This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Genes in the Cell Nucleus
Basic Building Blocks of DNA Basic chemical compounds involved in the formation of DNA (1) phosphoric acid (2) a sugar called deoxyribose (3) four nitrogenous bases (two purines, adenine and guanine, and two pyrimidines, thymine and cytosine) Organization of the Nucleotides to Form Two Strands of DNA Loosely Bound to Each Other 1. Each purine base adenine of one strand always bonds with a pyrimidine base thymine of the other strand, and 2. Each purine base guanine always bonds with a pyrimidine base cytosin
he importance of DNA lies in its ability to control the formation of proteins in the cell. It does this by means of a genetic code. Consists of successive "triplets" of bases-that is, each three successive bases is a code word. The successive triplets eventually control the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule that is to be synthesized in the cell and are responsible for successive placement of the three amino acids, proline, serine, and glutamic acid
The DNA Code in the Cell Nucleus Is Transferred to an RNA Code in the Cell Cytoplasm-The Process of Transcription
Basic Building Blocks of RNA almost the same as those of DNA, except for two differences. First, ribose is used in the formation of RNA, containing an extra hydroxyl ion appended to the ribose ring structure. Second, thymine is replaced by another pyrimidine, uracil.
Assembly of the RNA Chain from Activated Nucleotides Using the DNA Strand as a Template-The Process of "Transcription"
RNA polymerase: large protein enzyme that has many functional properties necessary for formation of the RNA molecule. They are as follows: Promoter (sequence of nucleotides in DNA); The RNA polymerase has an appropriate complementary structure that recognizes this promoter and becomes attached to it. Polymerase causes unwinding of about two turns of the DNA helix and separation of the unwound portions of the two strands. Polymerase moves along the DNA strand, unwinding and separating the two DNA strands at each stage of its movement; it adds at each stage a new activated RNA nucleotide to the end of the newly forming RNA chain by the following steps: a. it causes a hydrogen bond to form between the end base of the DNA strand and the base of an RNA nucleotide in the nucleoplasm. b. RNA polymerase breaks two of the three phosphate radicals away from each of these RNA nucleotides, liberating large amounts of energy; this energy is used to cause covalent linkage of the remaining phosphate on the nucleotide c. When the RNA polymerase reaches the end of the DNA gene, it encounters a new sequence of DNA nucleotides called the chain-terminating sequence; this causes the polymerase and the newly formed RNA chain to break away from the DNA strand. d. its weak hydrogen bonds with the DNA template break away; the RNA chain is forced away from the DNA and is released into the nucleoplasm.
1. 2. 3.
DNA Base guanine cytosine adenine thymine
RNA Base cytosine guanine uracil adenine
3 Types of RNA Each type of RNA plays an independent and entirely different role in protein formation: 1. 2. 3. Messenger RNA (mRNA) - carries the genetic code to the cytoplasm for controlling the type of protein formed. Transfer RNA (tRNA) - transports activated amino acids to the ribosomes to be used in assembling the protein molecule. Ribosomal RNA - forms ribosomes, the physical and chemical structures on which protein molecules are actually assembled.
Messenger RNA-The Codons
mRNA: long, single RNA strands that are suspended in the cytoplasm; contain codons that are exactly complementary to the code triplets of the DNA genes.
Transfer RNA-The Anticodons
Each type of tRNA combines specifically with 1 of the 20 amino acids that are to be incorporated into proteins; acts as a carrier to transport its specific type of amino acid to the ribosomes, where protein molecules are forming small molecule in comparison with mRNA The specific code in the tRNA that allows it to recognize a specific codon is again a triplet of nucleotide bases and is called an anticodon.This is located approximately in the middle of the tRNA molecule
constitutes about 60 percent of the ribosome The ribosome acts as a manufacturing plant in which the protein molecules are formed.
Formation of Ribosomes in the Nucleolus Ribosomal RNA is specially processed in the nucleolus, where it binds with "ribosomal proteins" to form granular condensation products that are primordial subunits of ribosomes. These subunits are then released from the nucleolus and transported through the large pores of the nuclear envelope to almost all parts of the cytoplasm; Proteins are formed in the cytoplasm of the cell, but not in the cell nucleus, because the nucleus does not contain mature ribosomes.
Formation of Proteins on the Ribosomes-The Process of "Translation"
while the messenger RNA travels through the ribosome, a protein molecule is formed-a process called translation.
Polyribosomes A single messenger RNA molecule can form protein molecules in several ribosomes at the same time because the initial end of the RNA strand can pass to a successive ribosome as it leaves the first
Chemical Steps in Protein Synthesis: 1. Each amino acid is activated by a chemical process in which ATP combines with the amino acid to form an adenosine monophosphate complex with the amino acid, giving up two high-energy phosphate bonds in the process 2. The activated amino acid, having an excess of energy, then combines with its specific transfer RNA to form an amino acidtRNA complex and, at the same time, releases the adenosine monophosphate 3. The transfer RNA carrying the amino acid complex then comes in contact with the messenger RNA molecule in the ribosome, where the anticodon of the transfer RNA attaches temporarily to its specific codon of the messenger RNA, thus lining up the amino acid in appropriate sequence to form a protein molecule. Then, under the influence of the enzyme peptidyl transferase (one of the proteins in the ribosome), peptide bonds are formed between the successive amino acids; the synthesis of proteins is one of the most energy-consuming processes of the cell.
The DNA-Genetic System Also Controls Cell Reproduction
A,B,C Prophase D Prometaphase E Metaphase F Anaphase G,H - Telophase
Cell Reproduction Begins with Replication of DNA
The first step is replication (duplication) of all DNA in the chromosomes
Chemical and Physical Events of DNA Replication DNA is replicated in much the same way that RNA is transcribed in response to DNA, except for a few important differences: 1. 2. 3. Both strands of the DNA in each chromosome are replicated Both entire strands of the DNA helix are replicated from end to end, rather than small portions of them The principal enzymes for replicating DNA are a complex of multiple enzymes called DNA polymerase, which is comparable to RNA polymerase; DNA ligase, causes bonding of successive DNA nucleotides to one another, using high-energy phosphate bonds to energize these attachments. DNA strand occurs simultaneously in hundreds of segments along each of the two strands of the helix until the entire strand is replicated; the ends of the subunits are joined together by the DNA ligase enzyme. Each newly formed strand of DNA remains attached by loose hydrogen bonding to the original DNA strand that was used as its template.
1. 2. Prophase While the spindle is forming, the chromosomes of the nucleus become condensed into well-defined chromosomes. Prometaphase the growing microtubular spines of the aster fragment the nuclear envelope; multiple microtubules from the aster attach to the chromatids at the centromeres, where the paired chromatids are still bound to each other; the tubules then pull one chromatid of each pair toward one cellular pole and its partner toward the opposite pole. Metaphase two asters of the mitotic apparatus are pushed farther apart; the chromatids are pulled tightly by their attached microtubules to the very center of the cell, lining up to form the equatorial plate of the mitotic spindle. Anaphase the two chromatids of each chromosome are pulled apart at the centromere. All 46 pairs of chromatids are separated, forming two separate sets of 46 daughter chromosomes Telophase the two sets of daughter chromosomes are pushed completely apart. Then the mitotic apparatus dissolutes, and a new nuclear membrane develops around each set of chromosomes
3. 4. 5. -
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.