Desktop Mentor

Word 2007

Introduction

Word 2007 Introduction

Table of Contents
Creating New Documents..................................................................................................................... 6 Typing Text ............................................................................................................................................ 7 Click and Type .................................................................................................................................. 7 Hard Spaces ..................................................................................................................................... 7 Document Views ................................................................................................................................... 8 Print Layout View .............................................................................................................................. 8 Full Screen Reading ......................................................................................................................... 8 Web Layout.....................................................................................................................................10 Outline ............................................................................................................................................10 Draft ................................................................................................................................................11 AutoCorrect .........................................................................................................................................12 The AutoCorrect Smart Tag ...........................................................................................................12 Adding to the AutoCorrect List ........................................................................................................12 AutoCorrect Options .......................................................................................................................13 Adding Entries Automatically ..........................................................................................................14 Automatic Spelling and Grammar .....................................................................................................15 Correcting Errors ............................................................................................................................15 Spelling and Grammar Options ......................................................................................................16 AutoFormat as you Type ....................................................................................................................17 Automatic Bulleted Lists .................................................................................................................17 Automatic Numbered Lists .............................................................................................................18 Border Lines ...................................................................................................................................18 Tables .............................................................................................................................................18 Built-in Heading Styles ...................................................................................................................18 Additional AutoFormat Options .......................................................................................................19 Undoing AutoFormat ......................................................................................................................19 Adding Page Breaks ...........................................................................................................................20 Adding Blank Pages .......................................................................................................................20 Page Numbering ..................................................................................................................................21 Formatting Page Numbers .............................................................................................................22 Saving Documents ..............................................................................................................................23 Saving a Document for the First Time ............................................................................................23 Saving Changes to a Document .....................................................................................................23 Closing Documents ............................................................................................................................25 Quick Parts ..........................................................................................................................................26 Creating a Quick Part .....................................................................................................................26 Inserting a Quick Part .....................................................................................................................27 Additional Quick Parts ....................................................................................................................28 Inserting the Date and Time ...............................................................................................................29 Inserting Symbols ...............................................................................................................................30 Symbol Shortcuts............................................................................................................................31 Inserting Hyperlinks ............................................................................................................................32 Something Else to Try ....................................................................................................................34 Checking Spelling and Grammar ......................................................................................................35

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Opening Documents ...........................................................................................................................37 Creating New Documents from Existing Files ................................................................................39 Reading Documents ...........................................................................................................................40 Navigating Documents .......................................................................................................................42 Selecting Text ......................................................................................................................................43 Selecting Text with the Mouse ........................................................................................................43 Selecting Multiple Areas .................................................................................................................43 Selection Shortcuts .........................................................................................................................43 Editing Text ..........................................................................................................................................45 Inserting Text ..................................................................................................................................45 Deleting Text...................................................................................................................................45 Clearing Text ..................................................................................................................................45 Moving and Copying Text ..................................................................................................................46 Cut, Copy and Paste ......................................................................................................................46 Drag and Drop ................................................................................................................................46 Paste Options .................................................................................................................................46 Undo, Redo and Repeat ......................................................................................................................48 Repeating Commands ....................................................................................................................48 Finding and Replacing Text ...............................................................................................................49 Finding Formatting ..........................................................................................................................50 Replacing Text ................................................................................................................................50 Finding Synonyms ..............................................................................................................................52 Using the Thesaurus ......................................................................................................................52 Changing Case ....................................................................................................................................54 Go To ....................................................................................................................................................55 Browsing Documents .........................................................................................................................56 Viewing Documents Side-by-Side .....................................................................................................57 Switching Windows ............................................................................................................................58 The Clipboard Task Pane ...................................................................................................................59 Research ..............................................................................................................................................60 Adding Services ..............................................................................................................................60 Smart Tags ...........................................................................................................................................62 The Quick Format Bar.........................................................................................................................64 Character Formatting ..........................................................................................................................65 Character Formatting via the Ribbon .............................................................................................65 Additional Formatting Options ........................................................................................................66 Formatting Shortcuts ......................................................................................................................67 Paragraph Alignment ..........................................................................................................................68 Alignment via the Ribbon ................................................................................................................68 Alignment via the Paragraph dialog box .........................................................................................68 Alignment Shortcuts .......................................................................................................................69 Paragraph Spacing .............................................................................................................................70 Line Spacing ...................................................................................................................................70 Paragraph Spacing .........................................................................................................................71 Spacing Shortcuts...........................................................................................................................71

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Bullets and Numbering .......................................................................................................................72 Adding Bullets and Numbering .......................................................................................................72 Restarting Numbering .....................................................................................................................72 Customising a Numbered List ........................................................................................................73 Customising a Bulleting List ...........................................................................................................74 The Quick Style Gallery ......................................................................................................................76 Changing Styles ..................................................................................................................................78 Applying Themes ................................................................................................................................80 Adding Headers and Footers .............................................................................................................82 Built-in Headers and Footers ..........................................................................................................82 Custom Headers and Footers ........................................................................................................83 Setting Margins and Orientation .......................................................................................................85 Setting Margins ...............................................................................................................................85 Setting Page Orientation ................................................................................................................86 Additional Print Options ..................................................................................................................86 Multi-Level Lists ..................................................................................................................................87 Indenting Text ......................................................................................................................................88 Paragraph Borders and Shading .......................................................................................................90 Paragraph Borders .........................................................................................................................90 Paragraph Shading .........................................................................................................................91 Setting Tabs .........................................................................................................................................93 Setting Tabs....................................................................................................................................93 Bar Tabs .........................................................................................................................................93 Tabs for Indenting ...........................................................................................................................94 Additional Tab Options ...................................................................................................................94 Highlighting Text .................................................................................................................................95 Format Painter .....................................................................................................................................96 Page Colour .........................................................................................................................................97 Page Borders .......................................................................................................................................99 Converting Text to Tables ................................................................................................................100 Creating Quick Tables ......................................................................................................................102 Inserting a Quick Table .................................................................................................................102 Creating Custom Quick Tables .....................................................................................................103 Inserting Tables .................................................................................................................................104 Resizing a Table ...........................................................................................................................105 Selecting Tables ................................................................................................................................106 Changing Table Styles......................................................................................................................107 Applying a Table Style ..................................................................................................................107 Clearing the Table Style ...............................................................................................................108 Copying an Existing Style .............................................................................................................108 Creating a New Style ....................................................................................................................110 Setting Borders and Shading...........................................................................................................111 Setting Column Widths .....................................................................................................................113 Setting Column Widths .................................................................................................................113 Setting Specific Widths .................................................................................................................113

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Setting Row Height ...........................................................................................................................115 Setting Row Height .......................................................................................................................115 Aligning Text Vertically .................................................................................................................115 Inserting and Deleting Columns and Rows ....................................................................................116 Deleting Columns and Rows ........................................................................................................116 Merging and Splitting Cells ..............................................................................................................117 Drawing Tables ..................................................................................................................................118 Embedding Excel Spreadsheets .....................................................................................................120 Table Properties ................................................................................................................................121 Wrapping Text Around Tables .........................................................................................................123 Table Calculations ............................................................................................................................124 Sorting Text in Tables.......................................................................................................................125 Repeating Table Headings ...............................................................................................................126 Cell Margins .......................................................................................................................................127 Inserting Images ................................................................................................................................128 Inserting ClipArt ................................................................................................................................130 Inserting SmartArt .............................................................................................................................132 Adding Shapes ..................................................................................................................................136 Drawing Shapes ...........................................................................................................................136 Drawing Lines ...............................................................................................................................137 Drawing Shortcuts ........................................................................................................................137 Selecting Shapes ..........................................................................................................................137 Shape Styles and Formatting...........................................................................................................138 Shape Styles .................................................................................................................................138 Shape Fill and Outline ..................................................................................................................138 Shadow and 3D Effects ................................................................................................................141 Arranging and Aligning Shapes ......................................................................................................143 Arranging Objects .........................................................................................................................143 Aligning Objects ............................................................................................................................143 Distributing Objects ......................................................................................................................145 Adding Text Boxes ............................................................................................................................146 Creating a Text Box ......................................................................................................................146 Formatting a Text Box ..................................................................................................................146 Wrapping Document Text around a Text Box ..............................................................................147 Creating Charts .................................................................................................................................149 Chart Format and Layout .................................................................................................................152 Chart Layout .................................................................................................................................152 Chart Styles ..................................................................................................................................152 Adding Labels ...............................................................................................................................153 Formatting the Axes .....................................................................................................................153 Changing the Chart Type .................................................................................................................156 Changing the Chart Type .............................................................................................................156 Available Chart Types ..................................................................................................................156 Custom Text Boxes ...........................................................................................................................159 Creating a Custom Text Box ........................................................................................................159 Linking Text Boxes .......................................................................................................................159

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Creating a Drawing Canvas..............................................................................................................161 Connecting Shapes ...........................................................................................................................162 Changing Shapes ..............................................................................................................................164 Flipping and Rotating .......................................................................................................................165 Rotating Shapes ...........................................................................................................................165 Flipping Shapes ............................................................................................................................165 Inserting WordArt ..............................................................................................................................167 Wrapping Text around Images ........................................................................................................169 Zooming In And Out ..........................................................................................................................171 Save As ..............................................................................................................................................172 Save As PDF ......................................................................................................................................173 What is PDF Format? ...................................................................................................................173 Saving in PDF Format ..................................................................................................................173 Print Preview .....................................................................................................................................175 Printing Documents ..........................................................................................................................177 Emailing Documents .........................................................................................................................178 Setting the Document Language .....................................................................................................179 Translating Text ................................................................................................................................180 Translating a Word or Phrase .......................................................................................................180 Translating the Entire Document ..................................................................................................180 The Translation Screen Tip ..........................................................................................................182 Setting Document Properties ..........................................................................................................183 Marking as Final ................................................................................................................................185 Compatibility Checking ....................................................................................................................187 Setting Passwords ............................................................................................................................189 Setting Read-Only Access ...............................................................................................................191

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Creating New Documents
When Word 2007 is launched, a new blank document is displayed automatically. Every Word document is based on a template - the default template for blank documents is normal.dotm. Templates can contain standard text and formatting that is entered automatically each time a new document is created from the template. To create a new blank document:

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Click on the Office button and choose New, then click on the Create button or Press [Ctrl N]

To create a new document from a template

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Click on the Office button, then choose New Any templates you have accessed recently will appear in the Blank and Recent pane which shows by default

To choose to create a document from another template:

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Click on My Templates to show the templates on your computer Click on the template you wish to use Click on OK

By default, Word templates are stored on your C: drive, under your user folder, then under \AppData\Roaming\ Microsoft\Templates.

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Typing Text
To enter text in your document, simply type it! Text will appear at the cursor position - the flashing vertical line in the main typing area of the document.

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As you type, if you press an incorrect key, press [Backspace] to remove the character before retyping it. As you reach the end of the line, Word will automatically wrap your text onto the next line. To end a paragraph, press [Return].

Click and Type
All typing you enter will appear at the cursor, which moves down the page as [Return] is pressed. If you want to enter text below the cursor, you can do this using the click and type feature.

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Position the mouse pointer where you wish to add the new text or object Double click to position the cursor in the blank area

When the mouse is positioned in a blank area of the document, the icon next to the mouse pointer will show how the paragraph alignment will be set and how the new text will be inserted. Mouse Pointer Description A left tab will be inserted before the text The text will be right aligned The text will be centered

Hard Spaces
Sometimes you may not want text to wrap at the end of a line, for example between the day, month and year of a date. To stop the text between two words from being split over two lines, a hard space can be inserted, to ensure the words will always appear on the same line of the document. Use the following keystrokes to insert a hard space or hyphen: Keystroke [Shift Ctrl Space] [Shift Ctrl -] Action Inserts a hard non-breaking space Inserts a hard non-breaking hyphen

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Document Views
The View buttons on the status bar can be used to choose the view that will show the current document: Button View Print Layout Full Screen Reading Web Layout Outline Draft You can also change the document view by clicking on the View ribbon and choosing the required option from the Document Views group:

Print Layout View
This view is fully WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) and shows pages exactly as they will print, including margins and any blank space. Graphics and columns will display exactly as they will print.

The white space representing top and bottom margins in print layout view can be hidden if you wish to use this view without the additional space. Position the mouse in the dark gray area at the top or bottom of the page - the mouse pointer shape will change. Click once to hide the white space.

Full Screen Reading
This view is designed for reading documents on screen, with all ribbons hidden. Only small toolbars for reviewing and navigating the document will be shown.

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In full screen reading view:

Click on the Tools menu on the left-hand side of the screen for research, translation and tracking tools:

Click on the View Options button for options to control the screen layout such as the number of pages to show, the text size and whether to allow typing

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Web Layout
This view shows how the document would look if saved in HTML format for the Web. It can make onscreen reading easier - text and graphics are sized to fit the screen rather than the printed page.

The document map can be used in conjunction with this view to show the main headings of the document.

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Click on the View ribbon Check the Document Map option in the Show/Hide group

Outline
This view is used for reporting and allows you to view different levels of text and quickly reorganise the document.

The outline tools group on the Outlining ribbon is used to manipulate text in the outline and contains the following buttons and options: Button Description Promote to Heading 1 Promote to previous level Choose the level to apply Demote to next level Demote to body text Move paragraph up Move paragraph down

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Button

Description Show all text under this level Hide all text under this level

Draft
This view shows text as it will print but does not show headers, footers or certain formatting options such as columns. Only the body text of the document is displayed, with no margins or empty space at the bottom of each page. Graphics do not always show exactly where they will be printed.

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AutoCorrect
This feature is used to correct spelling errors as they are typed e.g. teh will automatically change to the when [Space] or [Return] is pressed. It can also be used to enter text in full when an abbreviation is typed e.g. to enter Excel automatically when xl is typed.

The AutoCorrect Smart Tag
When AutoCorrect is used to correct your text, Word gives you the option of undoing this command and using the original text you typed. Options are available via a smart tag that appears under the word that has been corrected for you.

Click on the blue box under the word to show the AutoCorrect smart tag

Click on the drop-down arrow of the smart tag to show a list of options

Choose to change the word back to the original you typed, or choose to stop automatically correcting the word in the future

Adding to the AutoCorrect List
To add any other word to the AutoCorrect list:

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Click on the Office button Click on the Word Options button

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Click on Proofing in the menu on the left-hand side of the dialog box Click on the AutoCorrect Options button Ensure the AutoCorrect tab is selected Type the incorrect word in the Replace box and the correction in the With box Choose OK

Any words added to the AutoCorrect list in Word will also be available in Excel and PowerPoint.

AutoCorrect Options
The following options can also be selected in the AutoCorrect dialog box: Option Correct two initial capitals Capitalise first letter of sentences Capitalise first letter of table cells Capitalise names of days Correct accidental usage of Caps Lock key Description This will correct two capital letters typed at the beginning of a sentence, changing the second to lower case This will ensure the first letter of every sentence is a capital, changing any lower case letters typed This will ensure the first letter of any text typed in a table is a capital letter This will ensure all day names Monday - Sunday start with a capital letter If the Caps Lock key is pressed, all capital letters will show as lower case and vice versa. Word will correct this and switch off Caps Lock

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Adding Entries Automatically
    If the document is set to mark spelling errors automatically, errors can be added to the AutoCorrect list as follows: Position the mouse over the incorrect word and click the right mouse button Choose AutoCorrect Choose the correct replacement for the word from the list displayed

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Automatic Spelling and Grammar
If automatic spelling and grammar is enabled, all incorrectly spelled words will be marked with wavy red lines in the document while all grammatical errors will appear with green wavy lines.

Correcting Errors
To correct a marked word:

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Position the mouse over the marked word and click the right mouse button Choose the correct suggestion from the list displayed To ignore the error while removing the marking line, choose Ignore All For spelling errors, you can add the word to the custom dictionary so that it will not be seen as an error in any future documents. Click on Add to Dictionary to do this.

You can also correct errors in your document via the status bar along the bottom of the screen. If the document contains spelling errors, the Spelling indicator on the Status Bar will display a cross. Double click on this indicator to find the next spelling error in the document and display the correction menu. The status bar showing the document contains errors:

The status bar showing the document contains no errors:

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Spelling and Grammar Options
The spelling and grammar options of Word can be set so that errors are automatically flagged or ignored.

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Click on the Office button Click on the Word Options button Click on Proofing in the menu on the left-hand side of the dialog box Check the box to Check spelling as you type and / or Mark grammar errors as you type Click on OK

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AutoFormat as you Type
Word has some formatting features that will be applied as you type the text of your document. These features can be disabled if you do not want them to apply automatically. To enable or disable the AutoFormat options:

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Click on the Office button Click on the Word Options button Click on Proofing in the menu on the left-hand side of the dialog box Click on the AutoCorrect Options button Click on the AutoFormat as you Type option Check and uncheck options as required. See below for a description of each AutoFormat option. Click on OK, then on OK again when complete

Automatic Bulleted Lists
If an asterisk is typed and followed by a space, automatic bulleting will be enabled and all remaining paragraphs will be preceded by the standard round bullet point. If a dash or hyphen is typed and followed by a space, automatic bulleting will be enabled and all remaining paragraphs will be preceded by a dashed bullet point. Click on the Bullets button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon to remove bullets from selected paragraphs.

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Automatic Numbered Lists
If a number or letter is typed and followed by a full stop, hyphen or closing bracket, then by a space, automatic numbering will be enabled. This means that the next paragraph will be numbered automatically with the next sequential number. The following would all start automatic numbering: 1. Introduction 1- Introduction 1) Introduction Click on the Numbers button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon to remove numbering from selected paragraphs.

Border Lines
This option will insert borders automatically when specific characters are typed at the beginning of a line. Type --=== ___ ### ~~~ To Insert A single horizontal line A double horizontal line A thick single horizontal line A thick horizontal line with thin lines above and below A wavy horizontal line

Tables
Tables can be inserted automatically using the + and - key to design the table structure. Use + to show where a vertical line (new column) should appear and - to show the width of the column. The following line: +-----+--------------------------------+-----------+ would insert this table when [Return] is pressed:

Built-in Heading Styles
This option will automatically format the headings you type to match Word's standard Heading styles.

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If a line of text is typed and [Return] is pressed twice, the Heading 1 style will be applied If [Tab] is pressed before a line of text, the Heading 2 style will be applied to the text

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If [Tab] is pressed twice before a line of text, the Heading 3 style will be applied to the text

Additional AutoFormat Options
The following options can also be set in the AutoFormat as you Type dialog box: Option Straight quotes with smart quotes Ordinals with superscript Fractions with fraction characters Hyphens with dash *Bold* and _italic_ with real formatting Internet and network paths with hyperlinks Description Will replace the standard straight quotation marks with opening and closing quotations Will display date ordinals in superscript text e.g. Replaces fractions with symbols e.g. 1/2 be replaced with ½ Replaces symbol characters such as dashes with symbols e.g. - will be replaced with – Text enclosed in asterisks will be displayed in bold, while text enclosed in underscores will be displayed in italics If a website URL or email address is typed, it will be changed to a hyperlink that will activate the web page or create a mail message to the email address when clicked.

Undoing AutoFormat
You always have the choice of keeping or discarding automatic formatting changes. Whenever an AutoFormat is applied as you type, a smart tag will display next to the text that was formatted:

Position the mouse over the smart tag and click on the drop-down arrow to show the available options. The following image shows the options available after automatic bullets have been applied to text:

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Adding Page Breaks
Word documents are paginated as they are typed – system page breaks are inserted where no more text will fit onto a page. These breaks can be overwritten with hard (manual) page breaks, which can be inserted anywhere in the document. To insert a manual page break:

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Position the cursor where the new page is to begin - directly before the first word to appear on the next page Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Page Break button in the Pages group

Press [Ctrl Return] to quickly insert a page break at the cursor position. In draft view, page breaks can be displayed as dotted lines, making it easy to see the difference between a system page break and manual page break.

To show draft view, click on the Draft view button in the status bar, or click on the View ribbon and choose Draft in the Document Views group To show page breaks, click on the Show/Hide button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon

System page break: Manual page break: Manual page breaks are removed by clicking on the page break line and press [Delete]. System page breaks cannot be removed - they will remain until all text fits on a single page.

Adding Blank Pages
As well as adding a page break to move onto the next page, you can add an entirely blank page, moving all text after the cursor onto the page following the blank page.

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Position the cursor where the blank page is to appear - directly before the first word to appear on the page following the blank page Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Blank Page button in the Pages group

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Page Numbering
Page numbers can be added to all pages of the document, and can be positioned at the top or bottom of the document, or in the left or right page margins.

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Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Page Number button in the Header & Footer group Choose Top of Page, Bottom of Page or Page Margins as required Choose the style of page number you wish to insert

The header or footer area will be activated and the page number inserted. Click on the Close Header and Footer button on the ribbon to return to the document.

You can also insert a page number at any position in the document:

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Position the cursor where the page number should appear Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Page Number button in the Header & Footer group Choose Current Position Choose the style of page number you wish to insert

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To remove page numbering, click on the Page Number button on the Insert ribbon and choose Remove Page Numbers.

Formatting Page Numbers
You can change the format of page numbers and choose which number to start numbering with.

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Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Page Number button in the Header & Footer group Choose Format Page Numbers Choose the required format from the Number Format list e.g. 1, 2, 3 or A, B, C Choose to Include Chapter Number to include numbers from text headings in the page numbers Choose to continue numbering from the previous section, or to Start at a specific number Click on OK when complete

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Saving Documents
Saving involves assigning a document name and placing the document in a folder on one of your computer's drives so that it can be opened again if required.

Saving a Document for the First Time
When you save a document for the first time, you can choose either the Save or Save As command.

Click on the Office button and choose Save or Save As, or click on the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar

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To choose a different drive to save the file to, click on the Computer icon in the Folder list on the left of the Save As window To choose a different folder on the same drive, click on the drive name in the navigation trail along the top of the window Double-click on the folder you wish to save the file to Click in the File Name box and type a new name for the document Click on Save

Saving Changes to a Document
If you are saving an existing document after changes have been made, it is important to know the difference between the Save and Save As commands. Command Save Description This command saves the current document under the existing name and replaces the original version. Click on the Office button and choose Save, or click on the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar. This command requests a new name for the document and leaves the original unchanged. Click on the Office button and choose Save As.

Save As

You can also use the following shortcut keys to save a file:

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Keystroke Ctrl S F12

Action Save Save As

If you accidentally attempt to close a document without first saving it, Word will ask if you wish to save any changes to the document. Click on Yes to save the changes or No to exit the document and lose any changes.

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Closing Documents
Although it is possible to open more than one Word document at a time, it is good practice to close a document when you have finished working on it. A document can be closed in one of the following ways:

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Click on the Office button and choose Close Press [Ctrl F4] Click on the lower x in the top-right corner of the document

If the file has not yet been saved, choose Yes to save the document or No to cancel any changes made

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Quick Parts
In Word 2007, quick parts are items that can be added to any document as they are needed. They replace AutoText entries of previous versions of Word, and can be used to add text, images, etc. to the current position, or to the header, footer or other area of the document.

Creating a Quick Part
Any existing text can be saved as a quick part, as can an image, table or other Word object.

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Create and select the text, table or graphic you wish to store as a quick part Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Quick Parts button and choose Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery

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Enter a Name for the quick part, as well as an optional Description Choose how the quick part should be inserted - this can be content only, as a new paragraph or as an entire page Click on OK

When you exit Word after adding a new quick part, you will be asked if you wish to save the change to the Building Blocks template. Click on Yes if you want to be able to use the quick part when you access Word in the future.

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Inserting a Quick Part
To add a quick part to the document:

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Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Quick Parts button All custom quick parts will be shown first in the list - click on the item you wish to insert

Alternatively, right-click over the quick part in the list and choose to insert the item into the header, footer, beginning of document, end of document, etc.

To remove a quick part, click on the drop-down arrow of the Quick Parts button, then right-click over the quick part you wish to remove. Choose Organise and Delete, then click on the Delete button to remove the selected entry. Click on Yes to confirm the deletion, then click on Close to return to the document.

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Additional Quick Parts
The Quick Parts button can also be used to insert document properties into the text e.g. the Author's name or document status.

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Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Quick Parts button Choose Document Property Choose the property you wish to insert

Set document properties by clicking on the Office button, then choosing Prepare, then Properties. Add properties as required, then close the pane using the X in the top-right corner when complete.

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Inserting the Date and Time
The date and / or time can be inserted at the cursor position as follows:

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Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Date and Time button in the Text group

The Date and Time dialog box is displayed:

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If you wish to insert a date in a language other than English, click on the drop-down arrow of the Language box and choose the required language from the list displayed Choose the required format from the Available Formats list Check Update Automatically if you want the date to update each time the document is opened, so that the current date is always displayed Click on OK

Click on the Default button in the Date and Time dialog box to set the selected format to be the default for all dates entered in all documents. Click on Yes to confirm you wish to change the default date format. The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to insert the date and time at the cursor position: Keystroke Shift Alt D Shift Alt T Action Inserts the date in short format e.g. 31/12/99. The date will update automatically whenever the document is opened Inserts the time in short format e.g. 12:55. The time will update automatically whenever the document is opened

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Inserting Symbols
Symbols that do not appear on the standard keyboard can be inserted as follows:

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Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Symbol button in the Symbols group

The 20 most common or last used symbols are listed - click on one of these symbols to insert it, or click on More Symbols to show the full range that can be inserted.

    

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Font box and choose the font set you wish to show (see table below) Scroll up and down the list of symbols to choose the symbol you wish to insert Click on the symbol you want to use Click on Insert When complete, click on Cancel

The following symbol font sets are available with Office 2007: Font Set Normal Text Symbol MS Reference 1 MS Reference 2 MS Reference Speciality Webdings Wingdings Wingdings 2 Wingdings 3 Description Fractions and international characters Additional characters not found above e.g. mathematical and scientific characters International characters and music symbols Fractions and square roots Additional fractions and mathematical symbols More detailed graphics Bullet symbols, arrows and other shapes Additional symbols, including numbers, crosses and stars Additional symbols, including arrows of different shape and size

When you choose one of the text-based fonts such as Arial or Calibri, subsets of the font will be listed to help you to find the character you want. Click on the drop-down arrow of the Subset box and choose the required category.

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Symbol Shortcuts
The following AutoCorrect shortcuts can be used to insert symbols at the cursor position: Type 1/2 1/4 3/4 (c) (r) (tm) <-<== --> ==> <=> To insert The half symbol The quarter symbol The three quarters symbol The copyright symbol The registered symbol The trademark symbol A thin left arrow A thick left arrow A thin right arrow A thick right arrow A double headed arrow Example ½ ¼ ¾ © ® ™     

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Inserting Hyperlinks
A hyperlink is a link to a specific part of the current document, a different document or a website. Hyperlinks appear as underlined text and, when clicked, will activate the target automatically. The following types of hyperlinks can be inserted into Word documents:

    

A link to a bookmark in the same document A link to a different Word document A link to an Office document, e.g. an Excel spreadsheet or Access database A link to a website An email link to create a new Outlook mail message, automatically addressed to a specific email address

To insert a hyperlink:

  

Save the document Select the text you wish to insert the hyperlink on - this text will be clicked to activate the link On the Insert ribbon, click on the Hyperlink button in the Links group

The Insert Hyperlink window will open:

 

To link to another file, Word or otherwise, click on the Existing File or Web Page icon on the left. Navigate the folders in the centre of the window to locate and select the file you wish to link to To create a hyperlink to a web page, click on the Existing File or Web Page icon and type the full URL of the page in the Address box e.g. http://www.hp.com. If you have visited the web page recently, click on Browsed Pages to choose the URL from your History list

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 

To link to a specific heading in the document, click on the Place in this Document icon. Choose the heading to link to To link to a bookmark in the document, click on the Place in this Document icon. Choose the bookmark to link to

To create an email hyperlink that will create a new mail message when clicked, click on the E-mail Address icon and type the full Email Address e.g. john.smith@hp.com. If messages created using this link should always have a specific subject, enter this in the Subject box

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Click on OK

Press [Ctrl K] to insert a hyperlink quickly over the selected text.

Something Else to Try
Hyperlinks can also be inserted automatically as follows:

  

Hyperlinks to web pages can be created automatically by typing the full URL address of the website e.g. http://www.hp.com Email hyperlinks can be created by typing the full email address e.g. john.smith@hp.com. When this link is clicked, an Outlook message will be created and addressed automatically Hyperlinks to files can be created by typing the computer, folder and filename e.g. \\pcone\data\test.doc. When clicked, the file will be opened

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Checking Spelling and Grammar
Word's spell checker can be started in one of two ways:

 

Press [F7] or Click on the Review ribbon, then on the Spelling button in the Proofing group

Word will start checking from the cursor position in the document, then continue from the top of the document automatically. When an incorrect word is found, the following dialog box will be displayed:

     

Click on a replacement word in the Suggestions list or edit the Not in Dictionary text as required Choose Change to change this occurrence of the word or Change All to change all occurrences in the message Click on Ignore Once to ignore this occurrence of the word Click on Ignore All to ignore all occurrences of the word in the message Click on Add to Dictionary to add the word to the custom dictionary - this is useful for names of people, etc. that do not appear in the standard dictionary To add an incorrect spelling to the AutoCorrect list so that it is corrected automatically in future, choose the correct replacement from the Suggestions list that should be used when the incorrect spelling is typed, then click on the AutoCorrect button

You will be told when the spell check is complete - click on OK.

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To check grammar as well as spelling, check the Check Grammar option in the Spelling dialog box. When an error is found:

   

Click on Ignore Once to ignore this occurrence of the error Click on Ignore Rule to disregard this error in the future so that it is no longer flagged as incorrect Click on Next Sentence to skip the error and show the next error found Click on Change to change the error to the suggested solution

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Opening Documents
The most recent documents you have used can be opened by clicking on the Office button, then on the document you wish to open on the right-hand side of the menu:

To open a document that does not appear in the Recent Documents list:

      

Click on the Office button Click on Open To choose a different drive to open a file from, click on the Computer icon in the Folder list on the left of the Open window To choose a different folder on the same drive, click on the drive name in the navigation trail along the top of the window Double-click on the folder you wish to open a file from Select the file you wish to open Click on Open

The following toolbar appears along the top of the Open window:

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Click on the Organise button to show a menu that allows you to:

   

Create new folders within the folder you are currently viewing Perform housekeeping tasks such as copying, moving and deleting selected files Change the layout of the Open window e.g. to include the Details or Preview pane View properties of the selected file

Click on the Views button to view the files in the Open window in different ways:

 

Use the List option to show file names with small icons in multiple columns Use the Details option to show the name of each file, as well as its modification date, type, size and tags

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Use the Tiles option to show larger icons of each file with the name, type and size

Press [Ctrl O] to show the Open window at any time.

Creating New Documents from Existing Files
If you wish to make changes to an existing document without affecting the original, you can create a new document from an existing file. This allows you to open a copy of any document that can be saved without changing the original in any way

  

Click on the Office button Click on New Click on the New from Existing link on the left-hand side of the screen

 

Locate the document you wish to create a copy of Click on Open

You can now make any changes to the document, and save it as normal when complete. You will be asked for a new name for the file on saving.

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Reading Documents
Reading Layout view is designed for reading documents on screen. When this view is selected, the Quick Access Toolbar and Ribbon are hidden, with two new bars showing on screen. To switch to reading layout view:

 

Click on the Full Screen Reading view button on the status bar or Click on the View ribbon, then on the Full Screen Reading button in the Document Views group

In Full Screen Reading view, your document will be repaginated so that the text fits clearly on screen. Note that the number of documents on screen does not represent the number of pages that will print. The following buttons appear on the first Reading toolbar: Button Description Save the document Print the document Tools for working on the document e.g. find text and research Highlight text Add a comment The following options can be found by clicking on the View Options menu next to the close button on the right-hand side of the screen: Option Don't open Attachments in Full Screen Increase Text Size Decrease Text Size Show Two Pages Show Printed page Allow Typing Track Changes Description When you receive a Word document as an email attachment and double-click on this attachment to open it, Word will automatically switch to Full Screen Reading view. Choose this option to stop this and open Word documents in the view they were saved in. Increase the text on screen for reading, without affecting the way in which the document will print Decrease the text on screen for reading, without affecting the way in which the document will print Show two pages, side by side Return the text size to normal to show the amount of text that will print on the page. Note that some formatting may not show exactly as it will print Choose this option to allow the document to be edited in Full Screen Reading view Turn tracking on or off, set tracking options, or set your user name to show in tracked

Show One Page Show one page at a time

Margin Settings Choose to show or hide margins to include more text on the reading page

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changes Show Comments and Changes Choose whether to show or hide comments, annotations, highlighting, etc.

Show Original / Choose whether to show the original or final document if changes have been tracked Final Document Click on the Close button or press [Escape] to close Full Screen Reading view and return to the document. You can also set Word so that email attachments do not open in Full Screen Reading view by clicking on the Office button, then on the Word Options button. Under Popular commands, uncheck the Open e-mail attachments in Full Screen Reading view option, then click on OK.

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Navigating Documents
Before editing text in an existing document, it is important to position the cursor correctly. The cursor is the flashing vertical bar that moves along as text is typed - new text will always be placed at the cursor position in the document. The cursor can be positioned as follows:

 

Click the mouse in the relevant position If the position is not displayed on screen, use the vertical scroll bar to display the position before clicking the mouse

The following cursor movement keys can also be used to move around a document: Keystroke Left or Right arrow Up or Down arrow Ctrl + Left arrow Ctrl + Right arrow Ctrl + Up arrow Ctrl + Down arrow Home End Ctrl + Home Ctrl + End Ctrl + Page Up Ctrl + Page Down Shift + F5 Moves the Cursor... One character to the left or right One line up or down To the beginning of the current or previous word To the beginning of the next word To the beginning of the current or previous paragraph To the beginning of the next paragraph To the beginning of the current line To the end of the current line To the top of the document To the bottom of the document To the top of the previous page To the top of the next page Switches between the last 3 places at which text was edited

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Selecting Text
Before formatting or editing existing text, the text will need to be selected. You can select text using either the mouse or the keyboard - whichever you prefer.

Selecting Text with the Mouse
To select text using the mouse:

 

Drag the mouse over a block of text to select it or Click at the beginning of the block and hold [Shift] while clicking at the end of the block.

To select the text highlighted in the following example, click the mouse at position 1, then hold [Shift] and click at position 2.

Selecting Multiple Areas
You can select multiple areas of the document so that formatting can be applied to non-contiguous text in a single step.

  

Drag the mouse over the first block of text you wish to select, then release the mouse button when complete Hold [Ctrl] and drag the mouse over the next block of text, again releasing the mouse when complete Repeat the above step until all text is selected

Selection Shortcuts
The following shortcuts can be used to select text with the mouse: Select Word Sentence Line Paragraph By Double clicking over the word Holding [Ctrl] and clicking anywhere over the sentence Positioning the mouse in the left margin of the line and clicking once Positioning the mouse anywhere in the left margin of the paragraph and double clicking

Entire document Positioning the mouse anywhere in the left margin and clicking three times In the following example, click once at the arrow position to select the second line of text. Click twice to select the paragraph, and three times to select the entire document.

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It is also possible to select large areas of text using the keyboard: Keystroke Shift Home Shift End Shift Ctrl Home Shift Ctrl End Ctrl A Will Select All text from the cursor position to the beginning of the current line All text from the cursor position to the end of the current line All text from the cursor position to the beginning of the document All text from the cursor position to the end of the document The entire document

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Editing Text
Text in a document can be edited by inserting new text or deleting existing text.

Inserting Text
As you type inside a block of text, existing text will shift to the right to make room for the new text - this is known as Insert mode and is selected by default. If you wish to replace existing text with your new text, this can be done using Overtype mode.

   

Right-click over the status bar along the bottom of the screen. If the Overtype command is not selected, click on this now Click on the Insert indicator on the status bar to switch to Overtype mode Type the new text - this will replace any existing text at the cursor position Click on the Overtype indicator on the status bar to return to insert mode

Deleting Text
Characters are deleted by positioning the cursor and pressing [Delete] to remove the next character or [Backspace] to remove the previous character. Larger amounts of text are deleted by selecting the text and pressing [Delete]. The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to delete text: Keystroke Ctrl Delete Ctrl Backspace Action Delete all text from the cursor position to the end of the word. Delete all text from the cursor position to the beginning of the word.

Clearing Text
The Clear command is used to clear only the formatting from your text. The text itself will remain, but any character or paragraph formatting will be removed.

 

Select the text that contains the formatting you wish to remove Click on the Clear Formatting button in the Font group of the Home Ribbon

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Moving and Copying Text
Cut, Copy and Paste
Text can be moved or copied using the standard cut, copy and paste commands which are available on the Home ribbon.

   

Select the text to be moved or copied On the Home ribbon, click on the Copy button to copy the text, or the Cut button to move the text Position the cursor where the text should appear On the Home ribbon, click on the Paste button to insert the text

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to move and copy text. Keystroke [Ctrl C] [Ctrl X] [Ctrl V] Action Copy Cut Paste

Drag and Drop
Text can also be moved or copied using the drag and drop facility:

 

Position the mouse over the edge of the selected text to display the white arrow shaped mouse pointer Drag the text to a new location and release the mouse button

To copy text using drag and drop, hold [Ctrl] while dragging and release the mouse button before releasing the [Ctrl] key.

Paste Options
When you paste text or other items into your Word document, you often have a choice of how the data should be inserted.

 

After pasting your data, look in the bottom-right corner of the block of data - you will see a paste icon Position the mouse over this icon to display a drop-down arrow

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Click on the drop-down arrow and choose how you wish to paste the text or item

Option

Description

Keep Source Formatting This will format the text as it appeared in the original document, even if this format is different to the current document Match Destination Formatting Keep Text Only This will reformat the text using the format set at the cursor position, and the styles of the document you are pasting into This will remove all formatting and paragraph breaks from the text

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Undo, Redo and Repeat
The Undo command allows you to reverse commands that have already been executed, including restoring deleted text. There is no set number of commands that can be undone - this depends on your computer memory. Use one of the following methods:

 

Click on the Undo button on the Quick Access Toolbar to undo the last command Click on the drop-down arrow after the Undo button to select the command you wish to undo up to

If you change your mind about undoing a command, it can be redone:

 

Click on the Redo button on the Quick Access Toolbar to redo the last command Click on the drop-down arrow after the Redo button to select the command you wish to redo up to

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to undo and redo commands: Keystroke [Ctrl Z] [Ctrl Y] Action Undo Redo

Repeating Commands
The Repeat command will repeat the action just performed and can be used to carry out the same task on a number of different areas of the document. Press [F4] at any time to repeat the last command.

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Finding and Replacing Text
The Find command allows you to locate specific text in your document.

  

On the Home ribbon, click on the Find button of the Editing group In the Find What box, type the text you wish to locate Click on Find Next to find the first occurrence of the word, then Find Next again until the correct occurrence is found

Alternatively, you can highlight all matches of the text in the document. Click on the Reading Highlight button and choose Highlight Text to do this:

Additional search options can be set in the Find dialog box by clicking on the More button:

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Option Match case Find whole words only Use wildcards

Description Find only those occurrences with the exact combination of uppercase and lowercase letters specified in the Find What box. Find occurrences that are entire words and not part of a larger word. Enable use of the wildcard characters * and ?. For example, "S*n" will find all words starting with "S" and ending with "n" while "S?n" will find only three letter words starting with "S" and ending with "n" Find words that sound the same as the search text but are spelled differently e.g. "colour" and "color" Find all forms of the search text e.g. "find" and "found".

Sounds like Find all word forms

Press [Ctrl F] to show the Find window at any time.

Finding Formatting
It is possible to find text that is formatted in a specific way e.g. all text using the Arial font or all text coloured red:

   

On the Home ribbon, click on the Find button of the Editing group Click on the More button to show additional options Click on the Format button Choose the type of formatting you wish to locate e.g. Character or Paragraph

 

Choose all formatting you wish to find, then click on OK to return to the Find dialog box Click on Find Next to find the next occurrence of the formatting

Click on the No Formatting button in the Find dialog box to clear all formatting from the search criteria and return to finding text only.

Replacing Text
The Replace command allows you to change one or all occurrences of the text automatically.

On the Home ribbon, click on the Replace button of the Editing group

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   

Type the text to be located in the Find What box Type the replacement text in the Replace With box. Click on Find Next to find the next occurrence of the word Click on Replace to replace the single occurrence or Replace All to replace all occurrences

Press [Ctrl H] to show the Replace window at any time.

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Finding Synonyms
The Synonyms command is a quick way of finding similar words to the current word of the document.

  

Right click anywhere over the word you wish to find a replacement for Choose Synonyms to display a sub-menu of possible replacements Click on the synonym you wish to use - the current word will be replaced with your choice

Using the Thesaurus
The thesaurus can also be used to find synonyms to replace words in the document, but displays the results in a task pane that can be browsed to find further synonyms.

  

Select the word to look up in the thesaurus Click on the Review ribbon Click on the Thesaurus button in the Proofing group

Position the mouse over a word in the results task pane, then click on the drop-down arrow to view options to Insert, Copy or Look Up the word to find further synonyms

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Press [Shift F7] to quickly look up the selected word in the Thesaurus.

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Changing Case
If text was typed using the wrong case - for example upper case instead of lower case, it is not necessary to delete the text and retype it. Simply change the case of the text as follows:

  

Selected the text to be changed On the Home ribbon, click on the drop-down arrow of the Change Case button in the Font group Choose the required case from the list of options displayed

The following options are available: Option Sentence Case Lower Case Upper Case Title Case Toggle Case Description Capitalises the first letter in each sentence Converts all text to small letters Converts all text to capital letters Capitalises the first letter of each word Reverses the case of selected text - existing capitals to small letters and vice versa

The [Shift F3] shortcut can also be used to switch selected text between cases.

 

If a paragraph is selected, the text will switch between upper, lower and sentence case If a single line of text is selected, the text will switch between upper, lower and title case

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Go To
If you are working in a long document, you can use the Go To command to move to a specific page or other item in the document e.g. to a specific heading or table number.

 

On the Home ribbon, click on the drop-down arrow of the Find button of the Editing group Choose the Go To command

   

Choose the item you wish to go to e.g. page, table or heading - Page will be selected by default Type the number of the item you wish to move the cursor to Click on Go To or press [Enter] When the correct location is displayed, click on Close or press [Escape]

Press [Ctrl G] to quickly show the Go To dialog box at any time.

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Browsing Documents
The buttons at the bottom of the vertical scroll bar are used to browse through the pages of a document.

 

Click on the Previous Page button (1 in the image below) to move the cursor to the previous page Click on the Next Page button (2 in the image below) to move the cursor to the next page

You can also browse the document by other objects e.g. to move through the tables or images of the document:

  

Click on the Browse button, between the Previous Page and Next Page buttons Select the type of object you wish to browse e.g. section or table Use the Previous Page and Next Page buttons to browse the selected objects

Click on the Browse button and choose Browse by Page to reset the buttons so that they move between the pages of the document.

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Viewing Documents Side-by-Side
    If you are working with multiple documents, you can show these side by side, and synchronise them so that as you scroll through one document, the other will be scrolled at the same time. Ensure both documents you wish to work with are open Click on the View ribbon Click on the View Side by Side button in the Window group

 

If you have more than two documents open, choose the document you wish to compare with Click on OK

The View Side by Side buttons will now be available in the Window group of the View ribbon. Button View Side by Side Synchronous Scrolling Reset Window Position Icon Description Return to viewing one document at a time Synchronise documents so that as you scroll down one, the other will scroll at the same time Resize both windows so that they are equal in size on the screen

Click on the View Side by Side button to turn this feature off and return to viewing one document on screen.

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Switching Windows
Word 2007 opens a separate application window for each document that is opened in a session. Each document has its own button on the Task Bar - click on a button to activate that document. You can also switch between open documents as follows:

 

Click on the View ribbon, then on the Switch Windows button Choose the document you wish to view - the document that is currently active will show with a tick

You can show all open documents on screen by clicking on the Arrange All button on the View ribbon.

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to switch between open documents: Keystroke Ctrl F6 Shift Ctrl F6 Action Open Next Document Open Previous Document

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The Clipboard Task Pane
It is possible to hold multiple entries in the Clipboard - allowing you to copy and paste more than one item at a time. The Clipboard Task Pane is used to choose the item you wish to paste at that time. By default, the Clipboard Task Pane will display whenever you copy an item in Word, Excel or PowerPoint. The Clipboard can hold 24 items and can be displayed in other applications too, allowing you to paste Office data into these. If the Clipboard Task Pane does not show by default, click on the More Options button in the Clipboard group of the Home ribbon:

When the Clipboard task pane is displayed in Word, an icon will also appear on the task bar tray at the bottom of the screen. Use this icon to show the Clipboard in any application that you wish to paste data into.

You can remove the Clipboard icon from the task bar by clicking on the Options button at the bottom of the Clipboard task pane. Un-check the option to Show Office Clipboard Icon on Task Bar. Once the Clipboard Task Pane is displayed, you can insert any item stored in the clipboard.

   

To paste from the clipboard, click on the item's icon on the Clipboard task pane To paste all items from the clipboard, click on Paste All at the top of the Clipboard task pane To clear all items from the clipboard, click on the Clear All button at the top of the Clipboard task pane Close the Clipboard task pane by clicking on the x in the top-right corner of the task pane

Up to 24 items can be stored in the Clipboard. If the clipboard is full and you attempt to add another item, the earliest item placed in the clipboard will be over-written.

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Research
The Research task pane allows you to find reference information from a number of sources without leaving Office 2007. You can insert any found information into your document.

 

Show the Research pane by clicking on the Review ribbon, then on the Research button of the Proofing group Click on the drop-down arrow of the All Reference Books list and choose the service you wish to use e.g. Thesaurus or Encarta Encyclopaedia

To quickly research any text in your document, hold [Alt] and click on the text. All reference books will be searched for the text and any results will be displayed.

Adding Services
To choose the services that will be available for research:

  

Click on the Research Options link at the bottom of the research task pane - a list of standard research options will be shown Tick each option you wish to make available, and remove the check from any options you do not wish to use Click on OK when complete

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You can copy any text from the research pane into your document by selecting the text, then right-clicking over the selection. Choose Copy from the shortcut menu, then paste the text into your document as normal.

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Smart Tags
A smart tag is a button that appears while you are creating your document, offering options and commands that are relevant to the task you are performing. You can control which smart tags Word displays in your document as follows:

       

Ensure a document is currently open Click on the Office button, then on the Word Options button Click on the Proofing option in the left-hand menu Click on the AutoCorrect Options button Click on the Smart Tags tab Ensure Label Data with Smart Tags is checked. Check each item you wish to appear as a smart tag Click on OK

If set as above, smart tags will appear when you type certain data into your documents, such as names or dates. To show smart tag options:

 

Position the mouse over the text that contains a smart tag - this will show with dotted purple underlining Position the mouse over the information button at the top-left of the text

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Click on the drop-down arrow to show all smart tag options

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The Quick Format Bar
The Quick Format bar will appear whenever you select text in your document, and can be used to format the selected text.

The following buttons appear on the quick format bar: Button Description Font Font size Make text larger Make text smaller Apply quick style Format Painter Bold Button Description Italics Centre text in the cell Highlight text Change text colour Decrease indent Increase indent Apply bullets

You can also right-click over selected text to show the Quick Formatting bar - this will appear above the shortcut menu:

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Character Formatting
Character formatting includes fonts, size of text, colour of text and effects such as bold and italics.

Character Formatting via the Ribbon
The Home ribbon contains shortcuts for the following text formatting options:

Button

Description Font Font size Make text larger Make text smaller Clear formatting Bold Italics

Button

Description Underlining Strikethrough Subscript Superscript Change case Highlight text Text colour

To apply character formatting:

 

Select the text you wish to format. Change the font by clicking on the drop-down arrows of the Font box and choosing the required option. Font names will display as they will look in the document

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  

Change the size of the text by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Size box and choosing the size in points - there are 72 points to an inch Add bold, italics or underlining to the text by clicking on each button Change the colour of the text by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Text Colour button. Choose the required colour from the palette or click on Automatic to set the text colour back to the default - usually black

Click on the Clear Formatting button on the ribbon, or press [Ctrl Space], to clear all character formatting from the selected text.

Additional Formatting Options
Additional character formatting can be applied through the Font dialog box:

      

Select the text you wish to format Click on the More Options button in the Font group of the Home ribbon Choose the font, size and style from the lists displayed Click on the drop-down arrow of the Color box and choose the required colour from the palette displayed Click on the drop-down list of the Underline box and choose the required underline option Check the effects you wish to apply Click on OK when complete

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The Character Spacing tab can be used to set the spacing between characters and the position of the text from the typing line (e.g. raised or lowered).

Formatting Shortcuts
The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to format selected cells: Keystroke Ctrl B Ctrl U Ctrl I Shift Ctrl D Shift Ctrl W Shift Ctrl K Ctrl = Shift Ctrl = Shift Ctrl > Shift Ctrl < Action Bold Underlining Italics Double underline Word underline Small Caps Subscript Superscript Increase size of selected text Decrease size of selected text

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Paragraph Alignment
Alignment via the Ribbon
The Alignment buttons on the Home ribbon can be used to set the alignment of the current or selected paragraphs.

 

If you wish to align a single paragraph, click anywhere in that paragraph. Otherwise, select the paragraphs you wish to format Click on the appropriate Alignment button on the Home ribbon
Button Alignment Left Centre Right Justified

Press [Ctrl Q] to remove all paragraph formatting from the selected text, including paragraph alignment.

Alignment via the Paragraph dialog box
Alignment can also be applied through the Paragraph dialog box - this is especially useful if you have the dialog box active for another command.

   

Select the text you wish to format Click on the More Options button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Alignment box and choose the required option Click on OK

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Alignment Shortcuts
The following shortcuts can also be used to align selected paragraphs: Keystroke Ctrl L Ctrl E Ctrl R Ctrl J Action Left Align Centre Right Align Justify

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Paragraph Spacing
Line spacing controls the space between individual lines of the paragraph while paragraph spacing controls the space between paragraphs. The following example shows double line spacing:

The following example shows the default single line spacing with 12pt space above each paragraph:

Line Spacing
To set line spacing:

  

Select the text you wish to change Click on the Line Spacing button in the Paragraph group of the Home Ribbon Choose the line spacing required e.g. 2.0 for double-line spacing

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Paragraph Spacing
To set paragraph spacing:

   

Select the text you wish to change Click on the Line Spacing button in the Paragraph group of the Home Ribbon To add 12pt space above each paragraph, choose Add Space Before Paragraph To add 12pt space below each paragraph, choose Add Space After Paragraph

To set specific spacing, choose Line Spacing Options:

 

Increase or decrease the spacing Before and After the paragraph Click on OK

Spacing Shortcuts
The following shortcuts can also be used to change spacing: Keystroke Ctrl 1 Ctrl 2 Ctrl 5 Ctrl 0 Action Set line spacing to single Set line spacing to double Set line spacing to 1½ Set spacing before paragraph to 12pt

The [Ctrl Q] shortcut can be used to reset all paragraph formatting of the selected text, including paragraph and line spacing.

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Bullets and Numbering
Adding Bullets and Numbering
You can add bullets or numbering to paragraphs as you type, or format paragraphs after they have been entered. To add bullets or numbering as you type:

 

Position the cursor where the list is to begin Click on the Bullets (1) or Numbers (2) button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon

 

Type each paragraph of the list, pressing [Enter] between paragraphs When complete, click on the Bullets or Numbers icon again to switch the option off

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Bullets or Numbers icon to show the default bullet and numbering styles in the Library, or the last styles you have used in a document.

Restarting Numbering
If your document contains a number of lists, you can choose whether to restart each list at number one, or continue numbering from the previous list. When you start a new numbered list, a smart tag is displayed that will let you choose how to number the new list.

 

Position the mouse over the smart tag to show the drop-down arrow Click on the drop-down arrow and choose to Restart Numbering rather than continue from the previous list

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To change the numbering of an existing list, right-click over the number you wish to change, then choose to Restart Numbering at 1 or Continue Numbering from the previous list.

Customising a Numbered List
Numbered lists can be formatted to include all required options - including different numbering styles, fonts and starting numbers.

  

Select all numbered paragraphs Click on the drop-down arrow of the Numbers button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon Choose the Define New Number Format option

 

Choose the style of numbers or letters from the Number Style from the drop-down list Click in the Number Format box and enter any characters to appear before or after the number

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Click on the Font box to change the font, colour and size of the number, clicking on OK when complete

 

Choose how the numbered paragraph should be aligned - left, right or centred Click on OK

Customising a Bulleting List
Bulleted lists can be formatted to include all required options - including different bullet styles, fonts and spacing.

  

Select all bulleted paragraphs Click on the drop-down arrow of the Bullet button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon Choose the Define New Bullet option

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Click on the Symbol button to choose a new symbol to show as the bullet. Choose the required font from the Font drop-down list, then click on the required bullet symbol. Click on OK when the required symbol has been selected.

Click on the Picture button to use an image as a bullet symbol. ClipArt will be launched automatically and all picture bullets displayed. Click on the required picture, or click on Import to import a custom image to use as a bullet symbol. Click on OK when the required picture has been selected.

 

If using a symbol bullet, click on the Font box to change the colour and size of the symbol, clicking on OK when complete Click on OK

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The Quick Style Gallery
A style is a combination of formatting options that can easily be applied to the text in a document. Styles speed up the formatting of a document and promote consistency - if the same style is applied to all headings in a document, the formatting of these headings will always be identical. Each document in Word has a set of styles attached to it that can be used to format the different elements of your document. Style Normal No Spacing Heading 1 Heading 2 Heading 3 Title Subtitle List Paragraph List Bullet Quote, Emphasis, Strong, etc. Used For All body text in the document. This style includes spacing between lines and paragraphs Body text that you do not want to contain line or paragraph spacing 1st level (main) headings in the document 2nd level (sub) headings in the document 3rd level headings in the document The main document title The document subtitle A list that does not have bullets A bulleted list Text that is emphasised e.g. in bold, italics, etc.

You can format text to a quick style using the gallery on the Home ribbon:

 

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Quick Style list on the Home ribbon Click on the style you wish to apply to the selected text

To show the full list of styles available in the document, click on the More Options button in the Styles group of the Home ribbon. This will open the Styles pane, which lists all styles available in the document.

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  

Click on a style in the list to apply it to the selected text Click on the Show Preview button to show the name of each style in the format of the style Right-click over a style and choose Add to Quick Style Gallery to add the style to the Quick Styles list on the home ribbon for single-click access

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Changing Styles
You can change the style set applied to the document to change the format of each style. The following document has the default Office 2007 style set attached:

The following document has the Modern style set attached, with the Civic colour scheme applied:

To change the set of quick styles that the document is using:

  

Click on the Change Styles button on the Home ribbon Choose Style Set Choose the name of the style set you wish to use e.g. Formal or Traditional

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 

Change the colour scheme used by the styles by clicking on the Change Styles button and choosing Colours then the colour scheme you wish to use Change the fonts used by clicking on the Change Styles button and choosing Fonts then the main font to use in the document

Once you have selected the style set, colours and fonts, click on the Change Styles button then on Set as Default to set the default format for all new documents created.

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Applying Themes
Themes allow you to format a file in a number of ways.

  

By applying a set colour scheme to the document By applying a font combination By applying formatting options to any drawn lines and shapes

When you apply a theme, it will be applied to all pages in the document, regardless of the text selected when you choose the command. For example, the following document was created using the default theme:

This is the same document with the Trek theme applied:

To apply a theme to the document:

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 

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Themes button and choose the required theme

   

Themes can be customised if they don't follow the exact format that you require: Click on the drop-down arrow of the Colors box and choose a colour scheme for the theme Click on the drop-down arrow of the Fonts box and choose a font set to use Click on the drop-down arrow of the Effects box and choose the effects to be applied to inserted objects

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Adding Headers and Footers
The header is used to set text that will appear at the top of each page, while the footer is used for text that will appear at the bottom of each page. Unless the document is split into sections, the header and footer will apply to all pages - regardless of the cursor position when the header/footer is created.

Built-in Headers and Footers
To insert a pre-set header or footer using Quick Parts:

  

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Header or Footer button Choose the pre-set header or footer you wish to insert

The cursor will be placed in the header or footer, allowing you to add any custom text to the header or footer as required. To return to the main part of the document, click on the Close Header and Footer button on the Header and Footer Design ribbon.

To remove a built-in header or footer, click on the Header or Footer button on the Insert ribbon and choose Remove Header or Remove Footer.

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Custom Headers and Footers
To create a blank header or footer in which any text can be entered:

   

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Header or Footer button and choose the Edit Header or Edit Footer command Type any standard text to appear in the header and footer To add a page number to the header or footer, click on the Page Number button, choose Current Position and the style of page number to add

To add the date and/or time, click on the Date and Time button, choose the required date/time format, then click on OK

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Click on the Close Header and Footer button on the Header and Footer Design ribbon.

An existing header or footer can be edited by double clicking on the header or footer text while in Print Layout view.

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Setting Margins and Orientation
As well as setting headers and footers for printing, you can also control the page margins, orientation and other options such the space between the edge of the page and the header or footer text.

Setting Margins
To set the margins that will appear between the edge of the paper and the printed text:

 

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Margins button

Choose a default margin setting (normal, wide or narrow) or click on Custom to set specific margins. Enter the margins for the top, bottom, left and right of the page, then click on OK

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The Gutter is additional space in the margin for punching or binding - this can be set at the left or top of the page.

Setting Page Orientation
To set the page orientation:

  

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Orientation button Choose Portrait or Landscape as required

Additional Print Options
Additional print options are set through the Page Layout ribbon:

  

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Size button and choose the required paper size Click on the More Information button for more print options Click on the Layout tab for additional options such as the vertical spacing of the page:

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Multi-Level Lists
Multi-level numbering is used to number paragraphs using a hierarchy of numbering levels.

  

Position the cursor where the numbering is to begin On the Home ribbon, click on the drop-down arrow of the Mutlilevel List button Choose the type of numbering you wish to use

You can now type each paragraph of text, pressing [Return] after each. Each paragraph will be numbered using the format of level 1.

Click on the Increase Indent icon on the Home ribbon to use the next level of numbering e.g. to change from 3 to 2.1

Click on the Decrease Indent icon on the Home ribbon to use the previous level of numbering e.g. to change from 2.1 to 3

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to change the numbering level: Keystroke Shift Alt  Shift Alt  Action Next Numbering Level Previous Numbering Level

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Indenting Text
The ruler is used to set paragraph indenting. If the ruler is not displayed, click on the ruler button at the top of the vertical scroll bar.

Once the ruler is displayed, you can use the indent maker to set the position of the first line of text, and remainder of the paragraph.

  

Drag the top arrow of the indent marker to the required position of the first line of the paragraph Drag the bottom arrow of the indent marker to the required position for remaining lines of the paragraph If you wish to move the first and remaining lines of the paragraph together, drag the square box to the required position

Once the indent distance is set on the ruler, use the following buttons on the Home ribbon to increase or decrease the indent:

Click on the Increase Indent icon to move the indent to the right:

Click on the Decrease Indent icon to move the indent to the left:

More specific indenting can be set as follows:

   

Select the paragraphs to be indented Click on the More Options button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon Choose the required indent settings from the dialog box displayed Click on OK when complete

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The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to indent text: Keystroke Ctrl T Shift Ctrl T Ctrl M Shift Ctrl M Action Indent all lines of paragraph except the first by 0.5" Decrease the indent of all lines of paragraph except first Indent all lines by a further 0.5" Decrease the indent of all lines by 0.5"

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Paragraph Borders and Shading
Borders and shading can be applied to paragraphs using the buttons on the Home ribbon.

Paragraph Borders
To add borders around a paragraph of text:

  

Select the paragraph you wish to format Click on the drop-down arrow of the Borders button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon Choose the type of border you wish to apply e.g. a bottom border or outline border around the entire paragraph

To customise the border:

     

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Borders button and choose Borders and Shading at the bottom of the menu Choose the Style of line you wish to use as a border Click on the drop-down arrow of the Colour box and choose the colour you wish to add to the borders Click on the drop-down arrow of the Width box and choose the border thickness Use the buttons around the Preview diagram to indicate where the borders should appear around the selected cells Click on OK

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Paragraph Shading
To apply shading to a paragraph:

  

Select the paragraph you wish to format Click on the drop-down arrow of the Shading button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon To set a single colour background, click on the colour you wish to use

To choose a different colour, click on More Fill Colours to display a full palette from which any colour can be selected. Use the Standard tab to choose from the palette, or click on the Custom tab to enter the RGB (red, green blue) values of a colour. Click on OK when complete

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Setting Tabs
Tabs settings control the space over which the cursor jumps when [Tab] is pressed and are used to ensure columns of text or numbers are properly aligned.

Setting Tabs
The ruler is used to set tabs. If the ruler is not displayed, click on the ruler button at the top of the vertical scroll bar.

There are four main types of tabs: Tab Type Left Centre Right Decimal Button Description Aligns the left side of the column over the tab setting Centres the column over the tab setting Aligns the right side of the column over the tab setting Used with numbers to align the decimal point over the tab

To set tabs:

   

Position the cursor where the tabulation will begin or select existing text to be tabbed Click on the tab box at the beginning of the ruler until the required tab-type is shown Click on the ruler position where the tab should appear Repeat the above steps until all tabs have been set

Press [Shift Enter] between each line of the tabulation text to ensure any changes made to the tab settings of one line affect all lines of the table.

Bar Tabs
Bar Tabs can be set where vertical lines should appear automatically in the tabulation.

 

Click on the tab box at the beginning of the ruler until the bar tab setting is displayed. Click on the ruler where the vertical line should appear.

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Tabs for Indenting
The following tab-types are also available and are used to indent paragraphs rather than tabulate them: Tab Type First line indent Hanging indent Button Description Click on the ruler where you wish the first line of the paragraph to begin Click on the ruler where you wish all lines of the paragraph except the first to line-up

Additional Tab Options
Dot leaders are used to fill the space leading up to a tab setting with a character, either dots, dashes or underscores. The following types of leaders can be set:

To set dot leader tabs:

     

Set the tab to which the dots will lead as normal Click on the More Options button in the Paragraph group of the Home ribbon Click on the Tabs button All tabs will be displayed in the first pane of the dialog box - click on the position of the tab you wish to add a leader to Choose the required character in the Leader box Choose OK

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Highlighting Text
Highlighting is used to mark important text and works in the same way as a highlighter pen on a piece of paper. It is especially effective if the document will be e-mailed rather than printed. An example of highlighted text:

To highlight text in a document:

 

Click on the drop-down arrow after the Highlight button of the Home ribbon Select the colour you wish to use

 

Drag the mouse over the text to be highlighted Click on the Highlighter button or press [Esc] to switch the option off

To remove the highlight from text, click on the drop-down arrow of the Highlighter button and choose None. Drag over the highlighted text.

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Format Painter
The Format Painter is used to copy formatting from one area of the document to another. Character formatting such as fonts, bold and underlining can be copied, as well as paragraph formatting such as line spacing and alignment.

 

To copy character formatting, select any word(s) containing the formatting. To copy paragraph formatting, select the entire paragraph containing the formatting to be copied Click on the Format Painter button on the Home ribbon

The mouse pointer will display a paintbrush - drag the mouse over the new text to contain the formatting options copied

To copy formatting to more than one location, double click on the Format Painter button. Select all new blocks of text to copy the formatting to, then click on the Format Painter button again to switch it off.

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Page Colour
The page background can be changed to a single colour or effect - this is for onscreen viewing only and will not print. To set the page background colour:

 

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the Page Borders button of the Page Background group

To set a single colour background, click on the colour you wish to use

To choose a different colour, click on More Fill Colours to display a full palette from which any colour can be selected. Use the Standard tab to choose from the palette, or click on the Custom tab to enter the RGB (red, green blue) values of a colour. Click on OK when complete

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Choose a background effect by clicking on Fill Effects. Choose the required tab (see below) and the required formatting options. Click on OK when complete

Click on OK to set the page background

Fill effects: Effect Gradient Description Click on the this tab to add shading to the background. Choose One Colour to shade a single colour with black or white or Two Colours to shade any two colours. Choose Preset for preset shading options such as Fire or Rainbow. Click on this tab to add a pre-set texture e.g. marble or wood to the background. Click on this tab to add a two-colour pattern to the background. A choice of Foreground and Background colour can be made. Click on this tab to add a picture to the background. Click on Select Picture and locate the image to be used before clicking on OK.

Texture Pattern Picture

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Page Borders
Page borders can be applied to all pages in a document.

 

Click on the Page Layout ribbon Click on the Page Borders button of the Page Background group

     

To add borders: Choose the required pre-set option from the Setting list on left-hand side of the dialog box e.g. Shadow or 3D Alternatively, choose the Custom option from the left-hand side of the dialog box, then choose the required Style, Colour and Width for the borders To add a graphic border, choose the required style from the Art drop-down list In the Preview pane, click on the borders you wish to apply Click on OK

The position of the border in relation to the margins or edge of the page can be set using the Options button.

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Converting Text to Tables
If you already have the text for your table, you can convert it rather than retyping. This works best if there is a specific character to separate the text into columns, for example: The following text, separated by commas:

Would convert to the following table:

To convert text to a table:

  

Select the text that is to be converted into a table Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table button and choose Convert Text to Table

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If the correct number of columns does not appear in the Number of Columns box, type or select the number of columns to appear in the table

  

In the Separate Text At box, choose the character separator to be used to split the text into columns Choose how you wish the columns to be sized e.g. a fixed column width or according the content of each column Click on OK

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Creating Quick Tables
Word has a number of built-in tables that you can insert quickly and easily into your document. The following tables are available:

    

Calendars Double tables with two sets of identical columns Matrix tables for standard table layouts Tabular lists of two columns only Tables with one or two sets of subheadings

Inserting a Quick Table
To insert a quick table:

   

Position the cursor where the table should appear Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table button and choose Quick Tables Choose the type of table you wish to insert

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Once the table is inserted, you can make any changes to the table structure, content and format.

Creating Custom Quick Tables
If you have created a table that you wish to re-use in the future, you can add your own table to the Quick Tables list.

Select the table by clicking inside the table, then on the icon in the top-left corner of the table

    

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table button and choose Quick Tables Choose to Save Selection to Quick Tables Gallery Enter a Name and optional Description for the table Click on OK

The new table will show at the bottom of the Quick Table list when you choose the Insert Quick Table command. When you exit Word after adding a new quick table, you will be asked if you wish to save the change to the Building Blocks template. Click on Yes if you want to be able to use the table when you access Word in the future.

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Inserting Tables
To create a table:

    

Position the cursor where the table should appear Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Table button Drag the mouse over the required number of columns and rows Release the mouse button to insert the table at the cursor position

The following will insert a table of 3 rows and 4 columns:

The cursor is positioned automatically in the first cell of the table. As you type, text will wrap in the first cell, as it does when typing normally in the document.

  

Press [Tab] to move to the next cell in the table Press [Shift Tab] to move to the previous cell To insert a new line in the current cell, press [Enter]

You can also insert a table by typing the number of columns and rows:

   

Position the cursor where the table should appear Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Table button Choose the Insert Table command

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 

Choose the number of columns and rows for the table Choose the AutoFit Behaviour. Choose Fixed Column Width to set the width of each column as specified, or choose AutoFit to Contents to set the width of each column according to the amount of text in that column. Choose AutoFit to Window to resize the table according to the width of the page Click on OK

Resizing a Table
When a table is selected, a new icon displays in the top-left corner, indicated as (1) below. This icon can be used to drag the table to any position of the screen, so that the body text of the document wraps around the table. The icon in the bottom-right corner of the table, indicated as (2) below, can be used to resize the table quickly.

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Selecting Tables
Before formatting can be applied to a table, the part of the table you wish to format must be selected. This can be done by dragging the mouse over the cells or using the following shortcuts.

  

To select a column, click once at the top of the column, as indicated by (1) below To select a row, click once outside the left border of the row, as indicated by (2) below To select a cell, click once inside the left border of the cell, as indicated by (3) below

To select the entire table, click on the cross indicator in the top-left corner of the table. You can also select elements in a table as follows:

  

Click inside the table Click on the Layout ribbon, under Table Tools Click on the drop-down arrow of the Select button and choose what you would like to select e.g. the column, row or entire table

You can select a range of cells in a table by clicking on the first cell you wish to select, then holding [Shift] and clicking on the last cell you wish to select.

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Changing Table Styles
Word 2007 has a number of pre-set styles that you can apply to a table in one easy step. It is also possible to create your own table styles, either from scratch or based on an existing style.

Applying a Table Style
To apply a style to your table:

   

Click anywhere in the table you wish to format Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles box Choose the format you wish to apply

Once a format has been applied, you can choose additional options in order to change the format to suit you.

  

Click anywhere in the table you wish to format Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Check or uncheck each of the Table Style Options as required:

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Option Header Row First Column Total Row Last Column Banded Rows Banded Columns

Description Sets a different format for the top row of the table Sets a different format for the left-most column of the table Sets a different format for the bottom row of the table, used to show totals for each column Sets a different format for the right-most column of the table Shades each alternate row differently so that the rows are easier to distinguish between Shades each alternate column differently so that the columns are easier to distinguish between

Clearing the Table Style
To clear all formatting from the table:

  

Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles box Choose Plain Table to add the plain style to the table, giving thin black borders and headings in bold. Alternatively, choose Clear to clear all formatting from the table

Copying an Existing Style
You can create a new style based on an existing table style as follows:

  

Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles box Right-click over the style you wish to modify and choose the Modify Table Style command

 

Enter a new name for the style in the Name box From the Apply Formatting To list, choose the part of the table that the new format will apply to e.g. the table as a whole or the top row only

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Use the buttons and drop-down lists under the Apply Formatting To box to choose the format to be applied.

Buttons 1 2 3 4

Description Set the font, size and style of any text typed in these cells of the table Set the style, thickness and colour of the borders around these cells Set the background colour of the cells Set the way in which text is aligned within the cell

For additional formatting options, click on the Format button and choose the required option e.g. Borders and Shading or Banding. Choose the format to apply, then click on OK

Click on OK when all formatting has been applied

All new and modified styles will be listed under Custom at the top of the Table Styles list when you click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles button on the Design ribbon.

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Creating a New Style
To create a new table style from scratch:

     

Click on the Design ribbon under Table Tools Click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles box Click on New Table Style From the Apply Formatting To list, choose the part of the table that the new format will apply to e.g. the table as a whole or the top row only Use the buttons and drop-down lists under the Apply Formatting To box to choose the format to be applied. For additional formatting options, click on the Format button and choose the required option e.g. Borders and Shading or Banding. Choose the format to apply, then click on OK

 

Choose whether the new table format will be available Only in this Document, or in all New Documents based on this template Click on OK when all formatting has been applied

To set a custom format as the default used for all tables in the document, click on the drop-down arrow of the Table Styles list and right-click over the format you wish to set as the default. Choose Set As Default from the shortcut menu displayed.

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Setting Borders and Shading
By default, a table is created with thin borders around all cells. You can remove these borders, change the border style and apply shading to all or specific cells of the table. Borders can be added as part of a table style, but can also be removed or customised as required. To remove the borders from a table:

  

Select the entire table by clicking on the table indicator in the top-left corner of the table Click on the Design ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Borders button and choose No Border

If you have removed the borders from a table, you can show table gridlines which indicate where the borders of the table are, but won't print. To do this, click on the Layout ribbon, then on the View Gridlines button. To customise the borders or shading of a table:

    

Select the entire table, or the cells you wish to change Click on the Design ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Borders button and choose Borders and Shading at the bottom of the menu Choose the Style of line you wish to use as a border Click on the drop-down arrow of the Colour box and choose the colour you wish to add to the borders

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 

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Width box and choose the border thickness Use the buttons around the Preview diagram to indicate where the borders should appear around the selected cells

  

Click on the Shading tab Click on the drop-down arrow of the Fill box and choose the colour to use as shading Click on OK

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Setting Column Widths
When a table is created, the columns are sized equally to fit the space between the left and right margins of the document.

Setting Column Widths
Column widths can be set as follows:

  

Position the mouse pointer over the right border of the column to be changed Drag to the left or right to resize the column Release the mouse button when the width has been set

Depending on the key you are holding when the column width is changed, the result will be different. Example Description Original table

The width of the first column has been changed by dragging the red line to the right. The width of the second column is adjusted to accommodate the change. The width of the first column has been changed by dragging the red line to the right while holding the [Ctrl] key. The width of all remaining columns are adjusted equally to accommodate the change. The width of the first column has been changed by dragging the red line to the right while holding the [Shift] key. The entire table is made wider to accommodate the change, and all other columns remain the same width as they were. The AutoFit command can be used to set the width of a column automatically to fit the longest text entry or number within that column.

 

Position the mouse pointer over the right border of the column you wish to set Double click the mouse

Setting Specific Widths
Selected columns can be set to a specific width as follows:

  

Select the columns to be sized Click on the Layout ribbon In the Cell Size group, enter or choose a value from the Width box

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Multiple selected columns can be sized equally by clicking on the Distribute Columns button on the Layout ribbon.

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Setting Row Height
When a table is created, the rows are sized to fit one line of text, and will expand as more text is typed in the cell. When the height of a row is changed, you can choose how the text aligns vertically in the row.

Setting Row Height
Row height can be changed by positioning the mouse at the bottom of the row to be adjusted and dragging the new mouse pointer up or down. In the following example, the red border would be dragged down to make the first row larger.

Selected rows can be set to a specific height as follows:

  

Select the rows to be sized Click on the Layout ribbon In the Cell Size group, enter or choose a value from the Height box

Multiple selected rows can be sized equally by clicking on the Distribute Rows button on the Layout ribbon.

Aligning Text Vertically
When the row height has been changed, the text can be positioned at the top, centre or bottom of the row:

  

Select the cells to be changed Click on the Layout ribbon Select the required option from the options in the Alignment group - position the mouse over an option to find out more information about that choice

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Inserting and Deleting Columns and Rows
When inserting columns or rows into an existing table, select the column or row that is positioned where you wish the new column or row to appear. For example, select the shaded column to add a new column before or after the South column:

Select the shaded row to add a new row above or below the February column:

 

Click on the Layout ribbon Choose the require Insert option i.e. Insert Above, Insert Below, Insert Left or Insert Right

The number of cells you select will determine the number of columns or rows inserted. For example, if you select two rows in the table, then click on the Insert Below button, two new rows will be inserted below the selection.

Deleting Columns and Rows
Columns and rows can be deleted as follows:

  

Select in the column(s) or row(s) to be deleted Click on the Layout ribbon Click on the Delete button and choose what you wish to delete

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Merging and Splitting Cells
Word allows you to connect cells of a table vertically and/or horizontally. Similarly, you can split cells into more than one column or row if required. In the following example, the three cells of the first row have been merged, while the last cell of the table has been split into two columns:

To merge cells:

  

Select the cells you wish to merge Click on the Layout tab Click on the Merge Cells button in the Merge group

To split a cell into more than one column or row:

   

Click in the cell you wish to split Click on the Layout ribbon Click on the Split Cells button in the Merge group Enter the number of columns and/or rows you wish to split the cell into, then click on OK

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Drawing Tables
The table drawing tool can be used to draw customised tables containing columns and rows of any size.

  

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Table button in the Tables group Click on Draw Table

To draw the table itself, point the mouse where the top-left corner of the table should appear. Click and drag the mouse to the bottom-right corner of the table. In the following example:

 

Click at point 1 and hold down the mouse button Drag the mouse to point 2 and release the mouse button

Once the frame of the table has been created, columns and rows can be added. Add columns or rows by pointing where the beginning of the divider line should appear, then clicking and dragging to the end of the line. To add a row then a column, for example, drag across from point 1 below, then down from point 2:

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Click away from the table when all lines have been drawn. To add to a table by drawing additional lines or removing existing lines:

    

Click in the table you wish to edit Click on the Design ribbon, under Table Tools Click on the Draw Table button in the Draw Borders group Choose the line style, width and colour using the buttons in the Draw Borders group Drag the house where the new columns, rows and cell dividers should appear

To erase a line, click on the Eraser button, then on the line you wish to remove.

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Embedding Excel Spreadsheets
Embedding allows you to use all of the features from another program without leaving the current application. It can be used to insert Excel spreadsheets into a Word document - all features of Excel will be available, although Word will still be the primary application. The Excel object will be stored in the Word document and, as such, can significantly increase the size of the file. To embed an Excel table:

  

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Table button in the Tables group Click on Excel Spreadsheet

A new blank Excel table will be inserted at the cursor position.

You can resize the object by clicking in the corner and dragging the table to show more or less columns and/or rows. When the object is active, Excel's ribbons and commands will be displayed.

  

Enter all text and values as you would in Excel Choose any Excel commands to format, analyse or edit the data Click away from the object to display Word's ribbons and commands

Double-click on the Excel object at any time to edit the object and show Excel's commands once again.

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Table Properties
The Table Properties dialog box contains options to set the size, alignment, wrapping and column / row settings of the table.

Show table properties by clicking on the Layout tab, then on the Properties button.

Use the Table tab to set the overall width of the table in centimetres/inches or as a percentage of the page width. This tab is also used to set table alignment and text wrapping around the table

 

Click on the Row tab Use this tab to specify the exact height of the selected row, or to set whether the row can break across two pages if multiple lines of text are typed in it

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    

Click on the Column tab Use this tab to specify the exact width of the selected column Click on the Cell tab Use this tab to specify the width of a selected cell, and the vertical alignment of text within the cell Click on OK

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Wrapping Text Around Tables
Text can be wrapped around a table so that it appears to the left or right of the table as it is typed.

Show table properties by clicking on the Layout tab, then on the Properties button

  

Ensure the Table tab is selected In the Text Wrapping box, ensure the Around option is selected Click on OK

It will now be possible to click the cursor to the right of the table and type text as required. The alignment of the table can be set as follows:

   

Click on the Layout tab, then on the Properties button Ensure the Table tab is selected In the Alignment box, choose Left, Centre or Right as required. Click on OK

You can also change the position of the table by clicking in the table, then clicking on the indicator in the top-left corner of the table. Drag the table as required, then release the mouse button.

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Table Calculations
Quick formulae can be inserted to add a column or row of figures.

  

Position the cursor in the blank cell to contain the total. This should immediately follow the cells containing the values to be added Click on the Layout tab Click on the Formula button in the Data group

  

To add a column of figures, ensure the formula reads =sum(above) while to add a row of figures, ensure the formula reads =sum(left) Click on the drop-down arrow in the Number Format box and select the required number format (see table below) Choose OK to insert the total

The following number formats can be entered in the Formula dialog box to ensure the result is formatted as required. Code #,##0 #,##0.00 Description Display the number with commas at every thousand and no decimal places Displays the number with commas at every thousand and 2 decimal places

£#,##0.00;(£#,##0.00) Displays the number with a pound sign, commas at every thousand and 2 decimal places. Negative numbers will appear in brackets 0 0% 0.00 0.00% Displays the number with no commas or decimal places Multiplies the figure by 100 and displays a percent sign Displays the number with no commas and 2 decimal places Multiplies the figure by 100 and displays a percent sign and 2 decimal places

If the figures in the table change in any way, select the table and press [F9] to update all formulae.

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Sorting Text in Tables
Data in a table can be sorted in ascending or descending order of any column, whether it contains text or numbers. To sort a table:

  

Click anywhere in the table Click on the Layout tab Click on the Sort button in the Data group

    

If your table contains column headings that should remain at the top of the table, ensure My List has Header Row is selected Under Sort By, choose the columns you wish to sort Choose the Type of data in the column - Text, Number or Date - to will ensure data is sorted correctly Choose Ascending or Descending as required Choose OK to sort the data

It is only possible to sort a column in order of its first word, and not by any additional words in the same column.

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Repeating Table Headings
This option is used to repeat heading rows of a table that spans more than one page in the document. The rows set as headings will automatically display and print at the top of each page on which the table appears.

  

Select the rows to be repeated at the top of each page Click on the Layout ribbon Click on the Repeat Header Rows button in the Data group

As you create the table, system page breaks will be inserted into the table automatically when the table wraps to a new page. Headers will not repeat if you add page breaks manually.

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Cell Margins
You can set the margins of the cells of your table, so that the text typed inside the cells is positioned away from the border. In the following example, no margins have been set:

In the following example, margins have been set at the top, bottom, left and right of the cell, giving a much neater appearance to the table:

To set cell margins:

  

Select the cells you wish to format Click on the Layout ribbon Click on the Cell Margins button in the Alignment group

 

Set the Top, Bottom, Left and Right margins as required Click on OK

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Inserting Images
Word 2007 supports a large number of graphic formats so that images created in other applications may be inserted into a document. To insert an image at the cursor position of the current document:

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Picture button in the Illustrations group

  

Click on the drop-down arrow in the Look In box and select the drive and folder in which the image is stored Select the name of the file from the list displayed Click on the Insert button

If you want to insert multiple images in a single step, hold [Ctrl] and click on each image in the Insert Picture dialog box. Click on Insert when all images are selected. When an image has been inserted, the Format ribbon under Picture Tools can be used to edit the image, for example:

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  

Click on a picture style to change the appearance of the image e.g. to add a frame or drop shadow Use the buttons in the Adjust group to change the brightness, contrast and colours of the image Click on the Compress Pictures button in the Adjust group to make the image smaller in size, to reduce the size of your message. Click on OK to apply compression.

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Inserting ClipArt
ClipArt can be added to a document to illustrate a point or add light relief to a complex document. ClipArt categories include signs, maps, symbols, currency and cartoons. To add ClipArt to the cursor position in the document:

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Clip Art button in the Illustrations group

 

Type a word or phrase that describes the picture that you are looking for, then click on Search All matching images will be displayed in the Clip Art task pane:

  

Scroll through the images until you find the image you wish to use Position the mouse over the image, then click on the drop-down arrow that will appear Click on Insert to insert the selected image into the document

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When searching for images in the Clip Art task pane you may wish to be more selective in your search options so that fewer images are shown, and they match your specified criteria more precisely. The following media types can be found: Type ClipArt Photographs Movies Description ClipArt, drawings and other static graphics Photographs and scanned images Video clips, animated GIFs and other animations. Note that animated GIFs will display only if the document is saved in HTML format and viewed in a web browser such as Internet Explorer Sound clips such as .WAV and .MP3 files

Sounds

To change the type of media you are searching:

  

Click on the drop-down arrow of the Results Should Be box Uncheck the types you don't wish to search for Click on Go

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Inserting SmartArt
Word 2007's SmartArt feature allows you to create the following types of diagrams: Diagram List Example Description Shows blocks of information in a variety of formats

Process

Shows a progression of information

Cycle

Shows a process that continues indefinitely

Hierarchy

Shows hierarchical relationships e.g. in a department or group structure

Relationship

Compares and shows the relationship between different sets of information

Matrix

Shows the relationship of components compared to a whole

Pyramid

Shows the steps of a process or relationship

To add SmartArt to a document:

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the SmartArt button in the Illustrations group

 

Choose the type of diagram you wish to create from the list on the left-hand side of the window Choose the diagram you wish to create, then click on OK

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Enter the text for each box in the diagram, pressing the arrow keys to move between each label and [Return] to create a new label

Click away from the SmartArt to hide the text entry box. Click on the SmartArt again to show the text and the Design and Format ribbons. The Design ribbon can be used to change the layout, style and colour of the SmartArt:

 

Click on the Design ribbon Change the layout by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Layouts box and choosing a new layout

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Change the colour by clicking on the Change Colours button, then on the required colour scheme

Change the style by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the Style box and choosing a new format

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Click on the Reset Graphic button on the Design ribbon to return the layout, style and colour to the default settings.

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Adding Shapes
Use the Shapes button on the Insert ribbon to add lines and shapes to your document.

Drawing Shapes
Shapes such as rectangles, ellipses, triangles and cylinders can be added as follows:

 

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Shapes button in the Illustrations group Click on the type of shape you wish to draw

 

Position the mouse where the top-left corner of the shape should appear and drag the mouse diagonally to create the required shape and size Release the mouse button when the shape is correctly drawn

For example, to draw an oval shape, click on the Ellipse shape, then at point 1 on the document. Drag the mouse to point 2 before releasing the mouse button.

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Drawing Lines
To draw a line on the document:

   

Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Shapes button in the Illustrations group Click on the type of line you wish to draw Position the mouse where the beginning of the line should appear and drag the mouse to create the required length and direction Release the mouse button when the line is correctly drawn

For example, to draw an arrow, click on the Arrow line, then at point 1 on the document. Drag the mouse to point 2 before releasing the mouse button.

Drawing Shortcuts
The following keys can be held while drawing the shape to change the way in which the shape is created: Key Shift Ctrl Shift + Ctrl Action Forces a perfect shape or line e.g. a square or circle or straight line Draws the line or shape from the centre out Draws a perfect shape or line from the centre out

Selecting Shapes
An object or graphic must be selected before it can be manipulated in any way. It is possible to select a single object, or multiple objects in the document.

 

To select a single shape, click on the edge of the shape To select multiple shapes, click on the first shape, then hold [Shift] while clicking on each additional shape

To quickly select all shapes on the worksheet, click on a single shape then press [Ctrl A] to select all.

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Shape Styles and Formatting
Once a shape or line has been drawn and selected, it can be formatted using the Drawing Tools Format ribbon.

Shape Styles
The shape styles that are available to you depend on the theme that has been applied to the document: To change the shape style:

  

Click on the shape you wish to format Click on the Format ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Shape Styles box and choose the style you wish to apply

Shape Fill and Outline
As well as changing the style of a shape or line, you can also change the fill and outline colours manually.

 

Click on the shape you wish to format Click on the Format ribbon

To set the fill of the shape:

Click on the Shape Fill button

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 

Choose a colour from the theme and standard colours displayed To choose a different colour, click on More Fill Colours to display a full palette from which any colour can be selected. Use the Standard tab to choose from the palette, or click on the Custom tab to enter the RGB (red, green blue) values of a colour. Click on OK when complete

  

Choose Picture to add a picture to the shape. Locate and select the image you wish to use, then click on Insert Choose Gradient to add shading to the shape, then choose from the default shades displayed Choose Texture to add a pre-set texture to the shape e.g. marble or wood

To set the outline of a line or shape:

Click on the Shape Outline button

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 

Choose a colour from the theme and standard colours displayed To choose a different colour, click on More Outline Colours to display a full palette from which any colour can be selected. Use the Standard tab to choose from the palette, or click on the Custom tab to enter the RGB (red, green blue) values of a colour. Click on OK when complete

  

Choose Weight to change the line thickness Choose Dashes to change the outline to a dashed line Choose Arrows to add arrows to the start, end or start and end of a line

Click on the More option on any of the Shape Fill or Shape Outline commands to view the Format Shape dialog box.

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The following menu options appear on the left-hand side of the window: Menu Fill Line Colour Line Style Shadow 3D Format 3D Rotation Picture Text Box Used to... Set the fill of the shape to solid, gradient or picture, with further options such as the gradient colours and picture tiling settings Set the line to solid or gradient, with a choice of line colour and transparency Set the width, dash and arrow options of the line Add a preset or custom shadow to the object Add 3D effects to the object including depth and contour settings Set the number of degrees the 3D shape should be rotated Change the brightness, contrast and colour variation of a picture Set the margins to appear around any text inserted into the shape

Shadow and 3D Effects
Additional formatting effects can be added to a shape or line by applying a shadow or 3D effect.

   

Click on the shape you wish to format Click on the Format ribbon Click on the Shadow Effects or 3D Effects button Choose the required effect

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Use the button to the right of the Shadow Effect or 3D Effect button to position the effect on the shape e.g. to move a shadow to the left or right

You cannot apply both a shadow and 3D effect. If you apply one and then the other, the original effect will be lost.

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Arranging and Aligning Shapes
Once your shapes have been drawn, you can use Word's drawing tools to ensure these are arranged and aligned correctly in the document.

Arranging Objects
By default, objects are stacked as they are created i.e. the first shape drawn will appear at the bottom of the stack while the last shape drawn will appear at the top. In the following example, the blue circle was drawn first, so appears at the bottom of the stack:

This order can be changed as required.

     

Select the object to be re-arranged Click on the Format ribbon To move the shape down to the bottom of the stack, click on the Send to Back button in the Arrange group To move the shape downwards one position in the stack, click on the drop-down arrow of the Send to Back button and choose Send Backward To move the shape up to the top of the stack, click on the Bring to Front button in the Arrange group To move the shape upwards one position in the stack, click on the drop-down arrow of the Bring to Front button and choose Bring Forward

Aligning Objects
Alignment is used to ensure that shapes are precisely aligned with each other. If the Align Left option is used, for example, all selected objects will be lined-up with the left-most object. The following example shows shapes before alignment:

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The following example shows the same shapes after centred alignment:

To align shapes:

  

Select the shapes to be aligned Click on the Format ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Align button and choose the required alignment option from the menu displayed:

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Distributing Objects
Distribution will ensure the spacing between three or more objects is identical. The following example shows shapes before distribution:

The following example shows the same shapes after horizontal distribution:

To distribute shapes:

   

Select the shapes to be aligned Click on the Format ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Align button Choose Distribute Horizontally if the objects are positioned in a row, or Distribute Vertically if they are positioned in a column

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Adding Text Boxes
Text boxes can be used to position text or graphics anywhere in the document, and to wrap the text around these boxes in different ways. Text boxes can be positioned anywhere - including in the margins, header, footer or over another text box.

Creating a Text Box
To create a text box using a default style, format and position:

  

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Text Box button of the Text group Choose the type of text box you wish to insert e.g. Simple or one of the Sidebar options

 

Type the text for the text box Click away from the text box to secure it in the document

Formatting a Text Box
Once created, the text box can be formatted as required.

 

Click on the text box to select it Click on the Format ribbon, under Text Box Tools

 

Change the text direction by clicking on the Text Direction button - each time you click on the button, the text will be rotated 90 degrees in a clockwise direction Use the buttons in the Text Box Styles, Shadow Effects and 3D Effects groups to format the text box as required

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To move the box, click on the edge of the text box and drag to a new position in the document

Wrapping Document Text around a Text Box
You can choose how you wish the text of the document to wrap around your text box, for example: Description Text box with wrapping on all sides Example

Text box with no wrapping - document text is covered by the box if in the same position on the page.

Text box with no wrapping - document text is covered by the box if in the same position on the page

To set wrapping around the text box:

   

Select the box you wish to format Click on the Format ribbon Click on the Text Wrapping button in the Arrange group Choose the required option (see table below)

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Text wrapping options: Option Square Tight Behind Text In front of Text Top and Bottom Description Text will wrap around all sides of the text box in a square shape Text will wrap around all sides of the text box in a square shape, but with a smaller margin between the text and the text box The text box will be placed behind the document text - the document text will cover the text box if in the same place. The text box will be placed in front of the document text, obscuring any text in the same place. No text will wrap at the sides of the text box - all text will appear above or below

The Through setting is used with images that contain white space and will give the same result as the Tight option when applied to a text box.

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Creating Charts
When you create a chart in Word 2007, a new Excel worksheet will open, allowing you to enter all data for the chart. When data is entered, you can close Excel and return to Word to view and format the chart. A chart consists of the following elements:

To create a chart:

 

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Chart button in the Illustrations group

  

Choose the type of chart you wish to use from the left-hand menu Choose the particular chart format you wish to use from the sample images on the right Click on OK

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Excel 2007 will launch and sample chart data entered.

    

Type the text to appear in the category access in the first column of the worksheet range Type the text to appear in the legend in the first row of the worksheet range Type the values to plot in the chart in the corresponding cells If you have entered less data than was given in the sample, click in the bottom corner of the blue range selector and drag to enclose only the data you have entered Close Excel using the red cross in the top-right corner of the screen

For example, the following data:

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Would display the following chart:

If you need to edit the data of the chart at any time:

  

Click on the chart you wish to edit Click on the Design ribbon under Chart Tools Click on the Edit Data button in the Data group

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Chart Format and Layout
Once the chart has been created, you can change the format and layout of the chart as required.

Chart Layout
Word 2007 has a number of pre-set layouts that you can apply to your chart, to control where each element is positioned e.g. the legend, data table, etc. To change the chart layout:

  

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on it Click on the Design ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Chart Layouts box and choose the layout you wish to use:

Chart Styles
Chart Styles can be used to apply pre-set formatting to your chart, to give the bars or lines a mix of colours.

  

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on the chart Click on the Design ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Chart Styles box and choose the format you wish to use:

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Adding Labels
The Layout ribbon of a selected chart can be used to fine-tune the chart layout, including adding titles and legends. To add labels to a chart:

  

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on the chart Click on the Layout ribbon In the Labels group, click on the button of the title you wish to add e.g. Axis Titles

Choose the required option from the list displayed

Type the text to appear in the title and press [Return]

To remove a label from the chart, click once on the label, then press [Delete].

Formatting the Axes
The horizontal and vertical axes can be formatted to show in different ways. To format the horizontal axis:

   

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on the chart Click on the Layout ribbon In the Axes group, click on Axes then Primary Horizontal Axis Choose the way in which the axis should be displayed:

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To format the vertical axis:

   

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on it Click on the Layout ribbon In the Axes group, click on Axes then Primary Vertical Axis Choose how the vertical axis should be displayed:

To change the gridlines of the chart:

   

Select the chart you wish to change by clicking once on it Click on the Layout ribbon In the Axes group, click on Gridlines then either the horizontal or vertical option Choose whether to show no gridlines, major gridlines only, minor gridlines only, or both major and minor gridlines

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Major gridlines appear at each value on the axis, while minor gridlines appear between major gridlines. Set where the gridlines should appear by clicking on Axes, then Primary Vertical Axis, then More Primary Vertical Axis Options.

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Changing the Chart Type
Once a chart has been created, you can change the type of chart without any re-creation.

Changing the Chart Type
To change the chart type:

  

Click on the chart you wish to change Click on the Design ribbon Click on the Change Chart Type button in the Type group

The Change Chart Type window will be displayed:

  

Choose the type of chart you wish to use from the left-hand menu Choose the particular chart format you wish to use from the sample images on the right Click on OK

Available Chart Types
Charts are used to display values in a graphic format that makes them easier to understand. Once data is in a graphic format, trends can be identified and future values can be forecast based on the current findings. There are a number of different types of charts that can be created in Word, the most common of which are identified below:

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Type

Description

Column This type of chart shows variations over a period of time or illustrates comparisons between items.

Line This type of chart shows trends in data over a period of time. When compared to an area chart, line charts emphasise the rate of change over time as opposed to the magnitude of change.

Pie This charts show the relationship or proportions of different parts to the whole. A pie chart always contains one series of data and is useful in emphasising a single element.

Bar This type of chart shows individual figures at a specific time or illustrates comparisons among items.

Area This type of chart emphasises the magnitude of change, rather than time and the rate of change. It also shows the relationship of parts to a whole, by displaying the sum of the plotted values.

XY (Scatter) This chart type is commonly used for scientific data and shows the relationship between values in several series of data.

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Type

Description

Stock This chart illustrates fluctuations in stock prices representing opening, high, low and closing values.

Surface In this chart colours and patterns indicate areas of the same value. They are useful for finding optimum combinations between two sets of data.

Doughnut This chart is similar to a pie chart and shows the relationship or proportions of different parts to the whole.

Bubble This chart compares 3 sets of data using the position on the chart and bubble size.

Radar A radar displays each category on its own value axis radiating from the centre point. Lines connect values in the same series.

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Custom Text Boxes
As well as inserting default text boxes, you can create custom text boxes in any shape, size or location in the document.

Creating a Custom Text Box
To insert a custom text box:

 

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Text Box button of the Text group

    

Choose Draw Text Box from the bottom of this menu Position the mouse where the top-left corner of the box should appear and drag the mouse diagonally to create the required shape and size Release the mouse button to display a cursor inside the text box Type the text to appear in the box Click away from the box, in a blank area of the document, when complete

Once inserted, text boxes can be moved, sized and formatted in the same way as other shapes.

Linking Text Boxes
It is possible to link two or more text boxes, so that text flows from one to the other automatically as it is typed. To link a text box with another, first ensure the second text box is entirely empty.

  

Click on the first text box Click on the Format ribbon Click on the Create Link button in the Text group

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Click on the second text box - the box you wish to link to

Once your text has filled the first text box it will automatically flow to the next text box. To remove a text box link, click on the first box, then on the Break Link button on the Format ribbon.

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Creating a Drawing Canvas
A drawing canvas allows you to create many shapes and lines as a single diagram, then move this around the page as required. To insert a drawing canvas into a document:

  

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the Shapes button in the Illustrations group Choose New Drawing Canvas at the bottom of the menu

A new drawing canvas will be created at the cursor position. The canvas can be resized as follows:

 

Click on the canvas to select it Click on one of the black markers around the canvas and drag to resize

You can now draw any shapes on top of this canvas to include them in the canvas.

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Connecting Shapes
You can connect shapes and lines that you have drawn using any of the lines from the Insert Shapes button. When you connect two shapes, the connector will always stay between the shapes, even if they are moved.

NB: In Word 2007 you can only connect shapes that are contained in a Drawing Canvas, and not shapes that are inserted separately in the document. To use connectors:

   

Insert a drawing canvas by clicking on the Shapes button on the Insert ribbon, then choosing New Drawing Canvas On the drawing canvas, draw the two shapes to be connected Click on the Insert ribbon, then on the Shapes button Choose the line you wish to use to connect the shapes

  

Click on the edge of the first shape, where the connector line should begin Without releasing the mouse button, drag to the edge of the second shape, where the connector line should end Release the mouse button to add the connector

To format a connector line:

 

Right-click over the connector line to show the shortcut menu Choose the required formatting option e.g. Connector Type to change the line to a different style of connector

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Changing Shapes
Once you have drawn a shape, you can change it to a different shape without losing the format of the original shape. Any text typed inside the shape will remain, and it will stay in the same position on the document. To change an existing shape to another:

   

Click on the shape you wish to change Click on the Format ribbon In the Shape Styles group, click on the drop-down arrow of the Change Shape box Choose the new shape you would like to use:

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Flipping and Rotating
Shapes can be rotated to any degree, and can be flipped horizontally or vertically to create a mirror image of the original.

Rotating Shapes
When an object is selected, a rotation handle is shown at the top of the object.

   

Ensure the object is selected Position the mouse pointer over the green handle in the top centre of the object - the rotation mouse pointer will display Drag the handle up or down to rotate the object Release the mouse button when the correct rotation is displayed

It is also possible to rotate images - both ClipArt and inserted file images - in this way. If you prefer, you can rotate the image to a set 90 degrees to the left or right:

   

Ensure the object is selected Click on the Format ribbon In the Arrange group, click on the drop-down arrow of the Rotate button Choose the required rotation option:

Flipping Shapes
Objects can be flipped to create a mirror image or rotated to any degree of the original shape. For example, the following screenshot shows an original object that has then been flipped horizontally, then vertically:

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To flip an object:

   

Ensure the object is selected Click on the Format ribbon In the Arrange group, click on the drop-down arrow of the Rotate button Choose the required rotation option:

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Inserting WordArt
WordArt allows you to add enhancements to a text object, for example:

To add WordArt to your document:

  

Click on the Insert ribbon Click on the WordArt button Select a WordArt style from the list displayed - this can be changed at a later stage if required

 

Type the text you wish to enhance Click on OK when complete

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When WordArt is selected in the document, the Format ribbon can be used to change the style of the WordArt.

     

Click on Edit Text to edit the text that the WordArt displays Click on the Spacing button to change the character spacing of the WordArt e.g. to move the characters closer together or further apart Click on the Even Height button to set the size of the characters to be the same, regardless of whether they are upper or lower case Click on the Vertical Text button to show the text vertically rather than horizontally Use the Alignment button to set the alignment of the text within the WordArt frame Change the style of the WordArt by clicking on the drop-down arrow of the WordArt Styles list and choosing a new option from the default styles displayed

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Wrapping Text around Images
Images and other objects can be placed in line with the text of a document, or can float over text. If the image is set to float over text, the document text can be wrapped around the image in a number of different ways. To position the image in a set place in the document e.g. in the top left corner of the document, with text wrapping around it:

  

Click on the image you wish to place Click on the Format ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Position box and choose the position for the image to move to

To set text wrapping around the image with the option to move the image to any position in the document:

  

Select the image Click on the Format ribbon Click on the drop-down arrow of the Text Wrapping box and choose the required option:

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Text wrapping options: Option Square Tight Behind Text In front of Text Top and Bottom Through Description Text will wrap around all sides of the text box in a square shape Text will wrap around all sides of the text box in a square shape, but with a smaller margin between the text and the text box The text box will be placed behind the document text - the document text will cover the text box if in the same place. The text box will be placed in front of the document text, obscuring any text in the same place. No text will wrap at the sides of the text box - all text will appear above or below If the image or shape contains white space, the text will show in this space

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Zooming In And Out
The magnification of the document can be changed to increase or decrease the size that the document displays on screen. You can zoom out to display more on the screen, or zoom in to view the detail of a certain part of the document. The zoom slider can be used to zoom in or out:

  

To zoom into the document, click on the + button of the zoom slider to increase the magnification by 10% each time you click To zoom out of the document, click on the - button of the zoom slider to decrease the magnification by 10% each time you click Drag the pointer up or down to increase or decrease the magnification as required

To show the document at a specific magnification:

     

Click on the percentage indicator at the beginning of the zoom slider Choose the percentage you wish to use Choose Page Width to change the display to fit the entire width of the page on screen. Choose Whole Page to change the display the fit the entire page on screen. Choose 100% to return to the standard view size. Click on OK

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Save As
If you are saving an existing document after changes have been made, it is important to know the difference between the Save and Save As commands. Command Save Description This command saves the current document under the existing name and replaces the original version. Click on the Office button and choose Save, or click on the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar. This command requests a new name for the document and leaves the original unchanged. Click on the Office button and choose Save As.

Save As

To save an existing document under a new name, or as a different file type:

Click on the Office button and choose Save As

     

To choose a different drive to save the file to, click on the Computer icon in the Folder list on the left of the Save As window To choose a different folder on the same drive, click on the drive name in the navigation trail along the top of the window Double-click on the folder you wish to save the file to To save the file as a different type e.g. an earlier version of Word, click on the Save as Type list and choose the format you wish to save the file in Click in the File Name box and enter a new name for the file Click on Save

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Save As PDF
You can save a Word document as a PDF file, provided you have downloaded the add-on from the Microsoft website. The download can be obtained from http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=4D951911-3E7E-4AE6-B059A2E79ED87041&displaylang=en. Click on the Continue button on this page and follow on-screen instructions to download the add-on.

What is PDF Format?
PDF stands for Portable Document Format, and uses the Adobe Acrobat program to view its files. PDF files can contain text, graphics, forms to be filled in by the user, interactive movie clips and links to web pages.

PDF files can have security built-in so that the viewer of the file can only read it and not change it in any way. The other benefit to using PDF files is that the viewer will see the file exactly as you have saved it, regardless of their PC settings. The original graphic appearance of the document will always be preserved. PDF files can be relatively small in size, so are popular for saving on the web. Many web sites will offer PDF documents - providing more information about the site for you to download.

Saving in PDF Format
To save a file in PDF format:

 

Click on the Office button Click on the arrow next to the Save As command

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      

Choose PDF or XPS To choose a different drive to save the file to, click on the Computer icon in the Folder list on the left of the Save As window To choose a different folder on the same drive, click on the drive name in the navigation trail along the top of the window Double-click on the folder you wish to save the file to Click in the File Name box and enter a new name for the file To view the PDF after it has been saved, check the Open file after publishing box Choose the way you wish the file to be optimised. Choose Standard for a larger file size with better quality, or Minimum if you are distributing the document online and wish to keep the file size down Click on Publish

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Print Preview
Print Preview is used to preview the document before printing.

  

Click on the Office button Click on the arrow next to the Print command Choose Print Preview

The Print Preview ribbon shows all options for working in the preview screen:

   

Click anywhere on the page, or on the Two Pages button to show two pages of the document side by side Click again on the page, or click on the One Page button, to return to a single page Click on the Shrink to Fit button to reduce the size of all text in the document so that it fits onto a single page. Each time this button is clicked, the document will be resized to fit on one less page Click on the Options button to show print options such as whether drawings and background colours should print. Click on OK when all settings have been changed as required

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Set the Margins, Orientation and paper Size using the buttons in the Page Setup group of the ribbon. For additional page setup options, click on the More Options

Click on Close Print Preview or press [Esc] to exit Print Preview and return to the document

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Printing Documents
To print a copy of the document:

 

Click on the Office button Click on the Print button

You can also press [Ctrl P] to print the document. The Print dialog box will open, allowing you to set exactly what should be printed.

 

 

Click on the drop-down arrow in the Name box to choose a different printer if required In the Page Range box, choose All to print the entire document, or Current Page to print the page on which the cursor is positioned. If you wish to print multiple pages, click in the Pages box and type the pages to be printed e.g. 1-2, 8 to print pages 1,2,3 and 8 Increase or decrease the number of Copies as required Click on OK to print the selected pages

To quickly print one copy of the document to the default printer without further options being displayed, click on the Office button, then on the arrow next to the Print button. Choose Quick Print.

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Emailing Documents
Word has a facility to quickly email the current document to any number of recipients without the need to open Outlook 2007 manually. To email the document:

 

Click on the Office button Click on the Send button, then on the Email command

A new Outlook email message will be created that contains the Word file as an attachment.

    

Click in the To box and type the address of the people you wish to send the file to. Separate multiple names with a semi-colon Click in the Cc box and enter the names of the people you wish to copy the message to The subject will automatically set as the name of the file - select this and type a new subject if required Add any introductory text to the body of the message Click on the Send button when complete

To send a PDF copy of the documents that others won't be able to amend, click on the Office button, then on the Send button. Choose the Email as PDF Attachment command.

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Setting the Document Language
Multiple language support allows you to mark different areas of the same document as different languages. The relevant spell and grammar checker will be used automatically in these areas. Word 2007 supports English, French and Spanish by default with other languages packs available to add to this feature. To set the language of text in the document:

  

Select the text you wish to mark in a different language Click on the Review ribbon Click on the Set Language button in the Proofing group

 

Choose the language you wish to use from the list displayed Click on OK

When the spelling or grammar command is used, the appropriate dictionary will be used automatically on the marked text. The AutoCorrect command will also change depending on the language being used as Word has a different AutoCorrect list for each supported language. The status bar shows the language set for the selected text. You can double-click on the language indicator to change the language:

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Translating Text
Word 2007 allows you to translate the text of your document to a number of languages including French, German, Italian, Dutch, Spanish, Russian and Arabic.

Translating a Word or Phrase
To translate a single word or short phrase:

  

Select the text you wish to translate Click on the Review ribbon Click on the Translate button in the Proofing group

 

Ensure the correct language is showing in the From list Click on the drop-down arrow of the To list and choose the language to translate to

The translation will be shown under Bilingual Dictionary in the task pane:

Translating the Entire Document
You can translate an entire document by submitting it to a free web service that works in conjunction with Word 2007.

   

Select the text you wish to translate Click on the Review ribbon Click on the Translate button in the Proofing group Click on the green button after Translate the Whole Document

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You will be warned that your text will be sent over the Internet - click on Yes only if you are not attempting to translate sensitive or confidential text.

The translated text will appear as a web page and can be copied to Word as follows:

 

Drag the mouse over the text you wish to copy Right-click over the text and choose the Copy command from the shortcut menu displayed

 

Return to Word and click on the Home button Click on the Paste button to paste the copied text

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The Translation Screen Tip
The translation screen tip can be used to quickly translate a word into English, Spanish or French as you rest the mouse pointer over it.

   

Ensure the text you wish to view a translation of is set to the current language - this can be English (US), French or Spanish Click on the Review ribbon Click on the Translation ScreenTip button in the Proofing group Choose the language you wish to translate words to

You can now position the mouse over any word in your document to show a translation in the selected language:

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Setting Document Properties
The properties of a document can be set to save additional information about the file e.g. the author, keywords, etc. To set the properties of the open document:

  

Click on the Office button Click on the Prepare command Click on the Properties command

The properties pane will appear across the top of the document. Click in each box and fill in the properties as required.

Advanced properties can be displayed as follows:

 

Click on the drop-down arrow next to Document Properties Choose Advanced Properties

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The following categories are available:

Tab General Summary Statistics Contents Custom

Description The location and size of the file, creation and modification dates and the file attributes Title, Subject and Author of the file as well as any keywords or comments Displays the revision number and total editing time of the document Lists the different parts of the file e.g. the title An area for custom properties such as Client, Publisher and Typist

To enter advanced properties:

  

Click on the tab of the property you wish to change Make changes as required Click on OK when complete

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Marking as Final
When you mark a document as final, the document will be saved as read-only so that no more changes can be made to the document. In addition, the status bar shows that this is the final version of the file. Once a document is marked as final, you will not be able to enter new text into the document or change the format in any way. The majority of ribbon commands will be disabled. To mark a document as final:

  

Click on the Office button Click on the Prepare button Choose Mark as Final

A message box will inform you that your document will be marked as final and saved as a read-only file. Click on OK.

Another message box will confirm that the document has been marked as final:

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The status bar will show the Final indicator, immediately following the language of the document:

Documents marked as final in Word 2007 will not be read-only if they are opened in earlier versions of Word. If you need to make changes to a document marked as final, click on the Office button, choose Prepare and Mark as Final again to turn off this setting.

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Compatibility Checking
If you need to share your documents with users that have previous versions of Word, you can use the compatibility checker to see which features in your document they will be unable to see. Some compatibility issues to consider:

  

If your document contains VBC coding (macros), these may not work in previous versions of Word Theme colours, fonts and effects may appear differently in previous versions of Word You will not be able to use the new SmartArt diagrams

To check if your document is compatible with previous versions of Word:

  

Click on the Office button Click on the Prepare command Click on the Run Compatibility Checker command

You will be shown a dialog box that lists the features that are not supported in previous versions.

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 

Click on Help to learn more about the incompatibility Click on OK to return to the worksheet

To save the file for a previous version of Word, click on the Office button and choose Save As. Change the Save as Type as required, then click on Save.

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Setting Passwords
You can set two types of passwords on your Word documents: Type Password to Open Password to Modify Description This password will be needed in order to open the document Anyone can open the document, but this password will be needed to make any changes to the file

To set a password on a document:

Click on the Office button and choose Save As

 

Click on the Tools button to the left of the Save button Choose General Options

 

Enter a password in the Password to Open or the Password to Modify box Click on OK

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 

Re-enter your password in the Confirm screen Click on OK

 

Click on Save If the file already exists, you will be asked if you wish to replace the file - click on Yes

To open a file that has a password set:

 

Open the file as normal When prompted, enter the password then click on OK

If a modify password was set, you can click on the Read Only button to open the file without a password, but will not be able to save any changes to the file.

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Setting Read-Only Access
You can recommend colleagues open the file as read-only, preventing them from saving any incorrect changes to the file. To set the file as read-only:

Click on the Office button and choose Save As

 

Click on the Tools button to the left of the Save button Choose General Options

 

Check the Read-only Recommended box Click on OK

Click on Save

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When you open the file, you will be prompted whether you want to open it as read-only or not.

  

Click on Yes to open the file as read-only Click on No to open the file normally Click on Cancel to cancel the opening of the file

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