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CEE 4984/5984 GPS/RS Applications in CEE May 1, 2001 Mark Dougherty Colin Kraucunas Jen Verwest
Table of Contents
Page Table of Contents……………………………………………………………... 1
Tutorial 1: Mosaicking images in ERDAS Imagine 8.4………..……….…….
Tutorial 2: Creating image subsets in ERDAS Imagine 8.4….……...…..……
Tutorial 3: Stacking images in ERDAS Imagine 8.4…......………………….
Tutorial 4: Supervised classification in ERDAS Imagine 8.4….……………..
Tutorial 5: Unsupervised classification in ERDAS Imagine 8.4……………...
Tutorial 6: Vegetative mapping in ArcView 3.2………......………………….
Project statement The purpose of this document is to present the techniques needed for basic analysis of remotely sensed images, including mosaicking, subsetting, stacking, unsupervised and supervised classification, and vegetative mapping. The document is written as a set of six tutorials with step-by-step instructions. It is assumed that the student has access to a working version of both ERDAS Imagine 8.4 and ArcView 3.2, and has a basic familiarity with both software packages.
It is recommended that the two data sets provided with this document be used to complete the tutorials. The data sets include both SPOT and Landsat images for the New River Valley, located in southwestern Virginia. SPOT image files 37080SE.BIL and 37080SW.BIL are located in folders of the same name, as shown in the figure below. These two SPOT images, when mosaicked together, provide remotely sensed coverage for the entire New River Valley. The remaining files, shown below as nrvband1.img through nrvband5.img, represent the five bands of light reflectance (visible through midinfrared) captured by Landsat instrumentation. The Landsat images, when stacked together, provide remotely sensed data coverage for the same geographic area as the SPOT images.
Tutorial 1: Mosaicking images in ERDAS Imagine 8. Click on Add… 5.4 This tutorial will help you join two images together in a process called mosaicking. When the copying image process is finished. Select the correct file type. hit OK 7. In ERDAS Imagine. Select a path and filename to save the image and hit OK 6. Choose Edit>Image List… 4. Choose File->Save->Top Layer As… 5. 3 . If the images are in another format. Click Add… to add images.img files: 1. open them in the viewer and save them as *. It is often helpful to mosaic two images together. click the Viewer button to open a new viewer. When finished. Please note that the images must be in *.img): 1.img format to complete the steps outlined in this tutorial. Find and select the second image and click Add. 2.img files. select the file. especially when the two joined images result in a complete picture of an area being analyzed. Close the viewer Complete the following steps to mosaic two IMAGINE images (*. Find and select the first image file and click Add. The Mosaic Tool Window will open. Click on the DataPrep button on the ERDAS Imagine Toolbar 2. Click on Mosaic Images… 3. The Add Images for Mosaic window will open. The Mosaic Image List will open. Complete the following steps to convert images to *. as shown below. and hit OK 4. click Close. Click the Open Layer button or choose File->Open->AOI Layer 3. then click Close on the Mosaic Image List window.
6. The outlines of your two files should be shown in the Mosaic Tool window. The Set Overlap Function window shown at far right will open. choose Edit->Set Overlap Function… 9. as shown at right. Choose the “Feather” function and click Close 4 . To edit the overlap area options. 8. choose Edit->Image Matching… 7. The Matching Options window shown at right will open. Choose “For All Images” as the Matching Method and click OK. To edit the mosaicking options.
click OK in the progress dialog box as shown below.img). Your mosaicked image is ready for viewing. which may take a few minutes. In the Mosaic Tool window.mos file. then click OK 12. Specify an output path and filename for the combined image. select your image file and click OK 18. 13. ERDAS Imagine will run the Mosaic procedure. Choose Process->Run Mosaic… 11. Change the file type to IMAGINE Image (*. Your mosaicked image is displayed in the viewer. 5 . choose File->Save to save the mosaic options as a *. 15.10. In the viewer. You are now ready to mosaic the images. When it is complete. choose File->Open->AOI Layer… or hit the Open Layer button 17. Choose the path and filename and click OK 14. Close the Mosaic Tool window. Click on Viewer in the ERDAS Imagine Toolbar to open a new viewer 16.
Choose Utility -> Inquire Box ->Fit to AOI. Rectangle tool 3. This will automatically set the extents of the Inquire Box to match those of the AOI. you will create an image subset using the following steps. In this tutorial. 6 . Subsetting is the process of “cropping” or cutting out a portion of an image for further processing. This can be done from the viewer menu by selecting AOI -> Tools. 2.Tutorial 2: Creating image subsets in ERDAS Imagine 8. Open the image in a viewer (any one of the nrvband*.img files can be used). 1. Hit Apply. Using the rectangle selection tool.4 Subsetting an image can be useful when working with large images. create an AOI (area of interest) rectangle around the desired subset area.
9. Hit OK to create a new subset image.] 7 . This will give you the following dialog box: 5. 6.4. This sets the extents of the subset to match those of the inquire box selected in step 3. first load. shown below. When you repeat step 3. select the input file using the browse button. A progress bar. then select the rectangular AOI from step 2. [Note: For each image. 7. select Data Prep-> Subset Image. Repeat steps 1 – 8 for each of the four remaining band files (nrvband*. will display when the new subset image is created. then specify the output file name and location. 8. Hit the “From Inquire Box” button.img). Hit OK to accept the new subset image. Next. which will be saved to the location specified in step 6. you will automatically fit the coordinates of the preselected AOI to the current image. As shown at right.
From the Create File dialog box.50 to match those of the subset images.” This will set the coordinates of the new image to match those of the subsets previously created.10.] 8 . Begin by selecting Data Prep-> Create New Image. The next step in the subsetting process is to combine three band images into one multispectral image. Hit “From Inquire Box. 11. select the output file browse button and specify a path and output file for the combined image. 12. as shown at right. [Note: you can find this information under Utilities-> Layer Info. The cell size fields should be changed to 28. The following dialog box appears.
A progress bar will appear. Note: The image combination shown above represents the default band combinations representing visible blue. and red bandwidths. Use the browse buttons to select the appropriate band subset files for each band. hit OK. The image will appear all white because it does not yet have raster information in it. Each subset image only has one layer. 15. 9 . therefore layer settings can be left at one. When all values in the Create File dialog box for Date Type and Output Options are as shown above (step 10). Hit apply and you should have a color image similar to the one shown at right. green. will appear. The next step is to open the new image created in step 10.13. When the process has completed. 14. 16. The dialog box. hit OK. To do this. select Raster -> Band Combinations. below.
Note: The image combination shown above represents the default band combinations representing visible green and red bandwidths. then select a name and output location. This is done by once again selecting Raster -> Band Combinations. The resulting image. while bare earth or asphalt has very little to zero infra-red or red reflectance. it may be necessary to re-order the band combinations to obtain the correct appearance. 18. as well as near infra-red. 10 . bare surfaces because the healthy vegetation has a very high infra-red reflectance. In order to save your image with these settings. Depending on the types of analysis you are doing. select File -> View to Image File.17. is widely used in the classification of vegetation vs. shown below.
Navigate to the desired folder. 21. select the Utilities. In ERDAS. I n the Utilities menu. the different images representing different bands must be stacked. When the Image Interpreter dialog box appears. Click the Add button to create this file as Layer 1. select Layer Stack. The Layer Selection and Stacking dialog box will appear.Tutorial 3: Stacking images in ERDAS Imagine 8. In the Layer Selection and Stacking dialog box. 11 . click on the Interpreter button on the ERDAS Imagine Toolbar 20. 19. The following steps show how to stack images. This will allow for different combinations of RGB to be shown in the view.4 In order to analyze remotely sensed images. 22. and select the image that will be Layer 1 in the new image. select the first layer for the Input File by selecting the browse button. 23.
12 . and click Ok. Verify the remaining options. Name the file and hit Ok. Once all the files are added. The files will become the layers of the new image. 26.24. create an Output File by selecting the browse button and navigate to the desired folder. Continue to select the input files in order and click Add. 25.
the Green layer is red. To change the layer being displayed. The selection shown below displays a combination commonly used for land use and vegetative mapping. 13 .27. and the Blue layer is green. click Ok. choose Raster then Band Combinations in the Viewer dialog box. Open a new Viewer and open the newly created raster image. The Red layer is near infrared. 30. 29. When the Modeler dialog box is complete. 28. Change the layers that are displayed for the respective colors in order to get the desired bands visible.
31. Hit Ok to view the image. 14 . below.
Through experience. The image that appears. Facts about the area. and red. Hit Ok. Supervised classification allows the user to define the training data (or signature) that tells the software what types of pixels to select for certain land use. knowledge about aerial photography. 19. and experience in image interpretation permit pixels with specific characteristics to be selected for a better classification of the image. the Green Layer is Red (Layer 3). In this image. Open the raster image with the different bands stacked in layers as created in tutorial 3. green (band 2). On the Viewer menu.4 Image interpretation is the most important skill to be learned before producing accurate land use maps from remotely sensed data. 20.Tutorial 4: Supervised classification in ERDAS Imagine 8. green. 15 . change the layers so that the Red Layer is Near Infrared (Layer 4). and near infra-red (4) band are represented by blue. 21. When the Band Combinations dialog box appears. supervised classification becomes easier and more accurate. shown on following page. This band combination and color selection make identification of bare surfaces easily distinguishable from healthy vegetation. 22. is a common band combination used to evaluate land use and vegetation. choose Raster and select Band Combinations from the list. and the Blue Layer is Green (Layer 2). red (band 3). respectively.
26. The signature editor allows the user to select areas of interest (AOI) to be used as training samples to categorize the photograph.23. 16 . select AOI and then choose Tools. select Signature Editor. In the AOI Tools dialog box. On the main ERDAS menu. select the polygon tool to create an AOI. In the Classification menu. In the Viewer menu. The signature dialog box will appear with a new file opened to begin defining training data. 25. select the Classifier button. 24.
17 . hit the Select New Signature(s) from AOI button.27. Zoom into an area to be classified. 28. and draw a polygon around a specific region to be used for training data. With the AOI still selected.
Change the color to be displayed that is defined by this signature by clicking in the color field and selecting a new color. select File then Save As. 31. 30. based on knowledge of the area. water by blue. 18 . Urbanized bare areas will be represented by red. With careful pixel selection. Continue to select more signatures until all desired land uses or areas are selected.29. Name the file and click Ok. In the Signature Editor dialog box. Change the signature name by clicking in the field and entering a more descriptive name. bare soil can be distinguished from urbanized bare areas. In this example. The resulting image classifications will distinguish deciduous from coniferous trees using different shades of green. and agriculture by yellow. bare soil is considered to be bare soil fields (as opposed to urbanized impervious areas such as asphalt). Browse to the desired folder.
19 . Now that the Signature File has been created to select the different classifications. Close the Signature Editor dialog box by selecting File then Close. a supervised classification can be performed. The Supervised Classification dialog box will appear. 33. In the Classification dialog box.32. select the Supervised Classification button.
Name the file and hit Ok. hit the browse button and navigate to the desired folder. To create a Classified File. 36. click Ok. Water is shown in blue. 37. followed by agriculture (yellow). Open the newly classified file to observe the classifications and verify the signature file. hit the browse button and navigate to the folder where files are being saved.34. When the Status dialog box is complete. hit the browse button and move to the preferred folder. To select the Input Raster File. To select the Input Signature File. 39. Most of the land use is deciduous trees (light green). 38. 20 . and urban (red). Verify the other settings below and click OK. Select the file to be classified that is open in the viewer. 35. bare soil (pink). Select the Signature File previously created.
Edit the signature file by using the add the edit menu) options. supervised classification becomes easier and more accurate. Through experience. open the Signature Editor by clicking on it in the Classification dialog box. 41.40. and delete (in 43. 42. merge . Navigate to the desired file and open the previously created signature file. Image interpretation is the most important skill to be learned before producing accurate land use maps. replace . select File then Open. . Save the redefined signature file and repeat steps 15 through 21. 21 . If the signature file needs to be edited. In the Signature Editor dialog box.
4 Performing an unsupervised classification. you will perform an unsupervised classification using the following steps. shown on the next page. The resulting classification has less discerning abilty than a supervised classification due to the lack of training data supplied to the clustering algorithm. the signatures are automatically generated by an algorithm named ISODATA. The Unsupervised Classification dialog box.Tutorial 5: Unsupervised classification in ERDAS Imagine 8. 45. will appear. 46. select Unsupervised Classification. simplicity comes at a cost. select the Classifier button. shown at right. covered in this tutorial. which will open the Classification menu. is simpler than a supervised classification. On the main ERDAS menu. In unsupervised classification. On the Classification menu. 22 . Unfortunately. In this tutorial. 44.
as shown below. 23 . will alert you as to progress. 50. give the target destination and filename of the output file. Under Input Raster File. shown below. Maximum Iterations = 24 and Convergence Threshold = 0. Next set the clustering options as follows. Hit OK when the process is 100% complete. Put 5 for number of classes. Click the Output Signature Set to disable the Output Signature Set filename box (you will not be creating a signature set as you did with supervised classification). place the name of the file and file location to classify. Under Output Cluster Layer.47. 49. Click OK to begin the classification process. The job status dialog box. 48.950.
The following familiar image should appear. To do this. you will want to evaluate and test the accuracy of the classification. Change the colors displayed to match those used in tutorial 4 by selecting from the Viewer menu bar Raster ? Band Combinations. 52. from the Viewer menu bar open the original image with File ? Open ? Raster Layer. 24 . Change the Layers to Colors 4. The image at right should appear in your viewer. 53. and 2. that is all there is to unsupervised classification processing).3. A good way to evaluate the results of the unsupervised classification is to overlay the original image data with your *_isodata. After the classification process is complete (yes.img file. You may also want to reclassify your image using a different number of classes with a different number of iterations.51. Let’s see what the classified image looks like.
img image.54. click the Raster Options tab at the top of the Select Layer to Add dialog. You will rearrange the columns of the following editor box as follows. as shown below. and clear the Clear Display box. select Raster ? Attributes then Edit? Column Properties.img file previously. The next step is to overlay the classified image over the original. above. Select the directory where you saved the *_isodata. After loading the *_isodata. 55. In order to add the new image without clearing the original image. 25 . Open a new file dialog box as described in step 9.
below will appear with columns as below. hit OK. 26 . Select the column headings one at a time as shown and hit the Up key to rearrange the headings. The Raster Attribute Editor box. When complete. 57. as shown.56.
Next. This makes the newly classified image effectively transparent. respectivel. Note that the Classes have not been given names. which is obviously displayed in the image. and note the change in the raster image displayed. does not seem appropriate for water. With unsupervised classification.58. one at a time. until you are ready to add colors. The appearance of the final drawing will depend on the color combination and number of classifications you choose. 59. Change the color and opacity in Class 1 to red and 1. at right. Continue editing the five classes one at a time. the first color chosen above. yet. For example. 60. adding colors of your choice to represent what you think to be specific features. This color and heading can easily be edited to blue by clicking on the cell. red. The resulting drawing and legend may look like the following. Select Edit ? Formula and place a zero in the Formula box function above as a value for all cells in the column. select the Opacity column to highlight all the values in blue (shown above). it is often necessary to do 27 .
Be aware that there are bound to be trade-offs in the selection of classes that will depend upon the use being made of the data and the land use being categorized. 61. As stated previously. A somewhat more intuitive image display is presented below. several attempts at the unsupervised classification may be desirable to achieve a land classification that is understandable. but the image has been re-classified using only four classes. Although the map below may be easier to interpret than the one above. 28 . it likely will have somewhat less discriminatory detail. The color scheme is the same.ground truthing after the classification is complete.
and Flicker commands. The following are the three control boxes that are activated by the Blend. Recall from step 11 that you overlaid the classified image on top of the original. which you can now view in periodic “swipes” or “flickers” or “blends” to help evaluate the types of land cover beneath your classified image. We leave it to you to experiment with these handy tools as you gain more experience in your classification skills. or flicker the upper-most image alternately with the lower image within the View. and Flicker commands. Swipe. specifically the Blend. 63. Enjoy! 29 . A useful aid to evaluating unsupervised classifications is through the use of the Utility menu on the viewer menu.62. Each of these commands will bring a control box that will either blend. Swipe. or swipe.
Check Image Analysis and click Ok. add the Image Analysis extension by selecting File then Extensions. Change the Data Source to Image Analysis Data Source and Navigate to the desired folder. 68. especially healthy vegetation. From the visible red and near infrared layer. Click Ok.Tutorial 6: Vegetative mapping in ArcView 3. In ArcView. Open a new view to add the raster image for the vegetation mapping with the green. 64. In order to distinguish healthy vegetation from other reflective sources. two bands are needed. In order to do vegetative mapping. The following tutorial shows how to quickly build an NDVI vegetative mapping image in ArcView 3. 65. Open the image by clicking the Add Theme button. and man-made features. the visible red is chosen. 67. where IR is infrared and R is visible red. is very reflective in the near infrared range and it provides good contrast with water. and near infrared bands created in tutorial 2. a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated in ArcView using the formula NDVI = (IR-R) / (IR+R). 66. visible red. A single band theme in grayscale is created that highlights vegetation. visible red and near infrared.2. which contrasts vegetation from bare soil. 30 . These bands are chosen because vegetation. rocky surface.2 Vegetative mapping finds areas of healthy vegetation as well as stressed vegetation from a remotely sensed image.
70. Click Apply and close the Legend Editor dialog box. and the Blue Band to the Blue Layer. Click the check box next to the theme to draw it. 31 . the Green Band to the Green Layer. Change the Red Band to the Red Layer. Double-click the theme to bring up the Legend Editor.69.
32 . The image is displayed in the commonly used form for vegetative mapping.71.
select Image Analysis the Vegetative Index. respectively. Click Ok. 73. The Vegetative Index dialog box appears.72. or according to how the image was generated in ERDAS. In the Main menu. Click the check box next to the NDVI theme to draw it. Change the Near Infrared Layer and Visible Red Layer to Layer_Red and Layer_Green. 33 . 74.
and click Ok. 76. 34 . and name the image. Choose IMAGINE Image as the file type to be able to use in ERDAS. urban. Navigate to the desired folder. 78. Save the image by selecting the NDVI theme. The bright areas represent areas of vegetation and the dark areas represent water.75. Select No to add the image as a theme to the view. In the View menu. select Theme then Save Image As. Verify that the file type is the desired format. and bare soil. 77.