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# Kirchhoff's Laws Kirchhoff's two laws reveal a unique relationship between current, voltage, and resistance in electrical circuits

that is vital to performing and .understanding electrical circuit analysis :Law 1 The sum of the voltage drops around a closed loop is equal to the sum of (the voltage sources of that loop (Kirchhoff's Voltage Law :Law 2 The current arriving at any junction point in a circuit is equal to the (current leaving that junction (Kirchhoff's Current Law Kirchhoff's Voltage Law Kirchhoff's first law is also known as his "voltage law." The voltage law gives the relationship between the "voltage drops" around any closed loop in a circuit, and the voltage sources in that loop. The total of these two :quantities is always equal. In equation form Kirchhoff's voltage law can be applied only to closed loops .A closed :loop must meet two conditions -It must have one or more voltage sources 1 . It must have a complete path for current flow from any point, around -2 . .the loop, and back to that point :superposition theorem The superposition theorem states that in a linear circuit with several sources, the current and voltage for any element in the circuit is the sum of the currents and voltages produced by each source acting .independently To calculate the contribution of each source independently, all the other sources must be removed and replaced without affecting the final result. When removing a voltage source, its voltage must be set to zero, which is equivalent to replacing the voltage source with a short circuit. When removing a current source, its current must be set to zero, which is .equivalent to replacing the current source with an open circuit When you sum the contributions from the sources, you should be careful to take their signs into account. It is best to assign a reference direction to each unknown quantity, if it is not already given. The total voltage or current is calculated as the algebraic sum of the contributions from the sources. If a contribution from a source has the same direction as the

while using the same schematic symbol. it has a positive sign in the sum. that is. Alternatively. Therefore.of the powers produced by the sources independently .could replace the source with a resistor equal to its internal resistance In order to use the superposition theorem with circuit currents and voltages. if it has the opposite . you can assign an internal resistance to the DC voltage and current sources.reference direction. the current must be proportional to the applied voltage . then a negative sign Note that If the voltage or current sources have internal resistance. you should only set the source voltage (or current) to zero. all of the components must be linear.direction.((satisfying Ohm’s law Note that the superposition theorem is not applicable to power. In TINA. you . which leaves the source internal resistance intact. it must remain in the circuit and still be considered. if you want to illustrate the superposition theorem and at the same time use sources with internal resistance. for all resistive components. since power is not a linear quantity. The total power delivered to a resistive component must be determined using the total current through or the total voltage across the component and cannot be determined by a simple sum .

Results Was calculated voltage and current in a manner Kirchoff and-1 superposition and the results were close in both cases In a superposition of all sources was tubby voltage and current to zero-2 with the exception of only one source and then find the value of voltage or current In the solution to the laws of Kirchoff closed loops were taken to -3 calculate the voltage and current When you reset voltage source is replaced by short circuit-4 When you reset the power supply is replaced by open circuit-5 .