Development Planning Methods: Regional Development Planning

(URP3003 ) - URP III - Semester I

Lecturer: earl bailey M.Sc. Etc….

Faculty of the Built Environment
School of Building and Land Management Urban and Regional Planning Department
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“If everything happened at the same time there would be no development. If everything existed in the same place there could be no particularity. Only space makes possible the particular, which then unfolds in time……….to let this space-condition particularity grow without letting the whole run wild :– that is political art”
(AUGUST LOSCH, The economics of location, 1939, p 508)

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Planning
Planning is the application of scientific methodologies to policy making. Conscious and deliberate efforts are made to increase the validity of policies in the context of their present and anticipated future of the environment in which planning takes place (Faludi, 1994) Validity, accuracy, consistency and reliability

What is Regional Planning?
Regional planning is the process of formulating and clarifying social objectives in the ordering of activities in supra-urban space. For some, this arbitrary division into level would seem to contradict the essentially comprehensive and theoretically indivisible nature of planning, while others would argue that there is no natural continuum and merely disparate existence.

However, from a practical viewpoint, some subdivision is necessary to allow an understanding of such a comprehensive subject and as a basis for administration (LA, KSAC, PMC, NAA etc).
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Regional Development Planning
Undertaken by governments with the aim of improving the well-being of people in areas where there is concern about present and future living conditions. Economic conditions receive the greatest attention Economic issues; high rates of unemployment, low income levels or lack of investment opportunities) are closely associated with a broad range of physical and social issues; substandard health and housing conditions, inadequacies in physical infrastructure (e.g., water supplies, waste disposal, and transport facilities), environmental pollution, and deficiencies in educational, recreational and social services. Planned program of regional development normally attempts to address these issues comprehensively.
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Origin of regional planning
The practice of regional planning usually involves an initiative on the part of state. Why? Always underlined with a specific method or procedure and a definite concept of development (e.g. Procedural
Planning Theory combined with Regional Planning Doctrine)

Doctrine feeds on a number of theories in the social and environmental sciences which are designated as substantive theories in regional planning Both doctrine and theory are informed by certain ideological assumptions that change the content of regional planning and determines its outcome (figure 1.1)
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Origin of regional planning
History helps us to gain a better understanding of the variations in the actual practice of planning. Without practice doctrine would remain barren Britain – doctrine arouse largely as a pragmatic response to realistic problems (improper waste disposal and
general unhealthy living conditions)

United States – Doctrine came first and continued to evolve independently of practice. (doctrine was essentially
academic while practice was bureaucratic)

Doctrine combines = normative + substantive + procedural (practical dimensions of regional planning)
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Principal dimensions of regional planning and their interrelations

Figure 1.1

Ideology

The internal relationships among the five major dimensions of regional planning and the underlying reality of socioeconomic, political and spatial organization.

Procedural planning theory

Regional planning doctrine

Substantive theory in regional planning

Regional planning practice

Existing socio-economic political and spatial organizations etc of society
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Planning – ideological historical development A historical perspective contains at least five (sometimes overlapping) strands of planning in the modern world. 1. The liberal-humanist tradition.

2. Utopian-revolutionary planning.
3. Policy analysis planning.

4. Socio-cultural diversity sensitivity planning.
5. Consultative and participatory planning.
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Planning – The liberal-humanist tradition.
The earliest liberal-humanist tradition arose in part as a response to the terrible living conditions of early industrial cities. Involved contribution from associated fields/disciplines such as; – public health,

– civil engineering,
– architecture and

– urban design.

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Planning - Utopian-revolutionary
utopian-revolutionary planning evolved in tandem with the liberal-humanist tradition. This was intent on not simply ameliorating the socio-spatial conditions of capitalist urbanism, but on transforming them radically. Tradition of planning understood as social change, exemplified in the early moments of modernism and still active today, for instance, in the worldwide anti-neoliberal movement. The learning-by-doing (or the ‘science of muddling through’) approach to planning also boasts of a long lineage of its own, often leaning for theoretical support on the American philosophy of pragmatism.
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Planning - Policy analysis
Of more recent vintage is the now more mainstream tradition of planning focused on policy analysis and rooted mostly in the discipline of neoclassical economics and proximate social sciences - which sometimes defines planning as the rectification of market failure. However this can be broadened to include the rectification of economic, social, cultural and ecological failures!
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Planning - Socio-cultural diversity sensitivity
Over the last two decades, yet another tradition of planning has emerged out of a special concern with social and cultural diversity, speaking to the situation of various culturally or economically marginalized groups (including women, people of colour, gays and lesbians).

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Planning - Consultative and participatory
At the same time planning has transformed from an approach rooted in top-down social engineering to an approach that is increasingly consultative and participatory in its nature.

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Planning – ideological historical development
In reality, of course, the operative definition of planning is keenly contested by a variety of traditions and their political values. The practice of planning, likewise, is the negotiated - or compromised outcome of a struggle between divergent perspectives held by different social groups on how the world works and what to do about it. Even a cursory perusal of the last century tells us that different conceptions of planning have been dominant at different times. From the Second World War until about the mid-seventies, for example, the most influential theories and practices of planning owed much to the values of the welfare state and Keynesian economics.

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Planning – ideological historical development
The last two decades of the twentieth century, by contrast, witnessed the ascent of neo-liberal ideology and its stamp on planning practice.

In each case, the kind of planning that proved to be dominant was neither the ‗true‘ (whatever that means) conception of planning nor the most ‗advanced‘ one (however that is understood).
Rather, the dominant has been the practice that corresponded to the given balance of power between different social groups. The meaning of planning in the twenty first century will depend on how planners intervene with other political actors and work with communities in the emerging social and political struggles of our time.

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Planning – ideological historical development What planners do and how they think about the world are both diverse. The question from this then is what constitutes the unity of planning as an art and a science?

From a pedagogical standpoint, it is possible to identify three questions that concern all planners.
1. How did the world of our city get to be the way it is? 2. What kind of cities - or world - do we want to live in? 3. How do we get from what we have to what we want?
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Planning – ideological historical development
The horizons of planning are shifting with changes in the ever more globalize political economy of urban development and the environment.

Consequently, many methods and concepts that were valid ten years ago may no longer be effective, and therefore much of the content of planning education, practise and thought should be constantly reviewed.
Nevertheless, successful planning always depends upon certain qualities that practitioners must carry with them through their careers, irrespective of substantive orientation and the exigencies of social change; 1. Planners must be literate and numerate, 2. Planners must possess the skills of synthesis, practical reasoning, critical analysis, discerning judgement and persuasion.

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Contextual questions!
– Why is there a need to plan?

– What is planning?
– How does Regional Planning fit in Planning?

– Why is there a need for Regional Planning?
– What form does Regional Planning take?
These questions are answer both in a specific (subjective) and general (objective) context

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Why Plan and Planning?
Movement from laissez-faire to control conditions (socioeconomic) in society The interaction of private action and market forces often results in undesirable national/regional situations...THUS! Inequalities – ecological and socio-economic (protection of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups) Increase in population (rural – urban migration) – need to manage this effect on urban and manage urbanisation Mitigate conditions of organic, informal, unregulated and uncontrolled settlement Etc.. Need for a overall control/management mechanism..
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Why Regional Planning
The distribution and location of natural resources normally follow a regional spatial patterns The ―core-periphery‖ relationship

Rural – urban relationship
Location of resource base normally confined to rurality (investment and resourced based development) Agriculture dominant economic base
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What is Planning?

• Physical (planning for the shaping of an area‘s physical
structure – land use/function, which outstrip the ability of market mechanism to cope)

• Economic (levels of economic prosperity through the
market mechanism)

• Allocative (coordination, resolution of conflict
ensuring that existing system is efficient in operationing – more regulatory in nature)

• Innovative (planning for the efficient functioning of
existing systems, improving and developing new aims etc)
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What is Planning?

• Multi objective (the goal is an ideal and
expressed in abstract terms)

• Single objective planning (goal is
attainable and measureable by standards set)

• Indicative (general guidelines and is advisory in nature) • Imperative planning (command
planning – specific directives)
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What is Planning?
At the heart of planning lies a commitment to better cities, healthy environments and social and economic well-being for everyone. Planners pursue their ideals and objectives in the name of the public good as policy makers, public servants, builders, community organizers and political activists, working at all levels of government, with the non-profit sector or in private practice.

Planner‘s specializations include land use, housing, transportation, urban design, social policy, public health, economic development, international development, and the environmentamong others.
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What is Planning?
Although the built environment of the city has been their traditional terrain of action, planners also work on social, economic and cultural issues and at various spatial scales. Planner work, accordingly, ranges in territorial scope from the design of small towns to policy planning at the national level to international development.

The practice of planning today spans the entire local-global spectrum, taking into consideration the challenges and opportunities presented to cities, regions and nations by the forces of globalization.
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What is Planning?
Major features of general planning include a sequence of actions, which are designed to address issues and concerns in the future Development is NOW – Planning is FUTURE The Planning concern/issue vary but tend to be primarily economic and social; The planning period, the time horizon of 'the future', also varies according to The type and level of planning;
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What is Planning?
Sequential process which can be conceptualised into a number of stages……………… but not necessarily stages theory, impact theory, relational theory or ????, the identification of the problem or opportunities or betterment; the formulation of general goals and more specific and measurable objectives relating to the problem; the identification of possible constraints; The projection of the future situation., (continuity – thus sustainability) The generation and evaluation of alternative courses of action; The production of a preferred plan, which in its generic form may include any policy statement or strategy as well as a definitive plan.

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What is Planning?
Planning is primarily a way of thinking about social and economic problems, planning is oriented predominantly toward the future, is deeply concerned with the relation of goals to collective decisions and strives for comprehensiveness in policy and programme. Wherever these modes of thought are applied, there is a presumption that planning is being done."

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Planning theory
Procedural planning theory
Preoccupied with process and procedure but not necessarily substance (e.g. Stages Theory). Accuracy and content are left to the epistemological sources feeding the theory and not so much the theory itself.

Substantive planning theory
Preoccupied with substance, content, validity and accuracy of theory. Places heavy importance on epistemological source/s
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Strategic Planning
―Strategic planning is about preparing for change. It involves people viewing their community as group of stakeholders who are trying to build a consensus on common vision or mission for the town. Strategic planning often fits well with the local decision making process where important decisions tend to be made by a few movers and shakers‖ Strategic planning for a small town begins with a town‘s people forming a vision of the type of community they want, given the ecological/physical, economic and social realities that are likely to exist in the next 10 – 20 years.

Large corporations often use strategic planning to look five to ten years into the future and plan for how the company must adopt now in order to compete and grow.
A company that fails to anticipate changing needs markets and opportunities may not grow or even survive.
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Strategic Planning
The important difference with strategic planning from others is that strategic planning in addition to anticipating changes also anticipates the particular position that will be a reality in a specific number of years. A community is sustainable if it has the correct mix of economic assets leadership and luck!. A sustainable community not only survives but also provide its citizens with a good place to live and work. Strategic community planning focus firstly on identifying overall community strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). In short planning for; Population change

Land use (zoning)
Economic development Sustainable community
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Planning practise Path-dependent and path-shaping

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Regional – Region
The Region: Fact or Fallacy? A first step in an outline of the concept of the region is to examine whether regions are natural phenomena or merely mental constructions. The Subjective View Perform a particularly useful function,

The Objective View
Linked with the search for the elusive 'natural' region. The famous Oxford geographer, A. J. Herbertson, adopting an analytical approach, divided the world into 'natural regions' on the basis of four criteria; Land configuration, Climate Vegetation and Population density,
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Categories of region
Regional Units

Figure 1.2

Homogeneous region

Nodal regions

Planning or programming regions

Single feature regions

Multiple feature regions

total region

hierarchy (village-district-town-centre-etc)
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Regional – Region
The Region: Formal or Functional The concept of the region as a method of classification has evolved through two distinct phases reflecting the economic advantage from a simple agrarian economy to a complex industrial system. Phase I – Formal Region The first phase saw the 'formal region‘ concerned with uniformity, and defined according to homogeneity. A formal region is a geographical area, which is uniform or homogenous in terms of selected criteria. Economic formal regions are generally based off types of industry or agriculture. Although there are obvious physical undertones. Phase II – Functional Region The second phase saw the development of the 'functional region'-concerned with interdependence, the interrelationship of the parts, and define on the basis of functional coherence. A brief analysis of the concept of the region suggests that regions are a means to an end, rather than ends in themselves. They may be formal or functional based off a single or multi-criteria.
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Types of regions
Uniform region Homogeneous or formal region, non overlapping and completely exhaust the space available. Nodal region
External var iation  max imum Internal var iation

Contiguous or non-contiguous bonds or links between pairs of places. Maybe overlapping and interpenetrating. Internalbo nds Functional regions  max imum Planning region
Externalbo nds

Contiguous or non-contiguous delimited on a ad hoc basis for administrative or organisational purposes. They may exhaust the study area or be confined to a part of it
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Types of regions/”regionness”
The evolutionary logics (not a stage theory) – a framework for comparative analysis;
Region as a geographical unit Region as a social system

Region as a recognised corporation between any cultural, economic, political or military fields
Region as civil society

Region as state

Changes in regionness is essential for the coreperiphery order
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Region as a Geographical unit
Delineated by more or less physical boundaries and ecological characteristics Referred to as the Proto-region No organised human society Needs human habitation maintaining some sort of relationship for further regionalisation

Leading to the social dimension of regionalisation
(next level of regionness – Region as a Social System)

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Region as a social system
Implies trans-local relationship among human groups. Relations constitute security complex – constituent‘s security is dependent on each other and the stability of the regional system. Social relations may leave room for hostility May be described as anarchic based off security arrangements

Low level of organisation – balance of power is essential for security guarantee
Called a ―primitive‖ region
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Region as a recognised coorporation
Recognised and agreed coorporation in cultural, economic, political or military fields List of areas (countries) which are members of this organised corporation Formal region – defined by organisational membership differentiated from real region – defined in terms of potentialities and less precise criteria to asses the relevance and future potential of a particular regional organisation
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Region as civil society
Organisational framework facilitates and promotes social communication and convergence of values throughout the region Pre-existence of shared cultural traditions Culture is continuously created and recreated Multidimensional and voluntary quality of regional cooperation

Social characteristics indicating an emerging ―Regional anarchic society‖ (more than anarchy but less than society
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Region as state
State with distinct identity, actor capability, legitimacy and structure of decision making. Crucial for regional intervention into conflict resolution (between and within former states) Creation of welfare for regional security and balance State formation & nation building = region state Political order = voluntary evolution of groups of national & political units into supranational security community where sovereignty is pooled for the benefit of all

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The Core - Periphery
Core-Periphery Theory is based on the notion that as one region or state expands in economic prosperity; it must engulf regions nearby to ensure ongoing economic and political success.

The area of high growth becomes known as the core, and the neighboring area is the periphery.
Cores and peripheries can be towns, cities, states, or nations.

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The Core - Periphery
The world can be perceived as a core / periphery dichotomy where core countries are characterized by high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. The core has a level of dominance over the periphery which is reflected in trade and transportation. Accessibility is higher within the elements of the core than within the periphery. Most of high level economic activities and innovations are located at the core, with the periphery subjugated to those processes at various levels.

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The Core - Periphery

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The Core - Periphery
This pattern was particularly prevalent during the colonial era where the development of transport systems in the developing world mainly favoured the accessibility of core countries to the resources and markets of the periphery, a situation that endured until the 1960s and 1970s. The semi-periphery has a higher level of autonomy and has been the object of significant processes of economic development (China, Brazil, Malaysia, etc.). Concomitantly, the accessibility of the semi-periphery improved, permitting the exploitation of its comparative advantages in labour and resources. Recent changes in globalization, particularly industrial growth in developing countries, is challenging this representation.
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The Core - Periphery
Answers to the disparity between cores and peripheries are most complex on the international level where these problems are the most difficult to deal with. Free trade is the answer - it could allow for periphery countries to concentrate on producing goods for which they have an aptitude. Critics of this claim still maintain that it would make little difference because the established core countries would still dominate.

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The Core - Periphery
Bring back to life the vitality of struggling neighborhoods and reestablish them as compliments to the city. It takes knowledgeable foresight by city officials as well as action through the entire community to accomplish this. Unmitigated growth and development in one area is going to have a counter effect in an adjacent area to some degree. Backlash affect causes inequality between different areas and amongst the people who live in each area.

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Core Expansion Trends & Methods
When a city grows, it must expand its borders to continue to supply the population with the standard of living they are used to (e.g. variety of products, standardd of living, etc). The core will first expand to areas of geographic similarity, for instance a neighbouring town may find itself becoming a suburb of the city When geographic peripheries become exhausted (either because of resources depletion or the balanced Economies of Scale), the core then seeks out peripheries that are culturally similar and share the same language as the core.
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Core Expansion Trends & Methods
Only when the core has exhausted all advantageous options of geographic and cultural similarity will it seek to expand to a periphery that is truly foreign. (e.g. Developed countries – foreign policy) A foreign periphery carries a high risk of not complying with requests from the core. Peripheries bearing geographic or cultural similarity to the core can often benefit in the long run, through what is known as Trickle-down economics, peripheries that have vast cultural differences often lack any negotiation rights in their colonization. When this happens Trickleup economics apply, and peripheries watch as their resources drain away towards the core. The more a periphery becomes colonized, the harder it becomes for it to resist the core. The probability of civil or trans-national war then starts to slowly approach
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Semi-periphery
Semi-periphery - an important middle ground between the core and the periphery.

An area that is more self sufficient and developed than the periphery but not to the extent of the core.
The semi-periphery is important because it bridges the gap between the rich core countries and the poor periphery countries.

Provides balance and order keeping the world from political and economic crisis in same way that the middle class does on the national level in stable core countries.
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Regionalism
Regionalism may refer to the distinctive local character of different parts of the world or to a people's perception of and identification with such places. A term in international relations that refers to the expression of a common sense of identity and purpose combined with the creation and implementation of institutions that express a particular identity and shape collective action within a geographical region. The European Union can be classified as a result of regionalism. The idea that lies behind this increased regional identity is that as a region becomes more economically integrated, it will necessarily become politically integrated as well.
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Regionalism
The European example is especially valid in this light, as the EU as a political body grew out of more than 40 years of economic integration within Europe. The precursor to the EU, the European Economic Community (EEC) was entirely an economic entity. This is in contrast with regionalization, which is the expression of increased commercial and human transactions in a defined geographical region. In national politics (or low politics), regionalism is a political notion which favours regionalization—a process of dividing a political entity (typically a country) into smaller regions, and transferring power from the central government to the regions. Opposite process is called unitarisation.
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Regionalism and Globalisation
Market driven economics.

Information technology
Internationalisation vs. Globalisation
Internationalization in itself is not globalization, though the latter implies the former. Anti-globalisation demonstrators usually make that point. They are not against international connections and the meeting of peoples.

They are just against the marketisation of the world, so people become seen as market segments rather than communities with histories and cultures to be cherished.

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Regionalism and Globalisation
Global movement of;
Trade and trade block (trade imbalance) Economic Social Cultural Product and production Market Competition and competitiveness Communication Technology Rules and regulations Employment and labour Criminal Disasters and hazards (causes and consequences) Diseases (pandemic and epidemic) 55 non-human life education (Intel and intellectual property) laws and legislations food supply waste (nuclear and other contaminants) entertainment education and educating language living standards

Regionalism and Globalisation
Consequences of Globalisation
Questionable terms of trade Unimproved production of goods and loss of jobs Increase in criminality Opportunity for product diversity – going into new markets and new markets coming to us Retooling of work place Wholesome communication between managers and workers Development of competitive advantage Cultural erosion Improvement of investment climate (price, labour costs, etc) Foreign investment – question as to do or not to do? Ignore certain production patterns and products Reinvestment in labour, machinery and all production tools Redefinition of employer and employee relationship Redefinition of role of government 56

Regionalism and Globalisation
Strategies to tackle globalisation
Work place reorganisation

Sharing of information and team building and communication
International competitiveness of productive levels Mechanisms for modernisations Attack the global market as a country and not as individual company International competition displacing local (internal competition) Identification of competitive products so we focus on these as global products thus there is a national effort to market these globally Training and retraining of employees (managers, administrators, workers, labourers etc) – role of the trade union in this
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Regionalism and Globalisation
Strategies to tackle globalisation
Development of specialist products based off our climate (e.g. Tropical fruits – ackee, guava, avocado, thyme plus the value added) Packaging, labelling and branding of product Process reengineering – a redefinition of the production process for banana, sugar cane, coffee, bauxite etc)

Each stakeholder must feel apart of the whole structure
Creation of new investments through thorough knowledge of the market place “Sophistication” of the tourism product, informatics and other tropical business ventures Role of Government and other partners – Responsibility of worker etc to respond to their instinctive will to survive globally
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Regionalism and Globalisation
National vision for Globalisation Alert government who understands what‘s happening in the global market place Productive sectors at the cutting edge of technology in their specialists area Workforce – flexible, trainable, intelligent and multi-skilled Management and worker having more synergy

Aware, informed, flexible and efficient business leaders in production at a fair price within a consistent environment
Change is inevitable
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Regionalism and Globalisation
Accountability of government and all stake holders Continuing education at the mastery level New ways of bridging gaps within society and between Jamaicans locally and internationally Change in implementation – needs to more regulated as against free for all piece meal pattern Personal and sectoral respect – retraining of managers and workers everyone at all levels Continuing awareness of environment by all persons and sectors World class company in the world class country (not world class company in a third rate country)

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Development
A multidimensional process, including in addition to the economic development process, social development processes concerned with the distributional aspects of development Development as such involves implicit and explicit value judgements about the direction and speed of change. Development is not the same as societal change (Distribution – Redistribution – (Empowerment – Awareness – etc) Change –

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Definition of development
Advancement, progress — gradual improvement or growth or development

Broadening — the action of making broader
Elaboration, working out — developing in intricate and painstaking detail product development — improving an existing product or developing new kinds of products

The act of developing.
The state of being developed. A significant event, occurrence, or change.
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Definition of development
The result or product of building up: accretion, buildup, enlargement, multiplication, proliferation. See increase/decrease. Steady improvement, as of an individual or a society: amelioration, betterment, improvement, melioration, progress. See better/worse. Something significant that happens: circumstance, episode, event, happening, incident, news, occasion, occurrence, thing. The act of developing or disclosing that which is unknown; a gradual unfolding process by which anything is developed, as a plan or method, gradual advancement or growth through a series of progressive changes; also, the result of developing, or a developed state. The series of changes which animal and vegetable organisms undergo in their passage from the embryonic state to maturity, from a lower to a higher state of organization – relate this definition to human society The act or process of changing or expanding an expression into another of equivalent value or meaning. The equivalent expression into which another has been developed.
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What Is Human Development?
"The basic purpose of development is to enlarge people's choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and can change over time. People often value achievements that do not show up at all, or not immediately, in income or growth figures: greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health services, more secure livelihoods, security against crime and physical violence, satisfying leisure hours, political and cultural freedoms and sense of participation in community activities. The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives." Mahbub ul Haq
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Development Theories
Economic (growth) model Social (distribution and redistribution) model

Ecological (human and nature) model
Development Impact Assessment (DIA): Instruments to describe the consequences of proposed measures or policies in a systematic way, facilitating a meaningful decision making process (Carry out a) Descriptive instruments or ways of putting into words opinions on the way in which people can or should play their part in society Recognition of the Spatial consequences and implications of the development process (economic growth, wages – market prices – price policy – capital flow Regional Development provides a good combination of all three preoccupations of development
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Three definitions of development
1. ECONOMIC - Maximum economic growth

2. SOCIO-CULTURAL - Fair distribution of existing and potential prosperity 3. ENVIRONMENTAL- Minimalisation of the damaging effects on nature SPATIAL AND ASPATIAL

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Why development?
• • • • • • • • • Economic growth Underdevelopment Agrarian to industrial transformation Migration from rural to urban Slum creation and stagnation Decline in food production Absence of redistribution Growing inequality Need for socio-cultural (redistribution models) and ecological criteria
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General theories of Development and Underdevelopment
• • • • • • Economic Growth Modernisation Dependency Redistribution Basic needs Ecological

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Planning and Development
Planning (Responsiveness to change) is concerned about the management (response and reaction, path defining, path sustaining and path dependent) of the multidimensional changes that define society (settlement and people - a set of people in a place at a particular time, held together by common behaviours and values)

Development (Resource transformation) is concerned with identifying and sourcing resources and energies to sustain the multidimensional changes and simultaneously satisfy the demands that are displayed and expressed in the change system.
Management (mode of response and interpretation) 69

Regional planning – push factors!
Regional planning was to create conditions which would establish a harmonious relationship human beings and nature, grounded in a bio-ethics that would show a deep respect for the limits of human intervention in natural processes and limit the cancerous growth of cities Lewis Mumford, Howard Odum could not prevent the metropolitanisation of America To reduce and in the long run eliminate the, major inequalities in income among regions

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Regional planning – push factors!
Need for self sustaining growth (in the USA after the 2nd WW) Need to understand the underlying social relations in production as a means to legitimate the existing distribution of power in society Paradigm shift in planning ideology;
– economic growth was regarded as the only measure of development and growth

– growing awareness of the decisive role of natural resources in sustaining civilized life;
– new ecological ethics; – greater concerns with questions of equity;

– deeper understanding of the contradiction between the international division of labour and the territorial aspiration of new nation states;
– reassertion of the principles of self reliance at all levels of territorial order.

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The role of the Planner
design vs. social science: (i.e., should the planner be trained as an architect or economist?) city vs. planning: Should city planning focus on the "city" (a substantive place) or on the "planning" (a procedural/behavioural process of decision making)? (e.g., ends vs. means)
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The role of the Planner
utopian (planning for how things could/should be) vs. pragmatic (how things are)

consensus vs. adversarial (Can and should planners strive to achieve a common set of goals and objectives amongst all the social groups in a city? Or should planners accept the inevitability of social conflict and disagreement in any plan?)
engaged advocate vs. objective technician (How far should planners get involved in politics and take sides?)
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Organisational and spatial scale of Planning
comprehensive (large scale designs) vs. incremental (i.e., "muddling through") bottom up (grass roots) vs. top-down planning (centralized planning) neighbourhood vs. city vs. metropolis vs. region vs. nation vs. world (at what level should planning happen?)
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Priorities and conflicting interests in Planning
Which goal should planners pursue?

economic development vs. environmentalism
Should Planners plan for an efficient allocation of resources, or a more socially fair distribution of resources? equity vs. efficiency physical vs. social planning, or planning for people vs. planning for place territory vs. function (i.e., planning for places vs. planning for economic sectors)
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The Planner’s relationship to the market and government
What is the relationship between Planning vs. the Market: (1) market failures and non-market failures (neoclassical view); (2) the market as inherently a failure (Marxist view); (3) planning as serving the market (a Marxist view, or a cynical view) (4) a blurred boundary between planning and the market (institutional view) Public vs. Private (Should planning be done in the public and/or private sector?) Capitalism vs. Socialism: "the logic of the plan to replace the chaos of the market" The old justification of socialism vs. ―The logic of the market to replace the chaos of the plan" Is this the new critique of Eastern European socialism?
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Styles of Planning
Comprehensive planning ―Rational model" of planning Incremental planning Advocacy planning Strategic planning Equity planning

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Planning terminology
zoning urban partnerships linkages and inclusionary zoning Tennessee Valley Authority Appalachian Regional Commission general plan (master plan, comprehensive plan) greenbelt community development economic development
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The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory - 1
Underdeveloped and undeveloped

Underdevelopment is a condition fundamentally different from undevelopment.
The latter term simply refers to a condition in which resources are not being used. For example, the European colonists viewed the North American continent as an undeveloped area: the land was not actively cultivated on a scale consistent with its potential.

Underdevelopment refers to a situation in which resources are being actively used, but used in a way which benefits dominant states and not the poorer states in which the resources are found.
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The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory - 2
Historical context of Underdeveloped and undeveloped The distinction between underdevelopment and undevelopment places the poorer countries of the world in a profoundly different historical context. These countries are not "behind" or "catching up" to the richer countries of the world.

They are not poor because they lagged behind the scientific transformations or the Enlightenment values of the European states.
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The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory
They are poor because they were coercively integrated into the European economic system only as producers of raw materials or to serve as repositories of cheap labor. They were denied the opportunity to market their resources in any way that competed with dominant states.
81

The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory - 3
Resources use Dependency theory suggests that alternative uses of resources are preferable to the resource usage patterns imposed by dominant states. There is no clear definition of what these preferred patterns might be, but some criteria are invoked. For example, one of the dominant state practices most often criticized by dependency theorists is export agriculture.
82

The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory
The criticism is that many poor economies experience rather high rates of malnutrition even though they produce great amounts of food for export. Many dependency theorists would argue that those agricultural lands should be used for domestic food production in order to reduce the rates of malnutrition.
83

The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory - 4
Nationalism, regionalism and globalism The preceding proposition can be amplified: dependency theorists rely upon a belief that there exists a clear "national" economic interest which can and should be articulated for each country. In this respect, dependency theory actually shares a similar theoretical concern with realism.

84

The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory
What distinguishes the dependency perspective is that its proponents believe that this national interest can only be satisfied by addressing the needs of the poor within a society, rather than through the satisfaction of corporate or governmental needs. Trying to determine what is "best" for the poor is a difficult analytical problem over the long run. Dependency theorists have not yet articulated an operational definition of the national economic interest.

85

The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory - 5
The residence of power for development The diversion of resources over time (and one must remember that dependent relationships have persisted since the European expansion beginning in the fifteenth century) is maintained not only by the power of dominant states, but also through the power of elites in the dependent states. Dependency theorists argue that these elites maintain a dependent relationship because their own private interests coincide with the interests of the dominant states.

86

The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory - 5
These elites are typically trained in the dominant states and share similar values and culture with the elites in dominant states. Thus, in a very real sense, a dependency relationship is a "voluntary" relationship. One need not argue that the elites in a dependent state are consciously betraying the interests of their poor; the elites sincerely believe that the key to economic development lies in following the prescriptions of liberal economic doctrine.
87

The Policy Implications of Dependency Analysis
If one accepts the analysis of dependency theory, then the questions of how poor economies develop become quite different from the traditional questions concerning comparative advantage, capital accumulation, and import/export strategies. Some of the most important new issues include: 1. The success of the advanced industrial economies does not serve as a model for the currently developing economies. 2. Dependency theory repudiates the central distributive mechanism of the neoclassical model, what is usually called "trickle-down" economics. 3. Since the market only rewards productivity, dependency theorists discount aggregate measures of economic growth such as the GDP or trade indices. 4. Dependent states, therefore, should attempt to pursue policies of selfreliance.
88

The Policy Implications of Dependency Analysis
When economic development became a focused area of study, the analytical strategy (and ideological preference) was quite clear: all nations need to emulate the patterns used by the rich countries. Indeed, in the 1950s and 1960s there was a paradigmatic consensus that growth strategies were universally applicable, a consensus best articulated by Walt Rostow in his book, The Stages of Economic Growth. Dependency theory suggests that the success of the richer countries was a highly contingent and specific episode in global economic history, one dominated by the highly exploitative colonial relationships of the European powers. A repeat of those relationships is not now highly likely for the poor countries of the world.
89

The Policy Implications of Dependency Analysis
Dependency theory repudiates the central distributive mechanism of the neoclassical model, what is usually called "trickle-down" economics. The neoclassical model of economic growth pays relatively little attention to the question of distribution of wealth. Its primary concern is on efficient production and assumes that the market will allocate the rewards of efficient production in a rational and unbiased manner.
90

The Policy Implications of Dependency Analysis
This assumption may be valid for a well-integrated, economically fluid economy where people can quickly adjust to economic changes and where consumption patterns are not distorted by non-economic forces such as racial, ethnic, or gender bias. These conditions are not pervasive in the developing economies, and dependency theorists argue that economic activity is not easily disseminated in poor economies. For these structural reasons, dependency theorists argue that the market alone is not a sufficient distributive mechanism.
91

The Policy Implications of Dependency Analysis
Since the market only rewards productivity, dependency theorists discount aggregate measures of economic growth such as the GDP or trade indices. Dependency theorists do not deny that economic activity occurs within a dependent state. They do make a very important distinction, however, between economic growth and economic development.

92

The Policy Implications of Dependency Analysis
For example, there is a greater concern within the dependency framework for whether the economic activity is actually benefiting the nation as a whole. Therefore, far greater attention is paid to indices such as life expectancy, literacy, infant mortality, education, and the like. Dependency theorists clearly emphasize social indicators far more than economic indicators.

93

The Policy Implications of Dependency Analysis
Dependent states, therefore, should attempt to pursue policies of self-reliance. Contrary to the neo-classical models endorsed by the IMF and the WB, greater integration into the global economy is not necessarily a good choice for poor countries. Often this policy perspective is viewed as an endorsement of a policy of autarky, and there have been some experiments with such a policy such as China's Great Leap Forward or Tanzania's policy of Ujamaa.

94

The Policy Implications of Dependency Analysis
The failures of these policies are clear, and the failures suggest that autarky is not a good choice. Rather a policy of self-reliance should be interpreted as endorsing a policy of controlled interactions with the world economy: poor countries should only endorse interactions on terms that promise to improve the social and economic welfare of the larger citizenry.

95

Underdevelopment
Underdevelopment is obviously extensive. Depending on where the line is drawn between developed and underdeveloped societies.

The underdeveloped world makes up between 75 and 85 percent of the world's population.
The World Bank [1999 figures] classifies countries encompassing 40% of the world's population as low-income (average GNP per capita of $410 per year); countries with 35% of world population as lower-middle-income (average per capita GNP of $1,200 per year);

countries with 10% of world population as upper-middle-income (average per capita GNP of $4,900 per year); and
countries with just 15% of world population as high-income (average per capita GNP of $25,730 per year).
96

Underdevelopment
We should also take note of the persistence of underdevelopment.

The membership list of the exclusive club of rich countries has not changed much between 1900 and the present.
In 1900 the club consisted of Western Europe, and North America [minus Mexico] with Japan applying for membership. Now it consists of Western Europe, North America [still minus Mexico] and Japan with Eastern Europe, South Korea and Taiwan knocking at the door.

97

Theories of Underdevelopment
Development economics is one of the most unsettled fields of economics. It is awash with a profusion of competing theories of the causes of underdevelopment and swarming with even more approaches to development policy. Nonetheless, the major theories of underdevelopment fall into two broad categories:
1. stage (or linear) theories and
2. non-linear theories.

98

Theories of Underdevelopment
Stage theories stress the similarities between the underdeveloped economies today and the now-developed economies during earlier phases of their industrial revolutions. Non-linear theories stress the differences between the conditions faced by underdeveloped countries today and the conditions under which the now-developed countries began their industrial revolutions. Conservative and radical development economists do not automatically fall into any particular camp. There are conservative and radical versions of stage theories and there are conservative and radical versions of non-linear theories.

99

Theories of Underdevelopment
Stage Theories The best-known stage theory of economic development was developed WW Rostow. Rostow described five stages of growth which he used to explain the major discontinuities of economic development as they affected the now-industrialized nations.
1. Pre-industrial/Traditional stage 2. Preconditions for take off 3. Take off 4. Drive to Maturity 5. Mass Consumption
100

Theories of Underdevelopment
1. Pre-Industrial/Traditional Stage The strength of Rostow's theory is how deeply rooted it is in the economic history of the rich countries. The major weakness is the assumption that the poor countries are poor simply because they "took off" later than the rich countries (or because they have yet to take off). Rostow identifies a pre-industrial stage which he labels traditional society. The first step on the road to development is to meet the preconditions for take-off

101

Theories of Underdevelopment
2. Preconditions for Take Off

This involves enough modernization of agriculture to feed a growing population of non-farmers;
Development and modernization of some infrastructure in the form of roads, canals or railroads; and the growing influence and power of a group willing and able to lead the country into industrialization.

102

Theories of Underdevelopment
3. Take Off
Once the preconditions are met, the country is ready for take-off. Savings of 10 to 15% of GDP will be regularly invested in one or more manufacturing industries. This is the point at which self-sustaining growth begins. The leading industry brings other industries along through both forward and backward linkages. For example, Swedish timber exports grew rapidly in the 1860s. This provided investment opportunities in the logging and sawmilling industries. Growth then occurred in the saw blade industry [a backward linkage] and the wood-products industries such as door-jambs and furniture [forward linkages]. Note that some industries might not have sufficient linkages to propel an economy into take-off. Jamaica's bauxite exports go from the mines to the harbor without any linkages to the local economy other than the mining jobs.
103

Theories of Underdevelopment
4. Drive to Maturity The next stage broadens the economic base of the growing economy. Rostow switches his metaphor at this stage and calls it the drive to maturity. More forward and backward linkages are exploited. A cacao exporter starts to export chocolate bars and to manufacture the agricultural machinery used on the cacao plantations. Sweden's wood-product exports broaden to include matches while the use of hydroelectric power for remote sawmills is the first step in the development of an electrical industry
104

Theories of Underdevelopment 5. Mass Consumption

The final stage, the age of high mass consumption, starts when rising wages lead to the increased consumption of new consumer goods. Most times these are ostentatious goods leading to an increase in ostentations demand
Note that this stage is similar to the process of ripening.
105

Theories of Underdevelopment Marxist Stage Theory

Marx also had a stage theory of economic development. Capitalism is, by its very nature, a global system. Capitalists will seek out new markets, cheaper sources of raw material and cheaper labor wherever they can be found.
The effect will be to spread the capitalist mode of production throughout the globe:
106

Theories of Underdevelopment “The bourgeoisie, by the rapid improvement of all instruments of production, by the immensely facilitated means of communication, draws all, even the most barbarian, nations into civilization. The cheap prices of its commodities are the heavy artillery with which it batters down all Chinese walls, ..” [The Communist Manifesto, 1848].
107

Regional resource
Natural Technological Human Windfall Imported

108

Regional Development
Regional development concerns the incidence of economic growth.

It is ultimately the result of the location of economic activities in response to differential regional attractions.
Shifts in the location pattern have direct repercussions on income, employment and welfare. Since spatial organisation is a function of activity and interaction patterns, regional development is simply an expression of these patterns.

Used in a relative context, comparing problem regions with the prosperous regions, or with national context, on the basis of a variety of socio-economic indicators. It can also be used in an absolute context, the development within a particular region.
109

Regional Analysis
Results of spatial and ecological analysis are combined. Appropriate regional units are identified through areal differentiation, and then the flows and links between pairs of regions are established Study of spatial organization expressed as pattern and process – accounting for spatial variations
110

Levels of Planning
1. The National Level 2. Local Authority Level 3. The Sub-regional Level

111

Types of Planning
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Physical and Economic Planning Allocative and Innovative Planning Multi and Single Objective Planning Indicative and Imperative Planning Strategic Planning

112

The need for Regional Planning
• Pressure for Government action


• •

Congested urban regions/areas
Depressed industrial and rural regions Separate regional identities and political cultures


Regional structure of administration and decisionmaking
Supportive device for national and local planning


• •

Growth and Growth management
Economic imbalance Employment and Unemployment
113

Modes of Planning
What are modes of planning? The operational state of planning or a planning project or development project (national or local). For example, lais·sez faire mode is a state in which there is opposition to governmental regulation of or interference in commerce beyond the minimum necessary for a free-enterprise system to operate according to its own economic laws. lais·sez faire - nnon-interference in the affairs of others.
114

Summary of four modes of Planning
Mode Action
Planning modes Ameliorative problem solving Allocative trend modifying

Exploitative opportunity seeking

Normative goal-oriented

Planning for the present by reacting to past problems

Planning towards a predicted future

Planning with a predicted future

Planning by creating a desired future

Planning operations

Analysing problems, design interventions, allocate resource accordingly

Determine and make best of trends & allocate resources in accordance with desires to promote or alter them

Determine & make most of trends & allocate resources to take advantage of what to come

Decide on the future desired & allocate resources so that trends are changed or created accordingly. Desired future may be based on present, predicted or new values

Result of planning action

Haphazard modification of future by reducing the future burden & squeal of present problems

Gently balance & modify future by avoiding predictable problems & by achieving a balanced progress to avoid creating new problems

Unbalanced & modify future by taking advantage of predicable happenings, avoiding some problems & exploiting others without major concern for emergence of new problems

Extensive modification of the future by aiming for what ―could be‖. New predictions by changing values or goals, matching outcomes to desires, or avoiding & changing problems to ones easier to handle or to tolerate

115

Regional development theory
• Hirschman, Myrdal and Perroux
Spatial implications of the development process bridging the gap between economic and regional development models

Growth Pole Concept - Growth Points Spread and Backwash Effect

Multiplier Effect

• John Friedman
–Centre Periphery Dominance
The urbany is seen as the centre while the rest of the region is seen as the periphery

116

Regional Development Theories
• Growth Pole concept • Regionalisation
– Homogeneous region – Functional region

– Planning region
– Development region
• • • • • Core Upward transitional Resource frontiers Downward transitional Special problem area
117

The location of industry
Understanding of laws underlying regional internal structure is essential if the planner is to predict the reaction of the region to policies and pressures. Interference in the existing patterns of activities within a region is important in structuring economic opportunities and regional development strategies have locational relativity Forms basis for zoning and development planning Location is concerned with spatial relationships and interrelationships Aim is to find the optimum location of and for industry Thus location of industry reflects;
1. Policies, pressures (-ive) and regional structure 2. Economic opportunities and development patterns
118

Industry location – theory and practice
Location of industry is dependent on;
Source of input (land labour capital, entrepreneur) Market for output Central and local government policy(ies) Quality and quantity of labour
Primary Determinants

Geographical location of site
Availability of necessary infrastructure

Specific Determinants

Theoretical approach – abstract from reality a general theory of industrial location explaining the existing structure of industrial location and changes in that structure (Smith, Ricardo, Thunen, Mills) Empirical approach – listing of important factors (existing and potential) that have been influential in industry location
119

Industry location – theory and practice Type of industry (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary) Variety of industry (textile, manufacturing and mining) Approaches to determine optimum location
1. Least cost approach – explain location in terms of the minimization of factor costs 2. Markets area analysis – emphasis on market and demand factors 3. Profit maximization approach – logical outcome of market and least cost approach
120

Least cost approach (Weber and Launhardt)
Industry will choose to locate where costs are least………... Assumptions
Unit of study isolated country, homogenous in climate, concentration of consumers,perfect competition Natural resources are (ubiquitous) widely available Labour is not ubiquitous (several fixed labour locations and fixed labour mobility)

Industrial location factors
Transport and labour costs
General physical regional factors Agglomerative or deglomerative factors
121

Least cost approach (Weber and Launhardt) Transport cost directly proportional to distance traveled and weight carried.

Least transport costs is that at which total weight movement of assembling inputs and distributing output is at a minimum.
Material index (optimum location is that which is closer to the source of material or to the market)

WeightofLo calMateria lInputs MaterialIn dex  (WeightofFi nal Pr oducts )
122

Optimum location (re profitability to firm) in different cost-price situation – assuming constant output
Profitability lies between A and B and O is the optimum point
loss
Profit

AC AR

AC

AR
Location

A

O

B

a

A

O

B

Location

b

AC AR
Location

AR – Average Cost AR – Average Revenue

A

O

B

c

123

Locational Triangle
x
T = optimum location

Used in conjunction with the material index

M1,M2 = material sources MK MK = market x,y,z = weight of input and output

a

T
b c

a,b,c = distances between location, inputs and market WeightofLo calMateria lInputs MaterialIn dex  (WeightofFi nal Pr oducts )

M1

M2

y

z When index is greater than one – the firm is material oriented
When index less than one – the firm is market oriented 124

Impact of labour costs on least cost transport location
L = cheap labour location Isodapanes T = least-cost transport location

$3 $2 $1 L T

Labour cost oriented if savings in labour costs per unit of output are greater than extra transport costs per unit involved.
Isodapanes show the least transport costs away from T as L is within the critical $2 isodapane, the firm would, other things being equal, substitute between transport costs and divert its location to a mew location at this point of reduced labour costs. 125

Isodapane
Points of equal additional transport costs around the (Weberian) minimum-total-transport-cost point. (Goodall, p.247) While the isodapane is a theoretical tool, its theoretical function very much agrees with real-world decision-making processes as sequential processes, in that it assists in the iterative sorting of alternative locations and the move from initial, hypothetical sub optima to eventual, more general ("global") optima. Cumulative causation A self-reinforcing process during which impulses activate positive feedback leading to further growth, decline or other kinds of change with the same direction as the original impulse. Thus, agglomeration effects, for example, may lead to further agglomeration and thereby to a continuing increase in advantages (to some people or activities) and disadvantages (to others).
126

Inter-Regional Analysis
The quality of the Regional data base is a major influence on regional planning. Adequate data is essential for initial definition of regions and for subsequent analysis and planning. The existence of large gaps in regional data base is an obstacle to realistic planning
127

Regional database (Statistics)
Regional planning data
Population Housing Education Health Community support facilities Economic base Environment Transportation Utilities Physical resources

Data sources
STATIN, PIOJ (www.http.statinja.com ) STATIN, PIOJ. MOH, NHT, Private developers, NHDC STATIN, PIOJ, MOE, PC MOH, STATIN, PIOJ , PC, Clinics, Hospitals STATIN, PIOJ, SDC, MOSWS, MOCD, MLG, NWA STATIN, PIOJ, MFP, JamPro, NDFJ, PC NEPA, MOLE, ODPEM, JEF NTA, JUTC, MOT, STATIN, PIOJ OUR, MOPUT, STATIN, PIOJ NEPA, GD, JEF, UWA, FD

Employment and labour
Land use/function/flow Security and law

STATIN, PIOJ
NEPA, PC, MONS, STATIN,
128

Overcoming problems of regional statistics
1. Data collection on a more disaggregated basis:
Relevant data from all agencies are disaggregated to a common level of small and spatially regular units. Then they can be further aggregated into whatever geographical units are necessary

2.

Regional accounts: a comprehensive picture of regional economic structure (annual etc. picture of monetary flow) income = expenditure = output economic interrelationships between the major sectors of the economy – presented in a matrix format
129

Regional accounting
• Presents the economic interrelationship among the different sectors in the region

• Valuable basis for regional policy and decision making (Income, output, productivity)
• Decrease the need for political and sociological based regional policy analysis and formulation • Isolation of weaknesses and strengths in regional economy (estimates of regional productivity by industry/sector) • Investment data shows which industry in which region gives the best return for a given level of investment
130

Regional accounting – problems with it
• Regional accounting have heavy data requirement (problem – since regions are not micro-nations • Varying economic structure among regions, but for efficient analysis standards are applied across the board masking particular important aspects of a region • Regions are open economies with numerous cross boundary transactions but no trade barriers hence little info on movements • Place of employment and place of living may not be in same region thus difficulty in tracking income and expenditure for region accounting
131

Regional input-output tables
A method of describing the industrial structure of an economy as well as predicting changes in structure A set of tables (matrix) in monetary format prepared for an economy paying interest to interrelationships between sectors in an economy particularly on inter-industrial linkages

132

Sectoral consideration in regional planning
Regional planning represents in part an attempt to consider and evaluate in a systematic manner the relationship and consequences of various possible programmes or development policies in light of three models;
1. Economic growth model
2. Re(distribution) model 3. Ecological model

These sectors represents the broad spectrum of consideration that are correlated and inter(intra) related to ensure balanced regional growth.
133

Sectoral consideration for regional planning Population (size, distribution and
composition, projections)

Housing (Demand and Supply, type,
construction material, cost, location)

Education (cost, curriculum, facility
distribution, availability)

Health (facility distribution, availability, type,
quality, links to pop.)
134

Sectoral consideration for regional planning
Other community facilities (recreational, civic and cultural centres, community centres, skills training centres) Economic base (basic and non-basic: agriculture, industrial, commercial, technology, academic, cultural tourism, mining, fishing) Environment (physical, social and cultural – quality composition, sensitive areas, stress, impacts, hazard vulnerability) Transportation (type, availability, cost, supporting infrastructure, quality, distribution/red) Utilities (waste management – generation, disposal, collection and management, electrification, water, communication)
135

Population
Broad characteristics of the region as compared nationally/regionally: size, distribution, composition (sex, age group) Characteristics of the town in relation to region, as above with particular attention to changing patterns in pre-school, school age, work force, fertility, natural increase/decline, dependency ratios Projections – characteristics
Reference:

1995,

2000,

2010,

2020

of

above

Censuses, Statistical yearbook of Jamaica, Demographic Statistics; National Physical Development Plan 1978-1998, Jamaica Five Year Development Plan 1990 – 1995
STATIN, PIOJ (collaborate on projections), available computer models
136

Housing
Broad characteristics of national and parish situations regarding perceived needs Analyse census data on housing units and households Determine extent of overcrowding (density of persons in relation to units); spatial location (use of maps etc.) Analyse ground occupation (land per unit density): spatial location using maps etc. Determine need for relocation or increase in density

Analyse growth patterns in household, housing provision
Determine total need for new housing Review ministry proposals Draft strategy
Reference: Censuses, Statistical yearbook of Jamaica, Demographic Statistics; National Physical Development Plan 1978-1998, Jamaica Five Year Development Plan 1990 – 1995 STATIN, PIOJ (collaborate on projections), available computer models

Ministry of Housing
137

Education
Locate all educational facilities and institutions within the parish and region and analyse their service area Compare planned and actual capacities in relation to policy standards

Asses location suitability, age and condition of buildings, play and recreation facilities and other associated educational support facilities
Assess school population by category (basic, primary, secondary tertiary, vocational training etc.)

Review Ministry proposals
Determine need for school places by category Draft strategy
Reference: Censuses, Statistical yearbook of Jamaica, Demographic Statistics; National Physical Development Plan 1978-1998, Jamaica Five Year Development Plan 1990 – 1995 STATIN, PIOJ (collaborate on projections), available computer models

Ministry of Education, Parish Councils

138

Health
Locate all health facilities and institutions within the parish and region (hospitals, health care centres, clinics, nursing homes etc.) analyse their service area and location Assess location suitability and age and condition of buildings Review service area in relation to stated policies and acceptable standards Determine need for upgrading and/or new facilities

Review Ministry proposals
Draft strategy Reference:

Censuses, Statistical yearbook of Jamaica, Demographic Statistics; National Physical Development Plan 1978-1998, Jamaica Five Year Development Plan 1990 – 1995
STATIN, PIOJ (collaborate on projections), available computer models

Ministry of Health, Parish Councils

139

Other Community Facilities
Community Centres, Playing fields, parks, churches, cemeteries, police stations, post offices, fire stations, ambulance stations, other emergency facilities Locate all community facilities within the parish and analyse their service area Assess location suitability and age and condition of buildings Review service areas in relation to stated policies and acceptable standards Determine needs for upgrading and/or new facilities Review Ministry‘s proposal Draft strategy
Reference: Censuses, Statistical yearbook of Jamaica, Demographic Statistics; National Physical Development Plan 1978-1998, Jamaica Five Year Development Plan 1990 – 1995 STATIN, PIOJ (collaborate on projections), available computer models Ministry of Social Welfare and Sports, Ministry of Community Development, Parish Councils
140

Economic Base
"Information about an area's future population is incomplete

without a parallel understanding of the local economy that largely shapes its future." (Klosterman, p. 113) It is important to couple local population estimates or forecasts to an in-depth knowledge of the local economy. Whereas population projections function to estimate the number of persons in an area, these projections do not provide any insight into the most important factor in local growth and decline: the local economy. If the local economy is strong, population growth is usually brisk. In times of economic trouble, though, an area often will experience a loss in population- a direct result of a stagnant economy.
141

Economic Base
Knowledge of the local economy usually results via analysis using a variety of economic base analytical techniques. The economic base technique "is the oldest, simplest and most widely used technique for regional economic analysis.― It is an analytical method that illustrates many fundamental techniques used by local and regional planners, including areal comparisons, local versus regional/national conditions, and standardizing values.

142

Economic Base
The Economic Sectors The economic base technique is grounded in the assumption that the local economy can be divided into two very general sectors:
1) a basic (or non-local) sector or 2) 2) a non-basic (or local) sector.

Basic Sector: This sector is made up of local businesses (firms) that are entirely dependent upon external factors. For example, Boeing builds and sells large airplanes to companies and countries located throughout the world. Their business is dependent almost entirely upon non-local firms. Boeing does not sell planes to families or households locally, so their business is very much dependent upon exporting their goods. Manufacturing and local resource-oriented firms (like logging or mining) are usually considered to be basic sector firms because their fortunes depend largely upon non-local factors, they usually export their goods.
143

Economic Base
Non-basic Sector: The non-basic sector, in contrast, is composed of those firms that depend largely upon local business conditions. For example, a local grocery store sells its goods to local households, businesses, and individuals. Its clientele is locally based and, therefore, its products are consumed locally. Almost all local services (like drycleaners, restaurants, and drug stores) are identified as non-basic because they depend almost entirely on local factors. Economic Base Theory assumes that all local economic activities can be identified as basic or non-basic. Firms that sell to both local and an export market must, therefore, be assigned to one of these sectors or some means of apportioning their employment to each sector must be employed. Means of assigning firms to basic and non-basic sectors will be discussed in the various techniques outlined below.
144

Economic Base
Identification of all basic and non-basic economic activities in the region Basic activities – export goods and services outside of the economic confines of the region or which market their services to persons outside the regional boundaries Non-basic – provide goods and services for the community within the regional economic confines (local production and market) The economic base theory (cause and effect:

“An increase in the amount of basic activity within a region will increase the flow of income within the region, increasing the demands for goods and services within it and effecting a corresponding increase in volume of non-basic activity. Alternatively an increase in basic activity would lead to a fall in income coming into the region, and a decline in demand for products of the non-basic sector”
Basic activity and multiplier effect: Total employment in basic and non-basic activities Total employment in basic activities
145

Interpreting the multiplier
A region of 500 000 persons in employment, 250 000 in basic and 250 000 in non-basic. That is a 1:1 basic:non-basic ratio, will have a multiplier of;

250 000 + 250 000 250 000 =2
Consider an increase in employment of 20 000 in basic industry. An extra 20 000 non-basic jobs will be created and total employment will increase from 500 000 to 540 000; T = () 40 000 = 20 000 (2) Where T = change in total employment  = change in basic employment  = employment multiplier
146

Economic Base
Priorities activities in terms of employment, contribution to region GDP etc Overview of brad economic trends and outlook for nation/region/parish Describe and analyse economic activities of the parish and the urban centres in the region (manufacturing, tourism, agriculture, etc) size, employment, urban areas use Analyse labour force and employment Assess needs and prospects Review policies and pipelines projects Draft strategy
Reference:

Censuses, Statistical yearbook of Jamaica, Demographic Statistics; National Physical Development Plan 1978-1998, Jamaica Five Year Development Plan 1990 – 1995
STATIN, PIOJ (collaborate on projections), available computer models Ministry of Finance and Planning, JamPro, Parish Councils and Councillors
147

Environment
Socio-cultural (values, mores, perceptions, habits) Development and planning

Issues of Sustainability
Impact study and analysis Identify and map;
Land use and land cover (forests, trees and woodlands)
Geology, climate, hydrography, rainfall, soils, topography Sensitive areas Areas of special interest

Natural and scientific interest
Sites and buildings of historic and/or architectural interest

Natural hazards and vulnerable areas (landslide, flooding, tidal surges,
tropical storms, earthquakes and etc.)
Reference: NEPA, NRCA, ODPEM, JET, National Physical Development Plan
148

Transportation
Rail Survey existing facilities: capacity, use, needs, traffic patterns etc. Roads Assess patterns of vehicle ownership and use, volume counts of traffic, trip origin and destinations, purpose, modal split Projections over plan period

Waterway – ferry, barge boat etc..
Reference: Ministry of Transport and works, Parish Council, SATATIN, PIOJ
149

Utilities
Water, electricity, sewerage, garbage collection, drainage, telephone Capacity of present instillations (vs. supply and demand) Areas served (mapped – relate to population density and distribution) Policies and standards (supply and demand) Assess deficiencies (demand and supply) Needs projections (capacities demands and actual availability)

Current programmes and projects
Draft strategy
Reference:

Censuses, Statistical yearbook of Jamaica, Demographic Statistics; National Physical Development Plan 1978-1998, Jamaica Five Year Development Plan 1990 – 1995
STATIN, PIOJ (collaborate on projections), available computer models Ministry of Public Utilities and Transport etc
150

Regional: Resources, Development & Economy
Regional wealth (wealth of its citizens) tied to its natural resources (inherent and intrinsic capital)

Region cannot alter its physical characteristics tied to its location
Region cannot alter the value placed on its resources by the market or fluctuations in value Variations in regional wealth due in part to uneven distribution of resources and the cyclical fluctuations of resource exploitation (give example??)

151

Regional: Resources, Development & Economy
HOWEVER - Region can have a profound influence on the management of its resources Regional government and governance institutions can intervene in resource development process to affect and improve their use or outcome This is achieved through a general analytical description of the resource-based regional economy – use the analysis to construct a model of specific economy and then apply the model to the substantive evaluation of alternative resource development strategies

152

Regional: Resources, Development & Economy
What is the relationship between the regional economy and resource development projects? When large scale resource development projects are imposed on a relatively sparse regional economy, the local impacts, both economic and non-economic can be severe. The regional economy is characterised by:
Slow and complex responses to adjustment to exogenous shocks, Imperfect information and poor foresight,

Immobility of economic agents,
A lot of externalities,

These are some regional problems caused from resource development putting strain on the regional economy Aim of regional economic expenditure policy is to restrain spending during the boom periods to reduce the systematic strain on the development cycle

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The Regional Impact: framework for Regional Policy Analysis
Three major areas of Regional Impact in evaluating proposed resource development projects:
1. Changes in the economic status of firms, workers and households in the private sector 2. Impacts on the fiscal status of state and local government; and 3. Impacts on the regional environment (natural and built)
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The Regional Impact: framework for Regional Policy Analysis
Changes in the economic status of firms, workers and households in the private sector
Substantial increase in aggregate income, employment, sales and profit Workers in-migration – expanded labour force driving up unemployment New workers take disproportionate share of additional jobs over residents making residents not better off that originally

Increase cost of living – residents may be worst off than in the absence of the development project.

Impacts on the fiscal status of state and local government;
Complex assessment of costs and benefits

Increase in economic activity and population will add to demands for government services
Expansion in economic activity will add to local government revenue Will additional revenue be sufficient to finance increased demand for services
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The Regional Impact: framework for Regional Policy Analysis
Impacts on the regional environment (natural and built)
Immediate impact as well as indirect on population and economy will affect the environment
Reduction in air quality close to productive activities New housing due to increasing housing demands have implications for land use and land conversions Water supply will be affected Land reclamation – affect future land use and needs

Development may have to slowed down, stopped or reduced or altered in scale, if these (3) impacts are adverse or sufficiently negative Alternatively it may be possible to mitigate adverse impacts or compensate adversely affected groups or individuals
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The Regional Impact: framework for Regional Policy Analysis
Four critical elements in the process by which development projects affect the regional economy;
1.Determination of direct impacts
• Construction activity – purchase of capital equipment – expansion of resource industry

2.Regional multiplier effects (direct increase in regional income fig. 1.5)

3.Population impacts
4.Fiscal responses to resource development
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Figure 1.3
Impact on other regions Commerce /trade Financial sector Transportation Impact on other regions

Regional impact process

Linkages

• • • •

Investment in regional productive resource development Extraction Agro-production Processing Industrial manufacturing

Inner-regional industrial linkages

Direct impact on production employment and income in region

Demand for support service sector industries Multiplier process

Total impact on production employment and incomes

Increase of revenue

Migration and natural population increase

Fiscal impact Public services State investment

Increase of public services

Population impacts

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Resource Development and the Regional Figure 1.4 Economy
An Overview of the Regional Impact Process
Inter-regional Industrial Impact Inter-regional relations Resource Development Project Inter-industry relations Direct Impact on Production, Employment and Income Multiplier Process (Interregional) Consumer goods and services Interregional relations Total Impact on Production, Employment and Income

Fiscal response

Migration and Natural Increase

Fiscal Impacts

Population Impacts

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The Regional Impact: framework for Regional Policy Analysis

Direct Impact on Regional Income

Figure 1.5
The Regional Multiplier Process

Consumption Expenditures

Consumer Goods External Suppliers

Consumer Services

Demand for Regional Supply Industries

Regional Interindustry Relations (Input – Output) Regional Manufacturing Output Induced Impacts on the Regional Employment Induced Impacts on the Regional Income

-Trade -Finance -Services -Transportation -Communications -Public Utilities

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Total impact on Regional Employment

Total impact on Regional Income Population (initial)

Figure 1.6

Demand for Labour

. Age . Race

Population impacts The Regional Impact: framework for Regional Policy Analysis

. Sex
. Participation rates . Occupation . Unemployment

Migration into Region

Supply of labour

Natural increase Population (End of Period)

. Age
. Race . Sex . Participation Rates . Occupations

. Unemployment

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The Regional Impact: framework for Regional Policy Analysis
Fiscal Responses to Resource Development – Fiscal Impact (Fig. 1.7) The demand fro government services increases sharply in a region undergoing rapid resource development Social and socio-physical infrastructure comes under increasing strain Central and local government increase budget to meet population increase in changes in demand from the population Revenue to local government increases from gains in employment, income, profits and resource investment projects through taxes etc.. Resource ownership and tax structure of local government influence taxes and gains to local government
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The Regional Impact: framework for Regional Policy Analysis
Fiscal Responses to Resource Development – Fiscal Impact 9Fig. 1.7) Differences in timing in revenue and expenditures may cause problems Demands for general government services Borrowing to close fiscal gaps (returns from investment may take long to be realized) It takes time to replace and upgrade some socio-physical facilities such as schools, health centres etc.. Benefits may be gained at one level of government while increased demands for government services is experiences throughout the entire government services – needed well designed system of revenue sharing. Central and local government may respond to forces and changes in different ways also creating gaps
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Fiscal impacts of resource development
Resource Development Project Total impact on Production, Employment and Income

Figure 1.7
Population Impacts Population growth School enrollment

Unemployment
Elderly

Revenue available to Regional Government

Demand for Government Services and Facilities

Fiscal Impacts Fiscal Response Taxes Operating Expenditures Capital Investments Revenue Sharing Borrowing

Accumulation of Surplus
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A few names to know:
Patrick Geddes Daniel Burnham Rexford Tugwell Benton MacKaye Ebenezer Howard Baron Haussmann Frank Lloyd Wright Frederick Law Olmsted Abraham Levitt (Levittown) Albert Speer Jane Jacobs Le Corbusier Jane Addams James Rouse Robert Moses Clarence Stein Lewis Mumford

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MOVEMENTS AND PROTOTYPES Exposition in Chicago) Radiant City (Le Corbusier) RPA of America Regionalism Garden City (Ebenezer Howard Modernism and Postmodernism Bioregionalism (ecoregionalism) Broadacres (Frank Lloyd Wright) Neo-traditional housing communities City Beautiful Movement (1893 Columbian)
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Modernism and Postmodernism The roots of modernism lie much deeper in history than the middle of the 19th century. For historians (but not art historians) the modern period actually begins with the Renaissance. A discussion of modernism might easily begin in the Renaissance period when we first encounter secular humanism, the notion that man (not God) is the measure of all things, a worldly civic consciousness, and "utopian" visions of a more perfect society, beginning with Sir Thomas More's Utopia in 1516.
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Modernism and Postmodernism As an art historical term, "modern" refers to a period dating from roughly the 1860s through the 1970s. The 18th century, the Age of Enlightenment, saw the intellectual maturation of the humanist belief in reason as the supreme guiding principle in the affairs of humankind. Through reason the mind achieved enlightenment, and for the enlightened mind, freed from the restraints of superstition and ignorance, a whole new exciting world opened up
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Modernism and Postmodernism
Modernism:
The deliberate departure from tradition and the use of innovative forms of expression that distinguish many styles in the arts and literature of the 20th century.

Postmodernism:
Of or relating to art, architecture, or literature that reacts against earlier modernist principles, as by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremes For some it means anti-modern; for others it means the revision of modernist premises.
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Modernism and Postmodernism
Deconstructive postmodernism: The seemingly anti-modern stance involves a basic rejection of the tenets of Modernism; that is to say, a rejection of the doctrine of the supremacy of reason, the notion of truth, the belief in the perfectibility of man, and the idea that we could create a better, if not perfect, society. This view has been termed deconstructive postmodernism. An alternative understanding, which seeks to revise the premises of Modernism, has been termed constructive postmodernism. Deconstructive postmodernism seeks to overcome the modern worldview, and the assumptions that sustain it, through what appears to be an anti-worldview. It "deconstructs" the ideas and values of Modernism to reveal what composes them and shows that such modernist ideas as "equality" and "liberty" are not "natural" to humankind or "true" to human nature but are ideals, intellectual constructions.
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Spread-Backwash Process
Proximity to a rapidly growing metropolitan area (core) insures prosperity for nearby rural communities (periphery), or so conventional wisdom suggests. Unfortunately for proximate rural areas, the core-periphery relationship is not always beneficial. Economic development in the core impacts the surrounding region through complex processes. These processes include intra-regional flows of: private capital, private and public expenditures for goods and services, information and technology, residents and commuters, and political influence and public investments. Each process both benefits and harms the peripheral region, and the net effect differs among communities. If the processes result in an increase in the absolute level of development in the periphery, the resulting impact is spread effect. A decline in the absolute level of economic activity in the periphery in conjunction with core expansion is evidence of a backwash effect.
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Spread-Backwash Process
The net effect of the spread-backwash processes varies among economic regions (and within a specific economic area). For any particular region, the net spread-backwash effect depends on: – – – – – – – size and growth rate of the core, industrial structure of the core, distance of peripheral area from the core, existing spatial distribution of development, location and economic functions of small urban places in the periphery, location of transportation and communication networks, and the distribution of socio-political power.

A consistency across economic areas, however, is that the net impact on the periphery (spread or backwash) decays with distance from the urban center.
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Spread-Backwash Process
Spread effects are the positive benefits in terms of new ideas and technology which spread from core countries to benefit periphery countries.

Some would point to the Green Revolution technology (improved seeds, irrigation, herbicides, pesticides, etc.) as a positive spread effect since this technology, developed in core countries, has spread to many periphery countries, allowing them to expand food production to feed growing populations.
Some LDCs have even become largely self-sufficient in food production. Backwash effects are those which tend to drain physical and human resources from the periphery to benefit the core and to the detriment of the periphery.

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Trickle down effect
What is "Tricklenomics"? Tricklenomics is not a defined word, but from context it is clearly intended to be an economic system where there is no significant barrier to the accumulation of wealth by individuals.

Trickle Down Economics (TDE). From the old story that "if the horse has better hay to eat, the birds will eat better" (it being understood that birds eat manure). Reaganomics (to imply one example). If the rich do well, benefits will "trickle down" to the rest.
Lower taxes on high income or capital gains will benefit most of the population, etc
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Trickle down effect
Trickle down theory An economic theory stating that investing money in companies and giving them tax breaks is the best way to stimulate the economy. Proponents of this theory believe that when the government helps companies, they will produce more, thereby hiring more people and giving raises. The people, in turn, will have more money to spend in the economy. An economic theory which advocates letting businesses flourish, since their profits will ultimately trickle down to lower-income individuals and the rest of the economy. A theory of economic development that claims higher standards of living for the poor will develop gradually and not at the overt expense of the more affluent.
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Trickle down effect
Trickle-down theory, also known as trickle down economics, was a term used by detractors and advocates alike for some of the policies of Ronald Reagan.

See Reaganomics . It is the view that to benefit the wealthy, is to benefit the middle classes and even the poor. The benefit trickles down.
It is central to Supply Side Economics and it was a highly politically charged issue during the Reagan Administration. Supply Side Economics was implemented, and the economy did improve. However, there is debate over what caused these improvements. Paul Volcker , the then Fed Chief, had already begun implementing far less controversial monetary policies to solve the problem of stagflation and many have said it was his monetary policies which caused the economic turn around. David Stockman , Reagan's Economic Advisor later characterized supply side economics and trickle down economics as rhetoric

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Multiplier effect
The Multiplier effect is a basic economic concept, which refers to changes in the level of activity that brings further changes in the level of other activities throughout the economy. When an injection of expenditure into an economy leads to an increase in national income more than the original injection, this is the multiplier effect.

In other words, the multiplier effect is the effect from continuous respending of incomes.
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Multiplier effect
There are different types of multipliers, such as the sales or transaction multiplier, the output multiplier the employment multiplier, government revenue multiplier and the import multiplier. The multiplier indicates how many times that the injection of original spending circulates through a local economy. As a result of respending, it benefits the local people. Accordin to "Tourism: Economic, Physical and Social Impacts", "tourists expenditures in a destination creates new incomes and outputs in the region which, in turn, produce further expenditures and incomes

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Multiplier effect
The income multiplier considers three levels of impact created by the change in tourist expenditure, which includes direct spending, indirect spending and induces spending. Let us look at the illustration in the following Example . Impacts of Tourism (Tourism multiplier for Jamaica = 1.27) Direct impact: A tourist stays in a hotel and eats at the food establishment there. The tourist pays for the hotel accommodation, food and beverages. (This is the tourist‘s initial spending in a hotel, which creates direct revenue to the hotel).

Indirect impact:
Upon receipt of the tourist dollars, the process of respending begins. The hotel makes pay-ments to its employees, suppliers, and so on. (This is the indirect effect of the tourist‘s initial expenditure, which creates additional income and employment for the local economy). Induced impact: The employees receive incomes and consume on goods and services. The supplier replenishes its stock makes payments of wages to their employees etc. (This is induced effect of the tourist‘s initial expenditure, which creates further economic activities.

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Objections of a Development Project
(Sunday Gleaner, July 10, 20005. Pg. G6)

• Granting planning and development permission prior to;
– Granting of an environmental permit

– Public hearing for the review of the EIA
– Expiration of the 30 days period allowed for public comments to be entertained on the proposed development after the public hearing – Finalization of the recommendations of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Branch of NEPA and the Technical Review Committee of the NRCA – Prior to the development application submitted to the relevant Local Authority or KSAC – Prior to approval by the Local Authority or KSAC

• Where it can be substantially proven and shown that there is (was) a general failure of NEPA to ;
– Monitor results (as above) – Ensure protection of environment and compliance with the environmental and planning laws of Jamaica (TCP), Existing Development Orders, Zoning Regulations and Laws
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Central Questions:
What is a region? How do regional communities differ from either local or national communities? What are the arguments for and against greater planning and coordination at the regional scale? How does the regional approach differ for land use planning, transportation planning, resource management, and economic development? Which is more effective: single-use regional plans or integrated approaches?

How does the rise of semi-autonomous public authorities, such as port authorities, act as a model of regional planning?
How do regional authorities relate to local and state agencies? Who are the largest boosters and opponents of regional management?

Are some planning issues (e.g., transportation, water resources) better suited for regional-level coordination than others (e.g., welfare policy, housing)?
How well can regional planning integrate economic and environmental concerns?

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• The History and Politics of Regional Planning (MODULE 1) • Jan 31 - Feb 9: Case Study: Chicago -- Regional Network Formation and the City as Catalyst for Regional Development (MODULE 2) • Case study: New York -- Regionalism as the Complex Overlapping of Jurisdictions and Institutions (MODULE 3) • Case study: Los Angeles -- the Suburban Metropolis (MODULE 4) • Ecoregions: regional planning as a tool of environmental planning, habitat preservation and sustainability (MODULE 5) • Global-regions; International Cases of Regional Planning (MODULE 6) •

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Millennium Development Goals
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Target: Halve the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day and those who suffer from hunger.

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Target: Ensure that all boys and girls complete primary school.

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Target: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015.

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
Target: Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five

Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
Target: Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio.

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Millennium Development Goals
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Target: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. Target: Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
Target: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources
Target: Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water Target: Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
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Energy for Planning
Increase in severity and frequency of disasters and natural hazards The shift in focus on investment in infrastructure and support systems as the engines of growth and development over other traditional systems such as education and socio-cultural components Increasing encroachment of human settlement on natural lands and systems and the need to manage this movement.
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Central questions of Planning
Planners have traditionally been able to define themselves professionally and politically based on where they draw the line between proper government activities and private interests. However, this may be increasingly complicated in an era of blurred public-private boundaries , of public-private partnerships, of quasi-private public authorities (such as port authorities), and of non-profits (the "third sector"). In addition, planning graduates increasing work in all three sectors, rather than just for local government.
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Central questions of Planning
Explain how the relationship of planners to the public-private boundaries has changed in recent years. What political, economic and/or cultural factors have shaped this changing relationship? Finally, how does this change the planning profession's view of the "public interest?"
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Scholars have used the term "modernism" as a unifying concept to describe what has happened to U.S. cities in the past 100 years. Is modernism a useful category to understand 20th Century American urbanization? Explain why or why not, and what alternative explanations offer, such as "capitalism" or "industrialization." Be sure to precisely define and distinguish terms.
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Examine how the concept of "nature" has been used in the 20th Century intellectual history of planning theory.
How has the concept of nature been defined and used in various approaches to planning theory (e.g., city beautiful, Geddes, Howard, Mumford, comprehensive planning, postmodernist planning, etc.)? If necessary, distinguish between the terms "nature," "environment," "wilderness," "open space," etc. Imagine that you are teaching a doctoral planning seminar on "Planning Theory and the Idea of Nature," and this essay is the introductory lecture that demonstrates to what extent nature has been either an implicit leitmotif -- or unknown concept -- in 20th Century planning theory.
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Sustainable development has emerged as a popular concept in recent years, yet it arguably remains under-theorized, especially in the context of urban and regional planning.
In this essay you are to situate sustainable development within the larger context of theories and strategies in planning and urban theory. Can you identify strains of sustainable development thinking throughout the intellectual history of planning (e.g., city beautiful, Geddes, Howard, Mumford, RPAA, TVA, Pinchot and conservationism, bioregionalism, comprehensive planning)? Imagine that you are teaching a doctoral planning seminar on "Planning Theory and the Idea of Sustainability," and this essay is the introductory lecture that demonstrates to what extent sustainable development has been either an implicit leitmotif -- or unknown concept -- in 20th Century planning theory. According to Saskia Sassen, "economic globalization, accompanied by the emergence of a global culture, had profoundly altered the social, economic, and political reality of ... regions and ... cities." Discuss the relationship between global forces and local factors in shaping the contemporary city. You may focus on cities in either the developed or less developed world.

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Can planning theory, now or in the past, be said to have a dominant paradigm?
a) Trace the history of planning theory from the beginning of the century in terms of what paradigms were widely adopted. b) Relate these paradigms to the socio-political context in which planning was operating. c) During the time when comprehensive rationality (or the rational model) was particularly influential, is it accurate to say that it constituted a dominant paradigm? d) What is the current situation?
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A number of theorists describe a break in the development of cities, regions, and culture during the 1970s.
– What are the different ways in which they have characterized this change? – Do you agree that such a break has taken place?

– If so, what do you see as the underlying dynamic leading to this transformation and what are the qualities that differentiate the present period from the one preceding it?
– If you disagree with the argument that there has been a sharp change, what are the reasons for your disagreement?
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The economic man
According to Njoh (1999), the notion of space manipulation intimates deliberate action or choice, which in turn invokes the nation of rationalistic behaviour.

The concept of rationalistic behaviour and the economic man is embedded in economic theory, where the economic man possesses three distinct characteristics namely,
1. Perfect knowledge,

2. Optimizing behaviour and
3. Profit maximization

The concept of the economic man possessing perfect knowledge is embedded in his ability to make ―good‖ decisions by his possession of a perfect and accurate mental picture of his environment. In this picture he has the ability to assign economic value to his environment and has a perfect mental image of his reality and costs associated with that reality.
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Rural Development
Rural development has become one of the major outcomes identified among various assistance/interventon programmes of either the individual developing countries, or of multilateral institutions and donors. A clear understanding of rural development dynamics is necessary for it to prosper.

In addition, the inadequate indicators of rural development became a constraint in development planning, for an information gap in one of its facets will cripple a program that should rather be integrated.
Thus, any contribution towards the understanding of rural development is valuable
Asian Development Bank Institute, 1998-2007
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