liqht is a
vrove in the
stationary
oether....
And ifyou
sit on top
ofthewave.··
... and can't
catch up to
the mirror I
to get reflected.
:..then fr:1e lighT
Isn't"mOvlnQ
with respect
to you ...
Interesting!
Listen. You
should read Mach's
stufF. He rejects the
idea of absolute
SMce anCl
motion
completelY.
"\his puzzle with his friends
fir5t at C{ ETH in Zurjf,h from 1895c19oo,and tnen
atthe wse Patent Qttlce in Bern nom 1901to 1905·
hen Albert ~ r a d u a t e d his ETHgrofessor.s wouldn't
recornmerd''hirn, 50 he did dd tecchinQ jobs fOr
Q veer (he was a very qood teacher) unHI Marcel
Grossmann was able topull eorne 5frings to get him
ajob atihe Swiss Patent office ...
• ' ... 0 common civil servicejobfOr d
science graduaTes inlhose C!j5.
lr
In Bern he meets MouriceSolovine Qnd
Conrad Habicht.They ..
• • 0 and alonq with Mileva Maric, Marcel Grossmann
and Mike Albert conlmues to chew over
that puzzIe.
Moving with the speed ofliqht,
'will mJ imQge disappear or11ot?
ach believed that Q physicol
theory snould be tree of
metaphysical constructions.
No one is competent
to predicate things
about absolute space
and absolute motion;
they are pure things
of thought. pure
mental constructs
that cannot be
produced in
experience.

ttn6tdfud18)8-f.j16
ach also believed that a physical iheory mlJ.5r be bosed
only on prim03 r?en;ep'n:oQ.s (a b'el iE(t thar Lenin
saw as crean golrtlCClI mlsChlet later on).
Albert benefit trornMach's willingness to challenge
the accepted ideas ot mechanics .•.
-
Moch's Science of Mechanics
6Xfi:rcised a profound
e leer on me while 1
was a student
,...........,.-----'-__---'1
I N:ach's
in his IncorruptIble
skepticism.
1
9
ach'5 ideas were useful because-they helped
Albert to =the aether.
Since DO one
could rind
'rt anyway.
Here's what.Albert .
thouqht 000
No metter how it isthat I/Sht
gets from place to Rloce
(.aether, sHmaether') my
image should not disappear.
But, fuel") on observer on ihe grourd would see the
light leaving Albert's face at twice Its normal veloci1}'.!
000 then relative to the Braund
the light should be moving at
186.000 t 186,000 3rJ.,OOO miles
per secoivx] "Right?
o 0 and the light leaves
Ylj iDce crt 186,000 miles
)er second. 0 0
If I'm moving at
_ miles per second•••
80
But that
didn't.
make sense
either •• 0
The speed of waves depended only on the medium and not on the
source. For example, according to wave theory, sound from a passing
train covers the distance to the observer in the same time no matter how
fast the train is moving. And Maxwell's equations predicted the same
thing for light. The observer on the ground should always see the light
leaving Albert's face at the same speed no matter how fast Albert was
moving.
But if the observer on the ground were to see the same speed for the light
leaving Albert's face no matter how fast Albert were moving, then Albert
should be able to catch up to the light leaving his face and his image
should disappear.
But if his image shouldn't disappear, then light leaving his face should
travel toward the mirror normally. But then the observer on the ground
should see the light traveling toward the mirror at twice its normal
speed. But if the observer on the ground ... Oy veh!
Albert began to try to see if there
were any way for the speed
of light to be the same for both
the moving and the ground observers!
81
t nearly gave him a nervous breokdown ...
I must confess that at the very
beginning when the Special
Theory of Relativity began to
germinate in me; I was visited by
all sorts of nervous conflicts.
When young I used to go away for
weeks in a state of confusion, as
one who at that time had yet to
overcome the state of
stupefaction in his first encounter
with such questions.
62
me Theory of Relativity is Albert's solution
10 thi5 apparently impossible reguirement.
In order to make progress Albert first needed to convince himself that his
image should be normal even if he were moving at the speed of light. Albert
needed to find some gener8. principlethat could give him the confidence
to continue.
He found it in an old principle of physics that had
never been particularly useful before. And that was ...
THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY
The
principle
of .
relativity ?
Galileo got into a lot of. .
trouble with the InqU/stlon.
His ex\?eriment5 on motion
led to The Principle of
ReI ativi t.>:.:
All steady
motion is
relative and
cannot be
detected
without
reference to
an outside
point.
6;
8+
Galileo was
Profes50r of
Mathematics and
Military
Engineering at
Pisa, Itoly:
'Z.ZZ •••
"I have made a telescope, a thing for
every maritime and terrestial affair and an
undertaking of inestimable worth. One is
able to discover enemy sails and fleets at
a greater distance than customary, so
that we can discover him two hours or
more before he discovers us, and by
distinguishing the number and quality of
his vessels judge whether to chase him,
fight or run away ... "
ollleo worked on a lot of thinqs. He built "the first
telescope in Italy ond promptly eold itto the Doge
of Venice for 1000 ducats ana a lile professorship.
85
e 0150 used me tele.sc0p.e to observe -the moons of
Jupiter. Being QprQctical man who needed money
hetried to oefl 1tlisfirst tothe King of Spain and ihen
tothe states General of Holland as a navigational aid.
And in addition,-the
helped convince people -thoT planets
did revolve around tnesun.
ut Galileo's main concerns were with terrestrial motion ...
Because of
cannon bolls-
Galileo took up from
Nicolo Tartaglia who hod guesood
lhoTthe maximum range you
could get fromacannon
WQSID point it at1 5 ~
alileo realized ihotihe motioncf projectiles ~ o u \ d be
analyzed bytreating the horizontal and vertical
motions separately.
50 if horizontal and vertical motion are combined this
should mean thai. 0 0 0
the cannonball fired from 0 perfectly horizontal
connon and another otthe same time which fOlie>
verticallv from 1tle mouth ofire connon should hit
the ground otihe sometime!
Thafs a strange result!
88
Doesn't the horiz.ontal marion affect the vertical
motion at all?
When I'm moving smoothly the cannonball's
vertical motion isn't affected at all.
Galileo then extended his argument to say that you
couldn't use vertical motion orany other kind of
motion to detect horizontul motion.
still.
l
i i i l l i i '
Yes.lve
often
wondered
in my
cobin
whether
the ship
was.
moving or
standing
still.
89
0000 which first.
appeared in rns
mogozme.

lYle r.rinciple of
relativity sounds
harmless encqqh.
Negati ngthe idea of
absolute restwasn't
aburninq issue. /
But whel1 appliedl6
the problem of tMe
ae1'He.r it paved/The
way tor the
arguments
thatDecome-the
ofReloTlvi!y
And ihat's "the principle of
relativity. You can"t tell
it" you're moving smoothly
without looking outside.
90
osed on the principle of Albert he
should be able iO eee his (moO e norma!!y even if he
were moving ar the speed ot ight
o
Because if your image
disappeared when you were
moving at the speed of light, you
could tell you were moving at the
speed of light just by looking in a
mirror, right? You wouldn't need
to look outside, right? Which
would violate the principle of
relativityI
91
Damn!
there gOO? my
lrY10t oqoln.l
kee tenin_q them
not 18'6,000
miles- er-second
mm;;;;;;;;;;;;m;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;m;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;m;;;,when tin
//
92
That was half the problem solved.
Albert's image should be normal.
But could Albert see the light move
away from his face at the speed of
light relative to him . . . while, at the
same time, observers on the ground
would see the light leave Albert's face
at the same speed of light relative to
them?
How could this be possible?
Speed is distance
divided by time (as
in miles/nour). So
Albert realizeQ thai
if the speed were
tobe1rle some ihen
me disTance and time
have to be
difrerent. Which
meant that there
must be.something
suspect with time.
Perhaps "the moving ~ b 5 8 r v e r and 1he stationary
observer observed cliflerent times ...
If both
were to
observe
the same
velocitv
fOr /igrTt.
Because
Albert
tookthe
principle
of relativity
as a
starting
point,
ne was
led tOk
rettun
the
concepts
of space
and
time
in order
make it
come
out
all right
93
This ishow Albert
finally' expressed it
inhis Annalen der
Physikarticle in 19°5: ON THE
ELECTRODYNAMICS
OF MOVING BODIES
... the unsuccessful attempts to discover any
motion of the earth relatively to the light medium
like the Michelson -Morley experiment
suggest that the phenomena of electrodynamics
he ihe propagation oF'light which isthe
same thing ///
as well as of mechanics possess properties
corresponding to the idea of absolute rest.
Hemeans Galileo's principle of relativity ohould be
goodfor light as well as for ordinory motion.
We will raise this conjecture (the purport of which
will be hereafter be called the 'Principle of Relativity')
to the status of a postulatej"
*postulate: a basic assumption
and also introduce another postulate, which is only
apparently. irreconcilable with the former
he means he's found a way out ofthe contradiction
namely, that light is always propagated in empty
space with a definite velocity c which is
independent of the state of motion of the emitting
body.
He means should always observe the
same velocity iOr light.
These two postulates suffice for the attainment of a
simple and consistent theory of the electrodynamics
of moving bodies based on Maxwell's theory for
stationary bodies.
The introduction of a 'luminiferous aether' will prove
to be superfluous inasmuch as the view here to be
developed will not require an 'absolutely stationary
space' provided with special properties ...
He means he's doing awoy with the oemer once
and for 011 . Space will no longer require .
r.special properties' in order TO transmit light.
Bur, cerroin
conventional ideas
about time
about lenqths,
about moss,
obout velocity
had to be
chucked out
and replaced.
95
· Ibert5 arquments ore veCY simple because "they are
very logicar. If .yOU accept file two postulates Albert
shows exac11y now to make it come out O. K.
Albert was ver.v pleased with the result. He wrote tohis
friend Conrod'
Habicht··· ... '
.'
6reot! He's reallY done it!
96
. .. it
pro899ates
exactlY the
eorne way
when movln.9'
This i5the
principle of •
relativitv, Alberrs
first posfuIare.
Such a
nice doy.
ow. Do you see what is happening? Albert says:
no matler how
liqht propagates
.. Wflen:you are
Nice and srandi"h9 still ....
5u
dnn
y
I
to ~ .
thin I'll
qo r
(j drive.
9,
ut Albert also says
rr Liqht is in
empty space wd:h q detinrle
velocity C which is Indej:?endent of
the stcfte of mo1ion at The emitting
or receiving body"
An observer an /he ground hos ID see light moving ot
the same velocity os the moving observer.
lhis is Alberts 2na postulate.
96
I'm not sure.
what about,
KtxP dis ch?
Bur what does
it mean?
P-B1mate.
Remember the compass?
Albert wondered how the
cornROss needIe interacted
with fue Earth's magnetism.
How do maqnetic(or electric) effects get transmitted
from one pl ace to another?
Maxwell and Hertz
showed "that such
magnetjc
interactions could
only take place
ota certain
maximum speed.
Infact they
showed
that every
electromagnetic
effeq takes
time to get
transmiITed.
99
100
Radio waves, microwaves.
sun rays,etc., all take
time to getfrom place
to place.
o Albert mode an inference. Based on fhe experience
with elecTricity as summariz.ed by Maxwell ana
verified by Hertz, Albert proposed that ihere are no
insTantaneous intemcilons aton in nature.
Here is "the simple physical meaning of Alberfs 2nd postulaie:
Every interaction takes time it:' get fromone place toihe
next.
{j
And if ihere areno insTantaneous interactions in nature
then"there ,must be a maxi mum possible speed
ofi nterocllon.
I .I
This is so important we will repeat it: Iffhere are no
instantaneous interactions in Doture -then -there must be
a maximum possible speed ot interaction.
101
he maximum possible speed of interaction in
nature is the speed of the electromC?qnetic
interaction - wliich is the speed cf light!
It's quite
revolutionary
really.
Now by the
8rinciple of
the maximum
epeed or interaction must
bethe same for every
J...l observer no ma1ter how
they are moving.
e

The speed of Iighf(1he maximum speed of interaction) is a
universal constant.This is Albert5 2nd postulate.
102
Everyone seesihesome speed 10r light no matler
howt h ~ are movi n.9.
103
,-..
-- This means ,of course;that nothing con go
- foster than
.. me speed
of light . r; +L

the speed 01 fi9ht?
Nonsense!
h Un·American!
We crocked .
tne 60und- berner
. and by
we'll crdok
- the light: barrier.
Nothinq
faster
1tlanthe
.s-eed

Now IVe
heard
everj-
ihing.
104-
The maximum poesible speed is a material
property of our world.
But how is it
possible?
Well ...
-L Alberl
has lo show
that &omell1in.9
l:Jnexpected
IS gOIng on.
Albert has to show:
1Howeveryonecan ... the same speed for light (c).
and
2What happens when you trytoget an object to movef88terthan c.
To do this Albert shows that:
Theconcept of time
must be changed
Theconcept of length
must be changed
Theconcept of ma..
must be changed
105
oihis is A \ b e r i ~ position:
1 There ore no
instantaneous interactions
in nature.
2J Therefore fhere must
be a maximum Q05sible
speed of interaction.
J The rnoxirnum poeeible speed
of interaction isibe speed .of
the electromagnetic inleroctlon.
4 lhe ~ d ofihe electromagnetic
Interaction is -the speed
. oflight
5 The speed of lioht;5 1tle
maximum possible speed.
The reoll" difficult part wos showinq how everyone
couId see -the some speed fur light'.
Let·5 see how he did it:
ioo
· Ibert nearly drove himself he real ized
that TIME was 111e Joker In the ck! The time
elapsed between events was no necessarilY the
sorre fOrall observers!
Remember speed
is disTance
divided by metime
it takes. D
In symbols: .5 = T
o the moving person could observe the Iiqht
travel in,q a certain distance D ina certaif'l time T
10 give itie speed of light c ....
0 ••• while a station.QIY person could observe the
ligbT traveling a ditterent distance Din a
arfferent time T in jusT such a way 1haT she
would measure eJCQt.tly -the same
..
10T
t is neat. Here's .how A\bert analyzed "the
phenomenon of simultaneous events .
.... events? 5imultaneous .. " ..
Yes. Albert points out that any measurement of
time uses "the idea of simultaneous events.
We have to understand that all our
judgments in which time plays a
part are always judgments of
simultaneous events. If, for
instance, I say "That train arrives
here at 7 0' clock" I mean
something like this: "The pointing
of a small hand of my watch to 7
and the arrival of the train are
simultaneous events."
A\bert arqued ihat simultaneous events in one frome
of referer1te would nO(Iloces5cwily be simultaneous
when viewed from 0 dittereni fmnie.
Albert called this the RELATIVITY OF
SIMULTANEITY
8\bert suqqests. ihat we try to picture his argument
In terms <fa rmm....
• • • . as ihe moving nome of reference and the
roilwoy embankment as the sTationary Frome
of reference.
109
110
ow we co0 put them together. Let's hove 0 passenger
car too. MIke.
/'/
(I
{ '-( ,
(f i( {('
There. Now imogine that someone in the center ofthe
pgs5enger car Holds adevice which can send out a beam
of light in the forward direction and atihe same time
a beam oflight in the backward direction.
1/ 1/
---F
((If(/'/-/(((If 111,((7((1 ((ff j; 1/0i
l
/' (t/(;
1/ r II I ..-
· nd we furTher imagine ihat iherront door and back
door can be opened automatically byrne \i9ht beams.
"t.~ ,
e
~ ~ 1hen to the person holding -the device thedoors
of the passenqer car will eoen simultaneously.
But to a person 6n the embanK.ment, ~ b e r r Ol'"qU6S,
tne bock door will open before the front dOdr/
111
~ e e ? Becouse for fue stationor'\' ~ r o o n s
the back door moves fOrward to rrieet the
Iiqhi Prul
5
e, whi Ie 1tle" froni door moves
away from fhe light pulse.
o
112
Bu1 which is it?
Do thedoors
open atthe
5ame time or
don'they?
You better give us
a chance to get used to ihis.
Events which are simultaneous with
reference to the train are not
simultaneous with respect to the
embankment and vice versa.
hat's ihe point Since "the speed of lighi to be the
same for both frames, Albert argues fhot. 0 ••


>
ake a more common sense example: distancetraveled.
Imagine that our pereon
thin1he
middle ofihe carriage
gets up and goes 10 e front door.

Hang 00.
. • :J)
@l J OKay.
113
ow, how for h05 our imaginary person gone?
Relative to thetrain ihe person has
gone J1. a car length.
But relative to the embankment the
person hos gone farther.
- - - - ~
Distance
gone
IS a
relative
measure.
So you see, Albert argues that elapsed time is a relative measure also. To
the person in the passenger car the opening of the doors is simultaneous; the
time elapsed between the opening of the front door and the opening of the
back door is zero.
But to the person on the embankment the time elapsed between the
opening of the doors is not zero and depends on howfast the train is moving.
114
An observer in the train
measures the interval by
marking off his measuring
rod in a straight line.
(This is the length measured
by the moving observer)
But it is a different matter
when the distance has to be
judged from the
embankment.
Next, Albert argues, isihe
relativity ofthe measurement
of length.
Albert asks'fwhat is
the length a ihe
passenger car?
115
Riqh.t Albert argues ihatto measure the length ofthe
cat as seen from the embankment, we have to
mark the positions on ihe embankment which are
being passed b ~ the front door and the bock door
at the same timeT-as judqed fromthe embankment.
The distance between ffiese points istnen
tneasured with a measuring rod.
(This is the length of the car as measured by the stationary observer)
116
· Ibert says:
It is by no means evident that this last measurement will supply us with the same result
asthe first.
Thus, the length of the train as measured from the embankment may be different from
that obtained by measuring in the train itself.
Albert the ground for a reconsider-
arion or Newton's analysis of space time t:t motion.
Classical mechanics assumes
"that: 1
The time interval
between events if> independent
oF-the motion of the observer.
ZThe spoce interval
(length) ofd bact' is .
inde8endent offue motion
of the observer.
Unjusiiflable!
11'1
ffewton 6aY{
Spoce and time Intervals
ore. absolute ond the speed
of light is relative.
Albert replaces Newton's metaphysical absolutes, the constructs of absolute space and
time, with a material absolute: there are no instantaneous interactions in nature!
Albert's contribution was dramatic because it so fundamentally challenged the
framework of classical physics that had been accepted for the previous 200 years.
dossicol _ perfect
___\[_HtjJr------J
118
50?
Howdoes
this
aff€Ct us?
Quite rilrlht There's
no neecrto get
mat excited about
relativity just
a bunch
at got
excited by IT.
Relativity theory had nothing to do with the development
of the A-bomb. TheAnti-Nuclear Handbook tells the story.
And we'll discuss this again later.
Meanwhi Ie lets see what ihe-rest of
Alberts argument consists or,
119
· Ibert didn't just argue that space andtime intervals
neededto Be reformulated. He showed how
to do it.
Albert's program:
To find a place and time of an event
relative to the railway embankment when
we know the place and time of the event
with respect to the train
suchthat
Every ray of light possesses the speed c
relative to both the embankment and the
train.
Since we ore about
rneceurernenrs ofdlstances
and time, we are talk'ina
about numbers. Alber"E
needs to use the
troditional of
numbers to it
come our right
120
~ he nmtsfep ofcwrse was counung.
lhere aro at least 1 more dinosaurs
qround here. We'd better iell
me others.
Tallyinq has been dated t9 30,000 B.c.They used
scmtcnee on bones to do It
((111
1
II}!I I/J(I VII;))!)} JIII;}l;' 1ft) IJ
And the next big step' was measurement, which got
its real start wittllhe riseof the cities.
121
II
Hey tnan,howfur is "It to Gizeh?
he Eqyptian ruler-priests needed measures of
distance..Lorea, volume and weight 10 ossess taxes
and run me state.
We'\1 need
o lot more
groin and
beer to
feed ihis
lot.
122
. ,
",
.::
, ' .
.. .
. '. ' .
.. ,.
- ......
Anyway, "\he
Bobvloriion
and Sumerian
priests
gotrather
qood at
<:lriihmetic
starting
about 3000B.C.
. .
:':.: .:. :..:...::...=....::', :'.",: :: ..::::.:;:
Hiero -glyph
=priest's writing
" .....
" ..
; .. ' ".
o ~ e e p records of what "they were doinq they hod
to write down -the accounts. 50 written l"Iumerals
were 1he next step. And 1tlis if> where mathematics
beqon 10 qet mystitled. Because 1he priests kepr
wrlnng torfnemselves.
1
2
3
· t fret fuey wrotetheir numbers like -this
y ~ 1 and <. = 10
50 a number like.59 would be written
- < ~ « ~ ~ ~ =59
, VVy
But later "the Baby-Ionions developed the first place
system fOr numbers.
They used a base of 60
If II 1Y
2x60x60 + LX 60 +- 2. ... 7322
or: r322 = TX(lOX lOX 10) +3 x(lox10) + zx 10 +2
The Babylonians hod as good a computation
system 05 ours.
Youowe me
yyyy
bushels
of wheat
lhots Il2
bushels
too mony.
12.t
mowa skill developed in isololion fbr centuries by a
special qroup, otpeople .may become somewhotborinq.
By 1900- e . ~ . 1heBabylonians hod made up lars of litHe
. pfo15lems lor their own instruction andamusement.
This was -the beginning of ALGEBRA
lhev. wrote
it 011 down
on clay-
tablet 5
Babylonian inblet.1)ooBG.
wilh algebra equation
on It
Of course it was not exactly what we now use.
The Babylonians didn't hove. olqebroic
P
ot at ion. (That hod to wait tor me rise of the
slam and Hindu merchant closs)
hat "the Babylonians did was to pose on obstroct
problem0 0 0 0
Find the
-=::;:::----U 5ide of
a square if
the area
less -than
the side
is l4-x60
t
3
0
(V
o
o
00 0 0 and ihen give-the
detailed 5teps to me solution
r Take hair rf
one .and
mUltlQly by
half of one.
L
Now add half of
one and the
result ie 30, the
side oFthe square.
126
hile what we do now is write
x:-x .. 870 -+ X +VCiY"+ 870' :: .30
lheres noT much difference really. In focT we solve
equations on modern computers with ex
oc
11yihe
some method hrst used by me
bobyloruon pne5rs.
To run: enter 810
enter 1
hit start
divide1bXl and
sToreit,multir?ly
andadd870,
ml<e the squore
....... root, recallt
and add it.
Ans, '"'30'
2
DIV
5TO 1
ENTE.R
MUL.T
PLUS
f
-r:
RC L 1
PLUS
RTN
. , .
rom here Its a blq
Jump to the GreeKs who came up
with the Idea of
-= .
121
PROOF
Some soy it was the Greek legol system ihat
paved the way.
PYrhogora5 is soid
to hove token up .
Egvptlqn, Babylonian
and O'llnese results
and tried (with h'15
followers) to prove-thern.
......,"ru ..'u ~ S ~ o 1 B · C .
'iB't;C
J
I
mystic,mathematicJan.
showmen.
128
famou5 example is the Py1hogoreanTheorem.
Remember this from echooI ?
The square on -the hypotenuse equals -the sum
of the squares on t h ~ other two sides.
. . . and we mean: Take the length of side Cand multiply it by
,. itself. This gives the area of square C. Do the same for squares
Aand B.
keep this in mind-
Albert will use it later.
129
· ny-how, Greek
mathematIcs
fell into thehands
of Plato.
Plato used
mathematIcs
as an l.Q.
test.....
. .. and he had
ihese weird
rules about whQt
waspermitted In
"\hot
rnys1iti eo every-
one for Q longTIme.
reek mathematicians labored for centuries -trying to
rrisecl an onqle .with only a compass
and a eiraighLedge 0 000 ---
,
Why dont
we just
meosure it?
000 0 end "thor was
where
matters
stood unti II
!he Hirdus
invented
our modern
algebra.
Ary.obhato{A.D.410) wrote down all the Hindu methods of
multiplicotlon, long division and alQebra ihat we use
today. They made up -the Bab>:lonlons)
to herp "them with colculotions of fuxatlon, debt and
interest.
Amerchant

au on
ceraln
at
different
places.
At the first
he gives -s of
his,qoods,
at me second
# of what he
has left and
atthe third
'3 ofihe
remainder.
The total
eguol?
24 cOins.
what
had
he ot
frer ?
x=-
1
;l.
3
21" ::.
X ::.
what he hod
at first
gives up
gl:ves up C.
gives up
-!.ox. +J.. X. ojo.Lx.
" 6 6
36COinS
13
2
eanwhlle Medieval Europe wallowed in the throes cf
the Age of Faith until .0 0 0
u f :o\rth -tt> you I
mW
o
The Renoi6sance. ~
Mary' ie 24years
old. Mary is
mice 05 old as
Ann was when
Mary was as
old 65 Ann ·'s now.
How old is Ann?
ask /
Ann.
Now improved mathemqtics was needed tor
astronomy, for noviqotion , fOr gunnery, for
ship'buildinq, fOr hyaraulic engineering. for
building technology.
50there come: Algebraic notation Vieta (1580)
Decimals stevinus (1585)
Logarithms Napier (161-+)
Slide rule Gunter (1620)
AnalyTic geometry Descorres(te37)
Adding machine Pascal (1642)
Calculus NewTon (1665)
calculus Lei bniz. 0 6 S ~ )
133
• f course ihere has been 0 long histor:Y c! nomber
mystics who were very Impreosea with1helr own
cleverness 0000
.00 0 ond who forgot
the onqinol impulses
"that led themto
mathematics
in thefirst place.
Hertz:
us divine number, who
generated Gods and men.
f\lumber containest the
root and source of
eternally flowing creation."
rr (Jad ever geometrizes It
lIThe book ofihe Universe
is wri1ten in molhemoticol
language" without which
one wanders.in vain throv9h
a dork, labyrlnth.
55
re One cannot escapethe
fuelinqthat Theoo
mathematicaI funnulas
haye an independent
eXIstence and intelliqence
of their own, thatffleyore
wiser than we am. wiser even ihan
-theirdiscoverers.mot we get
rnor:e outef'themthan was
orisinally put ,Onto them."
Plato:
Galileo:
Ann
15
18
yoors
old
134
-( p5SST.. ,.. ever since111e mattlematicians have started
on relativity, I myself no longer understand it.'
But in mo1hemarics is only a Iqnqu9Qe
invented by humanIbelnqs to describe and
and re atiol16hips between meosuroble
ttl1n95.
And ihat's.exactly how Albe.rt used moth 0 •• 0 to express
the relaTionshIp between the place and time cfon event
in relotion to-the embankment when we know ire ploce
andi1me of the event with respect tothe train.
And now let's have that passenger car O!jQin Mike.
13
5
Actually this pa5senger car is abit complex" can we
have oomelhing 0 Iitle simpler lookin.9?
Thafs better. You knowJwe could do awoy with ihe car
altoqether and just "IndIcate a moving frame of reference.
HoW"about trylf'1g that?
136
X' isthe distance along
me CQr.
y'is the distance
upthe car.
v i5 the speed of the
moving frame.
y'?» > V

here,that's Now we have a moving finme of
reference yx .
And a stationary frame of reference x 1r
rx isihe distance along the embonkment
zr ismdistance up the embankment
y' m > V
x:
x
Which corresponds to ihe p056e!]qer car and the
emboDkment. We marl< ,an eyent inlfIe movlrJQ fume by its
coordinotes y'x'and t and we mark ffle same
event In:fue J.sTationary trame by \ts coordinates ti- x
and Its ttrf1e-t-, a
Albert noworgues(u.5lng
olqebra) thafthe relationship
between the coordinates
ofevents in "the two
systems is
x' = x-vt
VI-V/
c
2.'

, ;..::L
t ,. 1.- - C,.X

137
The sy5lem of
on page137
15 Known by
'My name.
19fj-(3fB
Dutchiheoretlcol
discovered the .
senior 51otesmon of
phxsics end friend
Of Einstein.
Right. Now we must show what's going on here 0 tJ 00 0
Imooine ihat both frome5 df reference ore at rest
(rslofive to each other ofeourse).
And we hove two idenhccl rather spec·IQI docks
in them (designed byihe U.s. physicr5r R.P.feyrnman).
X'
x
138
1he liqht bulb gives out regular pulses
ofliqm- which qo up tottle mi rrortjqet
retlocted and ....bounce bark to ~
counter which goes dickfclick.
y'
S'
Now we imagine
that the s' system
is qiven a verocity
V50tnat it if> a
movinq system
W"lttl respect to
ire SY6tem.e.
-eut -the stationary
observer, /C).
\ooking at fue
moving 5'clock
sees someihin9
completely
different.
The observer in
s' Bees her clock
work exactly
the eorre as
when she was
at reer,
v-+
5'-+
x
y
otherwise ihe principle of relativity would be
wrong.If her clock chonqed when she was moving
she could then tell she 'NQS moving by notiCln9
ihe change.
14-0
Mov'lng frame of reference 5 as seen bythe coservenn-c'
PULSE
EMITTED
",,=--=, I
l fEV}
,--- n • "" n j
D1 &1
PULSE
AP>50RBED
Albert points out
that the veloeity
of Iiqht isthesome
fur c:r1\ observers.
Thus ihe stationary
observer hears
more time elapse
between clicks on
the moving dock
thononthestatlonary
dod<. because ofthe
longer m.th leqqth
a5 seen tramme
qround. AIber-tsoys
movinqcocks run
slower-than I
stationary decks.
AND we am
derive a
formula from
the
difference.
Oh let
him
finish at
leo6t
141
Dorit have a nervous breakdown.
8 go.lowly
b use pencil8nd peper
c get 8 friend to come 810ngl
The Key Terms:
v = the speed of the moving frame
t' = the time between clicks in the moving
frame
= the time between clicks in the
stationary frame
c = the speed of light
n
The time, t', between clicks in the moving
frame is the time the light takes to reach
the mirror Lieplus the time it takes to
return, again LIe.
I 2L
sot=C
DO
EJ
But the time, t, between clicks as heard in
the stationary frame is the time it takes
light to travel the triangular path, h.
,...-------T
L i
,...-------,
L... J
1ft
D Now in the time t. the moving frame
moves a distance d. And d = vt,
r------.....,
l- -J
!DO
I
DO
I
And nowwe can use the 1500-year-old
Pythagorean Theorem (on page 129).
Remember? "The square on the
hypotenuse equals the sums of the
squares on the other two sides."
o
But we just saw that h
h is related to t: t· 2
c
or h= c
2
t
d is related to t: d= vt or J. d= .l.vt
2. 2
Lis related to t': t' = 2L or L= ct'
C 2
mSo what we got before (h2 = (Y2 d)2 +L2)
can nowbe substituted for:
( ~ r = ( l vtY +(1)2
· nd if we want to
solve for what t
eguoIs we get
An astronaut goes off in a rocket at 8/10 the speed of light relative to the Earth. After 30
years has elapsed on the rocket how much time has elapsed on Earth?
t I , the time elapsed on the rocket = 30 yrs.
v, the speed of the rocket = .8c
So with Albert's formula
or
30yrs
t=
V
'36
=
·6
= 50JYS.
elapsed
onEorth.
Nowstopand decide if you feel like reading it through once more.
Albert '. conclusion i•. . .
14t
5 itlec1oe;:,k is moving
WITn velocitv v; 50 thetime
elapses between two elrokes 01
"the dock is nor onesecond
but 1 seconds.
y 1-V 2.1c2 '
i.e. a somewhat longer time. As a
consequence cf tHe motion, the
dock qoes more slowly than
when 6T rest. 55

fo L-__:::::=,===- _
find out about
relativity, didn't you?
What Albert achieved was a glimpse into howthe world looks when things
move at close to the speed of light. This is so far removed from everyday
experience that it takes a certain amount of work to visualize it.
But remember, Albert was led to this picture by a desire to understand how
electric and magnetic forces propagate. He realized that the new area of
experience represented by Maxwell's equations required deep modifications
of the ideas based on the old area of experience represented by Newton's
laws.
115
ow all we have to show is how "the velocities come
our right.
Yes, you remember
ever,y observer must
seeme some velcx:;:lty
of Iiqht no matter.
how1hey are moving
O'n a sTeady' way
of course).
Mike, lets have our passenger car agoin.
Good, Now we imagl'l1e that our
person inthe middIed fhe car
get5 up and wall<s to"the front door
at a rate of w=3 mHesper hour. We
further imagine that the trom is
moving at °velocity of vc 2D miles
per hour.
50?
146
50
what
do
we
do?
ell, how fast is .
our person moving U. WIth
respect to the embankment?
2 ' V + W ' 2 0 + ~ :Ph?
1hat's riqht (almost).
But AI berr tells us ihat
the distances and times
measured on thetrain
ore not the same as the
distances and times
rneosured onthe
embankment
~ @
I ~ ~ .. ~
:i
Well ,10 toke relativity inro account
we. just have to be very precise.
In reality when we say mot a
person walks or 3 miles per hour
with respect to -the train we mean
that thej cover "the distance
10 the front door Xin atimet where
xandt are measured on thetrain, right ?
147
· nd we know that distances and times as measured on
-the train are not the some as when measured from the
embankment, right?
50 what we need todoisto convertx'ondt.os measured
onthe train into x, and t as measured on the embankment
DoinathisAI bert shows }hat the velocity Uof the person as
seenrrom the ground 15 gIven by
V+W
u=---
1+Y.J!J!
C
2
50 you see the velocity of the person with reepecr to
the ground ischanged Just alittle from zo-ymp.h.
U
= 20miles!hr+ 3miles!hr
1+20X3
(Velocity of light)
2
Nqw the velocity of liqht is very great, 186,000
miles per second .so fhot the Correction
is very small ordinarily.
149
.~
ut lets try me formula when ihetrain goes atthe speed
of light
C
Now imagine "that our person sends out 0 light flash to
the front of -the train.
What, according to Alberts formula, isthe velocity of
the light flash wi1il respect tothe ground?
~ ~ r v e
U= V+W
1+
VW
C2
In-this case V· velocity ofihe train-C
and W· velocity of the liqht flash
with respect 10ltle irain= C
so U the velocity ofthe Iight Flash
'yVith respect to the ground
15 u- c+c 2C CI
- 1 C·C = 2 = •
+ C2
15
0
It's a neat formula. Albert has shown that his proposed
modifications of space and time intervals lead to a new
formula for the addition of velocities. The newformula
expresses the newfact: there are no instantaneous
interactions in nature, nothing can go faster than the speed of
light.
Don't get worried. Among physicists there's asaying: "You
never really understand a newtheory. You just get used to it,"
Understanding is based on experience and it is difficult to
accumulate experience about things moving near the speed
of lightl (Unless you're a worker on high-speed particles.)
151
<••
, Ibert now has to enow what happens when you try to
get an object to exceed thespeed of light.
lhls is how Albertargue5:
To get on oblect moving you've got
to apply a force.
_______ Force sTrength, power 13C.
bodyof'
armed men 14c.
strong,2roducing
a powertuIeffect 16c.
From Latin
AD.200 orearlier
fortis 5trong
or a kick
152.
.J:n physics force
IS an6ther
word for 0 0 0 0
interaction!
('
To get really fast
youye got togive it lots oPrllts'
or a constant steady push, say, by an engine..
There are lots of prccncol difftculties in applying a large
steady force to an object. Air resistance.
Mechanical breakdown.
Running out of Fuel.
153
We imagine apply a steady
force to Q pqr1icle
(which we coil an electron).
NOoNo.
Electrons
ore much
smaller. Oh
well. Never
mind.
ut Albert is concerned with Q peeper difficultv. Iffthere
ore no instantaneou5 interactions in nature arid i -the
speed of liqht isthe fastest you can go, what exactly
does on object storts to appoach
the speea at I'gh ? ,
Wow.
Does it explode ?!?
No. Waitand see.
15t
hen on oQjeet picks up
epeed we soy 'It accelerates.
It was Newton who
postulated a connection
between force
and acceleration.
Oh, stop I
6howing off.
Hey,what aboutM a c h ~
anti Hertz's critlcism?
Newton eoid F=mo. Or a=F/m. The occelerorion,«,
i ~ proportional to the applied force, F,and is
inversel,y' p,rovoriionaJ to the mass, m(0150 coiled
me inerTia) or the object
lhe biqqer the force the faster it picks up speed . "The
bigg.errhe mass or inertia itle harder it isto getit
moving fast.
Some call
it the
"power to ,
weight ratio."
155
t is easier to get a light car rolling than a loaded
true\<..
But we'I\ return to theconcept of mass or
j nertia in a moment
000' leading to E=mc
2
?
1 If the electron is at rest then its subsequent motion is
given by F= rna.
15
6
2 But suppose the electron already has a speed v?
Then the electron is at rest with respect to a frame of
reference S' moving with velocity v with respect to S.
)
Fl=t
u )
s'
I---+-----------....j} S' ismoving
15 •
stationary
Relative to S', the electron has an acceleration a= F/m (because the electron is at rest
relative to S').
Ah hOI Albert uses -the Lorentz
rronsformction
(see page131 )
Right. Albert knows howto find the place
and time of an event with respect to the
embankment S, when he knows the place
and time of the event with respect to the train S'.
151
heevent in fuis case is -the acceleration ofthe electron.
Here'. what happen.:
1 Theelectron goes faster because of the force
but
2 In the frame where the electron is at rest the time over which the force acts gets
smaller and smaller compared to the stationary frame (moving clocks run slow,
remember?)
80
3 In the frame where the electron isat rest the force acts for a shorter and shorter time,
the closer the electron gets to the speed of light. As seen from the ground the electron
hardly has time to get pushed at all!
Wow. You qive relativity your
little fi'nge'r and itiokes
your whole arm!
F
a=-
M
NEWTON'S FORMULA
1686
Compared
to mx / ~ - - - r \ " - - ~
old one.
Y ~ ~ K ~ ~ W
one
(19°5)
AI bert expresses the process by a concrete
new forrnula.
EINSTEIN'S FORMULA
1905
Once again,
the new formula
re-expresses the new fact:
There are no instantaneous interactions in nature.
Nothing can go faster than the speed of light.
Albert's fonnula shows that when
V-C, a-zerol So evenif you
keep on pushing, theelectron
doesn't pick upany more speed.
What
does
it
mean?
The meaning is 'relatively' straightforward.
If you push on an object with a force and"it hardly picks up any speed at all, you say it has
a lot of inertia!
Thus asthe electron approaches the speed of light it appears to get heavier and heavier
because it becomes harder and harder to increase its speed.
159
160
Ah, /
energy.
The definitionof energygoes back
again to Newton's Laws.
1 When a force, F, acts on a body of mass, m,
for a distance, d. it is useful to say that work,
W, has been done on the body.
2 The work, W, is assigned a value W= Fd.
3 By using F= ma you can show that the work as
defined by W = Fd is exactly equal to Y, mv
2.
4 The expression Y, mv
2
is also given a name. It
is called the kinetic &nergy of the body.
6 The more work (Fd) you put into pushing a
body, the more kinetic energy (y, mv
2)
it gets.
AI bert now says
erWait a minute."
We can Rut in -the work
( W= Fd) but ihebody
doesn't pickup sf?eed
in tne some way. Why?
Because now
F
- .;....m,;..:..o.-,,-,-_
- (1- ~ ~ ) ~
,
Its all a
naminq qpme
c.onneCteti up
by f=ma!
50Alberfs modification leads to Q new
formula. The worknow equals;
Me2. 1 Ilk Jr-----J..2.-----'
W= (1_ - t ~ ) 1 - M C ~ . W= 2mv
Alberts formu10 Newton's formula
161
· lbert i5 5Cltisned. He concludes 0 000
When v=c, W becomes infinite. Velocities
greater than that of light have - as in our
previous results - no possibility of existence.
C ... speed of light
V -velocity
W-work
REMEMBER:
00 0., instead of going fOster andfaster
itgets heavier andheavier!
50 even iFyou gave a rocket 1 , O O O , o o o ~ o o o , 0
3,0
00
,000,000,000 ,000,000 ,00 0 .0
0
o, 000,000, 000.000.000,000. 000, 0
p:P.ooopoo,ooo .000,000,000,000,000,000 po
I .
b
00. 000 foot Rounds of thrust, it would still be
going less tilan lhe speed of light!
162.
[Jut that's not all.
If work goes into
giving me .
Dody more inertIa. o'
00. then inertia
must contain energy!
Yes. Albert says we need a new definition of energy. The old Newtonian one
(k.e. = Y, mv
2)
is only good for speeds much less than the speed of light.
50000
1 m ~
Albert has shown (page 161) that the work W equals (1- V
2/
c
2)
Y, - mc
2
2 mc
2
So Albert says let's call the quantity (1_ V2/
c2)
y, the energy Eof the electron.
3
Then, with this definition of energy, Albert's formula reads E= W + MC2
What Alberrsays i5ooo6ven if W=zero, Ifyou If
- don'tput in any workat a .,
menthe electron sri" has an
energy equo] to
Not quite l i ~ e this·· .
Albert wosnt
afraid to
reach for
a simple
qeneral I
conclusion!
And to show howit could work: he w r o ~ t e q
litile 3 PJgB poper in 1905 called .... :
" ()
I!!I"
164
DOESTHE IN.ERTIA
OF A BODY DEPENDON ITS
ENERGYCONTENn
Albert's argument in this paper isn't a proof.
You can't prove a definition. All you can do isshowthat is makes sense.
So without driving ourselves crazy with more formulas, here's what Big AI is driving at:
the old definition of work (W = Fd). combined with
the new fact, nothing can go faster than the speed of light expressed by
F
mq h
::. (l-V}(}) 12 meanst at
:!J the woe' go", into makinq the body heavier. Theretore
work adds to the inertia of a body and by implication inertia has energy
and to make it CONCRETE ...
othe relationship between enerqv and inertia is E-me2
But remember ... nobody really knows what inertia is -
or why objects have it in the first place!
165
Albert iust argued thotenergy has ineriiaand inertia
has errergy.
Hedjdn!t sqy anything about howtogetlhe energy
out In 111e first place.
E= MC2 is not (as some folks think) the formula for the A-bomb.
Remember, Albert proposed relativity in 1905. The A-bomb
project began in 1939. Nuclear physics was developed by other
scientists, like Joliot Curie, Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard.
Szilard in 1934came up with the idea ofthe "chain
reaction" release of atomic energy.
Szilard wrote a famous letter, 2 August 1939, to President
Roosevelt, which Einstein signed. Roughly, this letter said:
Nuclear energy is here. Scientists in Nazi Germany are also
working on it. Plainly, it isa decisive strategic weapon.
The President must decide what to do about it.
Later, after the A-bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Albert
said: "If I knewthevwere going to do this, I would have become
a shoemaker!"
166
Einstein won the Nobel Prize in'
1921and became a popular
world figure.
Hmmm,
gravity and
electricity
must be
related
somehow.....
AI, here's your
Nobel Prize
money.
Albert made other fundamental contributions to physics. His general theory of
relativity (1916) was a new relativistic theory of gravitation which replaced Newton's
old theory.
And Albert was.a central figure in the debates raging round the quantum theory -
a new theory of the electron.
Albert's materialist questioning attitude had encouraged a younger generation of
research-workers to overthroweven more of classical Newtonian physics.
16'T
These researchers went so far as to throwout the rules of cause-and-effect.
(Essentially, they said you couldn't know for sure where an electron would go when
you hit it. All you could say was where it "probably" would go!)
Albert didn't approve of this at all.
Albert,
quantum
theory
seems
such a
good
way to
vnderstond
the
electron.
Why won't
you
accept
it ? I .
Danish phY5icist
and rounder of the
"Cppenhoqen School n
ofquontum theory.
Up to his death in 1955Einstein was active, opposing McCarthyism, working with
Bertrand Russell on disarmament, and still worrying about howto unify electricity
and gravity. It may still be done!
166
Albert wasa radical and a Jew. He never lost his political
perspective and his consciousness of being a member of an
oppressed ethnic minority.
This statement on socialism, part of a longer analysis,
appeared in the U.S. magazine Monthly Review in 1949...
-
The situation prevailing in an economy based on the private ownership of capital is
characterized by two main principles: first, means of production (capital) are privately
owned and the owners dispose of them as they seefit; second, the labor contract isfree.
Of course, there is no such thing asapure capitalist society in this sense. In particular
it should be noted that the workers, through long and bitter political struggles, have
succeeded in securing a somewhat improved form of the of the 'free labor contract' for
certain categories of workers. But taken as a whole, the present day economy does not
differ much from 'pure' capitalism.
Production is carried on for profit, not for use. There is no provision that all those able
and willing to work will always be in a position to find employment; an 'army of
unemployed' always exists. The worker is always in fear of losing his job. Technological
progress frequently results in more unemployment rather than easing the burden of
work for all. The profit motive, in conjunction with competition among capitalists, is
responsible for an instability in the accumulation and utilization of capital which leads to
increasingly severe depressions. Unlimited competition leads to a huge waste of labor
and to a crippling of the social consciousness of individuals.
This crippling of individuals I consider the worst evil of capitalism. Our whole
educational system suffers from this evil. An exaggerated competitive attitude is
inculcated into the student who istrained to worship acquisitive success asa
preparation for his future career.
I am convinced that there is only one way to elimi nate these grave evils, namely
through the establishment of a socialist economy, accompanied by an educational
system which would be oriented toward social goals.
P. A. Schlipp, ed., ALBERT EINSTEIN,
PHILOSOPHER - SCIENTIST, Library
of Living Philosophers, Evanston, III.
1949. The closest thing to an
autobiography. .
Carl Seelig, ALBERT EINSTEIN: A
DOCUMENTARY BIOGRAPHY, Staples
Press Ltd., London 1956.
MORE RECENTWORKS ARE:
R. W. Clark, EINSTEIN, THE L1FEAND
TIMES, Hodderand Stoughton,
London/ Avon, New York 1971. Lots of
facts ruined by the author's thinly veiled
hostility to Einstein's politics.
Lewis S. Feuer, EINSTEIN AND THE
GENERATIONS OF SCIENCE, Basic
Books, New York 1974. The first book to
confront the politics of the times in any
depth. But Feuer's bitter opposition to
the student rebellions of the 1960shas
produced an odd and unworkable theory
of generational conflict asthe moving
force in science.
C. P. Snow, VARIETY OF MEN,
Scribners, New York 1971. A nice
portrait from an elitist vantage point.
BOOKS ABOUT RELATIVITY
There are thousands. The trick isto find
ones that seem to make sense and stick
with them. Working from three or four at
once can be helpful. But there's no
substitute for talking the ideas over with
friends.
I have based my own presentation on
Einstein's 1905paper and on his popular
book which closely follows the outline of
the 1905paper.
A. Einsteinefal., THEPRINCIPLEOF
RELATIVITY, Dover, New York 1952. A
collection of papers on special and
general relativity.
A. Einstein, RELATIVITY, Methuen,
London 1916/Crown, New York 1961,
J. Bernstein, EINSTEIN, Fontana, Collins
Glasgow/New York 1973. An overview
of all of Einstein'S work.
L. Landau and Y. Rumer, WHAT IS THE
THEORY OF RELATIVITY?, MIR
Publishers, Moscow 1970/Basic Books,
New York 1971. A popular Soviet
account.
If you're not put off by the math,
textbooks can be quite helpful because
the accounts are nice and brief. Here are
another two somewhat advanced but
useful books:
THE FEYNMAN LECTURES ON
PHYSICS, volume 1, Addison Wesley,
London/Reading, Mass. 1963. Chapters
15-16contain Feynman'scomments
about relativity.
L. Landau and E. Lifschitz, THE
CLASSICAL THEORY OF FIELDS,
Addison Wesley, London/Reading,
Mass. 1951. A graduate level text, but
pages 1-4are an exceptionally clear
outline of the theory.
ADDITIONAL BACKG ROUND
READING
(0) advanced texts
W. Abendroth, A SHORT HISTORY OF
THE EUROPEAN WORKING CLASS,
New Left Books, London 1965/Monthly
Review, New York 1972.
E. Anderson, HAMMER OR ANVIL: The
Story of the German Working Class
Movement, Victor Gollancz, London
1945/0riole Editions, New York 1973.
E. T. Bell, THE DEVELOPMENT OF
MATHEMATICS, McGraw-Hili,
London/New York, 1940.
J. D. Bernal, THE SOCIAL FUNCTION
OF SCIENCE, MIT Press, 1967.
G. Barraclough, ORIGINS OF MODERN
GERMANY, Blackwell, Oxford
1947/Putnam, New York 1973.
C. B. Boyer, A HISTORY OF
MATHEMATICS, Wiley, London/New
York,l968.
R. Courant and H. Robbins, WHAT IS
MATHEMATICS?, Oxford Univ. Press,
London/NewYork,1941.
H. Cuny, ALBERT EINSTEIN, Souvenir
Press, Paris 1961.
P. Dunsheath, A HISTORY OF
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, Faber and
Faber, London 1962/MIT, 1969.
A. Einstein, LETTRES A MAURICE
SOLOVINE, GauthierVillars, Paris 1956.
ENCYCLOPEDIA JUDAICA, Macmillan,
Jerusa lem 1971.
* J. D. Jackson, CLASSICAL
ELECTRODYNAMICS, Wiley,
London/ New York 1972.
H. G. Garbedian, ALBERT EINSTEIN
MAKER OF UNIVERSES, Funk and
Wagnalls, NewYork 1939.
C. C. Gillespie, ed., DICTIONARYOF
SCIENTIFIC BIOGRAPHY, Scribners,
New York 1972.
B. Hoffman, ALBERT EINSTEIN,
CREATOR AND REBEL, Hart Davis,
LondonlViking Press, New York 1972.
* M. Jammer, CONCEPTS OF MASS,
Harper Torchbooks, New York 1964.
*F. A. Jenkinsand H. E. White,
FUNDAMENTALS OF OPTICS,
McGraw-Hili, London/NewYork 1965.
D. K. C. MacDonald, FARADAY,
MAXWELL AND KELVIN, Anchor
Books, New York 1964.
P. W. Massing, REHEARSAL FOR
DESTRUCTION: AStudy of Political
Anti-Semitism, Harpers, New York 1949.
oW. D. Niven ed., THE SCIENTIFIC
PAPERS OFJAMES CLERK
MAXWELL, Dover, New York 1965.
V.1. Lenin, IMPERIALISM, THE
HIGHEST STAGE OF CAPITALISM,
Foreign Languages Press, Peking. 1965.
* A. O'Rahilly, ELECTROMAGNETICS,
Longmans GreenandCo., London 1938.
* W. K. H. Panofsky and M. Phillips,
CLASSICAL ELECTRICITY AND
MAGNETISM, Addison Wesley,
London/Reading. Mass. 1955.
E. J. Passant, A SHORT HISTORY OF
GERMANY 1815-1945, Cambridge Univ.
Press, Cambridge/New York, 1959.
oW. Pauli, THETHEORYOF
RELATIVITY, Pergamon, New York
1921.
P. G. J. Pulzer, THE RISEOF POLITICAL
ANTI-SEMITISM IN GERMANY AND
AUSTRIA, Wiley, London/NewYork
1964.
E. Sagarra, A SOCIAL HISTORY OF
GERMANY 1648-1914, Methuen,
London 1977.
H. Schwab,JEWISH RURAL
COMMUNITIES IN GERMANY, Cooper
Book Co., London 1956.
* A. Sommerfeld,
ELECTRODYNAMICS, Academic Press,
London/NewYork 1952.
F. Stern, GOLD AND IRON, Georg,e
Allen and Unwin, London/Knopf, New
York 1977.
D. Struik, A CONCISE HISTORY OF
MATHEMATICS,3rded., Dover, NY 1967.
* E. F. Taylor and J. A. Wheeler,
SPACETIME PHYSICS, W. H. Freeman,
London/San Francisco 1963.
* S. Weinberg, GRAVITATION AND
COSMOLOGY, Wiley, London/New
York 1972.
1;3

FOR BEGINNERS

Text by Joe Schwartz

Illustrations by ~~~1===~ Michael McGuinness
r1~MI

'-"

~

P;:mthpnn

Rn~k>\:::1

.;;, ,,',

received his Ph.Text Copyright © 1979 by Joe Schwartz Illustrations Copyright © 1979 by Michael McGuinness All rights reserved under International and PanAmerican Copyright Conventions. 1938Einstein for beginners. Inc. .E5S32 530. He is the author of many scientific articles that have appeared in Nature. Bibliography: p. 1935joint author. Originally published in England by Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative. Joe. and simultaneously in Canadaby Random House of Canada Limited. I\.D. who is Associate Professor of Physics at the City University of New York. Einstein. Published in the United States by Pantheon Books. Michael McGuinness studied fine arts at the Royal Academy in London. Toronto.1'1 79-1889 ISBN 0-394-50588-3 ISBN 0-394-73801-2 pbk. 1879-1955.. McGuinness. Manufactured in the United States of America 02468B97531 About the Author and Illustrator Joe Schwartz. \. Title. QC16. in higher energy physics from the University of California in 1964. and other magazines. Albert. He is a former art director at Reader's Digest and designer for the Observer. New Scientist. 1. a division of Random House. Michael. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Schwartz. New York.

'If relativity is proved right the Germans will call me a German. the Swiss will call me a Swiss citizen.' . If relativity is proved wrong the French will call me a Swiss. the Swiss will call me a German. and the Germans will call me a Jew. and the French will call me a great scientist.

.

.1875 'Into a war Id not of his own making .rt Einstein was born in ulm.-{ Just like the rest ofus. Germany on March 11.A\be. ] .

000. 30. The Parla Commune . The Commune suppressed with the help of the Prussian Army. immigration. were badly hit.~~ LENIN 11 1870 1871 1873 6 Franco-Pru.ian War .0ly capitdlisr'n. great profits and consolidation for a few. declares a German Empire. Small businessmen. The next 17 years meant hardship for ordinary people. This was a time of labor struggles. .000.hat was going on 'In the world? ~~ The 1880'5 marked the beqinning of the ag5 of imperialism and mon0p. The Great World-Wide Financial Crash. the rise of militant socialism. like Einstein's father.000 francs indemnity and blows it all in financial speculation.Prussia annexes Alsace-Lorraine.Workers and soldiers take over the government of Paris for 3 months.. receives 5.000 Communards executed by the French authorities.

1878 Bismarck passes anti-socialist laws to suppress working-class political agitation. Jews qet Finoncicl cnsis. the bldrne for the .~!1 the day w'llI not be settled by resolutions and majority votes but CItt</ 181J-I 8 Chcmcellor of GermGlry' 1811 -1890 %Ittpis~ 83 Wilhelm Marr coins the word anti-Semitism and founds the League of Anti-semites. ~! The great questions of by blood and iron.

mostly disease inclined blood.The Jewish tribe has indeed a different blood from the Christian peoples of Europe. they blarnethe . but the robust nature and capacity for physical work of the Negro are missing and are replaced by a brain which by size and activity bring the Jews close to the Caucasian peoples. other affects and passions. Bi5ll1orcK's friend ~nd contidant . a different constitution. If we add to these peculiarities the thick fat skin and the volatile. we see before us the Jew as white Negro. Sicilians! 8 . a different body. • Mamma rnic. /' w'lth us.

t'5 a period of tremendous overall industrial expansion.000. Many emigrate to the Americas. Bernheimer. p'opulat!on 1.5 8 -1. Fine! 5fe.59 being a freeman was special. The rural Jewish population of southern Germany falls by 70% between 1870and 1900. JulIus Koch- 18.3°.tter ' in Pauline. Jews were not completely ermncipqred until 1867. Aloert 15 one year old. to Munlc~. You congo into business with your brother there.:>r. 9 .l11atJfltffl6fa1v ep~d 181T-1. Daughter ot a court pvrveyc. n 1880 Albert's father's business -fOils because of the Ithink things are 5e. population 2. AI bert's father.902 Freeman of Buchau.. Munich. depression and the fOl1lily moves from lJlm.9 20 A/bert's mother.500. People throughout Europe are forced off the land and into the cities.

the chemical am' electrical industries. entral to Germany's industrialization is ihe growth of 10 .

furnaces... measuring instruments... insulated wire coils. terminals. Electroplating 1840: for fancy tableware and household objects for the prosperous middle classes. batteries.. machinery. ...: electrification of railways. Electric lighting 1880-80: arc lighting for streets.. Electric Power Production 1. switches. Slgn81Ing by Electricity 1837: telegraphs. railways and finally homes. docks. cables. construction of power plants and distribution systems.

Hermann and Jacob are part of the German electrical industry 0000000 "i~::'. Albert's father opens a small factory with his brother Jacob. 12 .. II . ization. a tmined enqineer. electric instruments and electric arc lights. They manufacture dynamos.1881. In the suburbs of Munich. II 1 I!II a ~~~~U9hof peric58 intense monopol- whioh is .

Darmstadter Bank 1853 Diskontogesellschaft Bank 1856 Deutsche Bank 1870 Dresden Bank 1872 13 .

.Houston & Edison Co. . &•'....' ''f.. The U5ofA.y 19135 half the worlds Ircde in electro-chemical products was in German hands..""..other Who the half? Glad you asked.... General Electric Co. had .. ..• a combine of Ihomson....

ermann and Jacob Einstein are in for trouble. Tneir small company, cannot compete against giants like Siemens and flalske.

ii
t808·1(J86
Scientific
instru-

~c:f~
t816-1892
prominent family.
From o

W~

ment maker at the University of

Hanover

Educated
inthe Prueson

Joined forces with Siemens
in 184"1

Be~lin.

Army.

Artillery and .

Enqineerlng

Inventor of modern
Since electricity Figures so strongly, in

Scnool.

dynamo in ISGr.

more detail.

our story "It is worth looking at the firm of Siemens and Halske in

15

iemens' firsT invention was an Improved process fur gold ' and si Iver plating.

With his ' sold the brother Cha~ Ies actiIn~ <;15 agent, he in 18+3. rights to Elkington of""BIrmingham, U.K.,

'J'BB WONDBK of the AGB
Under the speci3.1 P<1tr(,)Dag~

r!

------

INS'rANTA.'lEOUS CO)B!UNICAnON.
_.-.~_ . .

of Her ltIo.jesty &. H.R.U. Prince Albert.

V~S

QA,I!,VlAll'teO AllfO

&C.illC;'lT~O·lI"I"Q;NE"~C

5iemerys J9i~s the circle of .Be~lm UnIversity SCI~ntlst5. He develops an Improved telegraph
system. This is a m~thoq ofcoveri ng the '!'lIre vxrth seamless
Insula~lon mode of cheap morenoI C gutta-perche]' a rubberlike plant .

TBLBClBAPBS,
GT. \VESTERN' RAIL\V AY.
)hy be

~een in

CIlu,stantoperati\)R, daily,

(Sunda)'~ ellcepted) from

9 tin R. It ,111'

TELECRAPH OFFICE, LONDON TERMINUS, PADCINCTON AND TELECRAPH COTTACe, SLOUCH STATION.

Au Es.hibiLion admitted by its nercerccs Visitor~ to be the most iotern.un1;\: and ATTRACTIVE of an,. in tbi~ great 'Metropoli~. In the list of vi~itor~ arc the iUWltrious Il.llmel of several ut' the Crowned Headi of Eurol,e, and nearly the
wDo\e-oCtbe lIiobility of Engteed"Thill f:~"llbiti,,". w'airh IVJJ _l'J mlle't ur.it~rl PllUk atttntil't"t ,,/ lalt, i, M:ll worthy 4 tli,.t fr"OTII all tt'/w {Ol" to ,wi tiu wr)"d.no! u.,;tnC~"_~IOIt!'mi'l:: POST. The Electric Telegnaph is unlimited in tbe D_tur. eed utent of iu ecremunicatioll&; by its tltraordinary agency a penon in l'/lndon could COD\'eUe ",jIlt allothu at Ne .... or1c.or 310lnyother place however tli'ltant, lUI euilyand nurly u Y rapidly as iTboth parti.es ",ne in the seine room. Cotue'tion"proposed by Vhitot~ ...n1 be asked by means of this Apparatu~. and eeswers thereto will instaLf&neoull,. be murnett hy a person 20 1\\~11.'~ otr, who will alto. at their requel't, ring a bll{ or ,fin a can non, in an increu.:bly ,Lo~t I?ac!! uf time ••nu the signal for his

SUbstance.)

The Electric Fluid travels at the rate of Z80,OOO Miles per Second.
have crcved f.~I.L T!;.. grut llaliof.llt
thAt allY fur'in,-f

dOing so ha~ been given

In 1811 he found~
B9uensTadt von SIemens und Halske to
'!1anufacture and Telegra.phen

By irs i \'I' 'rflll "'geney Mu:-Jercr~ have teen appl'l:'hcnll"tt l"'l ill rhe late ('lit." f 1C of T."cJl,)-Tbi("vc~ detected; and :."t17. wbid\ i. oi no little impvrh"Y'ce. the timely lIS~i..tl\l;,:,.,.f :'IledicallU-d hu been procured. in ca..es which otl1....,.,i~e would r

N.D.

or thi~ w.)nderful in"('ntion ill 1IO well knewn to hOimerits ""ould be supf'rf!.uo'J-S. with the most cOllfiding secrecy. raph" 'Menenr"'\,,' in condA\1t attendance. '0 tbat comrllunitatioDS recei v.:J. "eleg woehl be forwlU:d ..d, if l'eiJ.uir~, to "ny part of Lendou, Wirold~,r. Eice, &e.

DC"l',~::h .." jell! t'" .lId fro

'1.\.1u~i"fc here

irnportlln('~

b~'

ADMISSION ONE SHILLING. Licf1It«. T. HOIllI:,

Instal telegraph

systems.
16

n 18t8 he gets the Prussian government contract to build q network in NorThern Germany.

1;~1he Frankfurt Revolutionarv
JUS! electeq the KIng to be I
emperor.
ossemolv h05

Siemens loses ihe Pruesiori conTract in 1850. But 'In Ruesio he succeeds in seIling fhe Tsar on an extensive sysre-m.

11

1854-56 Thanks to Siemens we can find out how that. Crimean war i'5 doin ~ ~~~~ Siemens uses his profits from Russia for the next Big Dealunderwater coble telegraphy! ~---. - 18 .

he first transatlantic cable is laid between 1857-1868.. He becomes consultant to the British government. Siemens orqonizee the Indo. I '\ vJhats the I price of cotton \ in London this ". His ship. It connects London. the faraday. (pullout of that ~e better - \ 'gold deal.European telegraph in 18ro.Berlin-Odesso-Teheran and Calcutta. ---- 19 .-week? ---... loys 5 transatlantic cables between 1875-1885. ~n.

worked with Edison in NewJersey. withSiemens.hey? Pearl st. who combines Schuckert.) should turn d nice profit. The first market 15 lightIng for docks. rai Iways and streets. Edison organizes the construction of the first centra I generating station in 1882. Station of Edison Electric Illuminatinq Company 20 . Th'l.lectric power becomes a cornmod ity .

0 the veryo on t~ ne tnes 1. is II E r/clty . 10 get in 21 .rage.feet· . fie oct.

is appointed head. n 18B7 the German government opens the 21 .Physikolische . Siemens donates 500. His old friend.Technische . Hermann von Helmholtz of the University of Berlin circle.000 marks to the project.Reichsanstalt for research in the exact sciences and precision technology.

So Albert was born when electricity had become big business and the most popular of the sciences. friend in Al bert's closest . Even at oge 9 he spoke hesitantly.dream'ichi ld. In 1881 Alberts sister MojC\ is born. OUf was very close-knit and very ho. fumily Albert proves to be a slow. childhood.spitable. His future would be greatly influenced by the commitment of the German state to technical education and state-supported research.

there.Perhap5 donT worry. 24 . Ach. he'll De a profseeor onedoy! Alberts Germany is a very military ploceoooooooo There. W'el/ worry about it later.

000 in 1873 to 400.Arms expenditure nearly triples between 1870 and 1890. Socialist Iiteratu re is forbidden.500. The officer corps increases from 3000 to 22.000 in 1900. Membership increases from 27. \ 25 . Even the taxi drivers wear uniforms. Heads of state all appear in military uniform. doesn't Albert like it.000 in 1890and 1. Veterans organizations are state supported. Three year military service is compulsory. Youths are subjected to fear and humiliation.000.

.. He is the only Jew in his closs..) 2.schoolooo goes to Albert 000 which is. very military.. Albert goes to a Catholic school.0 . •• (Albert's father was a non-religious Jew who regarded the kosher dietary laws as ancient superstition.I Christ was nailed with liRe the cross ro nails thiS. _ .

21 . what do yo u compass. ~gneti~m.think' of this?Ifs called q AI bert. ---==:---' Hush now and go to sleep. · lbert had a much better time at home with his playing sister M~a.

2. not violin lessons! ~ Its Just '\·11 liRe school. Oh. we call it x .you come. temporarily and conunoe to hunt it until it IS caught.J-: ".r cousins ~ ~now Go on.no. you \ik?e to ploy ~ L when you. He always shows me things. 00000000 And his mother introduces him to music and literature.. lbert's uncle Jacob introduces him to math I Jake. : / When the animal we are hunting cannot be caught. . \i~e e e e e o o e e-e my uncle / Algebra is a merry science.8 .

'Max Ta\mey. Talmey brought some of these with him. 29 .t was a Jewish custom in southern Germany to invite a p'0or Jew to dinner on lhursday's. a medical student in Munich! visited the Einstein home when Albert was 12.' produced poputor science best-sellers ana vice versa. Great public interest in science in Germdn'y.

With Talmey'~ assistance,

Albert worked through Spieker's Plane ~--""~--­ GeomeT~y and later went ontoteoch himself "the elements of colculus.

do you think Albert

Hermann~

reads too

than do nothin9.'

Better- he should read

mucn?

lbert's reading undermines hi5 faith in authority.

Through the reading of popular scientific books I soon reached the conviction that much of the stories in the Bible could not be true. The consequence was a positive fanatic orgy of free thinking coupled with the impression that youth is intentionally being deceived by the State through lies. It was a crushing impression. Suspicion against every kind of authority grew out of this experience, a skeptical attitude towards the convictions which were alive in any specific social environment - an attitude which never left me, even though later on, because of a better insight into causal connections, it lost some of its original poignancy.

31

· r presence Einstein, YOL!5 disruptive inthef~a~ithe other and 0 re
etudents.

'(odll stay

for t. deten Ion.

lil<e 33 . and In /'" the Gymnasium. the teochers were lik?e \ieutenant5.Emperor Charles N o 1346-1378 s: Charles Emperor 1519-1556 ~ chorles EllI~ror 1711-1140 ~p The teochers in ) /'" sergeants.'~ elementary school appeared to me .

Italy.~----.0ulr . y.The school authorities dismiss hi'l~-- Just whot I wClnted! o 4 .n 1894 Hermann's business fails. ' Finish on his own. neea i t . I\\bert After two months obtains a doctors certificate saying "that he is suffering a nervous breakdown. you'll stay here to sc. The family moves south to Milan.hool and qet your diploma. Albert.

You must become an enqineer anc1 go into f Business. I thinK I'll visit our cousins in Albert spends a free harRY year in Italy.lm renouncing my Oerman citizens hip. I can no longer support you. But his father's business fails again. 35 . lhe family moves to Pavia where ogain it fails! Albert. rnountnins. 1m off to the Genoo.Papa.

the nothingness of the hopes and stirrings which chases most men restlessly through life came to my consciousness with considerable vitality.Evenwhen I was a fairly precocious young man. Moreover I soon discovered the cruelty of that chase. which in those years was much more carefully covered up by hypocrisy and glittering words than is the case today. . By the mere existence of the stomach everyone was condemned to participate in that chase.

the most elite tech nical school outside of Germany. you've roiled French. 37" . Hefuiled miserably. would admit him if he passed an entrance exam. But the Einstein. English. Alberi can't enter University. in ithout a diploma. But you have a superior knowledge of mathemat iC5 .ZUrich. the ETH. Eidgenossiche Technische Hochschule. Zoology ana Botany.

who has 0 son. Professor Winteler.Paul. 38 . Ooh. = He stays with the headmaster of the school. considered a fTrstclass te'acher of physics. Alberts sister Moja later marries Paul Winteler.that Albert Einstein is Cute.and a daughter Albert's age. He studies physics with ••• 0 Auqust Tuschmid.· Ibert has a good ti me in Aarau. 0000 The centml problem In p'hysics Today is the resolution of Newton's mechanical world view With the new equotions of electromagnetism.

. "big time" e bigtimewhat's he mean? Dunne. let's see. . In October 1896 he is ready for The...8January 1896 Albert's official opplicotion for the termination of his German nationality is approved... 1h . 39 . Jat1 ~/~~~f!.. He becomes a statelessperson! Albert convinces his father that he should be a teacher instead of an engineer.· t the end of the year Albert graduates and passes his ETH exam .J) .Aatat' J896 • n 2.

but also the largest building I have ever seen used for a physical laboratory.S. Weber and Dr Pernetare at the head of the physics department in the Polytechnic. reading telescopes of the largest and most expensive form by the dozen.he ETH was 0 Big League outfit. It attmeted 00" worldwide attention Description by Henry Crew. PhD. Tier on tier of storage cells. The apparatus cost 400. They not only have the most complete instrumental outfit I have ever seen. dozens and dozens of the most expensive tangent and high resistence galvanometers. U. F. the building alone 1 million francs. 2 or 3 in each room.000 francs. The Physics Institute was planned by Heinrich Weber and his friend Siemens." 40 . physics professor in 1893: "H.

orqonized . \ ---~ +1 \\ .A engineers But the abstract.lectu res. %' -:/ /ottneETH complqmed . were too teachers The students ." . J. I "mathematics .'/' motfheir rff.. \\·.jj demonstmnons ~ agoinstthe .

!".' '. He had a cavalier attitude toward formal instruction laboratory doing qnd spent his time In the .superb physical . Those engineers ore right on. experiments. . 42.· Ibert qUickly decided t~at mathematics was far too specialized to be interesting . : ~ U ~--=-~/("--)~.

. Einstein... But you have one great fuuIt: you never let yourself be told anything! yes... extremely. Here's the notee.. You're clever... Some old stuff! 43 .. Herr Weber. clever.. and naturally he quickly antagonized some of his instructors..

. . They have a good time in the lively political atmosphere of Zurich.who later helps Albert get his first .€:' Marcel Grossmann. He saves 20 francs of iteach month toward his Swiss citizenship. appliconts.onCl Mileva Maric. . "jhe finest sounding-boord in all Eur0p. restricted to a few ond e forms friendships with Michelangelo Besso.I lbert gets icofinncs a month from his relatives. .secure Job in the Swiss Patent Office. Ex~nsive . a mathematician from Serbia whom he marries in 1903.

are there. Friedrich gets amnesty and doesn't serve any time. Albert learns (f!~ Friedrich is the son of Victor Adler. about f(f~ revolutionary ~ socialism from ~ his rrierd ~--Friedrich Adler./ lecturer in physics. 15 . Trotsky. the leader of the Austrian Social Democrats. ({(~ ajunior -. Rosa Luxemburg. sent by his father to study physics "and forget politics" But Adler remains involved in the socialist movement.xiled revolutionaries from Germany and "Russia 01\ come to Zurich.and later Lenin. In 1918 he assassinates the Austrian Prime Minister. Alexandra Kollontoi. Albert submits testimony on his behalf.

Using Kepler's summary of the measurements of the motions of the planets he formulated laws of motion of material objects. Albert was skeprical bui nevertheless impressed by the achievements of the mechanical world view. dominated for ihe Attended Trinity College. . Cl o ck work . v Op t ick. Cambridge. Whig MP for Cambridge 1689-1690. Founder of the theoretical basis of mechanics.s .Newton's consolidation of the laws years.of mechanics had previous 200 n physic5. Newton's mechanical world view is part of 18th & 19th century European philosophy and vice versa. Longterm interest in metallurgy led to his becoming Master ofthe Mint from 1696 to his death in 1727.

l ~ 41 . particularly admired the ability of mechanics to explain the behavior of gases. In the beginning God created Newton's law of motion together with the necessary masses and forces. II I \ I . how well it conducts heat and how fast it can diffuse..Dogmatic rigidity prevailed in all matters of principles. The relationship between the pressure. Comparison of this model to experiment also yielded the first estimates ofthe sizes of atoms. like most beginning physics students. But what the 19th century achieved on this basis was bound to arouse the admiration of every receptive person. -. ') \ Albert. From this treatment came a number of impressive results: the way the energy of a gas depended on temperature.. how viscous a gas is. volume and temperature of a gas could be derived by treating the particles of a gas as projectiles constantly bombarding the walls of the container.

~~. ~- 91 -186 48 ~~~~. Davy'5 hampered in laier years by a mer~ry' eat at 1he same table with him and demanded that -T. forfV1axwell'5 ih8or. liJ 3 Sir HumphreyDavy was head of the (f) In 1832 Foraday Royallnstitutlon in London. He worked Txears as a bookbinder betore .d to endure the recline insults of the British class system _ Wi fe refused to become Dovy's published the experirpental and iheore1ical work ihai p'avedthe way ..hysic5 of electricity and the electrodynamics of faradoy.- . . coming to the attention of Sir Humphrey Davy. Faraday: the most accomplished experimental physicist of the 191tlC....MaxwalI and Hertz that most attracted his attention .. y ofeleciromagneiism.r C~_~ -= _caused by -- failure ofmemory _. 56n of a blockemith. .F:::" ~~olsonlng·1/ lUf~ Davy do "the same.ut it was the p. His work was I I early years. Faraday throughout h'lS ossistant and ha.

~ "... K~ ~/ ~~ -~i . that elecTric and magnetic forces should move through empty space at exactly the speed cf light. I put my best student on the problem of showing experimentally that the electric force propagated at the speed of light. -..1 waded through his papers and realized that he was probably right..'s results into mathematical form. ~ :'\ Maxwell expressed himself in obscure and contradictory language so his results weren't accepted in Europe. from 185110 1861' he worked aT puttIng farodaY. Faradois picture of lines ot' S gaGe \s a force :traversing all gooa one. I ihink I can use that. Maxwell's equations showed Hmrn.Child of a prominent Edinburgh family. 49 . In 1871.~.

In 1886.he became aifrocTed to Helmholtz's lob in Berlin. fie demonstrated eXQerimentally Son of a la\l\{yer and SenaTor of Homburg.ofter 8Jears work on fVlaxwell '5 ifJeory.Trained as on engineer or thor the electric force propagates thro!Jqh space crt the spee4 of Ilgl1t /dlertz o'\18Jl- 18 .9f widely popularized and insp. Marconi pUllt admlrolty a signaling devices. Working with "Professor Auqusto Ri9. .ired 100 20-year-old Guglielmo Marconi. self-propelled H~rtz's experiments were torpedo In 1896.o friend and n~ighp:6r -+he British in "Bologna.hl.

. In about curiosity? is social relations.I Ibert got VeAy exdted about ihi5 line of work. wnat science production. The incorporation of optics into the theo electromagnetism with its relation to the speed of light to electrical and magnetic measurements . 5cience is a force Hey.51 . was like a revelation! EJectric1y ? science Magnetism? is rfwst eroptiCS? IOU5. ..

" fiji or not. Maxwell.! 52. Hertz and others? knowledge accumulaies ihroug h worK 'CuriosityJis ju?t a way of sayin9 thot human beings con change ' their environment...ow fur would Alberts childhood curiosity..can improve' " things. can discover wha1 is use. . about the maqnet have gptten without a social basis? Withoui'the organized work of rmny people like Faraday. If only we could use -those volcanoes to worm us in winter.

odestones are magnetized by ihe E. lhe Chinese used them firsT for burial purposes and only later for novigation .lheir lob wos t6 see that a per:-son's grave was correctly lined up fOr pcoper entry to the -----.C.ar1h's own magnetism.53 .atural lodestones! were reported by the Chinese circa 2600B. out. Also called magnetite. or When youdiq for iron! YOlJ find lots ofthem. It is an oxide of iron (iron combined with oxygen).// atlBr-lire. magnets. 1here were occult speciolisls in China called deomoncers. Far I .

Jood fOr dIrections and as a curiosity for the leisured ." from me yod utt! . but.6 that ror 1600 YeQrs. The intervening silver was not affected at all. 0 to be LucretiU5 (ciRCA 55 B. precisely as the magnet was moved backward and forward below it.) wrote poem about magnetism.-foseel(lk~emb~ Or up or chW11 (J('f~ o1f!erfkwe.C.· round 900 B." FItOM DE RERUM NATURA And that W(}.c. u!he sfee/ willf1WV(!. sowas the iron attracted above. no matter how quickly. magnetized needles began used 05 direc1ion irldicotors. "My brother told me that Bathanarius produced a magnet and held it under a silver plate on which he placed a bit of iron. Magnetism was C.

.lectriety has a similar history.. . 5tephen Gray..---'-"''----- The Greeks circa 400 B. ....... fora very long time! In 1726 a student of Newton '5. And that's where thar sTood Etruscans hove a method for contrail ing lightning. can be made to travel along 0h hempt reo 55 .. . C.... ----_--/'_------. showed! that frictional electr icity.

were exploring the phenomena of elecTricity.y the end of the 18thC.nterest dropped off in they to make batteries because were so much betrer.pp~rons. 56 . 17 l ~~~t 'r------- frictiono I electricity and everyone rushed . a number of people like Coulomb in fronce and Galvani and Volta in Italy. supported by wealthy . Volta invented a battery which made steady currents available for the first time. I.

... oulornb made detailed D 12 D Ex peri menters tried to see if there wa s a connection between electric and magnetic forces... In \820 Oersted took of 0/ ~ It's L=:'.- ·.~-.I. and a • ond showed that when current flowed in tne wire the cornposs would deflect from magnetic north.) 1IO ~ I- 5f . His experimente> showed that a formula could be written fur the electric force sim i 10r to Newton'5 formula for gravitation. ~ :::.0 piece ~-. '(au ~ ~ ~ Wit ~i for yourself.measurements of-the electric force. easy.

eleganT buT Oersted's was commercial.I ndre Ampere made even more precise measurements of "this new force exerted by currents flowing ihrough wires..shown fuat electricity in "the torm of electric current could produce mag netic effects.. Amperes discovery. . Electric tele9raph~ become pOSSible because 1he electric current could be used to deflect a magnetized needle somewhere elee and hence pass on messages! Havinq. wa5 This proved to be a touqh nut which was not cracked unti I 1831 by Faraday. it now remained to be shown that magnetism could produce electric effects.

) It had been a big gamble and a lot of hard work. Most everyone dropped storied building qenerotors. This discovery. (The maqnetism had 10 change. Astatic magnetic force couldnT'do it. research into batteries and Hippolyte Hxiis was the first..oraday was able it> show flnally -that you could get en electric current from magnetism. showed that you could get an electric current from the mechanical motion ofmognets. · 69 .

And otthe same time until wide-sea Ie in the 1880'S. which was Q long way from Siemens' First dynamo in 186(": people sorted experi.... .menting with electric motors .... which didn't payoff distribution of power become profitable 60 ..· . .

Instead of trying 10 make up elegant force rl aws. 61 .fuw working-class scientists. faraday proposed . His bockqrourd of rich practical experience served him well in hie experimental work.. that a magnet or a current. Faraday was one of the very. 50 he made pictures of what wos happening. Faraday tried to visualize what was happening when a magnet and a current interacted.carrYing wire sends out lines afforce in a definite pattern ~ depending on -the shope and strength of the magnet or current.' ut the key thing for our story 'IS how faraday tried to understand ihe effect he observed. . ( Iron filings placed near magnets D tend to rline up'. And his overall Derspective was very down to earth.

62 . Now lhe spoce between A5 soon 05 Faraday discovered ihis effect he s1aried asking how 'It was tnatthe lines afforce 90t1hrough space. Forthe ftr5t time ph~5ical theory moved away from forces actinq at a distance as in glUvitallon. the bodies was seen 05 the active carrier of -the force.Faraday's I?iciures showed that the vdtage generated in a circuit was ~uol totne rote or which ihe lines of force through the circuit were changing.

~ When the ~ is closed ihe ~ attracts the e 0 nd deflects it from magn etic north. Here's on exam ple.Check it out. The influencing cause proceeds here and requires time for its transmission. When a magnet acts on a distant magnet or piece of iron.Certain of the results which are embodied in the two papers entitled Experimental Researches in Electricity lead me to believe that magnetic action is progressive and requires time. 63 . the influencing cause proceeds gradually from the magnetic bodies and requires time for its transmission.

the equations predicted that under certain conditions the fields (lines of force. Cornu 1926A.25 years later Maxwell made very good use of this picture.281 mi/sec Yes. as an extra bonus. Michelson instantaneous 141. He renamed the electric lines of force the electric field. Maxwell's equations implied thai liqht wos on electromog nefi"c phenomenon.o hitherto unsuspected form of the electric furce. Measurements of the speed of light 1670 I. He produced equations showing how the fields were related to each other.279 mi/sec lhe to become a pari of the study of electromognetism.'Anderson 186.269mi/sec modern value.000 miles/sec 186. Bradley 1849 H. Newton 1676 O.000 mi/sec 186. Roemer 1727 J. study oflightwo5 now 61 . Fizeau 1875 A. D. 186.400 mi/sec 186. it's all the same) should move like waves through space at the speed of light. magnetic influence. He renamed the magnetic lines of force the magnetic field. And. 1941 C..233 miles/sec 194..

working on these subjects. and definitely as in mathematical formulae71f so. that we also might work upon them by experiment. When a mathematician engaged in investigating physical actions and results has arrived at his conclusions may they not be expressed in common language as fully. I think it must be so.translating them out of their hieroglyphics.. I 65 . would it not be a good thing if mathematicians. working state. and so clear in character that I can think and work from them. coul~ under- qot from stanu how it p lace to place. clearly. were to give us the results in this popular. Maxwell's equations. though they may give me no full understanding of the steps of your process. which. give me results neither above nor below the truth. because I have always found that you could convey to me a perfectly clear idea of your conclusions. would it not be a great boon to such as I to express them so 7 . useful.i*1} It wasn't until Helmholtz in 1811 decided to put all itle "'- • •••• but nobody -. If this be possible.ut not everyone liked He wrote to Maxwell: Faraday was a bit piqued. competing "theories in order flaT Maxwell's equaTions emerged as ihe p'rime candidate fur ihe correct 1i1eorv. Even There is one thing I would be glad to ask you.. as well as in that which is their own and proper to them. • • • . Helmholtzslab become the center for research into eJectromagnetic waves and the propagation ot light Every.one agreed that liqht was __ a form of electric and d' magnetic"'" interaction.

UntiI AI bert did away with it all. heaf. from the phenomenom is an oethereal medium filling space bodies. rr We have reason to believe. This was-the fomous. 66 .he mechanism of -the transmission of electric and magnetic forces was now a mqjor Rroblem. Everyone believed thot some sort of medium (or substance) was necessary to eupporf !he fjelds.thot mere ofli~hta29 and permeofng ~. luminiferous nether that was to occupy some physicisfs for the next40 years.

while . infinitely rigid in order to support the -t~~i~JJi light properly.. exist? 6. . and had to have the contradictory properties: 1 completely permeable to material objects..: But did 2at the same time. .lhe oeiher was supposed io fill all space . . ~ ihe aether really. .

through 1he oether using n 1887two U. srould settle this once and fOroll.. ~~~~~ Traveled 10 Europe 1880 -rssz where he began aether experiments in Helmholtz's lab. tried 10 detect ihe motion ofihe Earth very sensitive apparatus.. Thb massive stone block. floatingry.W... onll-rnefer -inierterometer. A. with mercu in IMI' '=". Americons.S. 68 18jt..A.Morley.-19Ji .10/1 .. ty1ichelson and E.

what did Albert do . ¢' \ I experiments to try to detect the aether ••••• '$ Albert does \ \ neor~ ••••• and eeriously.9h ihe .oefuer was undetectable.' trying injureS himself pusnthe opparatus beyond to ~. 69 .. hE?Y found no effect... . 1he motion of-the Earih throu.---J its limits.••.. When Albert comes on the scene in 1895: 1 Hertz has experimentally verified Maxwell's equations 2 Marconi is busy trying to get money to build more wireless radios 3 The aether is assumed to exist but no one can find it.alreodj? So.

simple pictures.l. com ROSS need Ie without anything 7° . AI bert r-referred Remember ..os q child Albert wondered how !he couICJ line up pointing to ltle Nann Pole touching it. I •••• he wanted to understond what's qoing on when fight propagates (spreads out) tram placeto place. like faraday.

.ert come up with a differentogproochJoihe problem dt'the oen .picture of how light works. from 1his perspective. .50 Albert tried to form a simple.er: 11 and ofter Q lot of hard work with his friends. ~~~M.l wonder what would olong with itcrt 11Ie ~~f~ ~o~~6 i0qht eoeed of light? Alb.

" " An d be51'd6S.. I exactJv how don't with just one No...the work ofthe ind ivld uaI is 50 bound up with that of his scientific contemporaries mot it appears almostos an in1P6rSonol product of his qenerotion. -So he avoided going into detail about 1he WOy he thought about things.f~eneer because aItho' Albert cou ld mke an Q~urnent punch he tHdn'r like to talk about it all fuat much." . He aidn't like it. . Albert never got used to being treated like a qenius... In sCience... f course we know aport "It haP. .

..0se I was holding Q mirror·· ..he key puzzler in his discuesions with his friends WOo •. What exoctly would hoppen if he rode along' with a light wave ofihe speed or light? Waves throush the oether Supp.. moving at the ... '. and speed of nght 13 . .

one of Albert's friends.You remember. Mike Besso. .

moving at F '" I W. speed of light Now ifyou're moving at me ') mirror 15 . tryinq to understand the aether ogain. thot accident inthe lob cure you? well? whatis Again? Didn't No listen. 50 ? 15 . JhiS i... and f11~ Hrnmm.~.s difrerynt Imagtne youre movmq at the 5~c:rof light. OK I've got it..the sp'eed 01 IJliqhtJ lhe l[ght tani catch up to the / mirror. I it this time? Wait a minute.lve been Listen Mike.

~ear5..doesn't 1hd~our 1m e six> Id Hmmm. He rejects the A\bert~lored "\his puzzle with his friends fOrlo. and can't catch up to to get reflected. You should read Mach's SMce anCl completelY. fir5t at C{ ETH in Zurjf..then fr:1e lighT with respect to you .. I Interesting! Listen.. stationary • And if you sit on top of thewave. Isn't"mOvlnQ the mirror .. motion idea of absolute stufF.thotmean 5o. You mean that if liqht is a disappear ?! vrove in the oether...and tnen atthe wse Patent Qttlce in Bern nom 1901to 1905· .h from 1895c19oo..·· :.

• ' .... d lr .. recornmerd''hirn. 0 common civil servicejob fOr science graduaTes inlhose C!j5.s wouldn't 50 he did dd tecchinQ jobs fOr Q veer (he was a very qood teacher) unHI Marcel Grossmann was able to pull eorne 5frings to get him ajob atihe Swiss Patent office .hen Albert ~raduated his ETHgrofessor.

Marcel Grossmann and Mike Bes~.They formitleI!O~rnpiqAcodemy'~ . Albert conlmues to chew over • • 0 In Bern he meets MouriceSolovine Qnd that puzzIe..Conrad Habicht. 'will mJ imQge disappear or11ot? . Moving with the speed of liqht. and alonq with Mileva Maric.

--~ ttn6tdfud 18)8-f. they are pure things of thought.•. . .. . .s (a b'el iE(t thar Lenin golrtlCClI mlsChlet later on). No one is competent to predicate things about absolute space and absolute motion. 19 .ach believed that Q physicol theory snou ld be tree of metaphysical constructions.. . pure mental constructs that cannot be produced in experience. Albert benefit trornMach's willingness to challenge the accepted ideas ot mechanics .5r be bosed only on prim03 5en~~ r?en.-----'-_ _---'1 Iv----~-~___r I ~ N:ach's 9r~tne5s in his IncorruptIble skepticism.ep'n:oQ.j16 ach also believed that a physical iheory mlJ. saw as crean - 6Xfi:rcised a profound e leer on me while 1 was a student Moch's Science of Mechanics ..

No metter how it is that I/Sht But.. sHmaether') my image should not disappear.Albert thouqht 000 . could rind 'rt Since DO one anyway.oioio miles per second••• 0 0 ~ If I'm moving at and the light leaves Ylj iDce crt 186.000 ~ 3rJ.000 t 186. then relative to the Braund the light should be moving at 186.ach'5 ideas were useful because -they helped Albert to ~ect =the aether. gets from place to Rloce (. Here's what .! _ o 0 -~ ~~~~18ii6i.000 miles )er second.aether. fuel") on observer on ihe grourd would see the light leaving Albert's face at twice Its normal veloci1}'.OOO miles per secoivx] "Right? 000 80 .

then light leaving his face should travel toward the mirror normally. then Albert should be able to catch up to the light leaving his face and his image should disappear. according to wave theory. The observer on the ground should always see the light leaving Albert's face at the same speed no matter how fast Albert was moving. For example. But if the observer on the ground .But that didn't. sound from a passing train covers the distance to the observer in the same time no matter how fast the train is moving. But if his image shouldn't disappear. And Maxwell's equations predicted the same thing for light.. make sense either •• 0 The speed of waves depended only on the medium and not on the source.. But if the observer on the ground were to see the same speed for the light leaving Albert's face no matter how fast Albert were moving. But then the observer on the ground should see the light traveling toward the mirror at twice its normal speed. Oy veh! Albert began to try to see if there were any way for the speed of light to be the same for both the moving and the ground observers! 81 .

I must confess that at the very beginning when the Special Theory of Relativity began to germinate in me. When young I used to go away for weeks in a state of confusion.. He found it in an old principle of physics that had never been particularly useful before.t nearly gave him a nervous breokdown . as one who at that time had yet to overcome the state of stupefaction in his first encounter with such questions. Albert needed to find some gener8. And that was . Theory of Relativity is Albert's solution 10 In order to make progress Albert first needed to convince himself that his image should be normal even if he were moving at the speed of light. principle that could give him the confidence to continue... I was visited by all sorts of nervous conflicts. methi5 apparently impossible reguirement.. 62 .

: detected without point.>:. trouble with the InqU/stlon. His ex\?eriment5 on motion led to The Principle of ReIativi t. .THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY The principle of . motion is relative and cannot be reference to an outside All steady 6. relativity ? Galileo got into a lot of. .

ZZ ••• Profes50r of 8+ . Itoly: 'Z.Galileo was Mathematics and Military Engineering at Pisa.

" 85 .. fight or run away . One is able to discover enemy sails and fleets at a greater distance than customary. a thing for every maritime and terrestial affair and an undertaking of inestimable worth. and by distinguishing the number and quality of his vessels judge whether to chase him. He built "the first telescope in Italy ond promptly eold it to the Doge of Venice for 1000 ducats ana a lile professorship. so that we can discover him two hours or more before he discovers us.ollleo worked on a lot of thinqs. "I have made a telescope..

did revolve around tne sun.sc0p.e to observe -the moons of Jupiter.e 0150 used me tele.-the di'5cove~y helped convince people -thoT planets . And ~ in addition. Being Q prQctical man who needed money hetried to oefl 1tlis first to the King of Spain and ihen tothe states General of Holland as a navigational aid.

. Because of cannon bolls- Nicolo Tartaglia who hod guesood lhoTthe maximum range you WQSID Galileo took up from could get from a cannon point it at 15~ .ut Galileo's main concerns were with terrestrial motion ..

50 if horizontal and should mean thai.motions alileo realized ihotihe motion cf projectiles ~ou\d be analyzed by treating the horizontal and vertical separately. vertical motion are combined this 0 0 0 the cannonball fired from 0 perfectly horizontal connon and another otthe same time which fOlie> verticallv from 1tle mouth of ire connon should hit the ground ot ihe sometime! Thafs a strange result! 88 .

still. Galileo then extended his argument to say that you couldn't use vertical motion orany other kind of motion to detect horizontul motion.ontal marion affect the vertical motion at all? When I'm moving smoothly the cannonball's vertical motion isn't affected at all. moving or standing 89 . liiillii ' still.Doesn't the horiz. Yes.lve often wondered in my cobin whether the ship was.

rinciple of absolute rest wasn't a burninq issue. You can "t tell ~~r it" you're moving smoothly without looking outside.r it paved /The way tor the pow~rtul that Decome-the arguments 1heo~ ofReloTlvi!y 0000 appeared in which first. Negati ng the idea of ae1'He. lYle r. rns ~~ ~ 90 . mogozme. / But whel1 app lied l6 the problem of tMe relativity sounds harmless encqqh.And ihat's "the principle of relativity.

1iiv·~ Albert ~rgued he should be able iO eee his (moO e norma!!y even if he were moving ar the speed ot ight o Because if your image disappeared when you were moving at the speed of light. right? Which would violate the principle of relativity I 91 .osed on the principle of t:ek. right? You wouldn't need to look outside. you could tell you were moving at the speed of light just by looking in a mirror.

.... Albert's image should be normal... ..........m.... wo~ld have to be difrerent........m...... . That was half the problem solved..000 miles........there gOO? my Damn! lrY10tten in_q them oqoln....... But could Albert see the light move away from his face at the speed of light relative to him .....l kee not ~o 18'6....when tin shovi~...er-second // mm.... So Albert realizeQ thai if the speed were to be 1rle some ihen me disTance and time Speed is distance must be . at the same time.. while.......something suspect with time...m... Which meant that there 92 ... observers on the ground would see the light leave Albert's face at the same speed of light relative to them? How could this be possible? divided by time (as in miles/nour)..

Because took the principle Albert of relativity as a starting point. rettun the time ne was led tOk concepts and of space in order make it come out all right 93 ...Perhaps "the moving ~b58rver and 1he stationary observer observed cliflerent times . were to observe the same If both velocitv fOr /igrTt.

irreconcilable with the former he means he's found a way out of the contradiction namely. We will raise this conjecture (the purport of which will be hereafter be called the 'Principle of Relativity') to the status of a postulatej" *postulate: a basic assumption and also introduce another postulate. the unsuccessful attempts to discover any motion of the earth relatively to the light medium like the Michelson -Morley experiment suggest that the phenomena of electrodynamics he mean~ ihe propagation oF'light which isthe same thing /// as well as of mechanics possess n~ properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest. He means everY. same velocity iOr light.This is how Albert finally' expressed it in his Annalen der Physikarticle in 19°5: ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES .~>ne should always observe the . which is only apparently.. that light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body. He means Galileo's principle of relativity ohould be good for light as well as for ordinory motion..

about moss .These two postulates suffice for the attainment of a simple and consistent theory of the electrodynamics of moving bodies based on Maxwell's theory for stationary bodies. Space will no longer require .. He means he's doing awoy with the oemer once and for 011 . r. about time about lenqths. cerroin had to be chucked out and replaced.. The introduction of a 'luminiferous aether' will prove to be superfluous inasmuch as the view here to be developed will not require an 'absolutely stationary space' provided with special properties . obout velocity 95 . conventional ideas Bur.special properties' in order TO transmit light.

yOU accept file two postulates Albert shows exac11y now to make it come out O.. ' . He wrote to his friend Conrod' Habicht··· . Albert was ver. K. If ..· Ibert5 arquments ore veCY simple because "they are very logicar.' 6reot! He's reallY done it! 96 .v pleased with the result.

it pro 899 ates exactlY the eorne way when movln. . ..9' This i5the Such a nice principle of • relativitv. . srandi"h9 still .. thin qo r (j drive..ow. 9.. doy. happening? Albert says: Wflen:you are no matler how liqht propagates Nice and 5u y I todnn I'll ~. Do you see what is . Alberrs first posfuIare.

ut Albert also says
rr

Liqht is alwa~5. propaQ~ted in empty space wd:h q detinrle velocity C which is Indej:?endent of

the stcfte of mo1ion at The emitting or receiving body"

An observer an /he ground hos ID see light moving ot the same velocity os the moving observer. lhis is Alberts 2na postulate.

96

Bur what does it mean?

I'm not sure.

P-B1mate.

what about,
KtxP dis ch?

Remem ber the compass?

Albert wondered how the cornROss needIe interacted with fue Earth's magnetism.
How do maqnetic(or electric) effects get transmitted from one pl ace to another?

Maxwell and Hertz showed "that such In fact they showed magnetjc that every interactions could electromagnetic only take place effeq takes ota certain maximum speed. time to get transmiITed.
99

Radio waves, microwaves. sun rays,etc., all take time to getfrom place to place.

100

101 .must be a maximum possible speed ofi nterocllon. Albert proposed that ihere are no insTantaneous intemcilons at on in nature. {j And if ihere are no insTantaneous interactions in nature then "there . Based on fhe experience with elecTricity as summariz.o Albert mode an inference.ed by Maxwell ana verified by Hertz. Here is "the simple physical meaning of Alberfs 2nd postulaie: Every interaction takes time it:' getfrom one place toihe next.I This is so im portant we will repeat it: Iffhere are no instantaneous interactions in Doture -then -there must be a maximum possible speed ot interaction. I .

he maximum possible speed of interaction in nature is the speed of the electromC?qnetic interaction . 102 ..This is Albert5 2nd postulate. relotivity~ the Now by the 8rinciple of maximum The speed of Iighf(1he maximum speed of interaction) is a ~ e universal constant.. epeed or interaction must 1'~~I51' be the same for every J.l observer no ma1ter how they are moving.wliich is the speed cf light! It's quite revolutionary really.

9. 103 .Everyone sees ihe some speed 10r light no matler how th~ are movi n.

s-eed everj- Now IVe heard ihing.- 1tlanthe faster Nothinq . me ~'~. +L .of course. Un·American! ~ We crocked .".---.berner .. we'll crdok ~.that nothing con go .foster than ..-.. and - by qol~ the light: barrier. ~Iight!?? 104- . r. speed of light .. the speed Noihngluste~lrlon 01 fi9ht? h Nonsense! C~... ~~ tne 60und .-This means .

. the same speed for light (c). Albert has to show: 1 How everyone can . But how is it possible? Well .The maximum poesible speed is a material property of our world... -L Alberl that &omell1in.9 has lo show l:Jnexpected IS gOIng on. and 2 What happens when you try to get an object to move f88terthan c. must be changed 105 .. To do this Albert shows that: The concept of time must be changed The concept of length must be changed The concept of ma..

instantaneous interactions There ore no 2J Therefore fhere must be a maximum Q05sible speed of interaction. of light 5 The speedpossible speed.5 1tle maximum The reoll" difficult part wos showinq how everyone couId see -the some speed fur light'. J The rnoxirnum poeeible speed the electromagnetic inleroctlon.o ihis is A\beri~ position: 1 in nature.of 4 lhe ~d ofihe electromagnetic Interaction is -the speed . of lioht. of interaction isibe speed . Let·5 ioo see how he did it: .

. In symbols: .q a certain distance D in a certaif'l time T 10 give itie speed of light c .5 = T is disTance ~one divided by me time D o the moving person could observe the Iiqht travel in.. while a station... ~~ 10T .· Ibert nearly drove himself craz~until he real ized that TIME was 111e Joker In the ck! The time elapsed between events was no necessarilY the sorre fOrall observers! Remem ber speed it takes.tly -the same spee~ 0 ••• .QIY person could observe the ligbT traveling a ditterent distance D in a arfferent time T in jusT such a way 1haT she would measure eJCQt.

.." . We have to understand that all our judgments in which time plays a part are always judgments of simultaneous events. " .. . events? Yes..how A\bert analyzed "the phenomenon of simultaneous events . Here's . I say "That train arrives here at 7 0' clock" I mean something like this: "The pointing of a small hand of my watch to 7 and the arrival of the train are simultaneous events.t is neat. Albert points out that any measurement of time uses "the idea of simultaneous events.. If. 5imultaneous . for instance.

A\bert arqued ihat simultaneous events in one frome of referer1te would nO(Iloces5cwily be simultaneous when viewed from 0 dittereni fmnie.
Albert called this the RELATIVITY OF

SIMULTANEITY
8\bert suqqests. ihat we try to picture his argument
In terms

<fa rmm ....

• • • . as ihe moving nome of reference and the roilwoy embankment as the sTationary Frome
of reference .
109

car too. MIke.

ow we co0 put them together. Let's hove

0

passenger

(I
{

/'/
'-( ,

(f

i( {('

There. Now imogine that someone in the ce nter ofthe pgs5enger car Holds a device which can send out a beam of light in the forward direction and atihe same time a beam oflight in the backward direction.
1/ 1/

---F

1/

((If(/'/-/(((If
r

111,((7((1

II

((ff

l j ; 1 / 0 i /'

(t/(;..I

110

· nd we furTher imagine ihat ihe rront door and back door can be opened automatically byrne \i9ht beams.

"t.~,
e
~~ 1hen

of the passenqer car will eoen simultaneously. But to a person 6n the embanK.ment, ~berr Ol'"qU6S, tne bock door will open before the front dOdr/

to the person hold ing -the device the doors

111

~ee ? Becouse for fue the back door moves fOrward to rrieet the Iiqhi Prul 5 e. stationor'\' ~roons o Bu1 which is it? Do the doors open at the 5ame time or don'they? 112 . whiIe 1tle" froni door moves away from fhe light pulse.

0 •• r------------t()~_i':~~~-]·::~8!i·-")'·:·nS~ Events which are simultaneous with reference to the train are not simultaneous with respect to the embankment and vice versa. • :J) J~-. Imagine that our pereon middle ofihe carriage gets up and goes 10 thin1he door. @l .r------J Hang 00 .hat's ihe point Since "the speed of lighi i~ to be the same for both frames. Albert argues fhot. --~:~~ You better give us a chance to get used to ihis. ake a more common sense example: distance traveled. e front ~.... OKay... > 113 .

So you see. 114 . But relative to the embankment the person hos gone farther. ----~ gone IS Distance relative a measure. Albert argues that elapsed time is a relative measure also. how for h05 our imaginary person gone? Relative to the train ihe person has gone J1. a car length. But to the person on the embankment the time elapsed between the opening of the doors is not zero and depends on how fast the train is moving. the time elapsed between the opening of the front door and the opening of the back door is zero.ow. To the person in the passenger car the opening of the doors is simultaneous.

isihe relativity ofthe measurement of length. 115 . Albert argues.Next. Albert asks'fwhat is the length a ihe passenger car? An observer in the train measures the interval by marking off his measuring rod in a straight line. (This is the length measured by the moving observer) But it is a different matter when the distance has to be judged from the embankment.

mark the positions on ihe embankment which are being passed b~ the front door and the bock door Riqh. we have to (This is the length of the car as measured by the stationary observer) 116 .at the same timeT-as judqed from the embankment.t Albert argues ihatto measure the length ofthe cat as seen from the embankment. The distance between ffiese points is tnen tneasured with a measuring rod.

· Ibert says: It is by no means evident that this last measurement will supply us with the same result as the first. inde8endent offue motion of the observer. Z Unjusiiflable! 11'1 . Thus. Albert i~'prep.aring the ground for a reconsider- Classical mechanics assumes "that: between events if> independent oF-the motion of the observer. the length of the train as measured from the embankment may be different from that obtained by measuring in the train itself. arion or Newton's analysis of space time t:t motion. 1The time interval The spoce interval (length) of d bact' is .

dossicol _ perfect _ _ _\[_HtjJr------J 50? Quite rilrlht There's this aff€Ct us? How does mat excited about relativity just excited no neecrto get at P0ysici5t~ got b~uee a bunch by IT. with a material absolute: there are no instantaneous interactions in nature! Albert's contribution was dramatic because it so fundamentally challenged the framework of classical physics that had been accepted for the previous 200 years. 118 .Spoce and time Intervals ore. the constructs of absolute space and time. absolute ond the speed of light is relative. ffewton 6aY{ Albert replaces Newton's metaphysical absolutes.

Mean whi Ie lets see what ihe -rest of Alberts argument consists or. The Anti-Nuclear Handbook tells the story.Relativity theory had nothing to do with the development of the A-bomb. And we'll discuss this again later. 119 .

He showed exact~ how to do it. and time. Alber"E needs to use the troditional lonqua~e of numbers to mo~e it rneceurernenrs Since we ore iol~ing about ofdlstances come our right 120 . we are talk'ina about numbers. Albert's program: To find a place and time of an event relative to the railway embankment when we know the place and time of the event with respect to the train such that Every ray of light possesses the speed c relative to both the embankment and the train.· Ibert didn't just argue that space and time intervals needed to Be reformulated.

~ me others.}l.000 B.c. lhere aro at least 1 more dinosaurs qround here.They used scmtcnee on bones to do It ((111 1 II}!I I/J(I VII.))!)} JIII. We'd better iell Tallyinq has been dated t9 30.' 1ft) IJ II And the next big step' was measurement. which got its real start wittllhe rise of the cities. 121 . he nmtsfep of cwrse was counung.

Hey tnan.howfur is "It to Gizeh? he Eqyptian and run me state.Lorea. volume and weight 10 osse ss taxes o lot more groin and We'\1 need beer to feed ihis lot.. 122 . ruler-priests needed measures of distance.

.=. . :'. "\he Bobvloriion and Sumerian priests qood at <:lriihmetic gotrather starting about 3000 B. " .o ~eep records of what "they were doinq they hod to write down -the accounts.: :: . '..: . .. :.....:. . .. . "..: .. . 123 ... Hiero -glyph = priest's writing Anyway.' :: .::. . Because 1he priests kepr wrlnng tor fnemselves. .::::.:... ' ".:... .. . :':. ' ..C....". And 1tlis if> where mathematics beqon 10 qet mystitled. . 50 written l"Iumerals were 1he next step.. .. " .::'..

VVy = 59 But later "the Baby-Ion ions developed the first place system fOr numbers.· t fret fuey wrote their numbers like -this y 50 ~ 1 and <. 12. 7322 or: r322 = T X (lOX lOX 10) +3 x (lox 10) + zx 10 +2 The Babylonians hod as good a computation system 05 ours. = 10 a number like.59 would be written -<~« ~~~ .. They used a base of 60 2x60x60 If I I 1Y + LX 60 +- 2..t . You owe me yyyy bushels of wheat lhots Il2 bushels too mony. .

may . This was -the beginning of ALGEBRA lhev.~. wrote it 011 down on clay- tablet 5 Babylonian inblet. wilh algebra equation on It Of course it was not exactly what we now use. (That hod to wait tor me rise of the . isololion fbr centuries by a special qroup.mow a skill developed in. By 1900 -e. olqebroic slam P and Hindu merchant closs) ot at ion.1)ooBG. The Babylonians didn't hove. 1heBabylonians hod made up lars of litHe pfo15lems lor their own instruction and amusement. otpeople become somewhotborinq.

:::----U 5 ide a square the area less -than Find the of (V if o o the side is l4-x60 t 30 detailed 5teps to me solutionand ihen give-the 00 0 0 r Take hair rf one . the side oFthe square. Now add half of one and the result ie 30.and L mUltlQly by half of one.hat "the Babylonians did was to pose on obstroct problem 0 0 0 0 -=::. 126 .

rom here Its a blq -= .. recallt and add it.x . '"'30' divide 1bXl and sTore it. . ~ Jump to the GreeKs who came up with the Idea of . . In focT we solve equations on modern computers with exoc11yihe some st~p-by-~reQ method hrst used by me 2 DIV 5TO 1 ENTE.. .30 bobyloruon pne5rs.R MUL.multir?ly ix~ and add 870. lheres noT much difference really. root.hile what we do now is write x:. . ml<e the squore Ans. 870 -+ X ~~ +VCiY"+ 870' : .T PLUS To run: enter 810 enter 1 hit start -r: RC L f 1 PLUS RTN . 121 . . . .

..CJ I mystic. Babylonian and O'llnese results and tried (with h'15 PYrhogora5 is soid followers) to prove-thern. 'iB't. Egvptlqn. 128 ."ru .. showmen.. .PROOF Some soy it was the Greek legol system ihat paved the way.. to hove token up ..mathematicJan.'u ~S ~o1B·C..

129 .. This gives the area of square C. keep this in mindAlbert will use it later. . Rem ember th is from echoo I ? The square on -the hypotenuse equals -the sum of the squares on th~ other two sides .famou5 example is the Py1hogorean Theorem. . and we mean: Take the length of side C and multiply it by itself. . . Do the same for squares Aand B.

.Q. as an l. ~~~ii Plato used test.. and he had "\hot rnys1iti eo qeom~try one for Q longTIme.. every- . .. mathematIcs ihese weird rules about whQt was permitted In . Greek mathematIcs fell into the hands of Plato.· ny-how..

.- Why dont we just .rrisecl an onqle . our modern matters . meosure it? 000 0 end "thor was where stood untiII !he Hirdus invented algebra.with only a compass and a eiraighLedge 0 000 reek mathematicians labored for centuries -trying to .

They made up ex~rcises(lTke -the Bab>:lonlons) with colculotions of fuxatlon. what had x=..to herp "them interest. he ot frer ? 3 21" ::. long division and alQebra ihat we use today. + J.what he hod 1 . ojo.ox. X.Lx. 6 at first " 6 X ::. ~x) gives up ~ (~(~x. gives up ~x gl:ves up ~ C. eguol? 24 cOins. he gives -s of his. 36 COinS 132 .)) -!.l.D. debt and Amerchant At the first PO~ au on ceraln ~OodS at different places. Ary.obhato{A.qoods.410) wrote down all the Hindu methods of multiplicotlon. at me second # of what he has left and atthe third '3 ofihe The total remainder.

Mary is mice 05 old as ask / Ann was when Mary was as old 65 Ann ·'s now.0 0 0 u mWo The Renoi6sance. astronomy. for building technology. 50 there Now improved mathemqtics was needed tor come: Algebraic notation Vieta (1580) Decimals Logarithms Slide rule stevinus (1585) Napier (161-+) Gunter (1620) AnalyTic geometry Adding machine Calculus calculus Descorres(te37) Pascal (1642) NewTon (1665) Lei bn iz. for ship'buildinq. fOr hyaraulic engineering. 06S~) 133 . for noviqotion . fOr gunnery. How old is Ann? Ann.eanwhlle Medieval Europe wallowed in the throes cf the Age of Faith until . f ~ :o\rth -tt> you I Mary' ie 24years old.

labyrlnth." wiser than we am." yoors old 18 Plato: Galileo: rr (Jad ever geometrizes It Hertz: is wri1ten in molhemoticol language" without which one wanders. thatffleyore lIThe book ofihe Universe -theirdiscoverers.mot we get rnor:e out ef'them than was orisinally put .in vain throv9h a dork.Onto them.00 0 the onqinol impulses "that led them to ond who forgot mathematics in the first place. f\lumber containest the root and source of eternally flowing creation. who generated Gods and men. wiser even ihan . 134 .• f course ihere has been 0 long histor:Y c! nom ber mystics who were very Impreosea with 1helr own cleverness 0000 Ann 15 Fytha9oras:~PBle55 us divine number.55 re One cannot escape the fuelinq that Theoo math em aticaI funnulas haye an independent eXIstence and intelliqence of their own.

0 •• 0 ttl1n95.exactly how Albe. ever since 111e mattlematicians have started on relativity. .. And ihat's. I myself no longer understand it.-( p5SST. 135 ..rt used moth Q~antitie5 invented by human Ibelnqs to describe 51Z~ and and re atiol16hips between meosuroble And now let's have that passenger car O!jQin Mike..' But in reoli~ mo1hemarics is only a Iqnqu9Qe to express the relaTionshIp between the place and time cfon event in relotion to -the embankment when we know ire ploce and i1me of the event with respect to the train.

HoW"about trylf'1g that? X' isthe distance along me CQr. 136 . You knowJwe could do awoy with ihe car altoqether and just "IndIcate a movi ng frame of reference.9? Thafs better.Actually this pa5senger car is a bit complex" can we have oomelhing 0 Iitle simpler lookin. y'is the distance up the car. v i5 the speed of the y'?» x· > V moving frame.

And a stationary frame of reference x 1r rx isihe distance along the embonkment zr ism distance up the embankment y' m >V x: x Which corresponds to ihe p056e!]qer car and the emboDkment.. 1.5lng ofevents in "the two systems is x' = x-vt VI-V/c2.here.an eyent in lfIe movlrJQ fume by its coordinotes y'x'and tim~ t and we mark ffle same event In:fue J... Now we have a moving finme of reference y x .::L VI-V/~.. 137 .X .' olqebra) thafthe relationship between the coordinates y'''~ t .. We marl< ..that's ~ifT}pler. a Albert noworgues(u.. .sTationary trame by \ts coordinates ti.C.x and Its ttrf1e-t-..

And we hove two idenhccl rather spec·IQI I~qht docks in them (designed byihe U. Now we must show what's going on here 0 tJ 0 0 0 Imooine ihat both frome5 df reference ore at rest (rslofive to each other ofeourse). senior 51otesmon of Right. X' x 138 . physicr5r R.s. by !f~Uztz 19fj-(3fB physic~tJ Dutch iheoretlcol discovered the .~uatlons on page 137 15 The sy5lem of Known 'My name.feyrnman). phxsics end friend Of Einstein.P.

e. .1he liqht bulb gives out regular pulses ofliqm. bounce bark to ~ counter which goes dickfclick. Now we imagine that the s' system . S' y' is q iven a verocity V50tnat it if> a movinq system W"lttl respect to ire SY6tem .which qo up tottle mi rrortjqet retlocted and .

/C).5'-+ The observer in v-+ y x s' Bees her clock work exactly the eorre as when she was at reer. -eut -the stationary observer. otherwise ihe principle of relativity would be wrong. 14-0 . If her clock chonqed when she was moving she could then tell she 'NQS moving by notiCln9 ihe change. \ooking at fue sees someihin9 completely moving 5'clock different.

I l fEV} .--. AIber-tsoys finish at leo6t him let I AND we am derive a formula from the difference. because ofthe longer m.=--=. Thus ihe stationary observer hears more time elapse between clicks on that the veloeity Albert points out the moving dock thon onthe statlona ry dod<. 141 .th leqqth a5 seen tram me Oh movinq cocks run slower-than stationary decks..:!j }zl':!---r~ "" n ~ &1 j PULSE EMITTED PULSE AP>50RBED Mov'lng frame of reference 5 as seen by the coservenn-c' of Iiqht isthe some fur c:r1\ observers.n • D1 ~.". qround.

. 8 go. h. . again LIe.lowly b c use pencil8nd peper get 8 friend to come 810ngl The Key Terms: v = the speed of the moving frame t' = the time between clicks in the moving frame = the time between clicks in the stationary frame c = the speed of light n I The time. t'... sot=C 2L DO EJ But the time... L. J .-------..Dorit have a nervous breakdown. t..-------T L i 1ft . between clicks as heard in the stationary frame is the time it takes light to travel the triangular path. between clicks in the moving frame is the time the light takes to reach the mirror Lie plus the time it takes to return..

l... r------.. the moving frame moves a distance d.vt 2.. Remember? "The square on the hypotenuse equals the sums of the squares on the other two sides. d= . -J !DO I DO I And now we can use the 1500-year-old Pythagorean Theorem (on page 129). 2 L is related to t': t' = 2L C or L = c t' 2 m So what we got before (h2 = (Y2 d)2 + L2) can now be substituted for: (~r=(l vtY +(1)2 .." o But we just saw that h d is related to t: is related to t: t· 2c or h= c2t h d= vt or J. And d = vt.D l- Now in the time t.

.8c 30yrs or t= V'36 = = 50JYS. ·6 elapsed onEorth. conclusion i•. After 30 years has elapsed on the rocket how much time has elapsed on Earth? t I. Albert '. the time elapsed on the rocket = 30 yrs. the speed of the rocket So with Albert's formula .· nd if we want to solve for what t eguoIs we get An astronaut goes off in a rocket at 8/10 the speed of light relative to the Earth. = v. 14t . Now stop and decide if you feel like reading it through once more. .

Judqed.trA~. but y 1-V 2. But remember.1c2 ' dock qoes more slowly than when 6T rest. As a consequence cf tHe motion.===- _ find out about relativity. didn't you? What Albert achieved was a glimpse into how the world looks when things move at close to the speed of light. the Well~'d ~~~t fo L -_ _ :::::=. 55 i. 1 50 itlec1oe.. He realized that the new area of experience represented by Maxwell's equations required deep modifications of the ideas based on the old area of experience represented by Newton's laws.from 5 WITn elapses between two elrokes 01 "the dock is nor one second velocitv v.e. Albert was led to this picture by a desire to understand how electric and magnetic forces propagate. This is so far removed from everyday experience that it takes a certain amount of work to visualize it.k is moving the time whi~h seconds. a somewhat longer time.:. 115 .

how1hey are moving O'n a sTeady' way of course). ever. We further imagine that the trom is moving at velocity of v per hour. you remember see me some velcx:.:lty of Iiqht no matter. ° c 2D miles 50? 146 . Yes.y observer must Mike. lets have our passenger car agoin. Now we imagl'l1e that our person in the midd Ie d fhe car get5 up and wall<s to "the front door at a rate of w = 3 mHesper hour. Good.ow all we have to show is how "the velocities come our right.

right ? Well . In reality when we say mot a 147 . our person moving U.ell. WIth respect to the embankment? 2'V+W'20+~ :Ph? 1hat's riqht (almost). But AI berr tells us ihat the distances and times measured on thetrain ore not the same as the distances and times rneosu red on the embankment ~@ I :i . how fast is . just have to be very precise.10 toke relativity inro account we. ~~ ~ 50 what do we do? person walks or 3 miles per hour with respect to -the train we mean that thej cover "the distance 10 the front door X in atime t where xandt are measured on thetrain..

· nd -the train we know that distances and times as measured on are not the some as when measured from the embankment.os measured Doina this AI bert shows }hat the velocity U of the person as seenrrom the ground 15 gIven by V+W u=--1+Y. and t as measured on the embankment 50 what we need todoisto convertx'ondt. right? on the train into x.J!J! C2 .

000 miles per second .the ground ischanged Just a little from zo-ymp.h.so fhot the Correction is very small ordinarily. 50 you see the velocity of the person with reepecr to U 1 +20X 3 = 20miles!hr+ 3miles!hr (Velocity of light) 2 Nqw the velocity of liqht is very great. 186. 149 .

according to Alberts formula. What. ~ so U the velocity of the Iight Flash 'yVith respect to the ground 15 c+c 2C CI• .ut lets try me formula when ihetrain goes atthe speed of light C Now imagine "that our person sends out 0 light flash to the front of -the train. isthe velocity of the light flash wi1il respect to the ground? ~~rve U= V+W W 1+ VC2 In -this case V· velocity ofihe train-C and W· velocity of the liqht flash with respect 10 ltle ira in = C .1 C·C = 2 = u- + C2 150 .

Albert has shown that his proposed modifications of space and time intervals lead to a new formula for the addition of velocities.) <• • 151 . Among physicists there's a saying: "You never really understand a new theory. The new formula expresses the new fact: there are no instantaneous interactions in nature. You just get used to it. Don't get worried. nothing can go faster than the speed of light.It's a neat formula." Understanding is based on experience and it is difficult to accumulate experience about things moving near the speed of lightl (Unless you're a worker on high-speed particles.

. .2roducing From Latin or a kick 152. AD. a powertuIeffect 16c. Ibert now has to enow what happens when you try get an object to exceed thespeed of light. armed men bodyof' 14c.200 orearlier fortis 5trong strong. to lhls is how Albertargue5: To get on oblect moving you've got to apply a force. power 13C. _______ Force sTrength.

-. Air resistance. There are lots of prccncol difftculties in applying a large steady force to an object.J:n physics force IS an6ther word for 0 0 0 0 ~~ooo interaction! ~~~~~ (' To get ono~ect. Running out of Fuel. by an engine. 153 ... say.JfIY-~ .movl'n9 really fast you ye got to give it lots oPrllts' or a constant steady push. Mechanical breakdown.

Electrons ore much NOoNo. what exactly Does it explode ?!? We imagine w~ apply a steady force to Q pqr1icle (which we coil an electron). No.does hOPR~11 ~hetn on object storts to appoach the speea at I'gh ? . Waitand see. Wow. Oh well. smaller. ut Albert is concerned with Q peeper difficultv. 15t . Never mind. Iffthere ore no instantaneou5 interactions in nature arid i -the speed of liqht is the fastest you can go.

what aboutMach~ anti Hertz's critlcism? Oh. and is inversel. stop I Newton eoid F=mo. weight ratio.y' p. It was Newton who postulated a connection between force and acceleration.rovoriionaJ to the mass.hen on oQjeet picks up epeed we soy 'It accelerates. 6howing off.«.errhe mass or inertia itle harder it is to getit moving fast. The occelerorion. i~ proportional to the applied force. "power to ." Some call it the 155 . F. Or a=F/m. m (0150 coiled me inerTia) or the object lhe biqqer the force the faster it picks up speed . "The bigg. Hey.

156 . j nertia 000' But we'I\ return to the concept of mass or in a moment leading to E=mc2 ? 1 If the electron is at rest then its subsequent motion is given by F = rna.t is easier to get a light car rolling than a loaded true\<..

j} S' is moving s' u ) stationary 15 • Relative to S'.. Ah Albert uses -the Lorentz rronsformction (see page 131 ) hOI Right. Albert knows how to find the place and time of an event with respect to the embankment S. the electron has an acceleration a = F/m (because the electron is at rest relative to S')..2 But suppose the electron already has a speed v? Then the electron is at rest with respect to a frame of reference S' moving with velocity v with respect to S. 151 . ) Fl=t I---+-----------. when he knows the place and time of the event with respect to the train S'..

: 1 The electron goes faster because of the force but 2 In the frame where the electron is at rest the time over which the force acts gets smaller and smaller compared to the stationary frame (moving clocks run slow. remember?) 80 3 In the frame where the electron is at rest the force acts for a shorter and shorter time. 1905 AI bert expresses the process by a concrete EINSTEIN'S FORMULA Y~~K~~W NEWTON'S FORMULA 1686 one (19°5) to old one.he event in fuis case is -the acceleration ofthe electron. the closer the electron gets to the speed of light. what happen. F a=M ~---r\"--~ Compared mx / . Here'. As seen from the ground the electron hardly has time to get pushed at all! Wow. You qive relativity your little fi'nge'r and itiokes your whole arm! new forrnula.

Nothing can go faster than the speed of light. What does it mean? The meaning is 'relatively' straightforward. you say it has a lot of inertia! Thus as the electron approaches the speed of light it appears to get heavier and heavier because it becomes harder and harder to increase its speed. Albert's fonnula shows that when V-C. the electron doesn't pick up any more speed.Once again. 159 . If you push on an object with a force and"it hardly picks up any speed at all. a-zerol So even if you keep on pushing. the new formula re-expresses the new fact: There are no instantaneous interactions in nature.

is assigned a value W= Fd. 3 By using F= ma you can show that the work as defined by W = Fd is exactly equal to Y. mv 2. F. 4 The expression Y. W. W. for a distance. the more kinetic energy (y. mv 2 is also given a name. acts on a body of mass. m. 6 The more work (Fd) you put into pushing a body. d. / energy. The definition of energy goes back again to Newton's Laws. 2 The work.Ah. it is useful to say that work. 1 When a force. has been done on the body. mv 2) it gets. It is called the kinetic &nergy of the body. 160 .

-.~~) ~ Q ..m.:......" c. Ilk Jr-----J. 2 mv Alberts formu10 Newton's formula 161 ..-..-----' W= (1_ -t~)1-MC ~. new 2.-_ 50 Alberfs modification leads to formula..(1.o.. Its all a naminq qpme er Wait AIbert now says a minute.. Why? Because now F- ..onneCteti up by f=ma! We can Rut in -the work ( W= Fd) but ihe body doesn't pick up sf?eed in tne some way. The work now equals. W = 1 Me 2.

REMEMBER: V -velocity C .000. itgets heavier and heavier! instead of going fOster andfaster 50 even iFyou gave a rocket 1.ooopoo. 000. speed of light W-work 00 0..00 I 162.000.0 3.000.OOO.000.000.ooo . going less tilan lhe speed of light! 00.000 . 000 foot Rounds ofthrust.00 0 .no possibility of existence. 0 p:P.000. W becomes infinite..000. He concludes 0 000 When v=c.· lbert i5 5Cltisned.000.000.000 .000. o.000 .as in our previous results .000 po b . it would still be .000.000..ooo~ooo. 000. 000. Velocities greater than that of light have .

= Y. - m~ mc 2 mc 2 So Albert says let's call the quantity (1_ V2/ y.V 2/ c 2) Y. that's not If into 00. o' must contain energy! then inertia Yes. the energy Eof the electron. Dody more inertIa. giving me . Albert says we need a new definition of energy. Albert's formula reads E= W + MC2 What Alberrsays i5ooo6ven if W=zero. c2) Then. mv 2) is only good for speeds much less than the speed of light.[Jutwork goes all.e. 50000 1 2 3 Albert has shown (page 161) that the work W equals (1. The old Newtonian one (k. with this definition of energy. men the electron sri" has an energy equo] to If . If you - don'tput in any workata ..

..Not quite li~e this·· .. Albert wosnt afraid to a simple qeneral I conclusion! reach for And to show how it could work: he wro~te q litile 3 PJgB poper in 1905 called . : " () I!!I" 164 .

Theretore o work adds to the inertia of a body and by implication inertia has energy and to make it CONCRETE . You can't prove a definition... nothing can go faster than the speed of light expressed by :!J F::. (l-V}(}) 12 mq meanst at h the woe' go". the relationship between enerqv and inertia is E-me2 But remember .DOES THE IN. combined with the new fact. So without driving ourselves crazy with more formulas. nobody really knows what inertia is or why objects have it in the first place! 165 . here's what Big AI is driving at: the old definition of work (W = Fd)..ERTIA OF A BODY DEPEND ON ITS ENERGY CONTENn Albert's argument in this paper isn't a proof. All you can do is show that is makes sense. into makinq the body heavier..

The A-bomb project began in 1939. after the A-bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. Szilard wrote a famous letter. like Joliot Curie. Hedjdn!t sqy anything out In 111efirst place. Nuclear physics was developed by other scientists. Later. Remember. Albert said: "If I knew thevwere going to do this. it is a decisive strategic weapon. The President must decide what to do about it. 2 August 1939. I would have become a shoemaker!" 166 . Plainly.Albert iust argued thotenergy has ineriiaand inertia has errergy. about how togetlhe energy E = MC2 is not (as some folks think) the formula for the A-bomb. this letter said: Nuclear energy is here. to President Roosevelt. Roughly. Albert proposed relativity in 1905. Scientists in Nazi Germany are also working on it. Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard. which Einstein signed. Szilard in 1934 came up with the idea ofthe "chain reaction" release of atomic energy.

.. here's money. His general theory of relativity (1916) was a new relativistic theory of gravitation which replaced Newton's old theory. 16'T ... Albert's materialist questioning attitude had encouraged a younger generation of research-workers to overthrow even more of classical Newtonian physics. Hmmm.a central figure in the debates raging round the quantum theory a new theory of the electron.Einstein won the Nobel Prize in' 1921 and became a popular world figure. gravity and electricity must be related somehow . And Albert was. your Nobel Prize AI. Albert made other fundamental contributions to physics.

and still worrying about how to unify electricity and gravity. electron. working with Bertrand Russell on disarmament. opposing McCarthyism. ? Danish phY5icist and rounder of the "Cppenhoqen School n ofquontum theory. Up to his death in 1955 Einstein was active. Why won't you accept it I .These researchers went so far as to throw out the rules of cause-and-effect. It may still be done! 166 . quantum theory seems such a good way to vnde rsto nd the Albert. they said you couldn't know for sure where an electron would go when you hit it. (Essentially. All you could say was where it "probably" would go!) Albert didn't approve of this at all.

Of course. Technological progress frequently results in more unemployment rather than easing the burden of work for all. through long and bitter political struggles. means of production (capital) are privately owned and the owners dispose of them as they see fit. the labor contract is free. second. An exaggerated competitive attitude is inculcated into the student who is trained to worship acquisitive success as a preparation for his future career. But taken as a whole. there is no such thing as a pure capitalist society in this sense. The worker is always in fear of losing his job. namely through the establishment of a socialist economy. an 'army of unemployed' always exists. appeared in the U. I am convinced that there is only one way to elimi nate these grave evils.S. Unlimited competition leads to a huge waste of labor and to a crippling of the social consciousness of individuals. magazine Monthly Review in 1949 . Production is carried on for profit.Albert wasa radical and a Jew. part of a longer analysis. Our whole educational system suffers from this evil. He never lost his political perspective and his consciousness of being a member of an oppressed ethnic minority. - . In particular it should be noted that the workers. This crippling of individuals I consider the worst evil of capitalism. is responsible for an instability in the accumulation and utilization of capital which leads to increasingly severe depressions. There is no provision that all those able and willing to work will always be in a position to find employment... not for use. The profit motive. have succeeded in securing a somewhat improved form of the of the 'free labor contract' for certain categories of workers. The situation prevailing in an economy based on the private ownership of capital is characterized by two main principles: first. accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented toward social goals. the present day economy does not differ much from 'pure' capitalism. This statement on socialism. in conjunction with competition among capitalists.

If you're not put off by the math. VARIETY OF MEN. New York 1972. HAMMER OR ANVIL: The Story of the German Working Class Movement. MIR Publishers. Chapters 15-16contain Feynman'scomments about relativity. 1949. E. New York 1974. L. Basic Books. Einsteinefal.Anderson. Landau and Y. Addison Wesley. THEPRINCIPLEOF RELATIVITY. London/Reading.P. A collection of papers on special and general relativity... MORE RECENT WORKS ARE: R. textbooks can be quite helpful because the accounts are nice and brief. New Left Books. Clark. London 1945/0riole Editions. The first book to confront the politics of the times in any depth. Dover. Abendroth. London/Reading. A. Carl Seelig. C. But Feuer's bitter opposition to the student rebellions of the 1960shas produced an odd and unworkable theory of generational conflict as the moving force in science. Rumer. ALBERT EINSTEIN. Schlipp. Feuer. BOOKS ABOUT RELATIVITY There are thousands. EINSTEIN. 1963. Evanston. Hodderand Stoughton. New York 1973.. Einstein. Library of Living Philosophers. Scribners. Bernstein. ADDITIONAL BACKG ROUND READING (0) advanced texts W. Addison Wesley. Victor Gollancz. ed. but pages 1-4 are an exceptionally clear outline of the theory. 1951. London 1916/Crown. . I have based my own presentation on Einstein's 1905 paper and on his popular book which closely follows the outline of the 1905 paper. Working from three or four at once can be helpful. A. Fontana. An overview of all of Einstein'S work. New York 1971. L. A popular Soviet account. A.SCIENTIST. Here are another two somewhat advanced but useful books: THE FEYNMAN LECTURES ON PHYSICS. New York 1971. London 1965/Monthly Review. III. Lewis S. Collins Glasgow/New York 1973. A nice portrait from an elitist vantage point. EINSTEIN. A graduate level text. W. The closest thing to an autobiography. New York 1961. Landau and E. RELATIVITY. J. Snow. volume 1. Staples Press Ltd. New York 1952. A SHORT HISTORY OF THE EUROPEAN WORKING CLASS. Lifschitz. The trick is to find ones that seem to make sense and stick with them. . PHILOSOPHER . London 1956. Moscow 1970/Basic Books. Lots of facts ruined by the author's thinly veiled hostility to Einstein's politics. Mass. Mass. ALBERT EINSTEIN: A DOCUMENTARY BIOGRAPHY. But there's no substitute for talking the ideas over with friends. P. Methuen. New York 1971. WHAT IS THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY?. London/ Avon. THE L1FEAND TIMES. THE CLASSICAL THEORY OF FIELDS. EINSTEIN AND THE GENERATIONS OF SCIENCE.

New York 1972. Scribners. Jackson. Oxford Univ. J. GRAVITATION AND COSMOLOGY. C.l968. ELECTRODYNAMICS. D. A SOCIAL HISTORY OF GERMANY 1648-1914. P. H. * M. THE RISE OF POLITICAL ANTI-SEMITISM IN GERMANY AND AUSTRIA. Massing. Paris 1961. Taylor and J. * W. Harper Torchbooks. Cambridge/New York. Pulzer. CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. Jammer. Methuen. H. REHEARSAL FOR DESTRUCTION: AStudy of Political Anti-Semitism.E. London/NewYork. GOLD AND IRON. Academic Press. Funk and Wagnalls. New York 1977. McGraw-Hili. C. MAXWELL AND KELVIN. D. Mass. Cooper Book Co. Jerusa lem 1971. A SHORT HISTORY OF GERMANY 1815-1945. WHAT IS MATHEMATICS?. J. H. ALBERT EINSTEIN. F. Courant and H.JEWISH RURAL COMMUNITIES IN GERMANY. London/New York. McGraw-Hili. Longmans Green and Co.3 . 1959. D. Phillips. A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. 1955. MacDonald.. Sagarra. Freeman. ALBERT EINSTEIN.White. THETHEORYOF RELATIVITY. Press. London/New York 1972. A. New York 1939. Wiley. London/Reading. London/Knopf. * J. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICS. K. London 1938. Garbedian. Pergamon. Gillespie. CONCEPTS OF MASS. New York 1972. Harpers. London 1956. Dover. New York 1973. B.. New York 1964. P. C. London/NewYork 1952.3rded. FUNDAMENTALS OF OPTICS. A HISTORY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. Einstein. New York 1965. London/ New York 1972. Press. *F. Weinberg. New York 1921. V. London/New York. London 1962/MIT.e Allen and Unwin. oW. E. Blackwell. ed. MIT Press. London 1977. NY 1967. London/NewYork 1964. Sommerfeld. ORIGINS OF MODERN GERMANY. Wiley. B. Bell. Stern. A. CREATOR AND REBEL. Robbins. New York 1964. Wheeler. J. THE SCIENTIFIC PAPERS OF JAMES CLERK MAXWELL. Addison Wesley. H. DICTIONARY OF SCIENTIFIC BIOGRAPHY. CLASSICAL ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. Macmillan.. Peking. ALBERT EINSTEIN MAKER OF UNIVERSES. GauthierVillars. LondonlViking Press. Bernal. R. G. New York 1949. Pauli. THE HIGHEST STAGE OF CAPITALISM. 1967. Schwab. Souvenir Press. Niven ed. SPACETIME PHYSICS. P. Anchor Books. Dunsheath. W. Passant. * E. Lenin.1. IMPERIALISM.. ELECTROMAGNETICS. 1969. K. Wiley. * S. * A. Foreign Languages Press. LETTRES A MAURICE SOLOVINE. 1940. E. THE SOCIAL FUNCTION OF SCIENCE. 1. London/San Francisco 1963. G. Boyer. London/New York 1965. Georg. W. Cambridge Univ.. O'Rahilly. D. Jenkinsand H. * A. Faber and Faber. 1965. E. A CONCISE HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. oW. A. F. Panofsky and M. Wiley. Hoffman. G. D. Barraclough. Struik. T. Oxford 1947/Putnam. ENCYCLOPEDIA JUDAICA. Paris 1956. H. Cuny. Dover. C.1941. FARADAY. Hart Davis.

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