Excel 2003

Introduction

Excel 2003

Introduction

Introduction
Creating Workbooks ................................................................................................................... 7
The Getting Started Task Pane ........................................................................................................7 New Workbook Task Pane ...............................................................................................................7 Templates .........................................................................................................................................8 Closing the Task Pane .....................................................................................................................8 Zoom Display....................................................................................................................................8

Navigating Workbooks ............................................................................................................... 9 Entering Data............................................................................................................................. 11
Moving the Active Cell ....................................................................................................................11 Entering Text, Numbers and Dates ................................................................................................11 Something Else to Try ....................................................................................................................12

Data Entry Shortcuts ................................................................................................................ 12 Data Entry Options.................................................................................................................... 13 Inserting Symbols ..................................................................................................................... 13
Symbol Subsets..............................................................................................................................14

Using AutoFill............................................................................................................................ 15
AutoFill Options ..............................................................................................................................16

Additional AutoFill Options...................................................................................................... 16
Removing Items using AutoFill .......................................................................................................17

Custom Lists ............................................................................................................................. 18 List AutoFill ............................................................................................................................... 18
For Example: ..................................................................................................................................19

AutoCorrect ............................................................................................................................... 19
AutoCorrect Options .......................................................................................................................20

Checking Spelling ..................................................................................................................... 20 Research Services .................................................................................................................... 22
Adding Services..............................................................................................................................23

The Office Assistant ................................................................................................................. 24
Assistant Options............................................................................................................................24 Closing the Assistant ......................................................................................................................24

Ask a Question .......................................................................................................................... 25 Adding Hyperlinks .................................................................................................................... 26
Inserting Hyperlinks ........................................................................................................................26

Page Breaks............................................................................................................................... 27

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Worksheet Views....................................................................................................................... 28 Page Setup................................................................................................................................. 29
Headers and Footers......................................................................................................................29 Sheet Options .................................................................................................................................30

Print Preview ............................................................................................................................. 31
Setting Margins in Print Preview.....................................................................................................31

Printing....................................................................................................................................... 32 Emailing Workbooks................................................................................................................. 33
Something Else to Try ....................................................................................................................34

Saving Workbooks .................................................................................................................... 34
Saving an Existing Workbook.........................................................................................................35

Saving in Other Format............................................................................................................. 35 Closing Workbooks .................................................................................................................. 36 Opening Workbooks ................................................................................................................. 37
The New Workbook Task Pane......................................................................................................38 Something Else to Try ....................................................................................................................39

Opening Workbooks in Other Formats ................................................................................... 39 Comparing Workbooks............................................................................................................. 40 Working with Multiple Files ...................................................................................................... 41
Window Settings .............................................................................................................................42

Selecting Cells........................................................................................................................... 42
Selecting Multiple Areas .................................................................................................................43

Editing Data ............................................................................................................................... 44 Clearing Cells ............................................................................................................................ 45 The Undo Command ................................................................................................................. 45
Repeating Commands....................................................................................................................46

Moving and Copying Data ........................................................................................................ 46
Something Else to Try ....................................................................................................................47

Paste Options ............................................................................................................................ 47
Disabling Paste Options .................................................................................................................48

The Clipboard Task Pane ......................................................................................................... 49
Pasting from the Clipboard .............................................................................................................50

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Find and Replace ...................................................................................................................... 50
Finding Data ...................................................................................................................................50 Search Options ...............................................................................................................................51 Finding Formatting..........................................................................................................................51 Replacing Data ...............................................................................................................................52

Inserting and Deleting Columns and Rows ............................................................................ 52
Deleting Columns and Rows ..........................................................................................................52

Copying Formatting .................................................................................................................. 53 AutoFormat................................................................................................................................ 54
AutoFormat Options .......................................................................................................................54

Text Formatting ......................................................................................................................... 55
Additional Formatting Options ........................................................................................................56 Something Else to Try ....................................................................................................................57

Text Alignment .......................................................................................................................... 58
Merge & Centre ..............................................................................................................................58 Additional Alignment Options .........................................................................................................59

Wrapping Text ........................................................................................................................... 60
Something Else to Try ....................................................................................................................60

Indenting Text............................................................................................................................ 60 Borders and Colours ................................................................................................................ 61
Additional Formatting......................................................................................................................62 Something Else to Try ....................................................................................................................63

Drawing Borders ....................................................................................................................... 64 Setting Column Widths............................................................................................................. 65
AutoFit ............................................................................................................................................66

Setting Row Heights ................................................................................................................. 66 Number Formatting ................................................................................................................... 66
Additional Formatting Options ........................................................................................................67 Date and Time Languages .............................................................................................................69

Custom Number Formats ......................................................................................................... 69
Examples: .......................................................................................................................................71

Conditional Formatting............................................................................................................. 71 Searching for Files.................................................................................................................... 72 AutoCalculate ............................................................................................................................ 74
Additional Options ..........................................................................................................................74

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AutoSum .................................................................................................................................... 75
Extended AutoSum.........................................................................................................................75

Entering Formulae .................................................................................................................... 76
Rules of Formulae ..........................................................................................................................77 Order of Calculation........................................................................................................................77

Absolute and Relative References .......................................................................................... 78 Converting Euros ...................................................................................................................... 78
Converting Euros ............................................................................................................................79 Formatting Euros ............................................................................................................................79

Error Checking .......................................................................................................................... 81
Disabling Error Checking................................................................................................................81

Showing Calculation Steps ...................................................................................................... 82 The Watch Window ................................................................................................................... 83 Worksheet Functions................................................................................................................ 83
Function Tool Tips ..........................................................................................................................84 Inserting Functions .........................................................................................................................84

Label Names .............................................................................................................................. 86
For Example ...................................................................................................................................86 Enabling Label Names ...................................................................................................................86

Range Names ............................................................................................................................ 87
Applying a Range Name.................................................................................................................87 Selecting Cells using their Names..................................................................................................87 Something Else to Try ....................................................................................................................88

Outlining .................................................................................................................................... 88 Excel Charts .............................................................................................................................. 89 Creating Data in Charts ............................................................................................................ 91
For Example ...................................................................................................................................92

Changing the Chart Type.......................................................................................................... 92 Custom Chart Types ................................................................................................................. 93
Creating a Custom Chart................................................................................................................93 Using a Custom Chart ....................................................................................................................94

Changing the Chart Location ................................................................................................... 94 Selecting Chart Elements ......................................................................................................... 94 Formatting a Chart .................................................................................................................... 95
Formatting Chart Elements.............................................................................................................96

Aligning Labels on a Chart....................................................................................................... 98

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Chart Gridlines .......................................................................................................................... 99 The Value Axis Scale .............................................................................................................. 100 Data Labels .............................................................................................................................. 101
Formatting Labels .........................................................................................................................102

The Chart Legend.................................................................................................................... 102
Formatting the Legend .................................................................................................................103

Chart Data Labels.................................................................................................................... 103 Creating a Data List ................................................................................................................ 104 Defining a Data List................................................................................................................. 105
Adding Totals................................................................................................................................105

Data Entry Shortcuts .............................................................................................................. 106 AutoComplete.......................................................................................................................... 107 Pick from Drop-down List....................................................................................................... 108 Data Entry Forms .................................................................................................................... 109 Sorting Data............................................................................................................................. 110
Sorting on Multiple Fields .............................................................................................................110

Sub Totals................................................................................................................................ 111
For Example .................................................................................................................................111 Outlining........................................................................................................................................112

AutoFilter ................................................................................................................................. 112
Top 10...........................................................................................................................................113 Custom Filtering............................................................................................................................114

Advanced Filter ....................................................................................................................... 114
For Example .................................................................................................................................115 Step 2 - Setting the Criteria Range...............................................................................................116 Step 3 - Setting the Extract Range ...............................................................................................116 Step 4 - Filtering the List...............................................................................................................116 Something Else to Try... ...............................................................................................................117

Pivot Tables ............................................................................................................................. 118
Hiding Entries ...............................................................................................................................120 Drilling Down.................................................................................................................................120 Report AutoFormats .....................................................................................................................121 Table Options ...............................................................................................................................121

Pivot Charts ............................................................................................................................. 122

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Introduction

Creating Workbooks
When Excel 2003 is launched, a new blank workbook is displayed automatically. If you need another new workbook, click on the first button on the Standard Toolbar or press [Ctrl N].
The New Workbook button

The Getting Started Task Pane
The Getting Started Task pane shows when you launch Excel. This task pane has links to help topics and useful websites, and provides a link to the New Workbook task pane.

The top of this task pane shows the last four books you have worked on, allowing one-click access to these files:

New Workbook Task Pane
The New Workbook task pane shows when you choose the File, New command and gives you a choice of the type of workbook you wish to create.

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Templates
Excel 2003 has a number of templates that contain standard text and formatting to be used as a base for your documents. Any recently used templates will be listed above the General Templates link on the task pane. Click on the name of a template to create another workbook based on that template. To create a workbook based on a template that has not be used recently: In the Templates section of the task pane, click on On My Computer.

Choose the category of templates using the tabs at the top of the dialog box displayed e.g. Spreadsheet Solutions for the standard Excel templates. Choose the template you wish to use. Click on OK.

Closing the Task Pane
The New Workbook task pane will close automatically once the new file has been created. If you wish to close this pane without creating a new workbook, click on the Close button in the top-right corner of the pane.

Zoom Display
The magnification of the worksheet can be changed to increase or decrease the size that the worksheet displays on screen. You can zoom out to display more on the screen, or zoom in to view the detail of a certain part of the sheet.

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Zoom box on the Standard Toolbar and choose the zoom percentage you wish to use.

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Choose 100% to return to the standard view size.

The Zoom box

A worksheet at 100% view:

The same worksheet at 50% view:

Navigating Workbooks
Before entering any data into your worksheet, it is important to position the active cell correctly. Any typed data will be placed in the active cell when [Enter] or [Return] is pressed.

The active cell can be positioned as follows:

Click the mouse in the relevant position. If the position is not displayed on screen, use the vertical scroll bar to display the position before clicking the mouse

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The following cursor movement keys can also be used to move around a worksheet:
Keystroke Left or Right arrow Up or Down arrow Ctrl + Left arrow Ctrl + Right arrow Ctrl + Up arrow Ctrl + Down arrow Home Ctrl + Home Ctrl + Page Up Ctrl + Page Down Moves the Cursor... One cell to the left or right One cell up or down To the first column of the current range To the last column of the current range To the first row of the current range To the last row of the current range To the beginning of the current row To the top of the worksheet (cell A1) To the previous worksheet of the book To the next worksheet of the book

To move to a specific cell on the worksheet: Choose Edit, Go To or press [Ctrl G]. Type the cell reference and click on OK.

A cell can also be activated using the Name box above the column headings of the spreadsheet.

Click in the name box and enter the cell you wish to go to Press [Enter].

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Entering Data
Before entering text or numbers into the worksheet, the active cell must be positioned. The active cell indicates where the text or number that you next type will be entered, and is indicated by its dark borders.

Moving the Active Cell
The active cell can be moved by pressing the up, down, left or right arrows, or using any of Excel's other navigation keystrokes. The active cell can also be moved using the mouse - position the mouse pointer where you wish to active cell to appear and click once.

Entering Text, Numbers and Dates
After positioning the active cell, simply type the text or number and press [Enter]. After typing the data, it will appear in the selected cell. If the cell is still active, the data will also appear in the formula bar at the top of the screen. Alphabetical text (labels) automatically align to the left of the cell when entered while numbers and dates (values) align to the right. Dates should always be entered in the format dd/mm/yy e.g. 01/12/99 for 1st December 1999. Excel's default setting is to move the active cell down when [Return] is pressed.

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The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to enter data into the active cell:

Keystroke Ctrl ; Shift Ctrl ;

Action Enter the current date in the active cell Enter the current time in the active cell

Something Else to Try
If you need to enter the same value or label into a range of cells, this can be done as follows:

Select the range you wish to enter the label or value into. Type the label or value. Press [Ctrl Enter].

Data Entry Shortcuts
Excel has many shortcuts for entering text and values into a worksheet or data list.
Shortcut Ctrl ' Ctrl ; Shift Ctrl ; Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl D Ctrl R Action Duplicates the value from the cell directly above the active cell Inserts the current date into the active cell, using the short date format dd/mm/yy Inserts the current time into the active cell, using the short time format hh:mm Moves the active cell to the last entry in the current column Moves the active cell to the last entry in the current row Copies the value from the first cell of the selection into all other selected cells in the same column Copies the value from the first cell of the selection into all other selected cells in the same row

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Data Entry Options
Excel has many options that can be set to your own preference. One of these options is the way the active cell is repositioned after [Enter] or [Return] is pressed. Choose Tools, Options. Click on the Edit tab. Check or uncheck the Move Selection after Enter box and choose a different direction if required. Choose OK.

Other options such as setting the correct User Name can also be set in this dialog box. To set your user name, click on the General tab.

Inserting Symbols
Symbols that do not appear on the standard keyboard can be inserted as follows: Choose Insert, Symbol. From the Font drop-down list, choose the font set that contains the symbol you wish to insert (see table below). Click on the symbol required. Click on Insert. When complete, click on Cancel.

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The following generic font sets are available with Excel:

Font Set Normal Text Symbol Monotype Sorts Wingdings

Characters Fractions and international characters Additional characters not found above e.g. mathematical and scientific characters Bullet symbols and arrows Bullet symbols and other graphics

Symbol Subsets
When you choose Normal Text or one of the text-based fonts such as Arial or Times New Roman, subsets of the font will be listed to allow you to find the character you want quicker and easier. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Subset box and choose the required category.

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Using AutoFill
The AutoFill handle at the bottom-right corner of the active cell or selection can be used to enter a series of data automatically.

AutoFill works slightly differently depending on the type of data contained in the cell.

The following pre-set series can also be entered: Series Month names Day names Label series e.g. Item 1, Item 2, etc. Number series e.g. 10, 20, 30, etc. How to Enter Type the first month name in full e.g. January or shortened to 3 characters e.g. Jan Type the first day name in full e.g. Monday or shortened to 3 characters e.g. Mon Type the first label followed by its number e.g. Item 1. The number will increment in each cell that the fill handle is dragged over. Type and select the first two numbers of the series e.g. 10 and 20. When the AutoFill handle is dragged, the series will increment by the same amount each time.

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AutoFill Options
When you use the AutoFill command to copy data, you are given the choice of how the data should be inserted. After using AutoFill, look in the bottom-right corner of the range of data - you will see a smart tag. Position the mouse over this tag to display a drop-down arrow. Click on the drop-down arrow and choose how you wish to fill the range.

Additional AutoFill Options
Further AutoFill options can be displayed by clicking on the smart tag that appears at the bottom of a list that has been created. You can also display additional AutoFill options when the list is created - by
dragging the AutoFill handle with the right mouse button instead of the left:

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For example, if a date is entered in the first cell, the following options will be available: Copy cells to repeat the same value Fill Days to increment by 1 day Fill Weekdays to skip Saturdays and Sundays Fill Months to increment by 1 month Fill Years to increment by 1 year

Removing Items using AutoFill
The AutoFill handle can be dragged up or to the left to remove any unwanted entries from the end of the list.

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Custom Lists
Custom lists can be used for frequently used sets of data. Any list can be defined and then entered by typing the first item and dragging the fill handle. Choose Tools, Options and click on the Custom Lists tab. Click in the List Entries box and type the entries for the list, pressing [Return] between each. Choose OK to return to the worksheet.

If you have already entered the list manually into the worksheet, it can be imported as a custom list with no retyping required:

Select the cells containing the items of the list - these must be located next to each other. Choose Tools, Options and click on the Custom Lists tab. Click on Import. Click on OK.

List AutoFill
List AutoFill copies formatting from existing lines of a spreadsheet into any new lines typed directly under these lines. The list must contain 3 or more lines formatted in the same way, with no spaces between these lines. If a formula is included in the original list, this will also be added automatically to any new lines added to the list.

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For Example:
In the following example, any new lines added would be formatted as follows: CODE would be left aligned and forced to three digits. QTY would be centered. PRICE would be formatted to Currency, with two decimal places. As the TOTAL column contains a formula, this formula would be added automatically as soon as the PRICE and QTY cells have been filled in.

To ensure this feature is enabled:

Choose Tools, Options and select the Edit tab. Ensure the Extend List Formats and Formulas box is checked - this can be found at the top of the second column of options. Choose OK.

AutoCorrect
This feature is used to correct spelling errors as they are typed or to complete abbreviations automatically e.g. teh will automatically change to the when [Space] or [Return] is pressed. To add any other word to the AutoCorrect list:

Choose Tools, AutoCorrect Options. Ensure the AutoCorrect tab is selected. Type the incorrect word in the Replace box and the correction in the With box. Choose OK.

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AutoCorrect Options
The following options can also be selected in the AutoCorrect dialog box:

Any words added to the AutoCorrect list in Excel will also be available in Word and PowerPoint.

Checking Spelling
The spell checker can be started in three ways: Choose Tools, Spelling and Grammar or
Press [F7] or

Click on the Spelling icon on the Standard Toolbar

The Spelling button

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Choose the language you wish to check the spelling in from the Dictionary Language drop-down list. When a spelling error is found, the following options are available:

To add an incorrect spelling to the AutoCorrect list so that it is corrected automatically in future:

From the list of suggestions, choose the correct replacement that will be used when the incorrect spelling is typed. Click on AutoCorrect.

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Research Services
The Research task pane allows you to find reference information from a number of sources without leaving Office 2003. You can insert any found information into your worksheet.

To show the research task pane, choose Tools, Research or Click on the Research button on the Standard Toolbar
The Research button

If the task pane is already displayed, click on the drop-down arrow of this pane and choose Research

The following services are available: Service Reference Books Research Sites Business and Financial Sites To use the research pane: Description This will look up your text in the dictionary and thesaurus, and will also offer translation of the text This will look up your text on eLibrary, Encarta Encyclopaedia and the MSN search engine This will look up your text in Gale Company Profiles and MSN Money Stock Quotes

In the Search For box, type the text you wish to research Click on the drop-down arrow of the next line and choose the service you wish to use e.g. all research sites All results will be shown:

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You can copy any text from the research pane into your worksheet by selecting the text, then right-clicking over the selection. Choose Copy from the shortcut menu, then paste the text into any cell as normal.

Adding Services
To choose the services that will be available for research:

Click on the Research Options link at the bottom of the research task pane A list of standard research options will be shown. Tick each option you wish to make available, and remove the check from any options you do not wish to use. To add extra services, click on the Add Services button. All services available to you will be displayed - click on the required service, then on Add
Click on OK when complete

To quickly research any text in your document, hold [Alt] and click on the cell that contains the text. All reference books will be searched for the text and any results will be displayed.

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The Office Assistant
The Office Assistant can be used to find help on any feature you are using in Excel. Although the Office Assistant does not display by default in Excel 2003, it can be shown whenever you need help or advice in creating your spreadsheets. To show the Office Assistant, choose the Help menu and Show the Office Assistant command. The Office Assistant will display a light bulb whenever there is help available on the Excel feature you are using. To find out more about this feature, click once on the bulb in the Assistant display box.

Assistant Options
When the Assistant is displayed, its options can be changed by positioning the mouse over the Assistant and pressing the right mouse button.

Select Options to change the general settings e.g. Make Sounds or Show Tip of the Day at StartUp. Choose OK when complete Select Choose Assistant to change the character used. Click on Next to scroll through the characters and choose OK to select the displayed character Select Animate to view the animation features of the Assistant

Closing the Assistant
Position the mouse over the Assistant display box. Press the right mouse button and click on Hide. Choose to hide the assistant temporarily, or to turn it off altogether

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Ask a Question
The "Ask a Question" box appears at the end of the menu bar. This box can be used to find help on any topic.

Click in the Ask a Question box and type the Excel feature you want to know more about. Press [Enter]

The Search task pane will display with a list of all matching help topics.

You can change the source of Excel help by clicking on the drop0down arrow of the Search box at the bottom of the search task pane:

Close the help window by clicking on the button in the top-right corner of the window.

You can show the help task pane at any time by clicking on the Excel Help button on the Standard Toolbar.

The Excel Help button

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Adding Hyperlinks
A hyperlink is a link to a specific part of the current workbook, a different workbook or a website. Hyperlinks appear as underlined text and, when clicked, will activate the target automatically. The following types of hyperlinks can be inserted into Excel sheets: A link to a named range in the same workbook. A link to a specific sheet in the workbook. A link to a different Excel workbook. A link to an Office document, e.g. a PowerPoint presentation or Access database. A link to a website. An email link to create a new Outlook mail message automatically.

Inserting Hyperlinks
Select the cell you wish to insert the hyperlink in - ensure the cell contains text that can be clicked to activate the link. Choose Insert, Hyperlink or click on the Hyperlink button on the Standard Toolbar. If the workbook has not yet been saved, you will be prompted to save the file. Choose Yes or No as required.
The Hyperlink button

There are four options for the targets of hyperlinks created in Excel:

Setting the hyperlink: To link to another file, Excel or other, click on the Existing File or Web Page icon. Navigate the folders in the centre of the dialog box to find the file you wish to link to.

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To create a hyperlink to a web page, click on the Existing File or Web Page icon and type the full URL of the page in the Address box e.g. http://www.company.com. If a link to the page has been used recently, click on Browsed Pages to choose the link from your History list. To link to a specific cell or named range in the workbook, click on the Place in this Document icon. To link to a specific cell, choose the sheet and enter the cell reference. To link to a named range, click on the + in front of Defined Names and choose the name from the list displayed. To create an email hyperlink that will create a new mail message when clicked, click on the Email Address icon and type the full Email address e.g. john_smith@company.com. If messages created using this link should always have a specific subject, enter this in the Subject box.

Press [Ctrl K] to insert a hyperlink in the active cell.

To insert automatic hyperlinks: Hyperlinks to web pages can be created automatically by typing the full URL address of the website e.g. http://www.company.com. Email hyperlinks can be created by typing the full email address e.g. johnsmith@company.com. When this link is clicked, an Outlook message will be created and addressed automatically. Hyperlinks to files can be created by typing the computer, folder and filename e.g. \\pcone\data\test.doc. When clicked, the file will be opened.

Page Breaks
Excel workbooks are paginated as they are typed – system page breaks are inserted where no more text will fit onto a page. These breaks can be overwritten with hard (manual) page breaks.

To insert a horizontal page break: Click in column A of the row to begin the new page. Choose Insert, Page Break

To insert a vertical page break: Click in row 1 of the column to begin the new page. Choose Insert, Page Break

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To insert a horizontal and vertical page break: Click in the cell to begin the new page. Choose Insert, Page Break

Remove a page break by clicking on the cell that immediately follows the break and choosing Insert, Remove Page Break.

Worksheet Views
Normal view displays the entire workbook which comprises 256 columns and 65536 rows. Page breaks display as dashed black lines. Choose View, Normal.

Page Break Preview also displays the entire worksheet but cells that are not part of the print range are displayed in grey. Page breaks are displayed as thick blue lines that can be moved as required. Choose View, Page Break Preview.

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Page Setup
Page settings can be changed using the File, Page Setup command. Use the Page tab to change the orientation and scaling of the page:

Use the Margins tab to change the left, right, top and bottom margins of the worksheet. This tab also includes options to centre the printed range horizontally and/or vertically on the page.

Headers and Footers
The Header/Footer tab is used to set header and footer text. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Header or Footer list and choose a pre-set header or footer, or set a custom header or footer as follows: Click on the Custom Header or Custom Footer button. Click in the left, centre or right section of the header or footer and type the text you wish to appear at the top or bottom of each page. Use the buttons along the top of the dialog box to insert the following into your header or footer:

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To format text entered in the custom header or footer, select the text, then click on the Font icon. Choose all formatting options, then click on OK.

The Font button

To set the format of an inserted image, select the &[Picture] text and click on the Format Picture icon. Use the Size tab to specify the size of the image and the Picture tab to crop the image or set image control e.g. to print the image as greyscale.

The Format Picture button

Sheet Options
Use the Sheet tab to set the print area and titles plus additional options such as gridlines, row/column headings and comments. The print area is the range of the worksheet that will be printed when the Print command is issued. This can also be set as follows: Select the area you wish to print in the worksheet. Choose File, Print Area, Set Print Area.
To clear the print area, choose File, Print Area, Clear Print Area.

The Sheet tab of the Page Setup dialog box is also used to specify columns or rows that should be repeated on each printed page. Click in the Rows to repeat at the top box, then drag the mouse over the rows you want to repeat from the worksheet in the background. Click in the Columns to repeat at left box, then drag the mouse over the columns you want to repeat from the worksheet in the background.

You can also use the Sheet tab to specify how errors should print on the worksheet - as displayed on screen, as blank cells or as dashes.

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Print Preview
Print Preview is used to preview the workbook before printing. Choose File, Print Preview or click on the Print Preview button on the Standard Toolbar.
The Print Preview button

The following buttons are available at the top of the Preview screen:
Button Next Previous Zoom Print Setup Margins Page Break Preview Close Help Description Show the next page of the worksheet Show the previous page of the worksheet Toggle between 100% view and full page view Display the print dialog box. Display the page setup dialog box. Change the margins of the worksheet (see below) Show the worksheet in Page Break preview. Close the preview screen and return to the worksheet. View Help.

Setting Margins in Print Preview
It's possible to set left, right, top and bottom margins in the Print Preview screen, as well as setting column widths.

Click on the Margins button to display margins and column markers. Drag the markers to the required positions on the page.

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Printing
The Print button on the Standard Toolbar will send one copy of the active sheet to print without any further options being displayed.

The Print button

The File, Print command can be used to set exactly what should be printed.

Choose File, Print to display the Print dialog box. Click on the drop-down arrow in the Name box to choose a different printer if required. In the Page Range box, choose All to print the entire sheet or click in the Pages box and type the pages to be printed From and To. In the Print What box, choose Selection to print the selected range only or Active Sheet to print the whole sheet. Increase or decrease the number of Copies as required. Choose OK to print the selected pages.

Press [Ctrl P] to display the Print dialog box.

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Emailing Workbooks
Excel has a facility to quickly email the current workbook to any number of recipients. This option only works if you are using Outlook as your email application:
Click on the E-mail button on the Standard Toolbar.

The Email button

If your workbook contains more than a single sheet, you will be asked whether you wish to send the current sheet only, or the entire workbook.

If you choose to send the current worksheet only, an email header will be displayed at the top of the worksheet, showing the following toolbar buttons.

To address and send the message: Click in the To box and type the address of the people you wish to send the file to. If you wish to send the message to more than one person, separate each name with a semi-colon. Click in the CC box and enter the names of the people you wish to copy the message to.

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If you wish to copy the message to someone without their name appearing on the message, click on the BCC button and add their name to the BCC box.

Enter a Subject for the message. Click in the Introduction box and type any introductory text for the email e.g. what the file is about or any instructions for the recipients. Click on Send this Sheet when complete.

Something Else to Try
It's also possible to email the current section only - useful if you only need to send a specific range of data to a colleague. Select the range you wish to email. Click on the Email button on the Standard Toolbar. Address the email and add a suitable Subject and Introduction. Click on Send this Selection when complete.

Saving Workbooks
Saving involves assigning a workbook name and placing the workbook in a folder on one of your computer's drives so that it can be opened again if required. When you save a workbook for the first time, you can choose either the Save or Save As command.

Choose File, Save or File, Save As, or click on the Save button on the Standard Toolbar.

The Save button

Ensure the correct drive and folder are selected - if these are not correct, click in the Save In box and select the drive and/or folder. Click in the File Name box and type a new name for the workbook. Click on Save.

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Saving an Existing Workbook
If you are saving an existing workbook after changes have been made, it is important to know the difference between the Save and Save As commands.

The Save command saves the current workbook under the existing name and replaces the original version. Choose File, Save or click on the Save icon on the standard toolbar.
The Save As command requests a new name for the workbook and leaves the original unchanged. Choose File, Save As. If you accidentally attempt to close a workbook without first saving it, Excel will ask if you wish to save any changes to the workbook. Click on Yes to save the changes or No to exit the workbook and lose any changes.

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to save workbooks:

Keystroke Ctrl S F12

Action Save Save As

Saving in Other Format
It is possible to save Excel 2003 workbooks in other spreadsheet formats such as Lotus 123. Some Excel information will not be translated - custom formatting will be lost as will advanced Excel features such as outlining, OLE links, embedded charts and drawn objects.

Choose File, Save As. Ensure the correct drive and folder are selected - if these are not correct, click in the Save In box and select the drive and/or folder. Click in the File name box and type a new name for the workbook - this should be between 1 and 8 characters with no spaces. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Files of Type box and choose the required format e.g. WK4(123) for Lotus 123. Click on Save.

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If the workbook will be opened in Excel 2002, 2000 or 97, it need not be saved in a different format. Excel 2003 workbooks can be opened directly in Excel 2002, 2000 and 97.

Closing Workbooks
Although it is possible to open more than one Excel workbook at a time, it is good practice to close a workbook when you have finished working on it. Choose File, Close If the file has not yet been saved, choose Yes to save the workbook or No to cancel any changes made.

Workbooks can also be closed by pressing [Ctrl F4] or [Ctrl W].

If you have a large number of workbooks open and wish to close them in one step, hold [Shift] while clicking on the File menu. The Close option changes to Close All and will close all workbooks currently open, without exiting Excel. You will be prompted to save any unsaved workbooks.

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Opening Workbooks
Existing workbooks are opened as follows: Choose File, Open or click on the Open button on the Standard Toolbar.
The Open button

The following buttons appear on the left of the dialog box:

To open a file in a location other than those in the above table: Click on the drop-down arrow in the Look In box and select the drive and folder in which the file is stored. Select the name of the workbook from the list displayed and choose Open.
The last four workbooks opened are listed at the bottom of the File menu. Clicking on one of these names will open the file in a single step.

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The following toolbar buttons appear at the top of the Open dialog box:

The Back button is used to trace recently opened folders. The Tools menu contains housekeeping options e.g. Add the current folder to Favourites. The Views button contains options to display files in the various ways e.g. as large icons or with details such as the file size and modification date.
The Preview view displays an image of the selected file on the right of the Open dialog box. Use the File, Properties window to set whether a preview picture should display or now.

The New Workbook Task Pane
The New Workbook task pane contains shortcuts to the last four documents opened in Word. The task pane can be shown in one of the following ways: Choose View, Task Pane or Right click over any toolbar displayed on screen and choose Task Pane. If the New Workbook task pane does not show by default, click on the drop-down arrow at the top of the Task Pane and choose New Workbook.

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Something Else to Try
The Open dialog box can also be used for file management. Right click on a workbook name for a list of options, including the following: Choose Delete to permanently delete the file. Click on Yes or No in the warning box displayed. Choose Rename to rename the file. Type a new name and press [Return].
The Open button contains a drop-down arrow that gives options to open the file as read-only, open a copy of the file or to open the file in your web browser. To open the workbook in the standard way, click on the Open button, away from the drop-down arrow.

Opening Workbooks in Other Formats
When opening a file in other formats, the original content and format will be preserved, and formulae and macros will be converted as much as possible. Formulae with more than 7 levels of nesting are not always converted correctly. Choose File, Open or click on the Open icon on the Standard Toolbar.

The Open Workbook button

In the Files of Type box, choose the format of the file you wish to open. Click on the drop-down arrow in the Look In box and select the drive and folder in which the workbook is stored. Select the name of the file from the list displayed and choose Open.

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To save the imported workbook in Excel 2003 format, choose File, Save As and select Microsoft Excel Workbook from the Files of Type list.

If the workbook you wish to open is an Excel 2002, 2000 or 97 file, it can be opened directly in Excel 2003 without changing the Files of Type option.

Comparing Workbooks
If you are working with multiple workbooks, you can show these side by side, and synchronise them so that as you scroll through one workbook, the other will be scrolled at the same time.

Ensure the workbooks you wish to compare are open Choose Window, Compare Side by Side With If you have more than two workbooks open, choose the workbook you wish to compare with Click on OK

The Compare Side by Side toolbar will display automatically:

Click on the Close Side by Side button on the toolbar to return to viewing one workbook on screen.

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Working with Multiple Files
Excel 2003 opens a separate application window for each workbook that is opened in a session. Each workbook has its own button on the Task Bar - click on a button to activate that workbook. Hold [Alt] and press [Tab] to switch between workbooks. Release [Tab] when the required book is highlighted. Right click on the Task Bar for additional options:

Choose Tile Horizontally to arrange all workbooks horizontally on screen. Choose Tile Vertically to arrange all workbooks vertically on screen. Choose Minimize All to minimise all workbooks.

It is also possible to select the document you wish to activate from the Window menu: Choose Window. In the lower part of the menu, choose the name of the document you wish to activate.

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Window Settings
If you prefer, you can prevent Excel from opening each workbook in a separate application window. You will still be able to work with multiple Excel files, but each workbook will not appear along the task bar. Choose Tools, Options. Ensure the View tab is selected. Uncheck the Windows in Taskbar option in the Show section of the dialog box. Click on OK.

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to switch between open workbooks:

Keystroke Ctrl F6 Shift Ctrl F6

Action Open Next Workbook Open Previous Workbook

Selecting Cells
You can select text using either the mouse or the keyboard - whichever you prefer. To select text using the mouse: Drag the mouse over a block of cells to select it or Click at the beginning of the block and hold [Shift] while clicking at the end

Or use the following shortcuts...
Select Column Row Entire sheet Action Click on the letter at the top of the column Click on the number at the beginning of the row Click on the grey box between the first column letter and first row number

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Arrows will display when you click on a column letter or row number, to show that the mouse is positioned correctly to select the column or row. The following image shows the mouse in the correct position to select column B.

Selecting Multiple Areas
You can select multiple areas of the spreadsheet so that formatting can be applied to non-contiguous text in a single step. Drag the mouse over the first block of cells you wish to select. Release the mouse button when complete. Hold [Ctrl] and drag the mouse over the next block of cells, again releasing the mouse when complete. Repeat the above step until all text is selected.

The [Shift] key can be added to any navigation shortcut to select text in that direction e.g. to select from the current cell to the beginning of the row, press [Shift] and [Home] together.

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The following shortcuts can also be used to select areas of the worksheet. Select Column Row The entire sheet The current region * Keystroke [Ctrl Spacebar] [Shift Spacebar] [Ctrl Shift Spacebar] or [Ctrl A] [Ctrl *] or [Ctrl Shift 8]

* The current region is the area of data surrounding the active cell, until a blank column or row is encountered.

Editing Data
The content of the active cell always displays in the Formula Bar:

The content of the cell can be edited in the following way: Click in the Formula Bar or press [F2]. Use the arrow keys of the keyboard or the mouse to position the cursor where the change should occur. Once the cell is active, you can edit the text as follows: To insert text, simply type the text. It will appear at the cursor position. Press [Backspace] to remove the character to the left of the cursor. Press [Delete] to remove the character to the right of the cursor. Press [Return] to enter the revised data into the cell.

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It is also possible to edit the cell without using the Formula Bar. Simply double click in the cell and edit as required, pressing [Enter] when complete

Clearing Cells
Cells are cleared by selecting the cells and pressing [Delete]. This will only clear the content of the cell - any text, numbers or formulae typed in the cell. Formatting such as borders and colours will not be removed. The Clear command in the Edit menu can be used to specify exactly what you want to delete from the selected cells. You can use this to clear only the formatting from your cells. Any data entered in the cells will remain, but any formatting will be removed. To remove content and formatting from a selection, choose Edit, Clear, All To remove only formatting from a selection, leaving the contents as they are, choose Edit, Clear, Formats

The Undo Command
The Undo command allows you to reverse up to 16 commands that have already been executed, including restoring deleted text. Use one of the following methods: Choose Edit, Undo as many times as required Press [Ctrl Z] as many times as required Click on the Undo icon on the Standard Toolbar as many times as required

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Click on the drop-down arrow after the Undo icon and select the last command you wish to undo
The Undo button

If you change your mind about undoing a command, it can be redone: Choose Edit, Redo as many times as required Click on the drop-down arrow after the Redo icon and select the last command you wish to redo
The Redo button

Repeating Commands
The Repeat command will repeat the action just performed and can be used to carry out the same task on a number of different worksheet ranges. Choose Edit, Repeat as many times as required

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to undo, redo and repeat commands:

Keystroke Ctrl Z Ctrl Y F4

Action Undo Redo Repeat

Moving and Copying Data
Data can be moved or copied using the standard Cut, Copy and Paste commands which are available in the Edit menu or the Standard Toolbar. Select the range to be moved or copied. Choose Edit, Copy to copy the range or Edit, Cut to move the range. Activate the first cell in which the copied or moved data should appear. If this cell contains data, it will be overwritten when the range is pasted. Choose Edit, Paste to insert the range.
The Copy button The Cut button The Paste button

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The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to move and copy data.

Keystroke Ctrl C Ctrl X Ctrl V

Action Copy Cut Paste

Something Else to Try
A range can also be moved or copied using the drag and drop facility: Position the mouse over the edge of the selected range to display the white arrow shaped mouse pointer. Drag the range to a new location and release the mouse button. To copy text, hold [Ctrl] while dragging and release the mouse button before releasing the [Ctrl] key.

Paste Options
When you paste data into your Excel worksheet, you often have a choice of how the data should be inserted. After pasting your data, look in the bottom-right corner of the range of data - you will see a paste icon. Position the mouse over this icon to display a drop-down arrow. Click on the drop-down arrow and choose how you wish to paste the data.

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When you paste as a link, the pasted data will update each time the original is changed.

Disabling Paste Options
If you prefer, you can disable the Paste Options button so that it doesn't show each time you paste data. Choose Tools, Options. Click on the Edit tab. Uncheck the Show Paste Options Buttons option. Click on OK.

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The Clipboard Task Pane
It is possible to hold multiple entries in the Clipboard - allowing you to copy and paste more than one item at a time. The Clipboard Task Pane is used to choose the item you wish to paste at that time. By default, the Clipboard Task Pane will display whenever you copy an item in Word, Excel or PowerPoint. The Clipboard can hold 24 items and can be displayed in other applications too, allowing you to paste Office data into these. If the Clipboard Task Pane does not show by default: Choose View, Task Pane or Right click over any toolbar displayed on screen and choose Task Pane. If the Clipboard task pane does not show by default, click on the drop-down arrow at the top of the Task Pane and choose Clipboard.

When the task pane displays in Office, an icon will appear on the task bar at the bottom of the screen. Use this icon to show the Clipboard in any application that you wish to paste data into.

You can remove the Clipboard icon from the task bar by clicking on the Options button at the bottom of the Clipboard Task Pane. Uncheck the option to Show Office Clipboard Icon in Task Bar.

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Pasting from the Clipboard
Once the Clipboard Task Pane is displayed, you can insert any item stored in the clipboard.

To paste from the Clipboard, click on the item's icon on the Clipboard Task Pane. To paste all items from the clipboard, click on Paste All at the top of the Clipboard Task Pane. To clear all items from the Clipboard, click on the Clear All button at the top of the Clipboard Task Pane.

Up to 24 items can be stored in the Clipboard. If the clipboard is full and you attempt to add another item, the earliest item placed in the clipboard will be over-written.

Find and Replace
The Find command allows you to locate specific text or numbers in your worksheet while Replace allows you to change one or all occurrences of the data automatically.

Finding Data
Choose Edit, Find or press [Ctrl F]. Choose Find Next to find the first occurrence of the word and Find Next again until the correct occurrence is found. Alternatively, you can display a list of all cells in the worksheet that contain your search text. Click on Find All in the Find dialog box to do this:

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Search Options
Additional search options can be set in the Find dialog box by clicking on Options:

Finding Formatting
It is possible to find text that is formatted in a specific way e.g. all text using the Arial font or all text coloured red: Choose Edit, Find or [Ctrl F]. Click on Options. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Format button and Format. From the resulting dialog box, choose the formatting you wish to locate and click on OK. Click on Find Next to find the next occurrence of the formatting.

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Click on the drop-down arrow of the Format button and choose Clear Find Format to locate text regardless of its format.

Replacing Data
Choose Edit, Replace or press [Ctrl H]. Type the text or number to be located in the Find What box and the replacement text or number in the Replace With box. Choose Find Next to find the next occurrence of the word, Replace to replace the single occurrence or Replace All to replace all occurrences.

Inserting and Deleting Columns and Rows
When a column is inserted, the new column will appear to the left of the selected column, with the selected column moving across the worksheet. When a row is inserted, the new row will appear above the selected row, with the selected row moving down the worksheet accordingly.

Columns and rows can be inserted as follows: Select the column or row to follow the new column or row. Choose Insert, Columns or Insert, Rows as required.

Deleting Columns and Rows
Columns and rows can be deleted as follows: Select the entire column(s) or row(s) to be deleted by clicking on the column letter or row number in the worksheet frame. Choose Edit, Delete.
The Insert and Delete commands are also available if you select columns or rows and click the right mouse button.

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The following shortcuts can also be used to insert or delete columns or rows: Keystroke Ctrl Ctrl Shift + Action Deletes the selected columns or rows Inserts columns or rows at the selected position

Copying Formatting
The Format Painter is used to copy formatting from one area of the worksheet to another. All formatting including character formatting (font, size and style) and number formatting is copied. Select the cell or range of cells containing the formatting you wish to copy. Click on the Format Painter button on the Standard Toolbar - the mouse pointer will display a paintbrush.
The Format Painter button

Drag the mouse over the new range of cells to contain the formatting options copied.

To copy formatting to more than one location, double click on the Format Painter button. Select all new ranges and click on the button again to switch it off.

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AutoFormat
It is possible to format a worksheet using an automatic preset format. This will format text and numbers in the range, adding colour and borders where applicable. Excel has many preset formats that can be customised manually if required. Click anywhere in the range to be formatted. If the range does not contain any blank columns or rows, it is not necessary to select the range. Choose Format, AutoFormat. Choose the required format from the list of samples displayed. Choose OK.

Any manual formatting can be carried out on the range after an AutoFormat has been applied. It is also possible to change column widths and row heights after applying an AutoFormat.

AutoFormat Options
You can choose exactly which formatting options you wish to apply to the range: Choose Format, AutoFormat. Click on the Options button. In the Formats to Apply box, uncheck any formatting you do not wish to apply. Choose OK.

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Text Formatting
Character formatting includes fonts, point size and effects such as bold and italics.
The Formatting Toolbar contains shortcuts for the following character formatting options:

Select the cells you wish to format. Change the font by clicking on the drop-down arrows of the Font box and choosing the required option. Font names will display as they will look in the worksheet:

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Change the size of the text by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Size box and choosing the size in points - there are 72 points to an inch. Add bold, italics or underlining to the cell by clicking on each button. Change the colour of the text in the cells using the Text Colour icon at the end of the Formatting Toolbar. Choose the required colour from the palette or click on Automatic to set the text colour back to the default - usually black.

Formatting can be applied to more than one range at the same time. Drag the mouse over the first range, then hold [Ctrl] while dragging over each additional range.

Additional Formatting Options
Additional character formatting can be applied through the format cells dialog box: Select the cells you wish to format. Choose Format, Cells and click on the Font tab to display the following options:

Choose the font, size and style from the lists displayed. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Color box and choose the required colour from the palette displayed. Click on the drop-down list of the Underline box and choose the required underline option. The Accounting style will place the underline slightly lower than a normal underline, leaving a gap between the cell content and underlining. Check the effects you wish to apply. Choose OK when complete.

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The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to format selected cells:

Keystroke Ctrl B Ctrl U Ctrl I Ctrl 5 Ctrl 1

Action Bold Underlining Italics Strikethrough Display the Format Cells dialog box

Something Else to Try
If the cell contains text, as opposed to numbers, it is possible to format only part of the text:

Activate the cell you wish to format by double clicking on it. Drag the mouse over the characters you wish to format.

Choose Format, Cells. Choose the font, size and style for the selected text. Choose OK when complete.

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Text Alignment
By default, text is aligned to the left of the cell and numbers to the right. Alignment of cells can be changed using the buttons on the Formatting Toolbar:

Select the cells you wish to align. Align to the left, right or centre of the cell by clicking on the required button.

Merge & Centre
This is used to centre a heading over a number of columns.

Ensure the heading is typed in the first of the cells to be merge. In the above example, the heading would be typed in column B. Select the cells you wish to merge, starting with the cell containing the heading. Click on the Merge & Centre button. You can split cells that have previously been merged in the above way: Select the merged cell - the Merge & Centre button will appear activated. Click on the Merge & Centre button to split the cells back to how they looked originally.

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Additional Alignment Options
Additional alignment can be applied through the format cells dialog box: Select the cells you wish to format. Choose Format, Cells and click on the Alignment tab to display the following options:

Option Horizontal Alignment Vertical Alignment Indent Wrap Text Shrink to fit Merge cells Orientation Text Direction

Description Sets the alignment between the left and right of the cell. Sets the alignment between the top and bottom of the cell.
Sets the distance that the text appears from the left margin of the cell.

Wraps long entries onto multiple lines Reduces the size of text so that it fits in the column. Merges the selected cells so that text can be aligned over more than one column or row. Changes the orientation of text to the specified number of degrees e.g. 45 for slanted text. Set the order in which characters will be entered in the cell - you will only need to change this if using a right-to-left reading language such as Arabic

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Wrapping Text
It is possible to enter multiple lines of text in the same cell using one of the following techniques: Type the text and ensure the cell is selected. Choose Format, Cells and the Alignment tab. Check the Wrap Text box and choose OK.

Something Else to Try
Alternatively, line breaks may be inserted manually while typing the text: Type the first line of text to appear in the cell. Press [Alt Return] to insert a line break and type the next line of text. Repeat the above step until all lines have been entered. Press [Return] to enter the text into the cell.

Indenting Text
If text is left aligned in the cell, it can be indented from the left border using the Indent buttons on the Formatting Toolbar.

Select the cells you wish to indent from the left. Click on the appropriate indent button until the text is aligned as required. An example of indented cells:

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Indenting can only be applied to cells that are left aligned. If the cell is right aligned or centered, text will still indent from the left of the cell.

Indenting can also be set through the Alignment tab of the Format, Cells dialog box. Select the cells you wish to indent. Choose Format, Cells and the Alignment tab. In the Indent box, choose or type the number of increments you wish to indent by - each increment will indent by 2 characters. Choose OK.

Borders and Colours
The Formatting Toolbar contains the following shortcuts for setting borders and colours:

Select the cells you wish to format.. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Borders button and choose the type of border you wish to apply:

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Click on the drop-down arrow of the Cell Colour button to set the background colour of the selection. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Text Colour button to set the colour of any text in the selected cells.

Additional Formatting
Additional borders and colours can be applied through the format cells dialog box: Select the cells you wish to format and choose Format, Cells. Click on the Border tab to display the following options:

Click on the Patterns tab to display the following options:

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Choose OK when complete.

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to format selected cells:

Keystroke Shift Ctrl & Shift Ctrl _

Action Add a single outline border around the selection Clear all borders from the selection

Something Else to Try
It is possible to create a new toolbar containing the Border or Colour options. This is especially useful if you use these commands over and over again. Click on the drop-down arrow of the border or colour button on the Formatting Toolbar. Click on the thick grey bar at the top of the drop-down menu and drag this to a suitable position on the screen.

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Drawing Borders
You can add borders to your spreadsheet by drawing them over the required cells - this can often be much easier than selecting the cell position via the Format Cells dialog box. To draw borders: Click on the Borders button on the Formatting Toolbar. Choose Draw Borders from the drop-down list.

The Draw Border toolbar will display with the following buttons:

To draw an outline border around your cells, position the mouse where the top-left corner of the box should appear. Click and drag the mouse to the bottom-right corner of the box.

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Vertical and horizontal lines can be added simply by dragging over the gridlines of the table that you wish the lines to appear over. You can add diagonal lines by dragging across a cell. You can erase borders from the worksheet by clicking on the Erase Border button on the Draw Border toolbar. The mouse pointer shape will change to an eraser.

To set the border colour before drawing any lines, click on the Border Colour button on the Draw Border toolbar and select a new colour. This will be used when the next border line is drawn.

Setting Column Widths
The standard width of a column is 8.43. This means that 8.43 digits of the standard font and size will fit into the cell. If a cell contains a value or date that does not fit the column width, a row of hash symbols will be displayed in the cell. You can view the content of the cell by positioning the mouse over the cell:

Column widths can be changed as follows: If you wish to set the width of a single column, it is not necessary to select that column first. When setting the width of multiple columns, the columns must first be selected. Position the mouse pointer over the right border of one of the selected column headings – a new mouse pointer shape will be displayed. Drag the mouse to the left or right to adjust the column width.

While changing the column width in this way, the size of the column will be displayed in both characters and pixels.

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AutoFit
The AutoFit command will set the width of a column automatically to fit the longest text entry or number within that column. Select the columns(s) you wish to AutoFit. Choose Format, Column, AutoFit Selection or Position the mouse pointer over the right border of one of the selected column headings and double click the mouse.
The column width can be returned to normal by choosing Format, Column, Standard Width and choosing OK.

It is possible to set the width more than one column at a time, even if the columns do not appear next to each other on the worksheet: Click on the heading of the first column you wish to change. Hold [Ctrl] and click on the headings of all other columns to be changed. Position the mouse pointer over the right border of any of the selected column headings and drag the mouse to the required width.

Setting Row Heights
Row height is set in points and adjusts automatically to fit larger fonts. Select the rows to be set. Position the mouse pointer over the bottom border of one of the selected row headings – a new mouse pointer shape will be displayed. Drag the mouse up or down to adjust the row height or double click to set to fit the largest font of the row.

It is good practice in any spreadsheet application to set row heights rather than leave blank rows between related ranges of data.

Number Formatting
When a number is entered into a spreadsheet, no zero decimals will be displayed in the number. For example, if 100.00 were entered, 100 would be displayed.

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The number format can be changed to ensure all numbers in a column have the same amount of decimal places. Currency symbols and commas can also be added in the format. The Formatting Toolbar contains shortcuts for the following number formatting options:

Select the cells containing the values you wish to format Click on the Currency, Percent or Comma button to apply that format to the selection. To increase the number of decimal places by 1, click on the Increase Decimals button. To decrease the number of decimal places by 1, click on the Decrease Decimals button. The following worksheet demonstrates the effects of Currency, Percent and Comma formatting:

Formatting can be applied to more than one range at the same time. Drag the mouse over the first range as normal, then hold [Ctrl] while dragging over each additional range.

Additional Formatting Options
Additional number formatting can be applied through the format cells dialog box: Select the cells containing the values you wish to format. Choose Format, Cells and the Number tab. Choose the required Category (see table below) and enter the required number of Decimal Places. Choose OK when complete. The following categories of number formatting are available:
Category General Number Description Displays the number as it was entered, with no symbols or extra decimal places. Displays the number with a set amount of decimal places. A comma can be added between each thousand of the number by checking the Use 1000 Separator box.

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Category

Description Displays the number with a currency symbol and set amount of decimal places. Currency symbols from most of the world's countries are available and can be selected from the Symbol drop-down list. Unlike the Accounting format, the currency symbol appears immediately in front of the number, and not at the extreme left of the cell (see illustration below). Displays the number with an optional currency symbol and set amount of decimal places. The currency symbol will be placed at the extreme left of the cell (see illustration below). Displays a list of date formats that can be selected. Displays a list of time formats that can be selected. Multiplies the number by 100 and displays the % symbol with a specified amount of decimal places. The number 0.25 would display as 25%. Displays the number as a fraction. The fraction that the number should be rounded to can be selected e.g. 1.125 as quarters would display 1 1/4, but as halves would display 1. Displays the number in scientific format - especially useful for extremely large or small numbers. For example, the number 200000000 which has 8 zeros would display 2.00E+08 Displays the number as text, aligned to the left of the cell. Displays the number as a zip code, telephone number or social security number.

Currency

Accounting Date Time Percentage Fraction Scientific Text Special

The following worksheet illustrates the difference between Accounting and Currency formatting:

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Date and Time Languages
When you choose the Date or Time format, you can choose the language that the date or time should be shown in. Choose the required language from the Locale (location) box.

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to format selected cells: Keystroke Shift Ctrl ! Shift Ctrl $ Shift Ctrl % Shift Ctrl ^ Shift Ctrl ~ Action Fixed (2 decimals) Currency (2 decimals) Percent (0 decimals) Scientific Format Remove number formatting

Custom Number Formats
Custom number formatting is used when you want a specific format that does not appear as a pre-set option in Excel. The following are examples of custom formats:

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Custom number formatting can be set as follows: Select the cell or range of cells containing the formatting. Choose Format, Cells and the Number tab. Click on the Custom category. In the Type box, enter the symbols that make up the required format, using the table below.

The following symbols are used in custom number formatting: Symbol . (period) , (comma) 0 # % [colour] "Symbol" Description Decimal separator Thousand separator Digit placeholder - will result in a zero if the number is not large enough to need it. Digit placeholder - used only if the number is large enough to need it. Multiplies the number by 100 and adds the % symbol. Changes the number to the colour in square brackets. Any letter or punctuation symbol can be added, but should be placed in quotation marks

Excel number formats have two sections separated by a semi-colon (;). The first section is used if the number is positive, while the second is optional and used if the number is negative. The following characters can be used to format dates:

Code D DD DDD DDDD M MM

Description The day number. The day number forced to 2 digits. The day name shortened to three characters. The day name in full. The month number. The month number forced to 2 digits.

Example 1 01 Mon Monday 1 01

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Code MMM MMMM YY YYYY

Description The month name shortened to three characters. The month name in full. The year number shortened to two digits. The year number in full.

Example Jan January 99 1999

Examples:
Format "US $" #,##0.00 000 [blue]0.00;[red]0.00 DDDD, D MMMM YYYY Description Places US $ in front of the value. If the number is over 1000, a comma separator is used. The number is forced to 2 decimal places. The number is forced to three digits. The value 1 would display as 001. Positive numbers will display in blue and are forced to 2 decimal places. Negative numbers display in red with a minus sign and 2 decimals. This will format the date 1/1/2000 to Monday, 1 January 2000.

Conditional Formatting
Conditional formatting allows you to change the appearance of cells depending on the values stored in the cells. Fonts, borders and/or patterns can be set using this option. The following spreadsheet has the following conditional formats applied: All cell values less than 200 have the font set to bold and red. All cell values greater than 600 have the cell pattern set to light yellow.

To set conditional formatting: Select the cells to which you wish to apply conditional formatting and choose Format, Conditional Formatting. Ensure the first box reads Cell Value Is to set the format depending on the value stored in the cell

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Click on the drop-down arrow in the Between box and select the comparison type e.g. Greater than or Less than. Type the comparison values in the following boxes Click on Format and select the formatting to apply if the condition is met. Choose OK to set this format. To add a second condition, click on Add and repeat all steps to set this condition. Choose OK to set the conditional format. The following conditional format will change all cells containing values over 200 to red text with a red border.

Searching for Files
The Search task pane allows you to search for text contained in either:
An Office document e.g. a Word document An Outlook item e.g. an email message or calendar appointment A web page, either on your company Intranet or the Internet

You can show the Search pane any time you need to find a file, without the need to leave Excel. Choose File, File Search to show the task pane.

To search for text in the name, properties or content of a file or Outlook item: Click in the Search Text box on the Search task pane. Type the text you wish to locate. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Search In box to choose where you wish to search for your data:

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Click on the drop-down arrow of the Results Should Be box and tick the items you wish to find e.g. Excel files or Outlook contacts. You can check as many options as you wish to find. Click on Search. All results will be shown in the Search pane. Click on a file in this pane to open the file for viewing or editing. Position the mouse at the end of the file name and click on the drop-down arrow for more options.

Click on the Modify button at the bottom of the Search pane to edit your search or perform another search.

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AutoCalculate
The AutoCalculate box on the status bar is used to quickly view the total of a selected block of data. If the selection does not contain any values, this box will remain blank.
This selected range:

would display this result in the status bar:

Additional Options
As well as the default Sum option, additional calculations can be viewed. Position the mouse pointer over the AutoCalculate box and press the right mouse button.

The following functions are available to be used in the AutoCalculate box. When you select a function, that function will be used until another is chosen manually:
Function Average Count Count Nums Max Min Sum Description Returns the average of the selected values Returns the number of values or labels in the selection Returns the number of values in the selection Returns the highest value in the selection Returns the lowest value in the selection Returns the total of all numbers in the selection

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AutoSum
This is used to add the contents of columns and/or rows of values and place the results in specified cells of the worksheet. Select the values you wish to add up, including the blank row or column to contain the result. If you wish to add up columns, include a blank row at the bottom of the range, if you wish to add up rows, include a blank column to the right of the selection. The following range would be selected to add column and row totals to the table:

Click on the AutoSum button on the Standard Toolbar to insert the totals.
The AutoSum button

As the AutoSum command enters formulae into the spreadsheet, the total will update automatically if the figures on the spreadsheet are amended.

Extended AutoSum
As well as adding totals to your spreadsheets using the AutoSum button, you can use other common functions to summarise the highlighted figures. Click on the drop-down arrow of the AutoSum button to show the additional options:

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The following additional functions are available in the AutoSum list:
Function Average Count Max Min Description Returns the average of each column and/or row in the selection Returns the number of items in each column and/or row in the selection Returns the highest value in each column and/or row in the selection Returns the lowest value in each column and/or row in the selection

Press [Alt =] to add up the selected columns and rows of figures.

Entering Formulae
A formula is a sequence of values, cell references and mathematical operators entered into a cell to produce a result. A formula can be used to perform operations such as addition and multiplication based on data in the worksheet. When the data is changed, the result of the formula will update automatically. The following mathematical operations can be used in a formula: Addition ( + ) Subtraction ( - ) Multiplication ( * ) Division ( / ) Exponential ( ^ ) Percent ( % ) A formula can be entered into a single cell or range of cells. Select the cell or range to contain the formula. Type = and build the formula by clicking on the relevant cells and using the standard mathematical operators. Press [Return] if entering into a single cell or press [Ctrl Return] if entering into a range of cells. As you build your formula, Excel will highlight the cells that make up the formula on the worksheet. The colour of each border matches the cell reference in the formula:

When you double click on a cell containing a formula, Excel will again colour each cell reference in that formula, adding borders to the related cell on the worksheet.

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Rules of Formulae
The following rules apply to formulae in Excel: Every formula begins with an equal sign (=). The formula must not contain any spaces except when using range names. All text other than function or range names must be enclosed in quotes (" "). As far as possible, cell references should be used in the formula as opposed to numbers. This will ensure the formula updates automatically if the values in the worksheet are changed.

Order of Calculation
The order of calculation in Excel is: Brackets Of Division Multiplication Addition Subtraction For example =2+3*4 results in 14 while =(2+3)*4 results in 20

If a formula is entered into a single cell, it can be copied into adjacent cells using the standard Copy and Paste commands.

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Absolute and Relative References
The standard way in which Excel enters a formula uses relative references. When a formulae is copied, the cell references are updated accordingly.

To stop the references from changing, they must be entered as absolute references. This will ensure the same cell is referenced regardless of how the formula is moved or copied.

Create the formula in the normal way and position the cursor anywhere on the reference to be made absolute. Type a dollar sign ($) before the column and row reference or press [F4].

Pressing [F4] once will make both the column and row reference absolute. Pressing [F4] a second time will make only the row reference absolute and a third time the column reference.

Converting Euros
The Euro Tools add-in enables the EuroValue toolbar which can be used to quickly convert the selected number from one Euro currency to another. To show this toolbar: Ensure the Euro Currency Tools add-in is enabled. Choose Tools, Add-Ins and check this option on the list of add-ins if not. Right-click over any toolbar currently displayed on screen. Choose EuroValue.

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Converting Euros
If you need the result of a Euro conversion to appear in your worksheet, you can use the Euro Conversion command to convert values between currencies of countries that have adopted the Euro. Ensure the Euro Currency Tools add-in is enabled. Choose Tools, Euro Conversion or click on the Euro Conversion button on the Standard Toolbar. Click in the Source Range box, then on the cell in the worksheet that contains the value you wish to convert. Click in the Destination Range box, then on the cell in the worksheet that you wish to contain the converted value. Choose the currency you are converting from in the From list. Choose the currency you are converting to in the To list. Click on OK.

Formatting Euros
Numbers can be formatted to the Euro as follows: Select the cells containing the values you wish to format. Choose Format, Cells and the Number tab. Choose the Currency category from the list on the left-hand side of the dialog box.

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Click on the drop-down arrow on the Symbol list and choose Euro. There are two options - the first displays the symbol in front of the number, the second displays the symbol after the number. Choose OK.

If you often format numbers to the Euro, the Euro symbol can be placed on the Formatting Toolbar using the Euro Tools add-in: Choose Tools, Add-Ins. Check Euro Currency Tools on the list of add-ins displayed. Choose OK. To format a number after the Euro Currency Tools have been enabled, simply select the cells to be formatted and click on the Euro button on the Formatting Toolbar.
The Euro button

Once the add-in has been enabled in this way, it will launch automatically each time Excel is started. To disable the add-in, choose Tools, Add-Ins and uncheck the Euro Tools option.

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Error Checking
If a formula you enter contains an error, Excel will display a smart tag to alert you of this error. After entering your formula, look in the top-left corner of the cell. If this shows a green triangle, the cell contains an error.

Click on the cell that contains the formula. A smart tag will display. Position the mouse over this icon to display a drop-down arrow. Click on the drop-down arrow and choose how you wish to handle the error.

Disabling Error Checking
If you prefer, you can disable the Error Checking indicator so that doesn't show each time you enter an incorrect formula. Choose Tools, Options. Click on the Error Checking tab. Remove the check from the Enable Background Error Checking box. Click on OK.

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Showing Calculation Steps
Excel allows you to evaluate formulae to see exactly how the formula is built up and calculated at each step. The Evaluate dialog box will display when you choose the Show Calculation Steps option during error checking. It can also be displayed by choosing Tools, Formula Auditing and Evaluate Formula. The first step of the formula will be displayed, with all cell references showing in the Evaluation box. The following example shows a simple formula of one cell being subtracted from another:

Click on the Step In button to show the value in the underlined cell. Click on Step Out to continue evaluating.

Click on the Evaluate button to move to the next cell reference of the formula. Again, click on Step In to show the value of this reference. Continue to click on Evaluate until the values of all references of the formula are shown. Clicking on Evaluate for the last time will show the result of the formula. Click on Close when complete.

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The Watch Window
The Watch Window allows you to check the value and formulae entered in specific cells, even if these cells are no longer in view on your worksheet. The watch window updates automatically as the cells change, allowing to you see at a glance what their results are.

Worksheet Functions
A function is a calculation tool that can be used to perform a specific task in a formula. Function names are followed by arguments or options which differ depending on the information needed by the function. The following mathematical functions have only one argument - the range of cells to be calculated.
Function =SUM(A1:B5) =AVERAGE(A1:B5) =MAX(A1:B5) =MIN(A1:B5) To enter a formula using a function: Description Adds the content of the range Returns the average of the range Returns the highest value in the range Returns the lowest value in the range

Activate the cell to contain the formula result. Type = followed by the name of the function, and open brackets (. Drag the mouse over the range of cells to be calculated - these will be added to the formula automatically. Close brackets ) and press [Enter].

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Some functions do not require any arguments, for example: Function =TODAY( ) =NOW( ) Description Returns the current date that will update each time the file is opened Returns the current date and time that will update each time the file is opened

Function Tool Tips
When you type or edit a function, Excel displays a screentip that shows you the arguments required for that function. The function used here, the ROUND function, requires two arguments - the number you wish to round up or down, plus the number of decimals or digits you wish to round it to.

If you would like to disable these screen tips so that Excel does not display them when you type a function, choose Tools, Options and the General tab. Uncheck Function Tooltips and click on OK.

Inserting Functions
The Insert Function command can be used if you are unsure of a function or its arguments.

Activate the cell to contain the formula result. Click on the Insert Function button at the beginning of the Formula Bar.

Type keywords to search for the function you need - use plain English and enter as many keywords as you need. Click on Go.

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Choose a function from the list provided. Click on OK.
Excel will display the Function Arguments dialog box. Use this box to specify the ranges you wish to calculate, or any other arguments specific to the function you have chosen. Click on OK to enter the function into the active cell when all arguments have been added.

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Label Names
Label names can be used to refer to all values immediately following that label in a worksheet range.

For Example
In the following example, JAN could be used to refer to the range B2:B5, while EXCEL could be used to refer to the range B3:D3.

In this spreadsheet, the following formula could be entered to add up the first column of figures: =SUM(Jan) While the following formula could be entered to find the average of the second row of figures: =AVERAGE(Excel)

To refer to a cell that intersects two label ranges, type both label names with a space between. Using the above example =Excel Feb would return 88.

Enabling Label Names
Choose Tools, Options and the Calculation tab. Check Accept Labels in Formulas. Choose OK.

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Range Names
Range names can be set to refer to any range of cells. Range names can make entering formulae much easier. The formula =SALES-PROFIT is much easier to understand than

=B24-E15

SALES and PROFIT are range names that could be applied to cells B24 and E15 using the following method:

Applying a Range Name
The name box to the left of the formula bar can be used to assign a name to a range. Select the cells to be named. Click in the name box which is located directly above the column headings.

Type a name for the range - this should not contain spaces and must be more than a single character in length. Press [Return].
To use a name in a formula, type the name or press [F3] to select the name from a list.

Selecting Cells using their Names
Names can also be used to select a range of cells: Click on the drop-down arrow next to the name box to display a list of names. Click on any name to select that range in the worksheet.

To remove a name, choose Insert, Name and Define. Select the name and choose Delete.

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Something Else to Try
Not sure if the worksheet you are working on contains range names, and if it does, what these names refer to?

Click in a blank area of the worksheet. Choose Insert, Name, Paste or press [F3]. Click on Paste List. A list of all range names of the worksheet will be inserted.

Outlining
Outlining reads the summary columns and rows in the worksheet i.e. those containing totals, and places these into the highest level of the outline. Detail columns and rows i.e. those containing the numbers to be summed, are placed into the lowest level. There can be up to 8 levels in an outline. Create the worksheet in the normal way, ensuring all formulae are entered correctly and either below or to the right of the detail. Choose Data, Group and Outline and Auto Outline.

To hide outline symbols, choose Tools, Options and choose the View tab. Uncheck Outline Symbols and choose OK.

Press [Ctrl 8] to hide or display the outline symbols quickly

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Excel Charts
Charts are used to display values in a graphic format that makes them easier to understand. Once data is in a graphic format, trends can be identified and future values can be forecast based on the current findings. There are a number of different types of charts that can be created in Excel, the most common of which are identified below:

Area This type of chart emphasises the magnitude of change, rather than time and the rate of change. It also shows the relationship of parts to a whole, by displaying the sum of the plotted values.

Bar This type of chart shows individual figures at a specific time or illustrates comparisons among items.

Column This type of chart shows variations over a period of time or illustrates comparisons between items.

Pie and Doughnut These charts show the relationship or proportions of different parts to the whole. A pie chart always contains one series of data and is useful in emphasising a single element.

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Line This type of chart shows trends in data over a period of time. When compared to an area chart, line charts emphasise the rate of change over time as opposed to the magnitude of change.

XY (Scatter) This chart type is commonly used for scientific data and shows the relationship between values in several series of data.

Radar A radar displays each category on its own value axis radiating from the centre point. Lines connect values in the same series.

3D Surface In this chart colours and patterns indicate areas of the same value. They are useful for finding optimum combinations between two sets of data.

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Creating Data in Charts
Charts can be created from worksheet data by selecting the data on which you want to base your chart - including any text to appear as headings or legend text. If the text and numbers do not appear in one continuous range, select the first range as normal then hold [Ctrl] while dragging over each additional range. Ensure all ranges contain the same number of cells. The following selections could be used create a chart to display the month names and their totals:

To create the chart: Select the range(s) to be represented. Choose the Chart button on the Standard Toolbar.
The Chart button

Select the type of chart from the list displayed. Click on Next and confirm the data range selected. Choose to view the chart by columns or by rows. Click on Next and select the chart options e.g. use the Titles tab to add a chart title. Click on Next and select the location for the new chart. Click on As New Sheet to create a separate chart sheet or As Object In to create an embedded chart Click on Finish when complete.
To quickly create a chart on a separate sheet, select all data to be included on the chart and press [F11].

The data of the chart can be displayed by row or column. The buttons on the Chart Toolbar can be used to change the chart orientation:

By Row By Column If the chart is displayed by row, each row of worksheet range will be a different data series. If the chart is displayed by column, each column of worksheet range will be a different data series.

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For Example
The following worksheet:

Would display the following chart by row:

And the following chart by column:

Changing the Chart Type
The chart type can be changed as follows: Click on the drop-down arrow of the Chart Type button on the Chart Toolbar. The Chart Type button Choose the type of chart you wish to use from the list displayed.

A larger selection of chart types is available by changing the type in the following way: Choose Chart, Chart Type. Choose the Standard Type tab to display the most common types of charts, or the Custom Types tab to display more elaborately formatted types. Click on the chart you wish to use. If choosing a standard type, sub-types will display to the right click on the sub-type you wish to use. To set the chart as the default type used for any new charts created in Excel, click on the Set as Default Chart button. Click on Yes to confirm this setting. Choose OK when complete.

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Custom Chart Types
Custom charts can be set if a certain type of chart is used many times. The custom chart is given a name, and all settings such as the title, gridline options, scales, colours, fonts and data labels are saved with that name. If the custom chart is applied to a new chart, all settings will be added to the new chart automatically.

Creating a Custom Chart
Create and format the chart as normal. Choose Chart, Chart Type and choose the Custom Types tab. Click on User Defined and on Add. Type a name and description for the new custom chart Choose OK.

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Using a Custom Chart
Create the chart as normal. Choose Chart, Chart Type and choose the Custom Types tab. Click on User Defined and select the required name from the list displayed.

Changing the Chart Location
A chart can be displayed on a separate chart sheet or embedded on a worksheet. Once a chart has been created, the location can be changed as follows: Choose Chart, Location and choose As New Sheet or As Object. Choose OK.

Selecting Chart Elements
Charts contain the following major elements:

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Each element can be selected by clicking the mouse on the element or using the Chart Objects box on the Chart Toolbar. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Chart Objects box. Choose the element to be selected. The Chart Objects box

Formatting a Chart
Choose Chart, Chart Options to display chart options. A dialog box will display, containing a sample image of your chart.

The tabs along the top of the dialog box are used to set all chart options: Tab
Titles Axes Gridlines Legend Data Labels Data Table

Description
Allows you to set a title to appear at the top of the chart, plus titles to appear along the category and value axis Allows you to choose whether a category and value axis should be displayed Allows you to choose whether the chart should contain horizontal or vertical gridlines Allows you to choose the position of the legend Allows you to choose whether to display data labels Allows you to choose whether to display a data table

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Formatting Chart Elements
To format a selected chart element, click on the Properties button on the Chart Toolbar. The Properties button A dialog box will display with different tabs, depending on the chart element selected. The following tabs are displayed when you show the properties of a data series:

Tab Patterns Axis Y Error Bars Data Labels

Description This tab is used to set the colour of bars and lines of the chart. In a line chart, it can also be used to change the markers and to smooth the line if required. This tab is used to plot a series onto a secondary axis, which will be created automatically. This option is not available if the chart has only one data series. This tab is used to insert error bars that will show the margin of error on either side of the figures plotted on the chart. The error value can be set to a fixed value or percentage. This allows you to set data labels for the selected data series only

This tab allows you to set the order in which the series are displayed on the chart. Select a series Series Order from the list displayed and use the Move Up and Move Down buttons to position the series as required. Options This tab is used to set the width of the gap between bars of a chart, and to set an overlap if the bars appear next to each other. It can also be used to vary the colours of all bars within a single series.

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The following tabs are displayed when you display the properties of the value axis of a chart:

Tab
Patterns Scale Font Number Alignment

Description
This tab is used to set the style of the value axis line This tab is used to set the scale of the axis This tab is used to set font, size and style of the numbers of the value axis This tab is used to set the format of the numbers on the axis e.g. to Currency or Percent with 2 decimals This tab is used to set the alignment and orientation of the axis text

Charts can also be formatted as follows: Double click on any title or label to change the font, pattern and alignment options. Double click on the legend to change the font, pattern and placement options. Double click on the value axis to change the font, pattern, number format and scale of the axis. Double click on a data series to change the fill options. Fill effects such as gradient, texture and picture can be selected to fill each bar.

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Aligning Labels on a Chart
Text orientation on labels and axis titles can be set using the Alignment tab of the chart properties.

Double click on the label or title you wish to align, then click on the Alignment tab.

The following icons on the Chart Toolbar can be used to quickly change the alignment of selected labels: Angle Text Down - rotate to -45 degrees Angle Text Up - rotate to 45 degrees

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Chart Gridlines
Major and minor gridlines can be set on the value and category axis of a chart: Major gridlines on the value axis:

Major and minor gridlines on the value axis:

Major gridlines on the category axis:

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Major and minor gridlines on the category axis:

The gridlines of the value axis are set according to the scale. Major gridlines appear at each major unit, while minor gridlines appear at each minor unit. To set gridlines: Choose Chart, Chart Options. Click on the Gridlines tab. Choose the gridlines you wish to display and click on OK.

The Value Axis Scale
The scale of the value axis is the range of values that are displayed on the chart. The scale is set automatically but can be changed as required. The following chart has a scale as listed below:

Scale Minimum Maximum

Description Lowest value on the axis Highest value on the axis

Setting on above chart 0 120 20 10

Major Unit Interval at which numbers and major gridlines should appear on the axis Minor Unit Interval at which minor gridlines should appear on the axis

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To set the scale of the axis: Double click anywhere on the value axis to display the properties dialog box. Click on the Scale tab. Set the minimum, maximum, major and minor unit as required. Ensure the Auto box is not checked for the units you wish to specify manually. Choose OK when complete.
It is possible to change the display unit of the value axis e.g. to thousands or millions. This results in smaller numbers displayed on the value axis and an automatic axis label showing the display unit. Choose the required option from the Display Unit drop-down list.

Data Labels
Data labels are used to display text for each point on a data series. They can be used to display labels or values:
Labels showing the value above the bar:

Labels showing the label in the centre of the bar:

To set data labels for all series of the chart: Choose Chart, Chart Options. Click on the Data Labels tab. Check each label you wish to display - you can use a combination of labels e.g. the series name and the value.

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If displaying more than one label, choose how to separate these labels in the Separator box e.g. using a comma or displaying each label on a new line. Click on OK.

To set labels for a single series or a single item: Select a single series by clicking once on any item of the series. Select a single item by clicking once on any item of the series, then clicking on the specific item. Click on the Properties button on the Chart Toolbar. The Properties button Click on the Data Labels tab. Choose the type of label you wish to display and click on OK.
To remove unwanted data labels, simple click on any label in the series and press [Delete] - all labels in the series will be removed.

Formatting Labels
To format a set of data labels, double click on any of the labels to display a dialog box with the following tabs: Tab
Patterns Font Number Alignment

Description
Choose the colour to appear in the background of the labels, and the style and colour of a border to appear around the labels Set the font and style of the label text Set the format of a value label e.g. to Currency or Percent with two decimals Set the alignment of the text and use the Label Position box to set where the label should appear e.g. outside or centre

The Chart Legend
A legend is a key that appears with the chart to show what each line or bar of the chart represents:

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The legend can be hidden or displayed by clicking on the Legend button on the Chart Toolbar. The Legend button

Formatting the Legend
Double clicking on the legend displays a dialog box with the following tabs: Tab
Patterns Font Placement

Description
Used to set the background colour of the legend box, plus the borders around the box Used to set the font, size and style of legend text Used to set the position at which the legend should appear. Choose Bottom to spread the legend vertically below the chart.

Chart Data Labels
A chart data table is a table that appears under the chart, showing the values that are displayed on the chart itself:

A chart displaying a legend

The same chart displaying a data table

The data table can be hidden or displayed by clicking on the Data Table button on the Chart Toolbar. The Data Table button

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Introduction

Creating a Data List
Excel contains many features that can assist in creating an manipulating a list of data. These features include:
Sorting the list into different orders Adding automatic subtotals to groups of records Filtering the list so that only certain records are displayed Creating pivot tables to analyse the data Creating pivot charts to analyse the data graphically

A typical data list will look like this:

The following rules apply when creating a data list: Each column (or field) should contain information of the same type e.g. all prices, or all consultant names. Each column should begin with a unique heading (or field name) in the first row e.g. PRICE or CONSULTANT. Each row (or record) should contain a set of data relating to one entry. In the above example, each row is a product sale with a date, product name, etc. The list should not contain any entirely blank columns or rows - although blank cells here and there are acceptable. Ensure all field names are label text - if a number is used it should be preceded with an apostrophe (‘) e.g. '1999.

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Defining a Data List
If you define your data list as a list, Excel will recognise this as an independent area of data. This will allow you to work with multiple lists on a single sheet, each working independently of the others. When you define a list in a worksheet: AutoFilter will be enabled by default, allowing you to quickly filter each column as required A border will display around your list, showing you exactly where the list begins and ends A new record row is always present in the list, showing you exactly where you should add new records To define your list:

Click anywhere inside the data you wish to define as a list Choose Data, List and Create a List or press [Ctrl L] If you have headings for each column, ensure the My List has Headers box is ticked Click on OK

To add a new record to the list:

Click in the row marked with an asterisk (*) Type the data for the new record When you press [Return] or click away from the row, the record will be inserted and a new * line added

Adding Totals
You can show totals in your list by clicking on the Toggle Total Row button on the list toolbar.

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You can change the function used in the table by clicking in the total row, in the column that you wish to summarise.

Click on the drop-down arrow that will show in the cell Choose the function you wish to use to summarise the data e.g. Average or Count

The List menu on the List Toolbar provides easy access to all data list commands. For example, you can use this menu to: Insert new columns and rows into the list Sort the list into different orders Convert the list back to a normal Excel range

Data Entry Shortcuts
Excel has many shortcuts for entering text and values into a worksheet or data list.
Shortcut Ctrl ' Ctrl ; Shift Ctrl ; Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl D Ctrl R Action Duplicates the value from the cell directly above the active cell Inserts the current date into the active cell, using the short date format dd/mm/yy Inserts the current time into the active cell, using the short time format hh:mm Moves the active cell to the last entry in the current column Moves the active cell to the last entry in the current row Copies the value from the first cell of the selection into all other selected cells in the same column Copies the value from the first cell of the selection into all other selected cells in the same row

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AutoComplete
When AutoComplete is enabled, Excel will complete the text you begin typing into a cell based on existing text in the current column. If the first few characters you type match an existing entry in the column, the text will be completed automatically.

To ensure this feature is enabled:

Choose Tools, Options and select the Edit tab. Ensure the Enable AutoComplete for Cell Values box is checked Choose OK

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Pick from Drop-down List
This allows you to choose the entry to appear in a cell from a list of entries that already exist in the current column. Click in the cell to contain the new entry and press the right mouse button.

Choose Pick From Drop-down List and click on the required entry.

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Data Entry Forms
Data forms provide a way of entering one record into the data list at a time. All formatting will be carried to the new record automatically and any formulae will be entered automatically. This is a particularly useful feature if you have named your data list - all new records will be included in the range name automatically. This worksheet...

Would produce this form...

Any fields that contain formulae (such as TOTAL above) are not accessible as these will be updated automatically when data is added or changed. Click anywhere in the data list and choose Data, Form to view the data form. Click on New to add a new record and press [Tab] to move from one field to the next. Click on Delete to remove the current record. Click on Close to return to the data list.

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Sorting Data
It is not necessary to select the entire data list before sorting it. Click anywhere within the column to be sorted. Click on the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending button on the Standard Toolbar.

The Sort Ascending button The Sort Descending button

The field names will remain at the top of the list and all records will be sorted in order of the column containing the active cell. Selecting a single column of the list will result in only that column being sorted - your rows of data will become mismatched. For this reason, Excel warns when only part of the data list is selected and you attempt to sort this data:

Click on Expand this selection to select the entire data list. Click on Continue with the current selection if you do just want to sort the selected text - all other data in your list will remain as is.

Sorting on Multiple Fields
The sort buttons can also be used to sort in order of more than one field. For example, to sort the following list in descending order of REGION, with the same regions grouped in descending order of PRICE:

1) First click anywhere in the PRICE column and click on the Sort Descending button. 2) Next click anywhere in the REGION column and click on the Sort Ascending button.

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Sub Totals
This option automatically calculates totals in the specified column. If the data is sorted correctly, subtotals will be given for each group of records, with a grand total at the end. Sort the data list in the required order and click anywhere in the list. Choose Data, Subtotals. Specify the field to be grouped, the function to be used (e.g. Sum) and the fields to be calculated. Choose OK.

For Example
The following data list must be totalled by REGION:

The following settings would be entered to add the subtotals to the data list above:

This would result in the following:

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Outlining
An outline is created automatically. Click on level 1 to display grand totals, level 2 to display sub totals and level 3 to display all.

In the above example, the following would result from choosing Level 1:

And the following from choosing Level 2:

Choose Data, Subtotals and Remove All to return the list to normal.

AutoFilter
This command allows you to display only those rows in a data list that contain a certain value or meet a certain criteria. The AutoFilter command places drop-down arrows next to each heading in the list. When these arrows are clicked, they display all values found in that column. When a value is selected, Excel temporarily hides all rows that do not contain these values.

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When clicked, a list will display all values in that field - simply choose the value you want to show:

To use AutoFilter:

Click anywhere within the list to be filtered. Choose Data, Filter and AutoFilter. Click on the relevant drop-down arrow and choose the value to be displayed. All rows that do not contain this value will be hidden. To re-display all data, click on the same drop-down arrow and choose All.

When a list is filtered, only the displayed records will be printed. The drop-down arrows will not be printed.

To redisplay all data in the list:

Fields that have been filtered have a drop-down arrow that appears in blue. Click on this drop-down arrow and choose All.
If a number of fields have been filtered, re-display all data by choosing Data, Filter, Show All.

Top 10
This option allows you to choose the top or bottom number of records in a field - you could use it to find the top 10 sales or the bottom 5% of salaries.

Click anywhere within the list to be filtered. Choose Data, Filter and AutoFilter. Click on the drop-down arrow of the field you wish to filter and choose Top 10. Choose the required options from the dialog box displayed and choose OK.

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Custom Filtering
Custom filters allow you set specific criteria to be matched. You could use it to find all sales with a total over 600, or a date later than 1st June. Click anywhere within the list to be filtered. Choose Data, Filter and AutoFilter. Click on the drop-down arrow of the field you wish to filter and choose Custom. Choose the required options from the dialog box displayed and choose OK. The following filter would display all records with a TOTAL between 400 and 600.

Advanced Filter
This command allows you to display only those records in a data list that contain a certain value or meet a certain criteria. The AutoFilter command can also be used for this purpose, but has the following limitations: There is a limit on the number of conditions that can be set in the criteria. The list is always filtered in place - it is not possible to copy matching records to a different part of the workbook for editing or further analysis. Advanced filtering is used with more complex criteria or if you wish to copy the filtered list to another location in the workbook. There are three ranges that should be setup before running the Advanced Filter command:
Range Description

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Database Criteria Extract

This is the entire datalist that you wish to filter - all matching records will be found in this range. This is the area of the worksheet in which you specify what data you want to find in the datalist e.g. all clients in London or all accounts with a balance exceeding $1000. All records of the database range that match the specified criteria will be copied here.

For Example

Step 1 - Setting the Database Range
Before running the Advanced Filter command it is helpful to name the datalist you will be filtering. This is done as follows: Click anywhere in the list you wish to filter, ensuring this is set up correctly according to the rules
of datalists.

Press [Shift Ctrl *] to select the entire list. Click in the name box above the worksheet's column headings and type the name database. This is the default name that Excel associates with a datalist. Press [Return]

If you name the wrong range, a range name can be removed by choosing Insert, Name, Define. Choose the name from the list displayed and click on Delete then Close.

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Step 2 - Setting the Criteria Range
The next step of advanced filtering involves setting up the Criteria range. This should contain the relevant column headings in the first row and the criteria itself on the following lines. Multiple lines of criteria can be entered, but care should be taken that conditions are placed on the correct line: If both conditions must be met, these should be placed on the same line. The following criteria will only show Word courses if they had a level of Core Skills:

If either condition can be met they should be placed on separate lines. The following criteria will find all Word courses, regardless of their level, as well as all Core Skills courses: Highlight the column headings and conditions of the criteria range. Click in the name box above the worksheet's column headings and type the name criteria. Press [Return].

Step 3 - Setting the Extract Range
If you wish to extract the matching data from the database to a different area of the worksheet, an extract range can be set. This should consist of the headings of the columns you wish to extract - not necessarily all columns. Highlight the column headings of the criteria range. Click in the name box above the worksheet's column headings and type the name extract. Press [Return].

Step 4 - Filtering the List
Once all three ranges have been set, the Advanced Filter command can be used: Click on any cell of the main datalist and choose Data, Filter, Advanced Filter. Ensure all ranges are entered correctly in the dialog box - this will be done automatically if all ranges have been named correctly. If you wish to extract data to a different area of the worksheet, and have set an extract range, click on Copy to Another Location. Choose OK to extract the data.

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Something Else to Try...
It is also possible to extract matching records to another sheet in the same workbook, or to another workbook altogether. To extract data to another sheet of the same workbook: Set up the extract range on a new sheet and name this range as extract. Activate the sheet containing the extract range and click on a blank cell of this sheet - well away from the extract range. Choose Data, Filter, Advanced Filter. Click in the List Range box and type the name database. Click on Copy to Another Location then OK. To extract data to another workbook: Advanced filter does not let you copy your filtered range to another workbook. But you CAN specify a database range and a criteria range from another file as follows: Ensure the workbook containing the database and criteria ranges is saved and open. Set up the extract range in the new workbook and name this range as extract. Activate the sheet containing the extract range and click on a blank cell of this sheet - well away from the extract range. Choose Data, Filter, Advanced Filter. Click in the List Range box and choose Window and the name of the sheet containing the database range. When this file is displayed, select the datalist, including headings. Click in the Criteria Range box and choose Window and the name of the sheet containing the database range. When this file is displayed, select the criteria range. Click on Copy to Another Location then OK.

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Pivot Tables
A pivot table is a table used to summarise and analyse data from an existing list or worksheet. A pivot table is made up of row headings, column headings and intersecting summary data. This data sheet:

Could be used to produce this pivot table:

To create a pivot table: Click on any cell of the data list. Choose Data, PivotTable and PivotChart Report to start the Pivot Table Wizard. Choose Microsoft Excel List or Database as the source for the Pivot Table and ensure PivotTable is selected in the lower part of the dialog box. Choose Next. Ensure the database range is correct and click on Next. Choose the location for the pivot table. Choose New Worksheet to place the pivot table on a new worksheet in the current book or Existing Worksheet to place the pivot table on an existing sheet. Enter the reference of the cell in which the table should start. Click on Finish when complete.

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A blank pivot table grid is created in the location specified:

A dialog box containing all fields of the data list is also displayed:

To add a field to the pivot table, drag the field from this toolbar onto the relevant area of the blank pivot table template. Choose the field you wish to summarise by column, and drag this to the "Drop Column Fields Here" area. Choose the field you wish to summarise by row, and drag this to the "Drop Row Fields Here" area. Choose the value you wish to summarise for each column and row heading and drag this to the "Drop Data Items Here" area. The pivot table will display automatically.

If the original data in the worksheet is changed, the pivot table will NOT automatically update. To update the pivot table, select any cell in the table and choose Data, Refresh Data.

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Hiding Entries
The pivot table need not include all data from the underlying list - it is possible to hide specific categories or entries. Click on the drop-down arrow of the field used to summarise by row or column. All entries in that field will be displayed. Click on the check box of each item you wish to exclude. Click on OK when complete.

Drilling Down
Drill Down allows you to double click on any of the summary figures of a pivot table to view the details that make up this figure. Double clicking on a sum, for example, would show all figures (and the records) that make up the sum.

Double click on the figure you wish to view the detail of. A new sheet will be created containing the records. The sheet can be deleted if no longer required - choose Edit, Delete Sheet to do this.

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Report AutoFormats
A pivot table can be formatted automatically using a number of preset formats. The following format is REPORT6 - all colours, font formatting and borders are added automatically.

Click anywhere in the pivot table and click on the Format Report button on the Pivot Table toolbar.
The Format Report button

Choose the format you wish to apply to the pivot table. Choose OK.

If the Pivot Table toolbar is not displayed, right click over any toolbar currently on screen and choose Pivot Table to show this.

Table Options
Additional pivot table options can be set as follows: Choose the Pivot Table menu on the Pivot Table toolbar and click on Table Options. Choose the relevant formatting options - Preserve Formatting will ensure formatting is not lost when the table is refreshed. To enter a default value into empty cells, or cells containing errors, enter the appropriate values in the Show boxes. Choose OK when all options have been set.

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Pivot Charts
A pivot chart is used to summarise and analyse data from an existing list or worksheet. A pivot chart is made up of series fields, category fields and page fields.

This data sheet:

Could be used to produce this pivot chart:

To create a pivot chart: Click on any cell of the data list. Choose Data, PivotTable and PivotChart Report to start the Pivot Table Wizard. Choose Microsoft Excel List or Database as the source for the Pivot Chart and ensure PivotChart Report is selected in the lower part of the dialog box. Choose Next. Ensure the database range is correct and click on Next. Choose the location for the chart. Choose New Worksheet to place the chart on a new worksheet in the current book or Existing Worksheet to place the chart on an existing sheet. Enter the reference of the cell in which the chart should start. Click on Finish when complete.

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A blank pivot chart grid is created in the location specified:

A dialog box containing all fields of the data list is also displayed:

To add a field to the chart, drag the field from this toolbar onto the relevant area of the blank pivot chart template. To add a field to the category axis, drag the field from the Pivot Table toolbar to the "Drop More Category Fields Here" area. To add a field to the legend, drag the field from the toolbar to the "Drop More Series Fields Here" area. Choose the value you wish to summarise for each category and series and drag this to the "Drop Data Items Here" area. The pivot chart will display automatically.
Page fields can be added to the top of the chart to switch between different sets of summary data. To choose a different set of data, click on the drop-down arrow of the page field and choose the category. Click on OK to display the new set of data.

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