Desktop Mentor

Excel 2007

Introduction

Excel 2007 Introduction

Table of Contents
Creating New Workbooks..................................................................................................................... 6 Creating a Blank Workbook .............................................................................................................. 6 Templates ......................................................................................................................................... 6 Entering Data ......................................................................................................................................... 7 Entering Data into the Active Cell ..................................................................................................... 7 Entering the same value into Multiple Cells ..................................................................................... 8 Moving after Enter ............................................................................................................................ 8 Worksheet Views ................................................................................................................................... 9 Normal View ..................................................................................................................................... 9 Page Layout View ...........................................................................................................................11 Page Break Preview .......................................................................................................................11 AutoCalculate ......................................................................................................................................11 AutoSum ..............................................................................................................................................13 Extended AutoSum .........................................................................................................................13 AutoFill .................................................................................................................................................14 AutoFill Options ..............................................................................................................................14 Checking Spelling ...............................................................................................................................15 Adding Page Breaks ...........................................................................................................................16 Saving Workbooks ..............................................................................................................................17 Saving a Workbook for the First Time ............................................................................................17 Saving Changes to a Workbook .....................................................................................................18 Closing Workbooks ............................................................................................................................19 AutoCorrect .........................................................................................................................................19 Creating Custom AutoFill Lists .........................................................................................................20 Inserting Symbols ...............................................................................................................................21 Inserting Hyperlinks ............................................................................................................................22 Something Else to Try ....................................................................................................................24 Data Entry Shortcuts ..........................................................................................................................24 For Example ...................................................................................................................................25 Opening Workbooks ...........................................................................................................................26 Navigating Workbooks .......................................................................................................................28 Selecting Data .....................................................................................................................................29 Selecting using the Mouse .............................................................................................................29 Selecting Multiple Areas .................................................................................................................30 Selecting using the Keyboard .........................................................................................................30 Editing and Clearing Data ..................................................................................................................31 Editing Data ....................................................................................................................................31 Clearing Data ..................................................................................................................................31 Moving and Copying Data ..................................................................................................................32 Undo, Redo and Repeat ......................................................................................................................33 Repeating Commands ....................................................................................................................34

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Finding and Replacing Data ...............................................................................................................34 Finding Data ...................................................................................................................................34 Finding Formatting ..........................................................................................................................35 Replacing Data ...............................................................................................................................36 Inserting and Deleting Columns and Rows ......................................................................................36 Inserting Columns and Rows ..........................................................................................................36 Deleting Columns and Rows ..........................................................................................................37 Entering Formulas ..............................................................................................................................38 Rules of Formulas...........................................................................................................................38 Worksheet Functions ..........................................................................................................................39 The Function Wizard ......................................................................................................................39 Entering a Function Manually .........................................................................................................40 Function Examples .........................................................................................................................41 Inserting Worksheets ..........................................................................................................................41 Setting the Default Number of Sheets ............................................................................................42 Renaming Sheets ................................................................................................................................42 Renaming Sheets ...........................................................................................................................42 Recolouring Sheets ........................................................................................................................43 Deleting Sheets ...................................................................................................................................44 The Clipboard Task Pane ...................................................................................................................44 Research ..............................................................................................................................................45 Adding Services ..............................................................................................................................46 Smart Tags ...........................................................................................................................................46 Data Entry Smart Tag .....................................................................................................................47 Formula Error Smart Tag ................................................................................................................48 Paste Options Smart Tag ...............................................................................................................48 Insert Options Smart Tag ...............................................................................................................49 Absolute References in Formulas .....................................................................................................50 Range Names ......................................................................................................................................50 Applying a Range Name .................................................................................................................51 Using Names in Formulas ..............................................................................................................51 The Name Manager ........................................................................................................................52 Selecting Cells using their Names ..................................................................................................52 The Quick Format Bar.........................................................................................................................53 Text Formatting ...................................................................................................................................54 Text Formatting via the Ribbon ......................................................................................................54 Additional Formatting Options ........................................................................................................55 Formatting Shortcuts ......................................................................................................................56 Formatting Part of the Cell ..............................................................................................................56 Number and Date Formatting.............................................................................................................56 Number Formatting .........................................................................................................................56 Additional Number Formatting Options ..........................................................................................58 Date and Time Languages .............................................................................................................59 Number Formatting Shortcuts ........................................................................................................60 Borders and Shading ..........................................................................................................................60 Applying Borders ............................................................................................................................60 Applying Shading ............................................................................................................................61 Additional Formatting ......................................................................................................................61 Drawing Borders .............................................................................................................................63

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Text Alignment and Orientation ........................................................................................................63 Aligning Text ...................................................................................................................................64 Indenting Text .................................................................................................................................64 Text Orientation ..............................................................................................................................65 Wrapping and Merging Text ...............................................................................................................66 Wrapping Text ................................................................................................................................66 Merging Cells ..................................................................................................................................66 Applying Themes ................................................................................................................................67 Adding Headers and Footers .............................................................................................................68 Setting Margins and Orientation .......................................................................................................70 Setting Margins ...............................................................................................................................70 Setting Page Orientation ................................................................................................................71 Additional Print Options ..................................................................................................................71 Conditional Formatting .......................................................................................................................72 Highlight Cells .................................................................................................................................72 Top/Bottom .....................................................................................................................................74 Data Bars ........................................................................................................................................75 Colour Scales .................................................................................................................................75 Icon Sets .........................................................................................................................................75 Removing Conditional Formatting ..................................................................................................76 Setting Column Widths .......................................................................................................................76 Setting Column Widths ...................................................................................................................76 Setting to a Specific Width ..............................................................................................................77 AutoFit ............................................................................................................................................77 Setting Row Height .............................................................................................................................77 Setting Row Height .........................................................................................................................77 Setting to a Specific Height ............................................................................................................78 AutoFit ............................................................................................................................................78 Clearing Formatting ............................................................................................................................78 Format Painter .....................................................................................................................................79 Page Background ................................................................................................................................79 Formatting a Range as a Table ..........................................................................................................81 Defining a Table..............................................................................................................................81 Naming a Table ..............................................................................................................................81 Adding Records to the Table ..........................................................................................................82 Applying Table Styles .........................................................................................................................82 Changing the Table Style ...............................................................................................................82 Clearing the Table Style .................................................................................................................83 Applying Cell Styles ............................................................................................................................83 Creating Table Styles..........................................................................................................................84 Copying an Existing Style ...............................................................................................................84 Creating a New Style ......................................................................................................................85 Creating Cell Styles ............................................................................................................................86 Copying an Existing Style ...............................................................................................................86 Creating a New Style ......................................................................................................................87 Showing Total Rows ...........................................................................................................................89 Resizing Tables ...................................................................................................................................90 Converting a Table to a Range ..........................................................................................................90

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Sorting a Table ....................................................................................................................................91 Sorting Data ....................................................................................................................................91 Sorting by Colour ............................................................................................................................92 Sorting on Multiple Fields ...............................................................................................................93 AutoFilter .............................................................................................................................................94 Using AutoFilter ..............................................................................................................................94 Text Filters ......................................................................................................................................95 Number Filters ................................................................................................................................96 Removing Duplicates from a Table ...................................................................................................97 Using Structured References in a Table ...........................................................................................98 Exporting Tables ...............................................................................................................................100 Merging Cell Styles ...........................................................................................................................102 Pick from Drop-down List ................................................................................................................103 Inserting Images ................................................................................................................................104 Inserting ClipArt ................................................................................................................................105 Inserting SmartArt .............................................................................................................................107 Adding Shapes ..................................................................................................................................111 Drawing Shapes ...........................................................................................................................111 Drawing Lines ...............................................................................................................................112 Drawing Shortcuts ........................................................................................................................112 Selecting Shapes ..........................................................................................................................112 Shape Styles and Formatting...........................................................................................................113 Shape Styles .................................................................................................................................113 Shape Fill and Outline ..................................................................................................................113 Shape Effects ...............................................................................................................................116 Arranging and Aligning Shapes ......................................................................................................117 Arranging Objects .........................................................................................................................117 Aligning Objects ............................................................................................................................118 Distributing Objects ......................................................................................................................119 Creating Charts .................................................................................................................................119 Chart Format and Layout .................................................................................................................121 Chart Layout .................................................................................................................................121 Chart Styles ..................................................................................................................................122 Adding Labels ...............................................................................................................................122 Formatting the Axes .....................................................................................................................123 Changing the Chart Type .................................................................................................................124 Changing the Chart Type .............................................................................................................124 Available Chart Types ..................................................................................................................125 Changing the Chart Location ...........................................................................................................127 Adding Text Boxes ............................................................................................................................128 Adding Text Boxes .......................................................................................................................128 Formatting Text Boxes .................................................................................................................128 Connecting Shapes ...........................................................................................................................129 Changing Shapes ..............................................................................................................................130 Flipping and Rotating .......................................................................................................................131 Rotating Shapes ...........................................................................................................................131 Flipping Shapes ............................................................................................................................132

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Inserting WordArt ..............................................................................................................................133 Chart Templates ................................................................................................................................135 Zooming In and Out ..........................................................................................................................137 Save As ..............................................................................................................................................137 Save As PDF ......................................................................................................................................139 What is PDF Format? ...................................................................................................................139 Saving in PDF Format ..................................................................................................................139 Print Preview .....................................................................................................................................140 Printing Workbooks ..........................................................................................................................142 Emailing Workbooks .........................................................................................................................143 Setting Workbook Properties ..........................................................................................................144 Marking As Final ...............................................................................................................................146 Saving Workspaces ..........................................................................................................................147 Arranging Windows ......................................................................................................................147 Saving the Workspace ..................................................................................................................148 Error Checking and Debugging .......................................................................................................149 Setting the Print Area .......................................................................................................................152 Setting the Print Area ...................................................................................................................152 Clearing the Print Area .................................................................................................................152 Printing Titles ....................................................................................................................................153 Compatibility Checking ....................................................................................................................154 Setting Passwords ............................................................................................................................155 Setting Read-Only Access ...............................................................................................................157

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Creating New Workbooks
When Excel 2007 is launched, a new blank workbook is displayed automatically.

Creating a Blank Workbook
If you need another new workbook:

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Click on the Office button Choose New Ensure Blank Workbook is selected Click on Create

From the New Workbook window, you can also choose the New from Existing option. This creates a new workbook that contains all data and formatting of an existing workbook. A copy of the existing workbook will be opened, which can be changed and saved under a new name, leaving the original unaffected.

Templates
Excel 2007 has a number of templates that contain standard text and formatting to be used as a base for your workbooks. To download a template for the first time from the Microsoft website:

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Click on the Office button Choose New Scroll down the list of template categories and choose the category you wish to create a template from e.g. Invoices or Time Sheets Choose the template you wish to use Click on Download

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Click on Continue to validate your copy of Excel before downloading the template The template will be downloaded and a new workbook created that is based on the template.

Recently used templates will be listed under Blank and Recent in the New Workbook window, allowing you to create further workbooks from the same template as required.

Entering Data
Before entering text or numbers into the worksheet, the active cell must be positioned. The active cell indicates where the text or number that you next type will be entered, and is indicated by its dark borders. B2 is the active cell in the following screenshot:

The active cell can be moved by pressing the up, down, left or right arrows, or using any of Excel's other

navigation keystrokes. The active cell can also be moved using the mouse - position the mouse pointer where you wish to active cell to appear and click once.

Entering Data into the Active Cell
After positioning the active cell, simply type the text or number, then:

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Press [Enter] to move the active cell down in the column Press [Ctrl Enter] to keep the same cell active Click on any part of the worksheet to change the active cell as required

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After typing the data, it will appear in the selected cell. If the cell is still active, the data will also appear in the formula bar at the top of the screen. Alphabetical text (labels) automatically align to the left of the cell when entered while numbers and dates (values) align to the right. Dates should always be entered in the format dd/mm/yy e.g. e.g. 12/06/07 for 12th June 2007.

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to enter data into the active cell: Keystroke Ctrl ; Shift Ctrl ; Action Enter the current date in the active cell Enter the current time in the active cell

Dates and times entered in this way will not update automatically each time the workbook is opened.

Entering the same value into Multiple Cells
If you need to enter the same value or label into a range of cells, this can be done as follows:

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Select the range you wish to enter the label or value into Type the label or value Press [Ctrl Enter]

Moving after Enter
By default, the next cell in the column will be selected when [Return] is pressed. If you wish to change this:

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Click on the Office button, then on the Excel Options button Click on the Advanced menu on the left-hand side of the window Click on the drop-down arrow of the Direction box, under After pressing Enter, move selection Choose the direction you wish to move in, then click on OK

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If you don't want the active cell to change when [Enter] is pressed, remove the check from the After pressing Enter, move selection in the Options window.

Worksheet Views
You can view your worksheet using one of three views in Excel 2007. The View buttons on the status bar can be used to choose the view to be used: Button View

Normal View Page Layout View Page Break Preview
Alternatively, you can click on the View ribbon and choose the required view from the Workbook Views group.

Normal View
This view shows data as it will print but does not show headers and footers or other print formatting options. Only the main area of the worksheet is displayed, with no margins or empty space at the bottom of each page. Page breaks show as dashed black lines on the worksheet.

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Page Layout View
This view is fully WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) and shows pages exactly as they will print, including margins and any blank space. You can also enter header and footer text in this view.

Page Break Preview
Page Break Preview displays the entire worksheet, but cells that are not part of the print range are displayed in grey. Page breaks are displayed as thick blue lines that can be moved as required.

Use the Full Screen button on the Views ribbon to set Excel to full screen mode. The ribbon, quick access toolbar and Office button will be hidden, as will the formula bar, name box and status bar. Press [Esc] to return to stop full screen mode.

AutoCalculate
The AutoCalculate box on the status bar is used to quickly view the average, count and sum of a selected block of values. If the selection does not contain any values, this box will remain blank.

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This selected range:

Would display this result in the status bar:

As well as the default Average, Count and Sum options, additional calculations can be viewed. Position the mouse pointer over the status bar and press the right-mouse button.

The following functions are available to be displayed in the AutoCalculate box: Option Average Count Numerical Count Maximum Minimum Sum Displays The average of the selected values The number of values or labels in the selection The number of values in the selection The highest value in the selection The lowest value in the selection The total of all numbers in the selection

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AutoSum
AutoSum is used to add the contents of columns and/or rows of values and place the results in specified cells of the worksheet.

Select the values you wish to add up, including the blank row or column to contain the result. If you wish to add up columns, include a blank row at the bottom of the range, if you wish to add up rows, include a blank column to the right of the selection. The following range would be selected to add column and row totals to the table:

Click on the AutoSum button in the Editing group of the Home ribbon

As the AutoSum command enters formula into the spreadsheet, the total will update automatically if the figures on the spreadsheet are amended.

Extended AutoSum
As well as adding totals to your spreadsheets using the AutoSum button, you can use other common functions to summarise the highlighted figures. Click on the drop-down arrow of the AutoSum button to show the additional options:

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The following additional functions are available in the AutoSum list: Function Average Count Max Min Description Returns the average of each column and/or row in the selection Returns the number of items in each column and/or row in the selection Returns the highest value in each column and/or row in the selection Returns the lowest value in each column and/or row in the selection

Press [Alt =] to add up the selected columns and rows of figures.

AutoFill
The AutoFill handle at the bottom-right corner of the active cell or selection can be used to enter a series of data automatically. AutoFill works slightly differently depending on the type of data contained in the cell.

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If text or a value has been entered in the cell, this will be repeated when the fill handle is dragged If a date has been entered in the cell, this will increment when the fill handle is dragged If a value has been entered and you hold [Ctrl] when dragging the fill handle, the value will increment

The following pre-set series can also be entered: Series Month names Day names How to Enter Type the first month name in full e.g. January or shortened to 3 characters e.g. Jan Type the first day name in full e.g. Monday or shortened to 3 characters e.g. Mon

Label series e.g. Item 1, Type the first label followed by its number e.g. Item 1. The number will Item 2, etc. increment in each cell that the fill handle is dragged over. Number series e.g. 10, 20, 30, etc. Type and select the first two numbers of the series e.g. 10 and 20. When the AutoFill handle is dragged, the series will increment by the same amount each time.

AutoFill Options
When you use the AutoFill command to copy data, you are given the choice of how the data should be inserted.

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After using AutoFill, look in the bottom-right corner of the range of data - you will see a smart tag Position the mouse over this tag to display a drop-down arrow Click on the drop-down arrow and choose how you wish to fill the range

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Options: Option Copy Cells Fill Series Fill Formatting Only Fill Days Fill Months Fill Years Description Repeat the first value in all cells of the range Increment the value or date Copy only the formatting from the first cell into all others in the range For dates, increase by one day for each cell selected For dates, increase by one month for each cell selected For dates, increase by one year for each cell selected

Checking Spelling
Excel's spell checker can be started in one of two ways:

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Press [F7] or Click on the Review ribbon, then on the Spelling button in the Proofing group

Excel will start checking from the active cell. If the active cell is not A1, you will be asked if you wish to check spelling from the beginning of the sheet.

When an incorrect word is found, the following dialog box will be displayed:

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     

Click on a replacement word in the Suggestions list or edit the Not in Dictionary text as required Choose Change to change this occurrence of the word or Change All to change all occurrences in the message Click on Ignore to ignore this occurrence of the word Click on Ignore All to ignore all occurrences of the word in the message Click on Add to add the word to the custom dictionary - this is useful for names of people, etc. that do not appear in the standard dictionary To add an incorrect spelling to the AutoCorrect list so that it is corrected automatically in future, choose the correct replacement from the Suggestions list that should be used when the incorrect spelling is typed, then click on the AutoCorrect button

You will be told when the spell check is complete - click on OK

Adding Page Breaks
Excel workbooks are paginated as they are typed – system page breaks are inserted where no more text will fit onto a page. These breaks can be overwritten with hard (manual) page breaks. In the following image, the break marked (1) is a system page break that was inserted automatically, while (2) is a manual page break inserted by the user.

To insert a horizontal page break:

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Click in column A of the row to begin the new page Click on the Page Layout ribbon, then on the Breaks button in the Page Setup group Choose Insert Page Break

In the following screenshot, a horizontal page break would be inserted between rows 3 and 4 of the worksheet.

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To insert a vertical page break:

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Click in row 1 of the column to begin the new page Click on the Page Layout ribbon, then on the Breaks button in the Page Setup group Choose Insert Page Break

In the following screenshot, a vertical page break would be inserted between columns C and D of the worksheet.

You can insert both a horizontal and vertical page break in one step by clicking on the cell to begin the new page. A horizontal break will be added above this cell, and a vertical page break to the left of this cell.

To remove a page break:

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Click on the cell that immediately follows the break Click on the Page Layout ribbon, then on the Breaks button in the Page Setup group Choose Remove Page Break

Saving Workbooks
Saving involves assigning a workbook name and placing the workbook in a folder on one of your computer's drives so that it can be opened again if required.

Saving a Workbook for the First Time
When you save a workbook for the first time, you can choose either the Save or Save As command.

Click on the Office button and choose Save or Save As, or click on the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar

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To choose a different drive to save the file to, click on the Computer icon in the Folder list on the left of the Save As window To choose a different folder on the same drive, click on the drive name in the navigation trail along the top of the window Double-click on the folder you wish to save the file to Click in the File Name box and type a new name for the workbook Click on Save

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Saving Changes to a Workbook
If you are saving an existing workbook after changes have been made, it is important to know the difference between the Save and Save As commands. Command Save Description This command saves the current workbook under the existing name and replaces the original version. Click on the Office button and choose Save, or click on the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar. This command requests a new name for the workbook and leaves the original unchanged. Click on the Office button and choose Save As.

Save As

You can also use the following shortcut keys to save a file: Keystroke Ctrl S F12 Action Save Save As

If you accidentally attempt to close a workbook without first saving it, Excel will ask if you wish to save any changes to the workbook. Click on Yes to save the changes or No to exit the workbook and lose any changes.

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Closing Workbooks
Although it is possible to open more than one Excel workbook at a time, it is good practice to close a workbook when you have finished working on it. A file can be closed in one of the following ways:

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Click on the Office button and choose Close Press [Ctrl F4] Click on the lower x in the top-right corner of the workbook

If the file has not yet been saved, choose Yes to save the workbook or No to cancel any changes made

AutoCorrect
This feature is used to correct spelling errors as they are typed or to complete abbreviations automatically e.g. teh will automatically change to the when [Space] or [Return] is pressed. To add any other word to the AutoCorrect list:

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Ensure a workbook is currently open Click on the Office button, then on the Excel Options button Click on the Proofing option in the left-hand menu Click on the AutoCorrect Options button Type the incorrect word in the Replace box and the correction in the With box Click on Add

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The following options can also be set in the AutoCorrect dialog box:

Option Correct two initial caps Capitalise first letter of sentence Capitalise names of days

Description This will correct two capital letters typed at the beginning of a sentence, changing the second letter to lower case This will ensure the first letter of a sentence is a capital letter, changing any lower case letters typed after a full stop This will ensure day names e.g. Monday start with a capital letter

Correct accidental usage If the Caps Lock key is pressed, all capital letters will show as small letters of Caps Lock key and vice-versa. Excel will correct this and switch the Caps Lock key off
Any words added to the AutoCorrect list in Excel will also be available in Word and PowerPoint.

Creating Custom AutoFill Lists
You can create custom AutoFill lists for frequently used sets of data. Any list can be defined and then entered by typing the first item and dragging the fill handle in any direction. To create a new AutoFill list:

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Ensure a workbook is currently open Click on the Office button, then on the Excel Options button Click on the Popular option in the left-hand menu Click on the Edit Custom Lists button Click in the List Entries box and type the entries for the list, pressing [Return] between each Click on Add Click on OK to return to the workbook

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If you have already entered the list manually into the worksheet, it can be imported as a custom list with no retyping required:

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Select the cells containing the items of the list - these must be located next to each other Click on the Office button, then on the Excel Options button Click on the Popular option in the left-hand menu Click on the Edit Custom Lists button Click on the Import button Click on OK

Inserting Symbols
Symbols that do not appear on the standard keyboard can be inserted as follows:

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Symbol button in the Text group

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From the Font drop-down list, choose the font set that contains the symbol you wish to insert (see table below) Click on the symbol required, using the scroll bar to view more symbols as required. If using the Normal font, subsets of the font will be listed to allow you to find the character you want quicker and easier Click on Insert When complete, click on Cancel

The last 16 symbols used will show along the bottom of the Insert Symbol window.

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The following generic font sets are available with Excel: Font Normal Text Symbol Wingdings Webdings Characters Fractions and international characters e.g. those with accents Additional characters not found above e.g. mathematical and scientific characters Bullet symbols and other graphics e.g. envelope and scissor symbols Small graphics e.g. globes and weather symbols

Inserting Hyperlinks
A hyperlink is a link to a specific part of the current workbook, a different workbook or a website. Hyperlinks appear as underlined text and, when clicked, will activate the target automatically. The following types of hyperlinks can be inserted into Excel sheets:

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A link to a named range in the same workbook A link to a specific sheet in the workbook A link to a different Excel workbook A link to an Office document, e.g. a PowerPoint presentation or Access database A link to a website An email link to create a new Outlook mail message automatically

To insert a hyperlink:

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Save the workbook Select the cell you wish to insert the hyperlink in - ensure the cell contains text that can be clicked to activate the link On the Insert ribbon, click on the Hyperlink button in the Links group

The Insert Hyperlink window will open:

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To link to another file, Excel or otherwise, click on the Existing File or Web Page icon on the left. Navigate the folders in the centre of the window to locate and select the file you wish to link to To create a hyperlink to a web page, click on the Existing File or Web Page icon and type the full URL of the page in the Address box e.g. http://www.hp.com. If you have visited the web page recently, click on Browsed Pages to choose the URL from your History list

To link to a specific cell in the workbook, click on the Place in this Document icon. Choose the sheet and enter the reference of the cell to link to

To link to a named range in the workbook, click on the Place in this Document icon. Click on the + in front of Defined Names and choose the name from the list displayed

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To create an email hyperlink that will create a new mail message when clicked, click on the E-mail Address icon and type the full Email Address e.g. john.smith@hp.com. If messages created using this link should always have a specific subject, enter this in the Subject box

Click on OK

Press [Ctrl K] to insert a hyperlink quickly in the active cell.

Something Else to Try
Hyperlinks can also be inserted automatically as follows:

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Hyperlinks to web pages can be created automatically by typing the full URL address of the website e.g. http://www.hp.com Email hyperlinks can be created by typing the full email address e.g. john.smith@hp.com. When this link is clicked, an Outlook message will be created and addressed automatically Hyperlinks to files can be created by typing the computer, folder and filename e.g. \\pcone\data\test.doc. When clicked, the file will be opened

Data Entry Shortcuts
Excel has many shortcuts for entering text and values into a worksheet or data list. Shortcut Ctrl ' Ctrl ; Shift Ctrl ; Ctrl  Ctrl  Ctrl D Ctrl R Ctrl Return Action Duplicates the value from the cell directly above the active cell Inserts the current date into the active cell, using the short date format dd/mm/yy Inserts the current time into the active cell, using the short time format hh:mm Moves the active cell to the last entry in the current column Moves the active cell to the last entry in the current row Copies the value from the first cell of the selection into all other selected cells in the same column Copies the value from the first cell of the selection into all other selected cells in the same row Inserts the typed value into all selected cells

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For Example
Using the above keys, you could press [Ctrl D] to copy the value 100 into all other selected cells in column A, or press [Ctrl R] to copy the value into all selected cells in row 1.

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Opening Workbooks
The most recent workbooks you have used can be opened by clicking on the Office button, then on the workbook you wish to open on the right-hand side of the menu:

To open a workbook that does not appear in the Recent Documents list:

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Click on the Office button Click on Open To choose a different drive to open a file from, click on the Computer icon in the Folder list on the left of the Open window To choose a different folder on the same drive, click on the drive name in the navigation trail along the top of the window Double-click on the folder you wish to open a file from Select the file you wish to open Click on Open

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The following toolbar appears along the top of the Open window:

Click on the Organise button to show a menu that allows you to:

   

Create new folders within the folder you are currently viewing Perform housekeeping tasks such as copying, moving and deleting selected files Change the layout of the Open window e.g. to include the Details or Preview pane View properties of the selected file

Click on the Views button to view the files in the Open window in different ways:

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  

Use the List option to show file names with small icons in multiple columns Use the Details option to show the name of each file, as well as its modification date, type, size and tags Use the Tiles option to show larger icons of each file with the name, type and size

Press [Ctrl O] to show the Open window at any time.

Navigating Workbooks
Before entering any data into your worksheet, it is important to position the active cell correctly. Any typed data will be placed in the active cell when [Enter] or [Return] is pressed. The active cell can be positioned as follows:

 

Click the mouse in the relevant position If the position is not displayed on screen, use the scroll bars to display the position before clicking the mouse

The following cursor movement keys can also be used to move around a worksheet: Keystroke Left or Right arrow Up or Down arrow Ctrl + Left arrow Ctrl + Right arrow Ctrl + Up arrow Ctrl + Down arrow Home Ctrl + Home Ctrl + Page Up Ctrl + Page Down Moves the Cursor... One cell to the left or right One cell up or down To the first column of the current range To the last column of the current range To the first row of the current range To the last row of the current range To the beginning of the current row To the top of the worksheet (cell A1) To the previous worksheet of the book To the next worksheet of the book

To move to a specific cell on the worksheet:

   

On the Home ribbon, click on the Find & Select button in the Editing group Click on Go To Type the reference of the cell you want to activate Click on OK

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You can also press [Ctrl G] to show the Go To window.

A cell can also be activated using the Name box above the column headings of the spreadsheet.

 

Click in the name box and enter the cell you wish to go to Press [Enter]

Selecting Data
Selecting using the Mouse
To select text using the mouse:

 

Drag the mouse over a block of cells to select it or Click at the beginning of the block and hold [Shift] while clicking at the end

To select cells A1 to C5, for example:

 

Click on cell A1 Hold [Shift] and click on cell C5 - all cells between will be selected

You can also use the following shortcuts: Select Column Row Entire sheet Action Click on the letter at the top of the column Click on the number at the beginning of the row Click on the grey box between the first column letter and first row number

Arrows will display when you click on a column letter or row number, to show that the mouse is positioned correctly to select the column or row. The following image shows the mouse in the correct position to select column B:

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Selecting Multiple Areas
You can select multiple areas of the spreadsheet so that formatting can be applied to non-contiguous text in a single step.

  

Drag the mouse over the first block of cells you wish to select and release the mouse button when complete Hold [Ctrl] and drag the mouse over the next block of cells, again releasing the mouse when complete Repeat the above step until all text is selected

Selecting using the Keyboard
The [Shift] key can be added to any navigation shortcut to select text in that direction e.g. to select from the current cell to the beginning of the row, press [Shift] and [Home] together. The following shortcuts can also be used to select areas of the worksheet. Select Column Row The entire sheet The current region Keystroke [Ctrl Spacebar] [Shift Spacebar] [Ctrl Shift Spacebar] or [Ctrl A] [Ctrl *] on the numeric keypad or [Ctrl Shift 8] on the standard keyboard

The current region is the area of data surrounding the active cell, until a blank column or row is encountered. In the following screenshot, there are two regions. Cells A1 to D3 are in the current region as this contains the active cell (B2). Cells A5 to D7 are in another region as there is a blank row between these cells and the first region.

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Editing and Clearing Data
Editing Data
The content of the active cell always displays in the Formula Bar:

The content of the cell can be edited in the following way:

     

Click in the Formula Bar or press [F2] Use the arrow keys of the keyboard or the mouse to position the cursor where the change should occur To insert text, simply type the text - it will appear at the cursor position Press [Backspace] to remove the character to the left of the cursor Press [Delete] to remove the character to the right of the cursor Press [Return] to enter the revised data into the cell

It is also possible to edit the cell without using the Formula Bar. Simply double click in the cell and edit as required, pressing [Enter] when complete

Clearing Data
Cells are cleared by selecting the cells and pressing [Delete]. This will only clear the content of the cell - removing any text, numbers or formula typed in the cell. Formatting such as borders and colours will not be removed.

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The Clear command can be used to specify exactly what you want to delete from the selected cells, for example, you can use this to clear only the formatting from your cells. Any data entered in the cells will remain, but all formatting will be removed.

  

Select the cells you wish to clear On the Home ribbon, click on the Clear button in the Editing group Choose to clear all (formatting and data), formatting only or content only

Moving and Copying Data
Data can be moved or copied using the standard cut, copy and paste commands which are available on the Home ribbon.

   

Select the range to be moved or copied On the Home ribbon, click on the Copy button to copy the range, or the Cut button to move the range Activate the first cell in which the copied or moved data should appear. If this cell contains data, it will be overwritten when the range is pasted On the Home ribbon, click on the Paste button to insert the range

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to move and copy data. Keystroke [Ctrl C] [Ctrl X] [Ctrl V] Action Copy Cut Paste

A range can also be moved or copied using the drag and drop facility:

 

Position the mouse over the edge of the selected range to display the white mouse pointer with 4 directional arrows Drag the range to a new location and release the mouse button

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To copy text using drag and drop, hold [Ctrl] while dragging and release the mouse button before releasing the [Ctrl] key.

Undo, Redo and Repeat
The Undo command allows you to reverse up to 100 commands that have already been executed, including restoring deleted text. Use one of the following methods:

 

Click on the Undo button on the Quick Access Toolbar to undo the last command Click on the drop-down arrow after the Undo button to select the command you wish to undo up to

If you change your mind about undoing a command, it can be redone:

 

Click on the Redo button on the Quick Access Toolbar to redo the last command Click on the drop-down arrow after the Redo button to select the command you wish to redo up to

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to undo and redo commands: Keystroke [Ctrl Z] [Ctrl Y] Action Undo Redo

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Repeating Commands
The Repeat command will repeat the action just performed and can be used to carry out the same task on a number of different worksheet ranges. Press [F4] at any time to repeat the last command.

Finding and Replacing Data
Finding Data
To find data automatically:

   

On the Home ribbon, click on the Find & Select button of the Editing group Choose Find Type the text you wish to locate Click on Find Next to find the first occurrence of the word, then Find Next again until the correct occurrence is found

Alternatively, you can display a list of all cells in the worksheet that contain your search text. Click on Find All in the Find window to do this:

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Additional search options can be set in the Find dialog box by clicking on the Options button:

    

Use the Within box to choose to search the current sheet only, or the entire workbook Use the Search box to search through the spreadsheet by row or column Use the Look In box to choose to search the formula in cells, or formula results only Check Match Case to find only results with the same mix of upper and lower case characters Check Match Entire Cell Contents to find only cells that contain nothing but the search text

Press [Ctrl F] to show the Find window at any time.

Finding Formatting
It is possible to find text that is formatted in a specific way e.g. all text using the Arial font or all text coloured red:

      

On the Home ribbon, click on the Find & Select button of the Editing group Choose Find Click on the Options button to show additional options Click on the Format button Choose the formatting you wish to locate, using any required tabs from the top of the window Click on OK Click on Find Next to find the next occurrence of the formatting, or Find All to find all formatting

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Replacing Data
To replace text automatically:

     

On the Home ribbon, click on the Find & Select button of the Editing group Choose Replace Type the text or number to be located in the Find What box Type the replacement text or number in the Replace With box. Click on Find Next to find the next occurrence of the word Click on Replace to replace the single occurrence or Replace All to replace all occurrences

Press [Ctrl H] to show the Replace window at any time.

Inserting and Deleting Columns and Rows
Inserting Columns and Rows
When a column is inserted, the new column will appear to the left of the selected column, with the selected column moving across the worksheet. When a row is inserted, the new row will appear above the selected row, with the selected row moving down the worksheet accordingly. In the following screenshot, if a new column were inserted it would appear between Jan and Feb:

In the following screenshot, if a new row were inserted it would appear between South and West:

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Columns and rows can be inserted as follows:

  

Select the column or row to follow the new column or row On the Home ribbon, click on the Insert button in the Cells group Choose Insert Sheet Columns or Insert Sheet Rows as required

You can also press [Ctrl Shift +] to insert a column or row at the selected position.

Deleting Columns and Rows
Columns and rows can be deleted as follows:

  

Select the columns or rows to be deleted On the Home ribbon, click on the Delete button in the Cells group Choose Delete Sheet Columns or Delete Sheet Rows as required

You can also press [Ctrl -] to delete the selected columns or rows.

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Entering Formulas
A formula is a sequence of values, cell references and mathematical operators entered into a cell to produce a result. A formula can be used to perform operations such as addition and multiplication based on data in the worksheet. When the data is changed, the result of the formula will update automatically. The following mathematical operations can be used in a formula:

Addition ( + ) Subtraction ( - ) Multiplication ( * ) Division ( / ) Exponential ( ^ ) Percent ( % )
A formula can be entered into a single cell or range of cells.

  

Select the cell or range to contain the formula Type = and build the formula by clicking on the relevant cells and using the standard mathematical operators Press [Return] if entering into a single cell or press [Ctrl Return] if entering into a range of cells

As you build your formula, Excel will highlight the cells that make up the formula on the worksheet. The colour of each border matches the cell reference in the formula:

When you double click on a cell containing a formula, Excel will again colour each cell reference in that formula, adding borders to the related cell on the worksheet.

Rules of Formulas
The following rules apply to formulas in Excel:

   

Every formula begins with an equal sign (=) The formula must not contain any spaces except when using range names All text other than function or range names must be enclosed in quotes (" ") As far as possible, cell references should be used in the formula as opposed to numbers. This will ensure the formula updates automatically if the values in the worksheet are changed

The order of calculation in Excel is:

     

Brackets Of Division Multiplication Addition Subtraction

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For example: Formula =2+3*4 =(2+3)*4 Result 14 20 Description As there are no brackets, multiplication is carried out first where 3*4 = 12. 2 is then added to this where 2+12 = 14. The part of the formula in brackets is carried out first where 2+3 = 5. This is then multiplied by 4 to give 20.

If a formula is entered into a single cell, it can be copied into adjacent cells using the standard Copy and Paste commands, or dragged to adjacent cells using the fill handle.

Worksheet Functions
A function is a calculation tool that can be used to perform a specific task in a formula. Function names are followed by arguments or options which differ depending on the information needed by the function.

The Function Wizard
The Insert Function command, or the Function Wizard, can be used if you are unsure of a function or its arguments.

 

Activate the cell to contain the function result Click on the Insert Function button at the beginning of the Formula Bar

 

Type keywords to search for the function you need - use plain English and enter as many keywords as you can to describe what you wish to achieve with the function Click on Go

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Excel will show all functions that match your search text. Click once on a function to show a description of the function below the Select a Function list.

 

Choose a function from the list Click on OK

Excel will display the Function Arguments window. Use this box to specify the ranges you wish to calculate, or any other arguments specific to the function you have chosen. Click on OK to enter the function into the active cell when all arguments have been added.

Entering a Function Manually
To type a function into your spreadsheet without using the Function Wizard:

    

Activate the cell to contain the function result Type = followed by the name of the function, and open brackets ( Drag the mouse over the range of cells to be calculated - these will be added to the function automatically Close brackets ) Press [Enter]

When you type or edit a function, Excel displays a screentip that shows you the arguments required for that function. The function used here, the ROUND function, requires two arguments - the number you wish to round up or down, plus the number of decimals or digits you wish to round it to.

If you would like to disable these screen tips so that Excel does not display them when you type a function, click on the Office button and choose Excel Options. Click on the Advanced option on the left-hand side of the window, then scroll down to show Display options. Uncheck Show Function Screentips then click on OK.

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Function Examples
The following mathematical functions have only one argument - the range of cells to be calculated: Function =sum() =average() =max() =min() Example =sum(a1:b10) =average(a1:b10) =max(a1:b10) =min(a1:b10) Description Adds the content of the range Returns the average of the values in the range Returns the highest value in the range Returns the lowest value in the range

Some functions do not require any arguments, for example: Function =today() =now() Description Returns the current date which will update each time the file is opened Returns the current date and time which will update each time the file is opened

Inserting Worksheets
By default, there are three sheets in each new workbook created, but more can be inserted as required. Additional sheets can be inserted as follows:

  

Select the sheet to follow the inserted sheet On the Home ribbon, click on the Insert button in the Cells group Choose Insert Sheet

The quickest way to insert more than one sheet is to choose the Insert Sheet command, then press the repeat key [F4] to repeat the command.

You can also insert a new sheet by clicking on the New Sheet tab that appears at the end of all tabs in the worksheet:

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Setting the Default Number of Sheets
The default of three sheets in each new workbook can be changed as follows:

   

Click on the Office button, then the Excel Options button Ensure the Popular option is selected in the left-hand menu Under When creating new workbooks, set the number of worksheets to appear by default in the Include this many sheets box Click on OK

Renaming Sheets
By default, each worksheet is named Sheet followed by a sequential number representing the order in which the sheet was inserted. The default sheet names can be changed to more relevant names that represent the data stored on that sheet. You can also recolour sheet tabs to categories and group sheets

Renaming Sheets
Sheet names can be up to 31 characters in length, including spaces. For example, in a monthly budget or expense workbook, the following default sheet names:

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Could be renamed as follows:

To rename a sheet:

  

Double click on the tab of the sheet you wish to rename Type a new name for the sheet Press [Enter]

Although spaces are allowed in sheet names, they are not recommended as they can make formulas more difficult to enter if they refer to different sheets.

Recolouring Sheets
In Excel 2007, you can set each tab to show as a different colour, for example:

Set the tab colour as follows:

   

Right click over the tab you wish to set Choose the Tab Color option from the menu displayed Click on the colour you wish to use Click on OK

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Deleting Sheets
Before deleting sheets, select the sheets you wish to remove:

  

Click on the sheet tab to select a single sheet To select multiple sheets positioned next to each other, click on the first sheet tab and hold [Shift] while clicking on the last sheet tab To select multiple sheets that are not positioned next to each other, click on the first sheet and hold [Ctrl] while clicking on the last sheet tab

The selected sheets can now be deleted as follows:

 

On the Home ribbon, click on the Delete button in the Cells group Choose Delete Sheet

The following shortcuts can be used to move between the sheets of a workbook: Keystroke [Ctrl PgUp] [Ctrl PgDn] [Shift Alt F1] Action Activate the previous sheet Activate the next sheet Insert a new sheet in front of the active sheet

The Clipboard Task Pane
It is possible to hold multiple entries in the Clipboard - allowing you to copy and paste more than one item at a time. The Clipboard Task Pane is used to choose the item you wish to paste at that time. By default, the Clipboard Task Pane will display whenever you copy an item in Word, Excel or PowerPoint. The Clipboard can hold 24 items and can be displayed in other applications too, allowing you to paste Office data into these. If the Clipboard Task Pane does not show by default, click on the More Options button in the Clipboard group of the Home ribbon:

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When the Clipboard task pane is displayed in Excel, an icon will appear on the task bar tray at the bottom of the screen. Use this icon to show the Clipboard in any application that you wish to paste data into.

You can remove the Clipboard icon from the task bar by clicking on the Options button at the bottom of the Clipboard task pane. Un-check the option to Show Office Clipboard Icon on Task Bar.

Once the Clipboard Task Pane is displayed, you can insert any item stored in the clipboard.

   

To paste from the clipboard, click on the item's icon on the Clipboard task pane To paste all items from the clipboard, click on Paste All at the top of the Clipboard task pane To clear all items from the clipboard, click on the Clear All button at the top of the Clipboard task pane Close the Clipboard task pane by clicking on the x in the top-right corner of the task pane

Up to 24 items can be stored in the Clipboard. If the clipboard is full and you attempt to add another item, the earliest item placed in the clipboard will be over-written.

Research
The Research task pane allows you to find reference information from a number of sources without leaving Office 2007. You can insert any found information into your worksheet.

Show the Research pane by clicking on the Review ribbon, then on the Research button of the Proofing group Click on the drop-down arrow of the All Reference Books list and choose the service you wish to use e.g. Thesaurus or Encarta Encyclopedia

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To quickly research any text in your document, hold [Alt] and click on the cell that contains the text. All reference books will be searched for the text and any results will be displayed.

Adding Services
To choose the services that will be available for research:

  

Click on the Research Options link at the bottom of the research task pane - a list of standard research options will be shown Tick each option you wish to make available, and remove the check from any options you do not wish to use Click on OK when complete

You can copy any text from the research pane into your worksheet by selecting the text, then right-clicking over the selection. Choose Copy from the shortcut menu, then paste the text into any cell as normal.

Smart Tags
A smart tag is a button that appears while you are creating your document, offering options and commands that are relevant to the task you are performing. You can control which smart tags Excel displays in your worksheet as follows:

   

Ensure a workbook is currently open Click on the Office button, then on the Excel Options button Click on the Proofing option in the left-hand menu Click on the AutoCorrect Options button

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   

Click on the Smart Tags tab Ensure Label Data with Smart Tags is checked. Check each item you wish to appear as a smart tag Click on OK

Data Entry Smart Tag
Smart tags appear when you type certain data into your worksheet, such as Outlook contact names or US stock symbols. Smart tags show as purple triangles in the bottom-right corner of the cell.

  

Position the mouse over the cell that contains a smart tag Position the mouse over the smart tag icon to display a drop-down arrow Click on the drop-down arrow to show all smart tag options

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Formula Error Smart Tag
If a formula you enter contains an error, Excel will display a smart tag to alert you of this error. Formula errors show as green triangles in the top-left corner of the cell.

      

Click on the cell that contains the formula error Position the mouse over the smart tag icon to display a drop-down arrow Click on the drop-down arrow to show all smart tag options Choose Help on this Error to show the help screen relating to this error Choose Show Calculation Steps to display the Watch window, giving a breakdown of the formula to make the error easier to spot Choose Ignore Error to ignore the error and remove the smart tag Choose Edit in Formula Bar if you wish to edit the error manually

Paste Options Smart Tag
When you paste data into your Excel worksheet, you often have a choice of how the data should be inserted. Paste smart tags appear when you paste data into the worksheet.

 

Position the mouse over the smart tag icon to display a drop-down arrow Click on the drop-down arrow to show all smart tag options

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     

Choose to Keep Source Formatting to format the pasted data as it appeared in the original sheet, even if this is different to the format of the current worksheet Choose to Match Destination Formatting to reformat the pasted data to match the current range Choose Values and Number Formatting to paste the data keeping only number formatting. Background colours, borders, etc. will be discarded Choose Keep Source Column Widths to set the width of the column you paste the data into to match the width of the column copied from Choose Formatting Only to paste only copied formatting - no data will be pasted Choose Link Cells to link to the original cells rather than pasting a copy of the data

Insert Options Smart Tag
When you insert columns, rows or cells into your Excel worksheet, you will be given a choice of how the new cells should be formatted. Insert smart tags appear when you insert columns or rows into a range that contains different formats on each side of the new column or row.

Using columns as an example:

    

Position the mouse over the smart tag icon to display a drop-down arrow Click on the drop-down arrow to show all smart tag options Choose Format Same as Left to format the new column to match the existing column on the left Choose Format Same as Right to format the new column to match the existing column on the right Choose Clear Formatting to not format the new column in any way

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Absolute References in Formulas
The standard way in which Excel enters a formula uses relative references. When a formula is copied, the cell references are updated accordingly. In the following example, the formula entered in cell B4 is =B2-B3. When copied to column C, the formula is updated relatively to =C2-C3.

However, there may be times when you don't want the formula to update the cell references for you. In the following example, we want both formulas to refer to the same cell - E5 - to pick up the discount percentage. The formula in B3 is =B2*E2, while the formula in C3 is =C2*E2. To keep E2 absolute when the formula is copied, it should be entered into B3 as such: =B2*$E$2.

To stop the references from changing, they must be entered as absolute references. This will ensure the same cell is referenced regardless of how the formula is moved or copied.

To use absolute references:

 

Create the formula in the normal way and position the cursor anywhere on the reference to be made absolute Type a dollar sign ($) before the column and row reference or press [F4]

Pressing [F4] once will make both the column and row reference absolute. Pressing [F4] a second time will make only the row reference absolute and a third time the column reference.

Range Names
Range names can be set to refer to any range of cells. Range names can make entering formula much easier, and make the formula easier for others to read. For example, the formula =SALES-PROFIT is much easier to understand than =B24-E15.
Using this example, Sales and Profit are range names applied to cells B24 and E15 respectively.

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Applying a Range Name
The name box to the left of the formula bar can be used to assign a name to a range.

 

Select the cells to be named Click in the name box which is located directly above the column headings

 

Type a name for the range - this should not contain spaces and must be more than a single character in length Press [Return]

Using Names in Formulas
To use a name in a formula, simply type the name or press [F3] to select the name from a list:

Alternatively, click on the Use in Formula button on the Formulas ribbon:

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The Name Manager
The Name Manager allows you to check the value and formula entered in named ranges, even if these cells are no longer in view on your worksheet. You can also use the Name Manager to edit and delete range names.

 

Click on the Formulas ribbon Click on the Name Manager button in the Defined Names group

 

Add comments to the selected named range by clicking on the Edit button and amending as required. Click on OK Delete the selected name by clicking on the Delete button. This will remove the name from the cell, but leave the cell as is on the worksheet

Selecting Cells using their Names
Range names can also be used to quickly select a range of cells:

 

Click on the drop-down arrow next to the name box to display a list of names Click on any name to select that range in the worksheet

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The Quick Format Bar
The Quick Format bar shows above the menu whenever you right-click over a cell. This bar can be used to quickly format the text and values in the selected cell:

The following buttons appear on the quick format bar: Button Description Font Font size Make text larger Make text smaller Currency format, 2 decimals. Click on the drop-down arrow for further currency choices e.g. US Dollars and Euros Percent format, no decimals Comma format, 2 decimals Copy format from cells Bold Italics Centre text in the cell Apply bottom border. Click on the drop-down arrow for further border options Fill colour Text colour Increase the number of decimal places Decrease the number of decimal places Merge and centre text across selected cells

You can also use the Quick Format bar to format specific text within a cell:

    

Double-click on the cell that contains the text you wish to format Drag the mouse over the text you wish to format The Quick Format bar will appear faintly to the right of the text position the mouse over the bar to show it fully Click on the format you wish to apply Press [Enter] to re-enter the text in the cell

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Text Formatting
Text Formatting via the Ribbon
The Home ribbon contains shortcuts for the following text formatting options:

Button

Description Font Font size Make text larger Make text smaller Bold Italics Underlining Apply bottom border. Click on the drop-down arrow for further border options Fill colour Text colour

To apply text formatting:

 

Select the cells you wish to format Change the font by clicking on the drop-down arrows of the Font box and choosing the required option. Font names will display as they will look in the worksheet

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  

Change the size of the text by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Size box and choosing the size in points - there are 72 points to an inch Add bold, italics or underlining to the cell by clicking on each button Change the colour of the text in the cells by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Text Colour button. Choose the required colour from the palette or click on Automatic to set the text colour back to the default - usually black

Formatting can be applied to more than one range at the same time. Drag the mouse over the first range, then hold [Ctrl] while dragging over each additional range.

Additional Formatting Options
Additional character formatting can be applied through the format cells dialog box:

    

 

Select the cells you wish to format Click on the More Options button in the Font group of the Home ribbon Choose the font, size and style from the lists displayed Click on the drop-down arrow of the Color box and choose the required colour from the palette displayed Click on the drop-down list of the Underline box and choose the required underline option. The Accounting style will place the underline slightly lower than a normal underline, leaving a gap between the cell content and underlining Check the effects you wish to apply Click on OK when complete

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Formatting Shortcuts
The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to format selected cells: Keyboard Ctrl B Ctrl U Ctrl I Ctrl 5 Ctrl 1 Action Bold Underlining Italics Strikethrough Display the Format Cells dialog box

Formatting Part of the Cell
If the cell contains text, as opposed to numbers, it is possible to format only part of the text:

   

Activate the cell you wish to format by double clicking on it Drag the mouse over the characters you wish to format Apply the text formatting using the ribbon, Format Cells dialog box or shortcuts described above Press [Return] when complete

Number and Date Formatting
When a number is entered into a spreadsheet, no zero decimals will be displayed in the number. For example, if 100.00 were entered, 100 would be displayed. The number format can be changed to ensure all numbers in a column have the same amount of decimal places. Currency symbols and commas can also be added in the format.

Number Formatting
The Home ribbon contains shortcuts for the following number formatting options:

Button

Description Additional formatting options e.g. date and time Currency format, 2 decimals Percent format, no decimals

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Button

Description Comma format, 2 decimals Increase decimals Decrease decimals

To format numbers:

 

Select the cells containing the values you wish to format Click on the drop-down arrow of the General box to apply a format in the list

  

Click on the Currency, Percent or Comma button to apply that format to the selection To increase the number of decimal places by 1, click on the Increase Decimals button To decrease the number of decimal places by 1, click on the Decrease Decimals button

The following worksheet demonstrates the effects of Currency, Percent and Comma formatting:

Formatting can be applied to more than one range at the same time. Drag the mouse over the first range as normal, then hold [Ctrl] while dragging over each additional range.

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Additional Number Formatting Options
Additional number formatting can be applied through the Format Cells dialog box:

   

Select the cells you wish to format Click on the More Options button in the Number group of the Home ribbon Choose the required Category (see table below) and enter the required number of Decimal Places Click on OK when complete

The following categories of number formatting are available: Category General Number Currency Description Displays the number as it was entered, with no symbols or extra decimal places. Displays the number with a set amount of decimal places. A comma can be added between each thousand of the number by checking the Use 1000 Separator box. Displays the number with a currency symbol and set amount of decimal places. Currency symbols from most of the world's countries are available and can be selected from the Symbol drop-down list. Unlike the Accounting format, the currency symbol appears immediately in front of the number, and not at the extreme left of the cell (see illustration below). Displays the number with an optional currency symbol and set amount of decimal places. The currency symbol will be placed at the extreme left of the cell (see illustration below). Displays a list of date formats that can be selected.

Accounting

Date

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Category Time Percentage Fraction

Description Displays a list of time formats that can be selected. Multiplies the number by 100 and displays the % symbol with a specified amount of decimal places. The number 0.25 would display as 25%. Displays the number as a fraction. The fraction that the number should be rounded to can be selected e.g. 1.125 as quarters would display 1 1/4, but as halves would display 1. Displays the number in scientific format - especially useful for extremely large or small numbers. For example, the number 200000000 which has 8 zeros would display 2.00E+08 Displays the number as text, aligned to the left of the cell. Displays the number as a zip code, telephone number or social security number.

Scientific

Text Special

The following worksheet illustrates the difference between Accounting and Currency formatting.

 

With the Currency format, the currency symbol is placed directly to the left of the first number With Accounting format, all currency symbols are aligned to the left of the cell, regardless of the size of the number

Date and Time Languages
When you choose the Date or Time format, you can choose the language that the date or time should be shown in.

    

Select the cells you wish to format Click on the More Options button in the Number group of the Home ribbon Choose the Date category Click on the drop-down arrow of the Locale box and choose the required language Click on OK

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Number Formatting Shortcuts
The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to format selected cells: Keystroke Shift Ctrl ! Shift Ctrl $ Shift Ctrl % Shift Ctrl ^ Shift Ctrl ~ Action Fixed (2 decimals) Currency (2 decimals) Percent (0 decimals) Scientific Format Remove number formatting

Borders and Shading
Applying Borders
To apply borders to cells:

 

Select the cells you wish to format Click on the drop-down arrow of the Borders button on the Home ribbon and choose the type of border you wish to apply

The following options are available:

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You can also add and remove borders with the following shortcuts: Keystroke Shift Ctrl & Shift Ctrl _ Action Add a single outline border around the selection Clear all borders from the selection

Applying Shading
To add background colour to cells:

 

Select the cells you wish to format Click on the drop-down arrow of the Fill Colour button to set the background colour of the selection

Additional Formatting
Additional borders and colours can be applied through the Format Cells dialog box:

    

Select the cells you wish to format Click on the drop-down arrow of the Borders button on the Home ribbon Choose More Borders Choose the Style and Colour you wish to use from the lists in the Line box Choose the position of the borders by clicking on the Text area in the Border box

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 

Click on the Fill tab along the top of the Format Cells dialog box Click on a colour in the palette or click on More Colours to display additional options. Choose a colour from the Standard options, or click on Custom to enter the R, G, B values of a specific colour you wish to use. Click on OK when complete

To add a gradient fill to the cells, click on the Fill Effects button. Choose the two colours you wish to shade with, then choose the Shading Style and Variants. Click on OK when complete

Click on OK when all borders and shading have been applied

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Drawing Borders
You can also add borders to your spreadsheet by drawing them over the required cells - this can often be much easier than selecting the cell position via the Format Cells dialog box. To draw borders:

  

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Borders button on the Home ribbon Choose Draw Border To draw an outline border around your cells, position the mouse where the top-left corner of the box should appear (1). Click and drag the mouse to the bottom-right corner of the box (2)

  

Add vertical and horizontal lines by dragging over the gridlines of the table that you wish the lines to appear over Add diagonal lines by dragging across a cell Click on the Draw Border button on the Home ribbon when all lines have been added

Erase unwanted lines by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Borders button on the Home ribbon and choosing the Erase Border option.

To set the border colour before drawing any lines, click on the drop-down arrow of the Borders button on the Home ribbon and choose the Line Colour option. Choose a colour to be used when the next border line is drawn.

Text Alignment and Orientation
By default, text is aligned to the left of the cell and numbers to the right.

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Aligning Text
You can set both horizontal and vertical alignment using the buttons in the Alignment group of the Home ribbon.

Button

Description Vertical alignment: Top Vertical alignment: Middle Vertical alignment: Bottom Horizontal alignment: Left Horizontal alignment: Centre Horizontal alignment: Right

To align text:

  

Select the cells you wish to format Click on the required vertical alignment button Click on the required horizontal alignment button

Indenting Text
If text is left or right aligned in the cell, it can be indented from the left or right border using the Indent buttons on the Home ribbon: Button Description Decrease indent - move back towards the cell border Increase indent - move away from the cell border To indent text:

 

Select the cells you wish to indent Click on the appropriate indent button until the text is aligned as required

The screenshot to the right shows an example of indented text, where cells A3:A6 are indented:

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Text Orientation
You can set the orientation of text in the cell by changing the angle at which it's displayed. If you have narrow columns, for example, you can fit more text into the cell if the text is rotated to 90 degrees:

To set text orientation:

 

Select the cells you wish to format Click on the drop-down arrow of the Orientation button on the Home ribbon and choose the required option:

Click on Format Cell Alignment for further orientation options:

 

Drag the red pointer in the Orientation box to the required angle Click on OK

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Wrapping and Merging Text
Wrapping Text
It is possible to enter multiple lines of text in the same cell:

 

Type the text and ensure the cell is selected Click on the Wrap Text button in the Alignment group of the Home ribbon

Alternatively, line breaks may be inserted manually while typing the text:

   

Type the first line of text to appear in the cell Press [Alt Return] to insert a line break and type the next line of text Repeat the above step until all lines have been entered Press [Return] to enter the text into the cell

Merging Cells
The Merge and Centre command is used to centre a heading over a number of columns. In the following screenshot, cells A1 to D1 have been merged and centred:

To merge and centre a heading:

  

Ensure the heading is typed in the first of the cells to be merge. In the above example, the heading would be typed in cell A1 Select the cells you wish to merge, starting with the cell containing the heading Click on the Merge & Centre button on the Home ribbon

The following options are available by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Merge & Centre button:

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Option Merge Across Merge Cells Unmerge Cells

Description This command will merge each row into a single cell, but will not merge the columns within the range This will merge all selected cells into a single cell This will remove any merging currently on the range

Applying Themes
Themes allow you to format a file in a number of ways.

  

By applying a set colour scheme to the workbook By applying a font combination By applying formatting options to any drawn lines and shapes

When you apply a theme, it will be applied to all sheets in the current workbook, regardless of the sheet you are on when you choose the command.

For example, the following worksheet was created using the default theme:

This is the same sheet with the Concourse theme applied:

To apply a theme to the workbook:

 

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Themes button and choose the required theme

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Themes can be customised if they don't follow the exact format that you require:

  

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Colors box and choose a colour scheme for the theme Click on the drop-down arrow of the Fonts box and choose a font set to use Click on the drop-down arrow of the Effects box and choose the effects to be applied to inserted objects

Adding Headers and Footers
The header is used to set text that will appear at the top of each page, while the footer is used for text that will appear at the bottom of each page. To add a header and footer to the current worksheet:

 

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Header & Footer button in the Text group

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You will automatically be switched to Page Layout view and the cursor will move to the Header area.

To insert standard header text such as the file name or page number, click on the drop-down arrow of the Header button and choose the standard text to insert

To add standard elements, click on the required button in the Header & Footer Elements group:

 

To insert your own text, click in the Header box and type text as required To add a footer, click on the Go To Footer button

  

When the header text has been typed, click on any part of the worksheet, away from the header line Add a footer in the same way as described above When complete, click on the Normal view button (the first view button) to return to normal view of the worksheet

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If required, you can set a different header and footer for the first page of the printout by clicking on the Different First Page box in the Header and Footer ribbon. Set different headers and footers for the odd and even pages of the printout by clicking on Different Odd & Even Pages.

Setting Margins and Orientation
Setting Margins
To set the margins that will appear between the edge of the paper and the printed data:

 

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Margins button

Choose a default margin setting (normal, wide or narrow) or click on Custom to set specific margins. Enter the margins for the top, bottom, left and right of the page, then click on OK

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Setting Page Orientation
To set the page orientation:

  

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Orientation button Choose Portrait or Landscape as required

Additional Print Options
Additional print options are set through the Page Layout ribbon:

  

Check the Print box under Gridlines in the Sheet Options group to print gridlines around each cell Check the Print box under Headings in the Sheet Options group to print the column headings (A, B, C, etc.) and row headings (1, 2, 3, etc.) with the worksheet Click on the More Information button for more print options

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Conditional Formatting
Conditional formatting allows you to change the appearance of cells depending on the values stored in the cells. Fonts, borders and/or patterns can be set using this option. There are a number of types of formatting that can be applied: Type Highlight Cells Description Cells that meet a certain condition will be highlighted. For example, all cells containing duplicate values, or all cells containing values greater than 100 (example given). Cells that rank at the top or bottom in the range will be highlighted. For example, the top 10% of the values, or the top 3 values themselves (example given). Example

Top/Bottom

Data Bars

This adds a data bar to the cells according to whether they are higher, medium or lower in comparison to the other values in the range. In the example opposite, higher values have a longer bar, while lower values have a shorter bar. This shades all cells according to whether they are higher, medium or lower in comparison to the other values in the range. In the example opposite, higher values show in yellow, medium values in light orange and lower values in dark orange. This adds an icon to the cells according to whether they are higher, medium or lower in comparison to the other values in the range. In the example opposite, higher values have a green up arrow, and lower values a red down arrow. Middle values have a yellow arrow showing how they rank in the middle.

Colour Scales

Icon Sets

Highlight Cells
To highlight cells using conditional formatting:

   

Select the cells to which you wish to apply conditional formatting On the Home ribbon, click on the Conditional Formatting button in the Styles group Click on Highlight Cells Rules Choose the type of comparison you wish to make e.g. if cell values are Greater Than a specific number or Equal To a specific number

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Enter the value to compare to:

Click on the drop-down arrow of the With box and choose the format to apply. Click on Custom Format to show the Format Cells dialog box from which you can select any formats to apply, then click on OK Click on OK to apply the conditional format

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If you have used conditional formatting in previous versions of Excel, click on the Conditional Formatting icon, then on Highlight Cells Rule and More Rules to show the standard Conditional Formatting dialog box.

Top/Bottom
To highlight the top and bottom values using conditional formatting:

   

Select the cells to which you wish to apply conditional formatting On the Home ribbon, click on the Conditional Formatting button in the Styles group Click on Top/Bottom Rules option Choose the rule that most closely matches the comparison you wish to make. If you want to find the top 5% of values, for example, choose the Top 10% option

Enter the amount you wish to highlight matching cells for:

Click on the drop-down arrow of the With box and choose the format to apply. Click on Custom Format to show the Format Cells dialog box from which you can select any formats to apply, then click on OK Click on OK to apply the conditional format

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Data Bars
To add data bars to cells:

   

Select the cells to which you wish to apply conditional formatting On the Home ribbon, click on the Conditional Formatting button in the Styles group Click on Data Bars option Choose the style of bars you wish to add:

Colour Scales
To add a colour scale to cells:

   

Select the cells to which you wish to apply conditional formatting On the Home ribbon, click on the Conditional Formatting button in the Styles group Click on Color Scale option Choose the scale you wish to use:

Icon Sets
To icons to cells:

   

Select the cells to which you wish to apply conditional formatting On the Home ribbon, click on the Conditional Formatting button in the Styles group Click on Icon Sets option Choose the style of icons you wish to add:

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Removing Conditional Formatting
To remove conditional formatting from a range of cells, or the entire worksheet:

  

On the Home ribbon, click on the Conditional Formatting button in the Styles group Choose Clear Rules Choose to Clear Rules from Selected Cells or Clear Rules from Entire Sheet

Setting Column Widths
The standard width of a column is 8.43 characters or 64 pixels. If a cell contains a value or date that does not fit the column width, a row of hash symbols will be displayed in the cell. You can view the content of the cell by positioning the mouse over the cell:

Setting Column Widths
If you wish to set the width of a single column, it is not necessary to select that column first. When setting the width of multiple columns, the columns must first be selected.

 

Position the mouse pointer over the right border of one of the selected column headings - a new mouse pointer shape will be displayed Drag the mouse to the left or right to adjust the column width - the size of the column will be displayed in both characters and pixels

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It is possible to set the width more than one column at a time, even if the columns do not appear next to each other. Click on the heading of the first column you wish to change, then hold [Ctrl] and click on each additional column. Position the mouse pointer over the right border of any of the selected column headings and drag the mouse to the required width.

Setting to a Specific Width
To set a column width to a specific size:

   

Select the columns to be changed On the Home ribbon, click on the Format button in the Cells group Choose Column Width Enter a new width for the column, then click on OK

AutoFit
The AutoFit command will set the width of a column automatically to fit the longest text entry or number within that column.

  

Select the columns you wish to AutoFit On the Home ribbon, click on the Format button in the Cells group Choose AutoFit Column Width

You can also AutoFit columns by positioning the mouse pointer over the right border of any of the selected column headings and double-clicking the mouse.

Setting Row Height
Setting Row Height
If you wish to set the height of a single row, it is not necessary to select that row first. When setting the height of multiple rows, the rows must first be selected.

 

Position the mouse pointer over the bottom border of one of the selected row headings - a new mouse pointer shape will be displayed Drag the mouse up or down to adjust the row height - the size of the row will be displayed in both characters and pixels

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Setting to a Specific Height
You can also set the height to a specific size:

   

Select the rows to be changed On the Home ribbon, click on the Format button in the Cells group Choose Row Height Enter a new height for the row, then click on OK

AutoFit
You can AutoFit the row height to automatically accommodate the largest text in the row.

  

Select the rows you wish to AutoFit On the Home ribbon, click on the Format button in the Cells group Choose AutoFit Row Height

You can also AutoFit rows by positioning the mouse pointer over the bottom border of any of the selected row headings and double-clicking the mouse.

Clearing Formatting
Cells are cleared by selecting the cells and pressing [Delete]. This will only clear the content of the cell - removing any text, numbers or formula typed in the cell. Formatting such as borders and colours will not be removed. The Clear command can be used to specify exactly what you want to delete from the selected cells, for example, you can use this to clear only the formatting from your cells. Any data entered in the cells will remain, but all formatting will be removed.

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  

Select the cells you wish to clear On the Home ribbon, click on the Clear button in the Editing group Choose to clear all (formatting and data), formatting only or content only

Format Painter
The Format Painter is used to copy formatting from one area of the worksheet to another. All formatting including character formatting (font, size and style) and number formatting is copied.

 

Select the cell or range of cells containing the formatting you wish to copy Click on the Format Painter button on the Home ribbon

The mouse pointer will display a paintbrush - drag the mouse over the new range of cells to contain the formatting options copied

To copy formatting to more than one location, double click on the Format Painter button. Select all new ranges to copy the formatting to, then click on the Format Painter button again to switch it off.

Page Background
You can set an image to show in the background of your spreadsheet. The image will be tiled across the worksheet to fill each page.

 

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the Background button in the Page Setup group

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    

To choose a different drive to open an image from, click on the Computer icon in the Folder list on the left of the Open window To choose a different folder on the same drive, click on the drive name in the navigation trail along the top of the window Double-click on the folder you wish to open an image from Select the image you wish to open Click on Open

To view the image more clearly, you can remove the gridlines from screen by clicking on the View ribbon and unchecking the Gridlines box in the Show/Hide group.

To clear a background image from the worksheet:

 

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the Delete Background button in the Page Setup group

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Formatting a Range as a Table
If you define your range of data as a table, Excel will recognise this as an independent area of data. This will allow you to work with multiple lists on a single sheet, each working independently of the others. When you define a range as a table:

   

AutoFilter will be enabled by default, allowing you to quickly filter each column as required The table will be formatted automatically using table and cell styles As you add new records under the data, they will automatically be added to the table range You can show a totals row that will always display the totals for each column

Defining a Table
To define your table:

  

Click anywhere inside the data you wish to define as a table Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Table button in the Tables group

 

If you have headings for each column, ensure the My table has headers box is ticked Ensure the range for your table is correct, then click on OK

The table will be formatted automatically and the AutoFilter arrows will show at the top of each column.

Naming a Table
Once you have defined a table, you can assign a name to it. This makes it easier to identify each table if you have multiple tables within a single worksheet or workbook. To name your table:

   

Click on any cell within the table Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click in the Table Name box in the Properties group of the ribbon Type a new name for the table and press [Return]

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Adding Records to the Table
To add new records to the table:

 

Click in the cell under the last row of the table Type the contents for the first cell as normal - when you move away from the cell, the new row will be formatted automatically and added to the table range

If you do not wish the new record to be part of the table:

 

Click on the smart tag that appears in the cell you have just typed into Choose the Undo Table Expansion command

Applying Table Styles
When you convert a range to a table, Excel automatically applies the default table style, formatting the heading rows and records in shades of blue.

Changing the Table Style
To change the table style used:

   

Click anywhere in the table you wish to format Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles box Choose the format you wish to apply

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Once a format has been applied, you can choose additional options in order to change the format to suit you.

  

Click anywhere in the table you wish to format Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Check or uncheck each of the Table Style Options as required:

Option Header Row First Column Total Row Last Column Banded Rows Banded Columns

Description Sets a different format for the top row of the table Sets a different format for the left-most column of the table Adds a total row to the table and formats this differently to the rest of the table Sets a different format for the right-most column of the table Shades each alternate row differently so that the rows are easier to distinguish between Shades each alternate column differently so that the columns are easier to distinguish between

Clearing the Table Style
To clear all formatting from the table:

  

Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles box Choose Clear

Applying Cell Styles
As well as formatting the table as a whole, you can also format individual cells in different ways to highlight these. To format cells:

  

Select the cell(s) you wish to format in the table Click on the Cell Styles button on the Home ribbon Choose the style you wish to apply to the selected cells

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To clear the formatting from a cell and return it to the default style of the table:

 

Click on the Cell Styles button on the Home ribbon Choose Normal

Creating Table Styles
You can create your own table styles to apply to new or existing tables in the workbook.

Copying an Existing Style
You can create a new style based on an existing table style as follows:

  

Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles box Right-click over the style you wish to modify and click on the Duplicate menu command

 

Enter a new name for the style in the Name box From the Table Elements list, choose the part of the table that the new format will apply to e.g. the table as a whole or the top row only

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    

Click on the Format button to modify the selected element Use the Font, Border and Fill tabs to make the required changes to the format for the selected element Click on OK Repeat the above steps to format all elements of the table Click on OK when all formatting has been applied

All new and modified styles will be listed under Custom when you click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles list on the Design ribbon.

Creating a New Style
To create a new table style from scratch:

  

Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles box Click on New Table Style

  

Enter a new name for the style in the Name box From the Table Elements list, choose the part of the table that the new format will apply to e.g. the table as a whole or the top row only Click on the Format button to modify the selected element

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   

Use the Font, Border and Fill tabs to make the required changes to the format for the selected element Click on OK Repeat the above steps to format all elements of the table Click on OK when all formatting has been applied

To set a custom format as the default used for all tables in the workbook, click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles list and right-click over the format you wish to set as the default. Choose Set As Default from the shortcut menu displayed.

Creating Cell Styles
Copying an Existing Style
You can create a new style based on an existing cell style as follows:

  

Click on the Home ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Cell Styles box Right-click over the style you wish to modify and click on the Duplicate menu command

 

Enter a new name for the style in the Name box In the Style Includes list, check each part of the style you wish to modify

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   

Click on the Format button Use the Number, Alignment, Font, Border, Fill and Protection tabs to make the required changes to the format of the style Click on OK Click on OK again to return to the worksheet

All new and modified styles will be listed under Custom when you click on the drop-down arrow of the Cell Styles list on the Home ribbon.

Creating a New Style
To create a new cell style from scratch:

   

If your table has a cell formatted in the way you wish to style to be formatted, select this cell Click on the Home ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Cell Styles box Click on New Cell Style

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  

Enter a new name for the style in the Style Name box In the Style Includes list, check each part of the style you wish to modify Click on the Format button

  

Use the Number, Alignment, Font, Border, Fill and Protection tabs to make the required changes to the format of the style Click on OK Click on OK again to return to the worksheet

To remove a custom style no longer needed, click on the drop-down arrow of the Cell Styles list and right-click over the format you wish to remove. Choose Delete from the shortcut menu displayed.

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Showing Total Rows
You can automatically add a total row to the table, which will add up the values in the last column of the table. Once the total row has been added, you can show totals for additional columns and can change the function used to show in the summary. To display the total row:

 

Right-click anywhere over the table Choose Table from the pop-up menu, then Total Row

Once the total row has been added, click in the cell under any other columns you wish to add a summary function to. Click on the drop-down arrow and choose the function to use to summarise the data:

You can also display the total row by checking the Total Row box in the Table Style Options group of the Table Tools - Design ribbon.

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Resizing Tables
You can resize your table by selecting a new range for the table to cover in the worksheet. This allows you to create space for new records above the total row, if this is displayed. To resize a table:

  

Click on any cell within the table Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the Resize Table button in the Properties group of the ribbon

 

Drag the mouse over the new table range, or modify the range manually by changing the cell references in the Resize Table dialog box Click on OK

You can also resize a table by clicking on the handle in the bottom-right corner of the table range. Drag this to resize the table, releasing the mouse button when the required size is showing.

Converting a Table to a Range
You can convert a table back to a standard Excel data range if you no longer require the table tools for that range. No data in the table will be deleted when it is converted to a range.

  

Click on any cell in the table you wish to convert back to a range Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the Convert to Range button in the Tools group

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You will be asked to confirm if you want to convert the table to a range - click on Yes to convert the table

You can also convert a table to a range by right-clicking on any cell in the table and choosing Table, Convert to Range from the shortcut menu displayed.

Sorting a Table
Sorting Data
It is not necessary to select the entire table before sorting it.

 

Click anywhere within the column to be sorted On the Home ribbon, click on the Sort and Filter button in the Editing group

The menu options will differ depending on the type of data your column contains:

  

If sorting a column containing text, choose Sort A-Z or Sort Z-A as required If sorting a column containing values, choose Sort Smallest to Largest or Sort Largest to Smallest as required If sorting a column containing dates, choose Sort Oldest to Newest or Sort Newest to Oldest as required

The field names will remain at the top of the list and all records will be sorted in order of the column containing the active cell. Note: Even if you select a specific range in the table, all rows will be sorted when you choose the Sort
command.

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You can also sort the table by clicking on the drop-down arrow next to the heading of the column you wish to sort, then choosing the required sort option from the top of the menu:

Sorting by Colour
You can also sort a table by colour, so that cells with a specific text or fill colour will appear together at the top of the table.

   

Click anywhere within the column to be sorted On the Home ribbon, click on the Sort and Filter button in the Editing group Choose Sort by Colour Choose the Fill or Text colour to move to the top of the table

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Sorting on Multiple Fields
The sort buttons can also be used to sort in order of more than one field. For example, to sort the following list in descending order of Airport, with the same airports grouped in descending order of Price:

 

First click anywhere in the Airport column and use the Sort Z-A command Next, click in the Price column and use the Sort Largest to Smallest command

You can also use the Sort button on the Data ribbon to sort by multiple levels:

      

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Sort By field and choose the first field to sort by Change the Order if required Click on the Add Level button Click on the drop-down arrow of the Then By field and choose the second field to sort by Again, change the Order if required Repeat the above 3 steps for each level you wish to add Click on OK to sort the data

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AutoFilter
This command allows you to display only those rows in a table that contain a certain value or meet a certain criteria. AutoFilter arrows appear automatically at each heading when you define a table in the workbook. You can use AutoFilter on any list of data, however, even if it has not been defined as a table. To place the AutoFilter arrows at the top of a range, click on the Sort & Filter button on the Home ribbon and choose Filter.

Using AutoFilter
To use AutoFilter:

  

Click on the drop-down arrow in the heading of the column you wish to filter A list will display all values currently in the column - uncheck all values you want to hide from the list Click on OK

To re-display all data:

 

Click on the same drop-down arrow and choose (Select All) Click on OK to show all data

When a list is filtered, only the displayed records will be printed. The drop-down arrows will not be printed.

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Text Filters
If the column you are filtering contains text, you can use the Text Filters option to apply custom filtering to the list. Custom filters allow you set specific criteria to be matched e.g. all entries containing a specific word, or all entries that end in specific characters.

 

Click on the drop-down arrow in the heading of the column you wish to filter Click on Text Filters

Choose the type of comparison you wish to make e.g. Contains or Ends With

    

Click in the empty box in the top right of the dialog box and enter the text you wish to match To add a further condition, click on And if both conditions must be met, or click on Or if either condition can be met Click on the drop-down arrow in the second line and choose the next comparison you wish to make Click in the box next to this and enter the text you wish to match Click on OK when complete

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For example: The following would show all records that had the word "London" in this field, but only if they also started with "North".

Number Filters
If the column you are filtering contains values, you can use the Number Filters option to apply custom filtering to the list e.g. to find all entries greater than 100, or between 50 and 75.

 

Click on the drop-down arrow in the heading of the column you wish to filter Click on Number Filters

Choose the type of comparison you wish to make e.g. Greater Than or Between

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    

Click in the empty box in the top right of the dialog box and enter the value you wish to match To add a further condition, click on And if both conditions must be met, or click on Or if either condition can be met Click on the drop-down arrow in the second line and choose the next comparison you wish to make Click in the box next to this and enter the value you wish to match Click on OK when complete

The Top 10 option allows you to choose the top or bottom number of records in a field - you could use it to find the top 10 sales or the bottom 5% of salaries.

   

In the first box, choose whether to show the top or bottom items from the list Choose the number of items to display Choose whether to show the specific number of Items or the specified Percent Click on OK

The Above Average and Below Average commands require no further input. These will work out the average value in the column, then show all records that have a value above or below this.

Removing Duplicates from a Table
You can automatically remove any duplicate records from a table. Only data in the table will be affected any data in other parts of the worksheet will remain as is. When looking for duplicate information, you can find rows that match exactly in all fields, or duplicate entries in specific fields only.

  

Click on any cell within the table Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the Remove Duplicates button in the Tools group

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All columns in the table will be listed - check those you wish to find duplicates in, then click on OK.

You will be informed if any duplicates have been found and erased.

You can use the Undo command to recover any duplicate records deleted in error. However, it's also good practice to save the workbook before removing duplicate values. If the outcome is not what you expected, you can then close the workbook without saving it and revert back to the original version.

Using Structured References in a Table
Structured references allow you to create formulas in a table by referring to column and row headings, rather than specific cell references. If you use structured references, you will not have to update your formulas each time more data is added to the table. Before using structured references, it's a good idea to give your table a meaningful name that will be easy to refer to in your formulas. To name your table:

   

Click on any cell within the table Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click in the Table Name box in the Properties group of the ribbon Type a new name for the table and press [Return]

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You can now refer to any column in your table using the syntax: TableName[ColumnHeading]

  

Click in the cell that will contain the formula result Type = and the function you wish to use e.g. SUM Open brackets ( then type the table name - the table name will appear as a smart tag under the formula you are typing

 

Open square brackets [ A list of the columns in the table will be displayed - double click on the column you wish to use in your formula

 

Close square brackets ] Close the brackets of the function )

The following options also appear in the list of column names and can be used in your formulas as required: Option #All #Data #Headers #Totals #This Row Description Refers to the entire table, including column headings and total row Refers to the data in the table, excluding column headings and totals Refers to the column headings only Refers to the total row only - if no total row is displayed, this will return null Refers to the row that the active cell is currently in

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Exporting Tables
If you use Sharepoint, you can export a table directly to a Sharepoint list without leaving Excel.
Sharepoint is an information management system that runs on a company intranet. Sharepoint allows users to collaborate in teams, sharing files, information, contacts etc. as required.

To export a table to Sharepoint:    Click on any cell within the table Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the Export button in the external Table Data group, then click on Export Table to Sharepoint List

  

In the Address box, type the URL of your Sharepoint site Click in the Name box and type a name for the list - this will appear in the Lists view in Sharepoint Enter a Description for the list

 

Click on Next Excel will confirm the type of data in each column of your table - click on Finish

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A confirmation will display, informing you that the export was successful, and giving the URL of the list. Click on OK

You can now view the table via the Lists section of your Sharepoint site:

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Merging Cell Styles
You can merge cell styles from one workbook into another, if you wish the same formatting to apply to different files.

  

Open the workbook that contains the cell styles you wish to use Activate the workbook you wish to copy the styles into Click on the Cell Styles button on the Home ribbon

  

Choose the Merge Styles command A list of all open workbooks will be displayed - choose the workbook that contains the styles you wish use Click on OK

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You will be asked if you wish to import styles that have the same names as styles in the current workbook.

 

Click on Yes to import these styles, overwriting any styles with the same name in the current workbook Click on No to only import styles with names that don't exist in the current workbook

All imported styles will now be listed in the Cell Styles list and will be available for use in the current workbook.

Pick from Drop-down List
This tool allows you to choose the entry to appear in a cell from a list of entries that already exist in the current column.

Click in the cell to contain the new entry and press the right-mouse button

 

Choose Pick From Drop-down List A list of all entries in the current column will be displayed - click on the entry you wish to use in the current cell

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Inserting Images
Excel 2007 supports a large number of graphic formats so that images created in other applications may be inserted into a worksheet. To insert an image in the current worksheet:

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Picture button in the Illustrations group

  

Click on the drop-down arrow in the Look In box and select the drive and folder in which the image is stored Select the name of the file from the list displayed Click on the Insert button

If you want to insert multiple images in a single step, hold [Ctrl] and click on each image in the Insert Picture dialog box. Click on Insert when all images are selected.

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When an image has been inserted, the Format ribbon under Picture Tools can be used to edit the image, for example:

  

Click on a picture style to change the appearance of the image e.g. to add a frame or drop shadow Use the buttons in the Adjust group to change the brightness, contrast and colours of the image Click on the Compress Pictures button in the Adjust group to make the image smaller in size, to reduce the size of your message. Click on OK to apply compression.

Inserting ClipArt
ClipArt can be added to a spreadsheet to illustrate a point or add light relief to a complex document. ClipArt categories include signs, maps, symbols, currency and cartoons. To add ClipArt to the worksheet:

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the ClipArt button in the Illustrations group

  

Type a word or phrase that describes the picture that you are looking for, then click on Search All matching images will be displayed in the ClipArt task pane: Scroll through the images until you find the image you wish to use

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 

Position the mouse over the image, then click on the drop-down arrow that will appear Click on Insert to insert the selected image into the worksheet

When searching for images in the Clip task pane you may wish to be more selective in your search options so that fewer images are shown, and they match your specified criteria more precisely. The following media types can be found: Type ClipArt Photographs Movies Description ClipArt, drawings and other static graphics Photographs and scanned images Video clips, animated GIFs and other animations. Note that animated GIFs will display only if the worksheet is saved in HTML format and viewed in a web browser such as Internet Explorer Sound clips such as .WAV and .MP3 files

Sounds

To change the type of media you are searching:

  

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Results Should Be box Uncheck the types you don't wish to search for Click on Go

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Inserting SmartArt
Excel 2007's SmartArt feature allows you to create the following types of diagrams: Diagram List Example Description Shows blocks of information in a variety of formats

Process

Shows a progression of information

Cycle

Shows a process that continues indefinitely

Hierarchy

Shows hierarchical relationships e.g. in a department or group structure

Relationship

Compares and shows the relationship between different sets of information

Matrix

Shows the relationship of components compared to a whole

Pyramid

Shows the steps of a process or relationship

To add SmartArt to a worksheet:

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the SmartArt button in the Illustrations group

Choose the type of diagram you wish to create from the list on the left-hand side of the window

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Choose the diagram you wish to create, then click on OK

Enter the text for each box in the diagram, pressing the arrow keys to move between each label and [Return] to create a new label

Click away from the SmartArt to hide the text entry box. Click on the SmartArt again to show the text and the Design and Format ribbons.

The Design ribbon can be used to change the layout, style and colour of the SmartArt:

 

Click on the Design ribbon Change the layout by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Layouts box and choosing a new layout

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Change the colour by clicking on the Change Colours button, then on the required colour scheme

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Change the style by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Style box and choosing a new format

Click on the Reset Graphic button on the Design ribbon to return the layout, style and colour to the default settings.

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Adding Shapes
Use the Shapes button on the Insert ribbon to add lines and shapes to your worksheet.

Drawing Shapes
Shapes such as rectangles, ellipses, triangles and cylinders can be added as follows:

 

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Shapes button in the Illustrations group Click on the type of shape you wish to draw

 

Position the mouse where the top-left corner of the shape should appear and drag the mouse diagonally to create the required shape and size Release the mouse button when the shape is correctly drawn

For example, to draw an oval shape, click on the Ellipse shape, then at point 1 on the worksheet. Drag the mouse to point 2 before releasing the mouse button.

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Drawing Lines
To draw a line on the worksheet:

   

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Shapes button in the Illustrations group Click on the type of line you wish to draw Position the mouse where the beginning of the line should appear and drag the mouse to create the required length and direction Release the mouse button when the line is correctly drawn

To draw an arrow, for example, click on the Arrow button on the ribbon. Click at point 1 on the worksheet, then drag the mouse to point 2 before releasing the mouse button.

Drawing Shortcuts
The following keys can be held while drawing the shape to change the way in which the shape is created: Key Shift Ctrl Shift + Ctrl Action Forces a perfect shape or line e.g. a square or circle or straight line Draws the line or shape from the centre out Draws a perfect shape or line from the centre out

Selecting Shapes
An object or graphic must be selected before it can be manipulated in any way. It is possible to select a single object, or multiple objects on the worksheet.

 

To select a single shape, click on the edge of the shape To select multiple shapes, click on the first shape, then hold [Shift] while clicking on each additional shape

To quickly select all shapes on the worksheet, click on a single shape then press [Ctrl A] to select all.

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Shape Styles and Formatting
Shape Styles
The shape styles that are available to you depend on the theme that has been applied to the workbook. To change the shape style:

  

Click on the shape you wish to format Click on the Format ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Shape Styles box and choose the style you wish to apply

Shape Fill and Outline
As well as changing the style of a shape or line, you can also change the fill and outline colours manually.

 

Click on the shape you wish to format Click on the Format ribbon

To set the fill of the shape:

  

Click on the Shape Fill button Choose a colour from the theme and standard colours displayed To choose a different colour, click on More Fill Colours to display a full palette from which any colour can be selected. Use the Standard tab to choose from the palette, or click on the Custom tab to enter the RGB (red, green, blue) values of a colour. Click on OK when complete

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  

Choose Picture to add a picture to the shape. Locate and select the image you wish to use, then click on Insert Choose Gradient to add shading to the shape, then choose from the default shades displayed Choose Texture to add a pre-set texture to the shape e.g. marble or wood

To set the outline of a line or shape:

Click on the Shape Outline button

Choose a colour from the theme and standard colours displayed

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To choose a different colour, click on More Outline Colours to display a full palette from which any colour can be selected. Use the Standard tab to choose from the palette, or click on the Custom tab to enter the RGB (red, green blue) values of a colour. Click on OK when complete

  

Choose Weight to change the line thickness Choose Dashes to change the outline to a dashed line Choose Arrows to add arrows to the start, end or start and end of a line

Click on the More option on any of the Shape Fill or Shape Outline commands to view the Format Shape dialog box.

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The following menu options appear on the left-hand side of the window: Menu Fill Line Colour Line Style Shadow 3D Format 3D Rotation Picture Text Box Used to... Set the fill of the shape to solid, gradient or picture, with further options such as the gradient colours and picture tiling settings Set the line to solid or gradient, with a choice line colour and transparency Set the width, dash and arrow options of the line Add a preset or custom shadow to the object Add 3D effects to the object including depth and contour settings Set the number of degrees the 3D shape should be rotated Change the brightness, contrast and colour variation of a picture Set the margins to appear around any text inserted into the shape

Shape Effects
Effects such as shadows, glows and reflections can be added to a shape or line as follows:

   

Click on the shape you wish to format Click on the Format ribbon Click on the Shape Effects button and choose the category of effect you wish to apply Choose the required effect

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Arranging and Aligning Shapes
Arranging Objects
By default, objects are stacked as they are created i.e. the first shape drawn will appear at the bottom of the stack while the last shape drawn will appear at the top. In the following example, the red circle was drawn first, so appears at the bottom of the stack:

This order can be changed as required.

     

Select the object to be re-arranged Click on the Design ribbon To move the shape down to the bottom of the stack, click on the Send to Back button in the Arrange group To move the shape downwards one position in the stack, click on the drop-down arrow of the Send to Back button and choose Send Backward To move the shape up to the top of the stack, click on the Bring to Front button in the Arrange group To move the shape upwards one position in the stack, click on the drop-down arrow of the Bring to Front button and choose Bring Forward

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Aligning Objects
Alignment is used to ensure that shapes are precisely aligned with each other. If the Align Left option is used, for example, all selected objects will be lined-up with the left-most object. The following example shows shapes before alignment:

The following example shows the same shapes after left alignment:

To align shapes:

  

Select the shapes to be aligned Click on the Design ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Align button and choose the required alignment option from the menu displayed:

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Distributing Objects
Distribution will ensure the spacing between three or more objects is identical. The following example shows shapes before distribution:

The following example shows the same shapes after horizontal distribution:

To distribute shapes:

   

Select the shapes to be aligned Click on the Design ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Align button Choose Distribute Horizontally if the objects are positioned in a row, or Distribute Vertically if they are positioned in a column

Creating Charts
Charts can be created from worksheet data by selecting the data on which you want to base your chart including any text to appear as headings or legend text. If the text and numbers do not appear in one continuous range, select the first range as normal then hold [Ctrl] while dragging over each additional range. Ensure all ranges contain the same number of cells. For example, the following selections could be used create a chart to display the month names and their totals:

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To create a chart:

  

Select the ranges to be plotted in the chart Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the type of chart you wish to create e.g. Column or Pie. For further options, click on the drop-down arrow of the button and choose the type from the list of choices

To quickly create a column chart on a separate sheet, select all data to be included on the chart and press [F11].

A chart consists of the following elements:

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Once the chart has been created, you can use the Data group on the Design ribbon to choose whether the chart should be displayed by row or column.

For example, the following data:

Would display the following chart by row:

Or the following chart by column:

Chart Format and Layout
Chart Layout
Excel 2007 has a number of pre-set layouts that you can apply to your chart, to control where each element is positioned e.g. the legend, data table, etc. To change the chart layout:

  

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on it Click on the Design ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Chart Layouts box and choose the layout you wish to use:

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Chart Styles
Chart Styles can be used to apply pre-set formatting to your style, to give the bars or lines a mix of colours.

  

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on it Click on the Design ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Chart Styles box and choose the format you wish to use:

Adding Labels
The Layout ribbon of a selected chart can be used to fine-tune the chart layout, including adding titles and legends. To add labels to a chart:

  

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on it Click on the Layout ribbon In the Labels group, click on the button of the title you wish to add e.g. Axis Titles

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Choose the required option from the list displayed

Type the text to appear in the title and press [Return]

To remove a label from the chart, click once on the label, then press [Delete].

Formatting the Axes
The horizontal and vertical axes can be formatted to show in different ways. To format the horizontal axis:

   

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on it Click on the Layout ribbon In the Axes group, click on Axes then Primary Horizontal Axis Choose the way in which the axis should be displayed:

To format the vertical axis:

   

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on it Click on the Layout ribbon In the Axes group, click on Axes then Primary Vertical Axis Choose how the vertical axis should be displayed:

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To change the gridlines of the chart:

   

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on it Click on the Layout ribbon In the Axes group, click on Gridlines then either the horizontal or vertical option Choose whether to show no gridlines, major gridlines only, minor gridlines only, or both major and minor gridlines

Major gridlines appear at each value on the axis, while minor gridlines appear between major gridlines. Set where the gridlines should appear by clicking on Axes, then Primary Vertical Axis, then More Primary Vertical Axis Options.

Changing the Chart Type
Changing the Chart Type
To change the chart type:

 

Click on the Design ribbon Click on the Change Chart Type button in the Type group

The Change Chart Type window will be displayed:

  

Choose the type of chart you wish to use from the left-hand menu Choose the particular chart format you wish to use from the sample images on the right Click on OK

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Available Chart Types
Charts are used to display values in a graphic format that makes them easier to understand. Once data is in a graphic format, trends can be identified and future values can be forecast based on the current findings. There are a number of different types of charts that can be created in Excel, the most common of which are identified below: Type Description

Column This type of chart shows variations over a period of time or illustrates comparisons between items.

Line This type of chart shows trends in data over a period of time. When compared to an area chart, line charts emphasise the rate of change over time as opposed to the magnitude of change.

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Type

Description

Pie This charts show the relationship or proportions of different parts to the whole. A pie chart always contains one series of data and is useful in emphasising a single element.

Bar This type of chart shows individual figures at a specific time or illustrates comparisons among items.

Area This type of chart emphasises the magnitude of change, rather than time and the rate of change. It also shows the relationship of parts to a whole, by displaying the sum of the plotted values.

XY (Scatter) This chart type is commonly used for scientific data and shows the relationship between values in several series of data.

Stock This chart illustrates fluctuations in stock prices representing opening, high, low and closing values.

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Type

Description

Surface In this chart colours and patterns indicate areas of the same value. They are useful for finding optimum combinations between two sets of data.

Doughnut This chart is similar to a pie chart and shows the relationship or proportions of different parts to the whole

Bubble This chart compares 3 sets of data using the position on the chart and bubble size.

Radar A radar displays each category on its own value axis radiating from the centre point. Lines connect values in the same series.

Changing the Chart Location
A chart can be displayed on a separate chart sheet or embedded on a worksheet. Once a chart has been created, the location can be changed as follows:

 

Click on the Design ribbon Click on the Move Chart button in the Location group

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 

Choose the new location for the chart - if moving the chart to a new sheet, you can change the name of the new sheet if required Click on OK

Adding Text Boxes
Adding Text Boxes
To add a text box to the worksheet:

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Text Box button in the Text group

 

Position the mouse where the top-left corner of the text box should appear and drag the mouse diagonally to create the required shape and size Release the mouse button when the text box is correctly drawn

 

Type the text to appear in the box Click away from the box, in a blank area of the workbook, when complete

Formatting Text Boxes
You can set the format of a text box, so that it automatically changes shape to accommodate all text inside it.

 

Click on the text box you wish to change Click on the Format ribbon, then on the More Options button in the WordArt Styles group

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   

By default, the text will align vertically to the top of the box. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Vertical Alignment box and change this if required By default the text will appear horizontally. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Text Direction box and change this to one of the rotated options if required To change the size of the text box to fit the text, click on the Resize Shape to Fit Text box Click on Close

Connecting Shapes
You can connect shapes and lines that you have drawn using any of the lines from the Insert Shapes button. When you connect two shapes, the connector will always stay between the shapes, even if they are moved.

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To use connectors:

  

Draw the two shapes to be connected Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Shapes button Choose the line you wish to use to connect the shapes

  

Click on the edge of the first shape, where the connector line should begin Without releasing the mouse button, drag to the edge of the second shape, where the connector line should end Release the mouse button to add the connector

To format a connector line:

 

Right-click over the connector line to show the shortcut menu Choose the required formatting option e.g. Connector Type to change the line to a different style of connector

Changing Shapes
Once you have drawn a shape, you can change it to a different shape without losing the format of the original shape. Any text typed inside the shape will remain, and it will stay in the same position on the worksheet.

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To change an existing shape to another:

    

Click on the shape you wish to change Click on the Format ribbon In the Insert group, click on the drop-down arrow of the Edit Shape box Choose Change Shape Choose the new shape you would like to use:

Flipping and Rotating
Rotating Shapes
When an object is selected, a rotation handle is shown at the top of the object.

   

Ensure the object is selected Position the mouse pointer over the green handle in the top centre of the object - the rotation mouse pointer will display Drag the handle up or down to rotate the object Release the mouse button when the correct rotation is displayed

It is also possible to rotate images - both ClipArt and inserted file images - in this way.

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If you prefer, you can rotate the image to a set 90 degrees to the left or right:

   

Ensure the object is selected Click on the Format ribbon In the Arrange group, click on the drop-down arrow of the Rotate button Choose the required rotation option:

Flipping Shapes
Objects can be flipped to create a mirror image or rotated to any degree of the original shape. For example, the following screenshot shows an original object that has then been flipped horizontally, then vertically:

To flip an object:

   

Ensure the object is selected Click on the Format ribbon In the Arrange group, click on the drop-down arrow of the Rotate button Choose the required rotation option:

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Inserting WordArt
WordArt allows you to add highly formatted text objects to your worksheet, for example:

To add WordArt:

 

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the WordArt button in the Text group

Choose the format for the WordArt you wish to insert

  

Type the text you wish to appear as WordArt Click on the edge of the WordArt object and drag it to the required position on the worksheet Click away from the WordArt when complete

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To change the shape of the WordArt:

  

Click once on the WordArt to select it Click on the Format ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Text Effects button in the WordArt Styles group

 

Choose the Shadow, Reflection, Glow, Bevel and 3D Rotation commands to add these effects to the WordArt To change the shape of the text, choose the Transform command and the required shape:

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Chart Templates
If you always format your charts in the same way, you can save this format as a chart template that you can easily apply to other charts in the future. To create a chart template:

  

Create a chart and format it exactly as you would like the template to be formatted Ensure the chart is selected Click on the Design ribbon, then on the Save as Template button in the Type group

Type a name for the chart template, then click on Save

You can now apply the template to any chart as follows:

     

Click on the chart you wish to apply your template to Click on the Design ribbon Click on the Change Chart Type button in the Type group Click on the Templates folder at the top of the left-hand menu Click on the template you wish to use Click on OK

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Click on the Set as Default Chart button before clicking on OK if you want all new charts to use the template format by default.

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Zooming In and Out
The magnification of the worksheet can be changed to increase or decrease the size that the worksheet displays on screen. You can zoom out to display more on the screen, or zoom in to view the detail of a certain part of the sheet. The zoom slider can be used to zoom in or out:

  

To zoom into the worksheet, click on the + button of the zoom slider to increase the magnification by 10% each time you click To zoom out of the worksheet, click on the - button of the zoom slider to decrease the magnification by 10% each time you click Drag the pointer up or down to increase or decrease the magnification as required

To show the worksheet at a specific magnification:

  

Click on the percentage indicator at the beginning of the zoom slider Choose the percentage you wish to use Click on OK

To zoom into a particular area of the worksheet, select the area, then click on the percentage indicator at the beginning of the zoom slider. Choose Fit Selection, then click on OK.

Save As
If you are saving an existing workbook after changes have been made, it is important to know the difference between the Save and Save As commands. Command Save Description This command saves the current workbook under the existing name and replaces the original version. Click on the Office button and choose Save, or click on the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar. This command requests a new name for the workbook and leaves the original unchanged. Click on the Office button and choose Save As.

Save As

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To save an existing workbook under a new name, or as a different file type:

Click on the Office button and choose Save As

     

To choose a different drive to save the file to, click on the Computer icon in the Folder list on the left of the Save As window To choose a different folder on the same drive, click on the drive name in the navigation trail along the top of the window Double-click on the folder you wish to save the file to To save the file as a different type e.g. an earlier version of Excel, click on the Save as Type list and choose the format you wish to save the file in Click in the File Name box and enter a new name for the file Click on Save

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Save As PDF
You can save an Excel workbook as a PDF file, provided you have downloaded the add-on from the Microsoft website.
The download can be obtained from

http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=4D951911-3E7E-4AE6-B059A2E79ED87041&displaylang=en. Click on the Continue button on this page and follow on-screen
instructions to download the add-on.

What is PDF Format?
PDF stands for Portable Document Format, and uses the Adobe Acrobat program to view its files. PDF files can contain text, graphics, forms to be filled in by the user, interactive movie clips and links to web pages. PDF files can have security built-in so that the viewer of the file can only read it and not change it in any way. The other benefit to using PDF files is that the viewer will see the file exactly as you have saved it, regardless of their PC settings. The original graphic appearance of the document will always be preserved. PDF files can be relatively small in size, so are popular for saving on the web. Many web sites will offer PDF documents - providing more information about the site for you to download.

Saving in PDF Format
To save a file in PDF format:

 

Click on the Office button Click on the arrow next to the Save As command

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      

Choose PDF or XPS To choose a different drive to save the file to, click on the Computer icon in the Folder list on the left of the Save As window To choose a different folder on the same drive, click on the drive name in the navigation trail along the top of the window Double-click on the folder you wish to save the file to Click in the File Name box and enter a new name for the file To view the PDF after it has been saved, check the Open file after publishing box Choose the way you wish the file to be optimised. Choose Standard for a larger file size with better quality, or Minimum if you are distributing the document online and wish to keep the file size down Click on Publish

Print Preview
Print Preview is used to preview the workbook before printing.

  

Click on the Office button Click on the arrow next to the Print command Choose Print Preview

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The Print Preview ribbon contains the following options:

Button Print Page Setup Zoom Next Page Previous Page Show Margins Close

Description Displays the print dialog box Displays the page setup dialog box which allows you to change margins, the header and footer and additional print options such as gridlines and headings Toggles between 100% view and full page view. You can also click anywhere on the page to zoom in or out Shows the next page of the printout Shows the previous page of the printout Allows you to change the margins of the worksheet (see below) Closes the preview screen and returns to the worksheet

To change the margins of the worksheet in the Print Preview screen:

 

Click on the Show Margins check box Drag the margin and column markers to the required positions on the page

Click on the Close Print Preview button to return to the worksheet.

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Printing Workbooks
To print a copy of the worksheet:

 

Click on the Office button Click on the Print button

You can also press [Ctrl P] to print the worksheet.

The Print dialog box will open, allowing you to set exactly what should be printed.

    

Click on the drop-down arrow in the Name box to choose a different printer if required In the Page Range box, choose All to print the entire sheet, or click in the Pages box and type the pages to be printed From and To In the Print What box, choose Selection to print the selected range only, or Active Sheet to print the whole sheet. Choose Entire Workbook to print all sheets of the workbook Increase or decrease the number of Copies as required Click on OK to print the selected pages

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To quickly print one copy of the active sheet without further options being displayed, click on the Office button, then on the arrow next to the Print button. Choose Quick Print.

Emailing Workbooks
Excel has a facility to quickly email the current workbook to any number of recipients without the need to open Outlook 2007 manually. To email the workbook:

 

Click on the Office button Click on the Send button, then on the Email command

A new Outlook email message will be created that contains the Excel file as an attachment.

    

Click in the To box and type the address of the people you wish to send the file to. Separate multiple names with a semi-colon Click in the Cc box and enter the names of the people you wish to copy the message to The subject will automatically set as the name of the file - select this and type a new subject if required Add any introductory text to the body of the message Click on the Send button when complete

To send a PDF copy of the worksheet that others won't be able to amend, click on the Office button, then on the Send button. Choose the Email as PDF Attachment command.

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Setting Workbook Properties
The properties of a workbook can be set to save additional information about the file e.g. the author, keywords, etc. To set the properties of the open workbook:

  

Click on the Office button Click on the Prepare command Click on the Properties command

The properties pane will appear across the top of the worksheet. Click in each box and fill in the properties as required.

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Advanced properties can be displayed as follows:

 

Click on the drop-down arrow next to Document Properties Choose Advanced Properties

The following categories are available:

Tab General Summary Statistics Contents Custom

Description The location and size of the file, creation and modification dates and the file attributes. Title, Subject and Author of the file as well as any keywords or comments. Displays the revision number and total editing time of the book. Lists the different parts of the file e.g. the sheets contained in the book. An area for custom properties such as Client, Publisher and Typist.

To enter advanced properties:

  

Click on the tab of the property you wish to change Make changes as required Click on OK when complete

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Marking As Final
When you mark a workbook as final, the document will be saved as read-only so that no more changes can be made to the document. In addition, the status bar shows that this is the final version of the file.
Once a document is marked as final, you will not be able to enter new text into the workbook or change the format in any way. The majority of ribbon commands will be disabled.

To mark a workbook as final:

  

Click on the Office button Click on the Prepare button Choose Mark as Final

A message box will inform you that your workbook will be marked as final and saved as a read-only file. Click on OK.

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Another message box will confirm that the document has been marked as final:

The status bar will show the Final indicator, immediately following Ready:

Documents marked as final in Excel 2007 will not be read-only if they are opened in earlier versions of Excel. If you need to make changes to a document marked as final, click on the Office button, choose Prepare and Mark as Final again to turn off this setting.

Saving Workspaces
A workspace file contains information about the open workbooks, active sheets and window sizes. When the workspace file is re-opened, it will automatically open all workbooks that were open when the file was saved.
Creating a workspace file enables you to retrieve the exact screen layout at a later stage.

Arranging Windows
To arrange all workbooks in the required way:

   

Open the workbooks to be grouped into a workspace Ensure the correct worksheet is active in each workbook Click on the View ribbon Click on the Arrange All option in the Window group

Choose the way you want your workbooks to be arranged, then click on OK

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The following arrangement options are available: Option Tiled Example Description This will arrange all windows both horizontally and vertically

Horizontal

This will arrange windows one under the other

Vertical

This will arrange windows next to each other, showing more of each worksheet than the Horizontal option

Cascade

All windows will be placed in a stack with their title bars displayed. Click on a title bar to show a window

Saving the Workspace
To save the workspace file:

    

Click on the View ribbon Click on the Save Workspace button in the Window group Ensure the correct drive and folder are selected - if these are not correct, navigate to the required drive and folder Amend the name in the File Name box if required Click on Save

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The files saved in the workspace can still be accessed individually if required.

Error Checking and Debugging
If a formula you enter contains an error, Excel will display a smart tag to alert you of this error.

   

After entering your formula, look in the top-left corner of the cell. If this shows a green triangle, the cell contains an error Click on the cell that contains the formula - a smart tag will display Position the mouse over this icon to display a drop-down arrow Click on the drop-down arrow and choose how you wish to handle the error

Option Help on this Error Show Calculation Steps

Description Show the help screen relating to this error Display the Evaluate window, giving a breakdown of the formula to make the error easier to spot Ignore the error and remove the smart tag Edit the error manually

Ignore Error Edit in Formula Bar

To show calculation steps to evaluate a formula returning an error:

 

Choose Show Calculation Steps from the error's Smart Tag options The first step of the formula will be displayed, with all cell references showing in the Evaluation box. The following example shows a simple formula of one cell being subtracted from another:

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Click on the Step In button to show the value in the underlined cell:

Click on Step Out to return to the original formula

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Click on Step In to show the value of the next underlined cell:

Click on Step Out to return to the original formula

Click on the Evaluate button to calculate the underlined formula and show it's result

If the formula contains more calculations, continue to click on Evaluate until the values of all references of the formula are shown. Click on Close when complete.

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Setting the Print Area
If you have a large worksheet and only want to print part of it, you can set the print area to include only the range you wish to print. When you print the workbook, only the print area will be printed.

Setting the Print Area
To set the print area:

  

Select the range you wish to print Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the Print Area button in the Page Setup group

Choose the Set Print Area command

Dashed lines will appear around the print area on the worksheet.

You can quickly select the print area in the worksheet by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Name box and choosing Print_Area:

Clearing the Print Area
To clear the print area and return to printing the entire workbook:

  

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the Print Area button in the Page Setup group Choose the Clear Print Area command

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Printing Titles
If your worksheet contains more data than will fit on a single page when printed, you can set the headings to appear at the top of each page of the printout. These headings are known as print titles. You can have rows that repeat at the top of each page of the printout and/or columns that appear on the left of each page. To set print titles:

 

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the Print Titles button in the Page Setup group

The page setup window will open:

   

Click in the Rows to repeat at top box In the worksheet in the background, click on the number of the row you wish to repeat on each page Click in the Columns to repeat at left box In the worksheet in the background, click on the letter of the column you wish to repeat on each page

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Click on OK

To clear print titles, click on the Print Titles button then remove the cell references from the Rows to repeat at Top and Columns to repeat at Left boxes.

Compatibility Checking
If you need to share your workbooks with users that have previous versions of Excel, you can use the compatibility checker to see which features in your workbook they will be unable to see. Some compatibility issues to consider:

   

If your workbook contains VBA coding (macros), these may not work in previous versions of Excel If your Excel 2007 worksheet is larger than the maximum number of rows and columns of previous versions, data will be lost when you save your file Most conditional formatting is lost when an Excel 2007 file is saved for a previous version of Excel You may experience problems with range names and filters when saving between different versions of Excel

To check if your workbook is compatible with previous versions of Excel:

  

Click on the Office button Click on the Prepare command Click on the Run Compatibility Checker command

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You will be shown a dialog box that lists the features that are not supported in previous versions.

  

Click on Find to locate the range in the worksheet that uses the feature that is not supported Click on Help to learn more about the incompatibility Click on OK to return to the worksheet

To save the file for a previous version of Excel, click on the Office button and choose Save As. Change the Save as Type as required, then click on Save.

Setting Passwords
You can set two types of passwords on your Excel workbooks: Type Password to Open Password to Modify Description This password will be needed in order to open the workbook Anyone can open the workbook, but this password will be needed to make any changes to the file

To set a password on a workbook:

Click on the Office button and choose Save As

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 

Click on the Tools button to the left of the Save button Choose General Options

 

Enter a password in the Password to Open or the Password to Modify box Click on OK

 

Re-enter your password in the Confirm screen Click on OK

 

Click on Save If the file already exists, you will be asked if you wish to replace the file - click on Yes

To open a file that has a password set:

 

Open the file as normal When prompted, enter the password then click on OK

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If a modify password was set, you can click on the Read Only button to open the file without a password, but will not be able to save any changes to the file.

Setting Read-Only Access
You can recommend colleagues open the file as read-only, preventing them from saving any incorrect changes to the file. To set the file as read-only:

Click on the Office button and choose Save As

 

Click on the Tools button to the left of the Save button Choose General Options

 

Check the Read-only Recommended box Click on OK

 

Click on Save If the file already exists, you will be asked if you wish to replace the file - click on Yes

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When you open the file, you will be prompted whether you want to open it as read-only or not.

  

Click on Yes to open the file as read-only Click on No to open the file normally Click on Cancel to cancel the opening of the file

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