You are on page 1of 43

Aggregate Gradation

Gradation Analysis

percent coarser ⎪
⎪⎪
or ⎨
percent retained ⎪

⎪⎩ Percentages
are calculated
⎧ by mass
percent finer ⎪
⎪⎪
or ⎨
percent pas sin g ⎪

⎪⎩

CIVL 3137 27
Sieves
Shakers

Gilson Shaker Mary Ann Shaker


Gradation Chart
100

80
Percent Passing

60
Total mass percent passing each sieve

40

20

0
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 30
Gradation Example
Coarse Aggregate Sieves
Sieve Opening Opening
Designation (in) (mm)
3 in 3.00 75.0
2 in 2.00 50.0
1½ in 1.50 37.5
1 in 1.00 25.0
3/4 in 0.75 19.0
1/2 in 0.50 12.5
3/8 in 0.375 9.50

Bold = Full sieves

CIVL 3137 32
Fine Aggregate Sieves
Sieve Opening Opening
Designation (in) (mm)
No. 4 0.187 4.75
No. 8 0.0937 2.36
No. 16 0.0469 1.18
No. 30 0.0234 0.60
No. 50 0.0117 0.30
No. 100 0.0059 0.15
No. 200 0.0030 0.075

Bold = Full sieves

CIVL 3137 33
Aggregate Size
No. 4 No. 8 No. 16 No. 30 No. 50 No. 100 No. 200
4.75 2.36 1.18 0.60 0.30 0.15 0.075 mm

Gravel Sand Silt & Clay


Soil Mechanics

Coarse Fine
Concrete

Coarse Fine Filler


Asphalt
Range of Sieve Sizes
Sieve Opening Opening
Designation (in) (mm)
3 in 3.00 75.0

. . .
. . .
. . .

No. 200 0.0030 0.075

CIVL 3137 35
Gradation Chart
1½" ¾" 3/
8" 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100
Percent Passing (%)

80

60

40

20

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 36
Open-Graded Aggregate
1½" ¾" 3/
8" 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100

80
Percent Passing

60

40
open
20 graded

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 37
Open-Graded Aggregate

Grain-to-grain contact
High void content
Low but variable density
High stability if confined
Low stability unconfined
Difficult to compact

CIVL 3137 38
Dense-Graded Aggregate
1½" ¾" 3/
8" 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100
dense
80 graded
Percent Passing

60

40
open
20 graded

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 39
Dense-Graded Aggregate

Grain-to-grain contact
Low void content
High density
High stability if confined
High stability unconfined
Difficult to compact

CIVL 3137 40
Gap-Graded Aggregate
1½" ¾" 3/
8" 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100
dense
80 graded
Percent Passing

60
gap
40
graded
open
20 graded

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 41
Gap-Graded Aggregate

No grain-to-grain contact
Higher void content
Lower density
Low stability if confined
Low stability unconfined
Easy to compact

CIVL 3137 42
Uniformly-Graded Aggregate
1½" ¾" 3/
8" 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100

80
Percent Passing

60
uniformly
40 graded

20

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 43
Aggregate for Concrete
Source: Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures (PCA, 2007)
Source: Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures (PCA, 2007)
Standard Sizes of Processed Aggregate (ASTM C-33)
Size Percent By Weight Passing Each Laboratory Sieve

Number 4" 3½" 3" 2½" 2" 1½" 1" ¾" ½" 3/8" No. 4 No. 8 No. 16 No. 50 No. 100

1 100 90–100 – 25–60 – 0–15 – 0–5

2 100 90–100 35–70 0–15 – 0–5

24 100 90–100 – 25–60 – 0–10 0–5

3 100 90–100 35–70 0–15 – 0–5

357 100 95–100 – 35–70 – 10–30 – 0–5

4 100 90–100 20–55 0–15 – 0–5 –

467 100 95–100 – 35–70 – 10–30 0–5

5 100 90–100 20–55 0–10 0–5 –

56 100 90–100 40–85 10–40 0–15 0–5

57 100 95–100 – 25–60 – 0–10 0–5

6 100 90–100 20–55 0–15 0–5 –

67 100 90–100 – 20–55 0–10 0–5

68 100 90–100 – 30–65 5–25 0–10 0–5

7 100 90–100 40–70 0–15 0–5 –

78 100 90–100 40–75 5–25 0–10 0–5

8 100 85–100 10–30 0–10 0–5

89 100 90–100 20–55 5–30 0–10 0–5

9 100 85–100 10–40 0–10 0–5

10 100 85–100 – – – 10–30


Standard Sizes of Processed Aggregate (ASTM C-33)
Size Midpoint Percent By Weight Passing Each Laboratory Sieve

Number 4" 3½" 3" 2½" 2" 1½" 1" ¾" ½" 3/8" No. 4 No. 8 No. 16 No. 50 No. 100

1 100 95 – 42.5 – 7.5 – 2.5

2 100 95 52.5 7.5 – 2.5

24 100 95 – 42.5 – 5 2.5

3 100 95 52.5 7.5 – 2.5

357 100 97.5 – 52.5 – 20 – 2.5

4 100 95 37.5 7.5 – 2.5 –

467 100 97.5 – 52.5 – 20 2.5

5 100 95 37.5 5 2.5 –

56 100 95 62.5 25 7.5 2.5

57 100 97.5 – 42.5 – 5 2.5

6 100 95 37.5 7.5 2.5 –

67 100 95 – 37.5 5 2.5

68 100 95 – 47.5 15 5 2.5

7 100 95 55 7.5 2.5 –

78 100 95 57.5 15 5 2.5

8 100 92.5 20 5 2.5

89 100 95 37.5 17.5 5 2.5

9 100 92.5 25 5 2.5

10 100 92.5 – – – 20
Standard Sizes of Processed Aggregate (ASTM C-33)

GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION GRAPH

3" 1½" ¾" ⅜" 4 8 16


100

90

80

70

2 3 4 5 6 7 8
PERCENT PASSIN

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
100 10 1
GRAIN SIZE IN MILLIMETERS
Standard Sizes of Processed Aggregate (ASTM C-33)

GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION GRAPH

3" 1½" ¾" ⅜" 4 8 16


100

90

80

70

5 6 7
PERCENT PASSIN

60

50

40

30

20

56 67
10

0
100 10 1
GRAIN SIZE IN MILLIMETERS
Standard Sizes of Processed Aggregate (ASTM C-33)

GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION GRAPH

3" 1½" ¾" ⅜" 4 8 16


100

90

80

70

5 7
PERCENT PASSIN

60

50

40

57
30

20

10

0
100 10 1
GRAIN SIZE IN MILLIMETERS
Standard Sizes of Processed Aggregate (ASTM C-33)

GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION GRAPH

3" 1½" ¾" ⅜" 4 8 16


100

90

80

70
3
PERCENT PASSIN

60

50
357
40

57
30

20

10

0
100 10 1
GRAIN SIZE IN MILLIMETERS
Standard Sizes of Processed Aggregate (ASTM C-33)

GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION GRAPH

3" 1½" ¾" ⅜" 4 8 16


100

90

80

70

4
PERCENT PASSIN

60

50

40

467
30

67
20

10

0
100 10 1
GRAIN SIZE IN MILLIMETERS
Fineness Modulus
Fineness modulus (n.) an index of the
coarseness or fineness of an aggregate;
it is computed as the sum of the fraction
retained on each full series sieve starting
from the No. 100 sieve.

CIVL 3137 54
Fineness Modulus
1½" ¾" 3/
8" 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100

80
Percent Passing

60

40

20 94 + 80 + 58 + 32 + 10 + 0
FM = = 2.74
100
0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 55
Fineness Modulus
1½" ¾" 3/ "
8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100

80
Percent Passing

60 FM
FM = 2.74
40

20

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 56
ASTM C-33 Sand
1½" ¾" 3/ "
8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100

80
Percent Passing

60 Fine Sand

40 Coarse Sand

20

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 57
ASTM C-33 Coarse Sand
1½" ¾" 3/ "
8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100

80
Percent Passing

FM = 3.45
60

40 Coarse Sand

20

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 58
ASTM C-33 Fine Sand
1½" ¾" 3/ "
8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100

80 FM = 2.15
Percent Passing

60

40 Fine Sand

20

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 59
Aggregate for Asphalt
Dense-Graded Aggregate
1½" ¾" 3/ "
8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100

80
Percent Passing

60

40

20

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 61
Fuller’s Curve
Fuller, W.B. and Thompson, S.E. “The laws of
proportioning concrete," Transactions of the
ASCE, v. 159, 1907.

0.50 pi = percent passing ith sieve


⎛ di ⎞
pi = ⎜ ⎟ di = opening size of ith sieve
⎝D⎠ D = maximum particle size

CIVL 3137 62
Fuller’s Curves
1½" ¾" 3/ "
8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200
100

80
Percent Passing

60

40

20

0
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Opening Size (mm)
CIVL 3137 63
Fuller’s Curve
In 1962 FHWA published a modified version of
Fuller’s equation with a different exponent.

0.45
0.50 pi = percent passing ith sieve
⎛ di ⎞
pi = ⎜ ⎟ di = opening size of ith sieve
⎝D⎠ D = maximum particle size

CIVL 3137 64
0.45 Power Chart
200 30 8 4 3/ "
8 ¾"
100

80
Percent Passing

60

40

20

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Opening Size (mm) Raised to the 0.45 Power
CIVL 3137 65
0.45 Power Chart
200 30 8 4 3/ "
8 ¾"
100

80
Percent Passing

60

40

20

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Opening Size (mm) Raised to the 0.45 Power
CIVL 3137 66
Aggregate Blending
Aggregate Blending Example