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Section 1.

3 Shifting, Reflecting, and Stretching Graphs 29

Course Number
Section 1.3 Shifting, Reflecting, and Stretching Graphs
Instructor
Objective: In this lesson you learned how to identify and graph shifts,
reflections, and nonrigid transformations of functions. Date

Important Vocabulary Define each term or concept.

Vertical shift A transformation of the graph of y = f(x), represented by h(x) = f(x) ± c,


in which the graph is shifted upward or downward c units respectively (c is a positive
real number).
Horizontal shift A transformation of the graph of y = f(x), represented by
h(x) = f(x ± c), in which the graph is shifted to the left or to the right c units
respectively (c is a positive real number).
Rigid transformations Transformations in which the basic shape of the graph is
unchanged.
Nonrigid transformations Transformations that cause a distortion (a change in the
original shape of the graph).

I. Summary of Graphs of Common Functions (Page 100) What you should learn
How to recognize graphs
Sketch an example of each of the six most commonly used of common functions
functions in algebra.

Constant Function Identity Function


y y

x x

Absolute Value Function Square Root Function


y y

x x

Larson/Hostetler/Edwards Precalculus: Functions and Graphs, A Graphing Approach, 3rd Edition Student Success Organizer IAE
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
30 Chapter 1 Functions and Their Graphs

Quadratic Function Cubic Function


y y

x x

II. Vertical and Horizontal Shifts (Pages 101−102) What you should learn
How to use vertical and
Let c be a positive real number. Complete the following horizontal shifts to sketch
representations of shifts in the graph of y = f (x) : the graphs of functions
1) Vertical shift c units upward: h(x) = f(x) + c
2) Vertical shift c units downward: h(x) = f(x) − c
3) Horizontal shift c units to the right: h(x) = f(x − c)
4) Horizontal shift c units to the left: h(x) = f(x + c)

Example 1: Let f ( x ) = x . Write the equation for the


function resulting from a vertical shift of 3 units
downward and a horizontal shift of 2 units to the
right of the graph of f (x ) .
f(x) = | x − 2 | − 3

III. Reflecting Graphs (Pages 103−104) What you should learn


How to use reflections to
A reflection in the x-axis is a type of transformation of the graph sketch the graphs of
of y = f(x) represented by h(x) = − f(x) . A reflection in functions

the y-axis is a type of transformation of the graph of y = f(x)


represented by h(x) = f(− x) .

Example 2: Let f ( x ) = x . Describe the graph of g ( x) = − x


in terms of f .
The graph of g is a reflection of the graph of f in
the x-axis.

Larson/Hostetler/Edwards Precalculus: Functions and Graphs, A Graphing Approach, 3rd Edition Student Success Organizer IAE
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Section 1.3 Shifting, Reflecting, and Stretching Graphs 31

IV. Nonrigid Transformations (Page 105) What you should learn


How to use nonrigid
Name three types of rigid transformations: transformations to sketch
1) Horizontal shifts graphs of functions
2) Vertical shifts
3) Reflections

Rigid transformations change only the position of the


graph in the xy-plane.

Name two types of nonrigid transformations:


1) Vertical stretch
2) Vertical shrink

A nonrigid transformation y = cf (x ) of the graph of y = f (x) is


a vertical stretch if c > 1 or a vertical shrink if
0 < c < 1.

Additional notes

y y y

x x x

Larson/Hostetler/Edwards Precalculus: Functions and Graphs, A Graphing Approach, 3rd Edition Student Success Organizer IAE
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
32 Chapter 1 Functions and Their Graphs

Additional notes

y y y

x x x

y y y

x x x

Homework Assignment

Page(s)

Exercises

Larson/Hostetler/Edwards Precalculus: Functions and Graphs, A Graphing Approach, 3rd Edition Student Success Organizer IAE
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.