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SUBJECT

Hypothesis

TOPIC

CLASS

S.Y.BMS – B

**GROUP NO: 4 Submitted to: Prof. Shirley Pillai ST. ANDREW’S COLLEGE
**

St. Dominic Road, Bandra (W), Mumbai 400050

DECLARATION

We the students of St .Andrew’s College of S.Y.BMS-B hereby declare that we have completed the topic on “Hypothesis” for the subject “Research Methodology” for the academic year 2009-2010. Information submitted is true and original to the best of our knowledge.

GROUP MEMBERS

NAME Gladisa D’mello Zubin Mistry Tivola Pereira Priya Quadras Relessa Rodricks Azim Siddqui Mohd. Ausif War Fatima Ansari ROLL NO. 3309 3129 3338 3340 3344 3347 3352 3357 SIGNATURE

2

Ausif War Fatima Ansari ROLL NO.BMS-B have completed the topic on “Hypothesis” for the subject “Research Methodology” in the academic year 2009-2010.Y. Andrew’s College of S. The information is true and original to the best of my knowledge.CERTIFICATE I hereby certify that the following students of St. GROUP MEMBERS NAME Gladisa D’mello Zubin Mistry Tivola Pereira Priya Quadras Relessa Rodricks Azim Siddqui Mohd. 3309 3129 3338 3340 3344 3347 3352 3357 SIGNATURE 3 .

No Topic: HYPOTHESIS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Introduction Definition & Meaning Importance of Hypothesis Types of Hypothesis Formulation of Hypothesis Testing of Hypothesis Co-relative Coefficient Chi-Square Test Regression Analysis Bibliography Page No 5 5-6 7 8-9 10-12 13-14 15-16 17 18-19 20 HYPOTHESIS 4 .Index Sr.

one has to proceed to formulate tentative solutions as soon as the problem to be tackled is finalized.” 5 . Lundberg “A hypothesis is a tentative generalization. he first has to start somewhere and this point of start is the “hypothesis”. imaginative data. facts need to be collected such that they are for or against some point of view or proposition. guess. according to Webster. These proposed solutions or explanations constitute the hypothesis which the researcher proceeds to test on the basis of facts already known or that can be made known. Even. Definition & Meaning: In the words of George A.Introduction: When a researcher observes known facts and takes up a problem for analysis. perhaps without belief.” Similarly. Such a point of view or proposition is the “hypothesis”. condition or principle which is assumed. which becomes the basis for action or investigation. in order to draw out its logical consequences and by this method to test its accord with facts which are known or may be determined. In other words.” Goode and Hatt have defined it as “a proposition which can be put to test to determine validity. the validity of which remains to be tested. to be fruitful. The tentative explanations or solutions are suggested to us by some thing in the subject-matter and by our previous experience. “A hypothesis is a proposition. In its most elementary stage the hypothesis may be very hunch. collection of facts merely for the sake of collecting them will yield no fruits.

therefore. alternative hypothesis or situations would need to be formulated and tested. A hypothesis. It is an explanation that needs to be established before it can be accepted. is essentially tentative. likely to be modified during the investigation if the facts discovered in the course of the enquiry demand it. A hypothesis thus stands somewhere at the midpoint of research. 6 . If the hypothesis is proved the problem of which it was a tentative solution is answered.” It is clear now that a hypothesis is a provisional formulation or possible solution or tentative explanation or suggestive answers to the problem facing the scientist.Rummel and Balline say “A hypothesis is a statement capable of being tested and thereby verified or rejected. from here one can look back to the problem and also look forward to data. If it is not proved.

Hence. the importance of hypothesis in establishing the relevance of research.Importance of Hypothesis: 1. the researcher would be able to draw reliable conclusions. 3. By collecting the essential facts and figures and using the right methodology. If a researcher is lost in a dark forest of confusion. it is the hypothesis that provides him the beacon light and shows him the direction to the path along which he has to proceed for carrying out his investigation. A well-formulated hypothesis provides an essential basis for a researcher to begin his inquisitive enquiry without wastage of much time and energy. 5. 7 . As the modern age is characterized by efficiency and good speed through the appropriate use of relevant technology. A non-hypothesized research would be an aimless search of every thing about anything necessary and unnecessary. relevant and irrelevant. no researcher should take the risk of wasting a lot of precious time neglecting the guidance provided by a well framed hypothesis. 4. Hypothesis is very much helpful in enabling the researcher to know exactly as to what type of information would be most suitable for tackling the problem which he is facing. for providing the right answers. Scientific questions are always guided by the directional force of an appropriate hypothesis. 2.

d) Statistical that hypothesis: These are propositions express quantitative relationships. of Null EXPLANATIONS:- a) Working hypothesis: When a researcher assumes temporarily certain facts in the course of his preliminary study of a problem. A 8 .Types of Hypothesis: Depending upon the nature of the hypothesis. for the purpose of empirical verification and systematic justification then it becomes a scientific hypothesis. adequate data. Such a course of action makes him frame a working hypothesis. then he may make a tentative proposition that is not final. classification is carried out as follows:a) Working hypothesis b) Research hypothesis c) Scientific hypothesis d) Statistical hypothesis consisting hypothesis and Alternate hypothesis. b) Research hypothesis: It arises out of the finalization of a working hypothesis. c) Scientific hypothesis: When a hypothesis is frame on the basis of available.

existence of relationship. If he supposes the contrary. 9 . that is.statistical hypothesis comprises of null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis. When the researcher is interested in finding the existence or non. the existence of a relationship. It is the null hypothesis that is always tested. then the alternate hypothesis is rejected and vice-versa. If null hypothesis is accepted as true on the basis of empirical verification.existence of a quantitative relationships then he proceeds in an unbiased manner by assuming the non. Such an assumption is called “null hypothesis”. then his hypothesis would be “Alternative hypothesis”.

Steyn & Venter 1981:76). 2. Because hypotheses give structure and direction to research. Monteith. 3. It serves only as a point of departure . Hypotheses are thus tentative statements that should either be acknowledged or rejected by means of research. the following aspects should be kept in mind when formulating a hypothesis:1. however.the chain between the theory and the research that leads to the broadening of knowledge (Smit 1983:19). Hypotheses should figure throughout the research process in order to give structure to the research. setting accountability and responsibility of effective research procedure as high priority (De Wet. Care should be 10 . extent and intensity of the problem. It should. be emphasized that in no way a hypothesis statement can claim to be the only solution to the problem. Hypotheses can only be formulated after the researcher has gained enough knowledge regarding the nature. Hypotheses are tentative statements/solutions or explanations of the formulated problem.Formulation of Hypothesis: From the literature it is concluded that a hypothesis is a tentative statement that implies a proposed answer to a problem.

In other words it verifies the reference that the researcher expects by means of incorporating selected research procedures. 5. because it indicates the expected reference of the difference between two variables. According to Landman (1988:86) and De Wet et al. 4. A research hypothesis is usually stated in an explanatory form. The research problem does not have to consist of one hypothesis only. the extent which encircles the research field are the determinating factors on how many hypotheses will be included in the research proposal. The type of problem area investigated.taken not to over-simplify and generalize the formulation of hypotheses. The research hypothesis may be stated in a directional or non-directional form. Criteria for the formulation of a hypothesis: In order to assist you in formulating a research hypothesis. 6. (1981:80) a directional hypothesis statement indicates the expected direction of results. A hypothesis should:11 . you should ascertain the criteria used in formulating hypotheses. while a non directional one indicates no difference or no relationship. According to Srnit (1983: 20-21) the following criteria are of importance in formulating hypotheses.

c. 12 . and i. be in accordance with the general theme of other hypotheses statements in the same field of study. consider available research techniques (to be able to analyze and interpret the results). g. be expressed in clear language.a. be a tentative answer to the formulated problem. h. be specific. and should be regarded as valid. e. d. stand a test. f. be relevant to the collection of empirical phenomenon’s and not merely conclude value judgments. be logical and simplistic. b. be co-coordinated with the theory of science.

Parametric tests usually assume certain properties of the parent population from which we draw samples. must hold good before parametric tests can be used. and (b) Nonparametric tests or distribution-free test of hypotheses. variance. In such situations we use statistical methods for testing hypotheses which are called non-parametric tests because such tests do not depend on any assumptions about the parameters of the parent population. assumptions about the population parameters like mean. etc. Hypothesis testing helps to decide on the basis of a sample data. sample size is large. Statisticians have developed several tests of hypotheses (also known as the tests of significance) for the purpose of testing of hypotheses which can be classified as: (a) Parametric tests or standard tests of hypotheses. non-parametric tests need more observations than parametric tests to achieve the same size of Type I and Type II errors. Besides. whereas parametric tests require measurement equivalent to at least an interval scale. whether a hypothesis about the population is true or false. 13 .Testing of Hypothesis: Hypothesis testing determines the validity of the assumption (technically described as null hypothesis) with a view to choose between two conflicting hypotheses about the value of a population parameter. most non-parametric tests assume only nominal or ordinal data. Assumptions like observations come from a normal population. But there are situations when the researcher cannot or does not want to make such assumptions. As a result.

(3) x2 test.. In some cases the population may not be normally distributed. Test of a hypothesis of a relationship between variables (such as Rank correlation. The following distribution-free tests are important and generally used:1. Tests of randomness of a sample based on the theory of runs viz. Test of a hypothesis concerning variation in the given data i. and (4) F-test..). Fisher-Irwin test. All these tests are based on the assumption of normality i.e. 2. etc. yet the tests will be applicable on account of the fact that we mostly deal with samples and the sampling distributions closely approach normal distributions. the source of data is considered to be normally distributed. 4.The important parametric tests are: . Test of a hypothesis concerning some single value for the given data (such as one-sample sign test). 5. Test of a hypothesis concerning no difference among two or more sets of data (such as twosample sign test. (2) t-test. Rank Sum test.(1) z-test.. Non-parametric tests do not make an assumption about the parameters of the population and thus do not make use of the parameters of the distribution. Kruskal-Wallis test. one sample runs test.e. 3. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance and other tests for dependence).. 14 . test analogous to ANOVA viz.

Test of hypothesis to determine if categorical data shows dependency or if two classifications are independent viz. the first set – is called the subject and the second set is called the relative. Correlation is direct or positive if two 15 . In such a case we can study closely the relationship between the two related series. Correlation: Concept of Correlation: Sometimes two statistical series vary in tandem: a variation in one series is accompanied by a variation in other. income and expenditure. The following are some of the related variables.6. the chi-square test. the set we use as the standard for comparison is called the subject. the numerical relationship between two series is called “correlation”. height and weight. In other words. The important set of figures. demand and price.. The purpose of this topic is to study the method of looking at such a relationship between two series and also to explain the significance of the numerical relationship.that is. what is the magnitude of change in a relative sense? In short. The question is: if a change in one series is followed by a change in the other.

III. of the second series If r = +1. 16 . If r = . r = the coefficient of correlation n= the number of pair of items x = deviation of the first series (subject) y = deviation of the second series (relative) σ 1 = S. it is inverse or negative if the variables change in opposite directions. IV. II. If r = 0. correlation is a perfect negative. Coefficient Of Correlation: The extent of correlation between two variables that are related can be determined by a coefficient. Karl Pearson devised a formula for this coefficient. ∑xy nσ1σ2 Remark: I. which is as follows: r= Where. If r is equal to some negative number between -1 & 0 then correlation is negative and limited.D. of the first series σ 2 = S.variables change in the same direction. correlation is a perfect positive. V. If r is equal to some number between 0 & +1 then correlation is limited and positive.D. there is no correlation.1.

is a statistical measure used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing a variance to a theoretical variance. it can be used to determine if categorical data shows dependency or the two classifications are independent. It can also be used to make comparisons between theoretical populations and actual data when categories are used.Chi-Square Test: The chi-square test is an important test amongst the several tests of significance developed by statisticians. a technique through the use of which it is possible for all researchers to (i) 17 . symbolically written as x2 (Pronounced as Ki-square). As a non-parametric test. Chi-square. in fact. Thus. The test is. the chi-square test is applicable in large number of problems.

5. the average height of the sons of tall fathers will regress or go back in the general average height. 4. Galton called his backward or 18 . The constraints must be linear. Regression: The term 'regression' was used by Sir Francis Galton to describe a hereditary phenomenon that he observed in his study of the heights of sons and fathers. 3. All the items in the sample must be independent. the average height of the sons of tall fathers was less than the average height of the fathers. howsoever small the number of groups may be. The overall number of items must also be reasonably large. (ii) test the significance of association between two attributes. It should normally be at least 50.test the goodness of fit. say less than 10. 2. In short. Observations recorded and used are collected on a random basis. His main observation was that rough tall fathers usually had tall sons. and (iii) test the homogeneity or the significance of population variance. Conditions for the Application of Chi-Square test: The following conditions before x2 test can be applied:should be satisfied 1. No group should contain very few items.

which indicated the extent of the relationship between two sets of figures. a regression equation enables us to calculate the amount of change in one variable corresponding to the change in the other.downward tendency in the average height has regression. A line that is drawn as close as possible to the plotted points of the scatter diagram shows the average tendency of the plotted points. If this regression equation is represented by Y=a'+b'X. Regression equation of Y on X: The regression equation that enables us to find out the amount of change in Y corresponding to a change in X is called the regression equation of Y on X. where the constant a' and b' are determined from two normal equations: {X =Na' + b'{Y {XY =a'{Y + b'{y2 Conclusion: 19 . business. Unlike the coefficient of correlation. then the constants a' and b' are determined from the two normal equations: {Y = Na' + b” {X {XY = a'{X + b'{x2 Regression Equation of X on Y: The regression equation that enables to find out the amount of change in X corresponding to a change in Y is called the regression equation of X on Y. or social. The regression equation is represented by X =a'+b'Y. At present the term regression is used widely to describe many other phenomena whether economic. This line is known as the regression line and its equation is called the regression equation.

If the two regression lines coincide then there is perfect correlation. If the two regression lines are at a distance from each other then the degree of correlation between X series and Y series is less. 20 . y.From the graph of the two regression lines the following conclusions can be drawn:1. The two regression line intersect at the point x. where x = arithmetic mean of the items in X series. 4. If the two regression lines are close to each other then the correlation between X series and Y series is very high. If the two regression lines intersect at right angles then there is no correlation between X series and Y series. 2. y=arithmetic mean of the items in Y series. 5. 3.

2. Research Methodology – by P. Kothari. 1. Research Methodology . 21 .Bibliography: Research Methodology .R.Methods and Techniques by C. 3.for Management and Social Sciences by Aditham Bhujanga Rao. Saravanavel.

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