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Presented By: Miss Emelia D Silva
S.Y.B.A. [A] Roll No. 12
........................................2 Table of Contents Preface ...................... 4 How is alcohol made? What are its multiple uses? ......................................................................................9 What are the environmental responsibilities of corporate distilleries? ................................................3 Introduction ..............................................................................................14 Synopsis ...................................The UB Group ............................................15 Bibliography and Webliography ...............................5 The Negative impact of Distilleries and Breweries................................17 ......................................11 Conclusion .....................7 Case Study...............................................................................
Mumbai. For this purpose a study on Distilleries and Breweries has been conducted. While compiling this assignment I have been helped by my parents and professors. Accociate Professor of the Dept. I owe my thanks to Dr. each year conducts a seminar as part of the Honors Program associated with the college. Xavier¶s College. Agnelo Menezes. of Economics in St. Emelia D¶ Silva . Also thank Mr. Yeats D¶ Costa for having assisted me on my industrial visit to various manufacturing units.3 Preface St. Xavier¶s for providing a letter from the college without which filed work would be impossible. The views expressed in the paper are in my personal capacity and are not aimed at particularly harming or defaming any individual or organization. This year the Department of Economics has declared the theme of the seminar to be ³Biodiversity of Economics´.
heavy metals. soil and water bodies. India has a considerable amount of distillery units. along with other pollutants. with case studies on a few distilleries in India and abroad (United Kingdom) and methods to reduce this impact. . the need for innovation in techniques to reduce the harmful effects of waste that these industries create has also increased. alcohol distilleries are listed at the top of the µRed Category¶ industries having a high polluting potential. Progress in industries is rapid and with it. which often leads to polluting the agro industry. There has been a surge in bio resource technology since recent times which is developing novel ideas to recycle waste emitted from factories. is unavoidable. The waste water or sludge discharged from distilleries contains huge quantities of dissolved organic matter. where molasses and impure alcohol are still being used as raw materials to produce consumable liquor. The paper will highlight the impact of distilleries. Correctly treaded waste can often prove useful. Government of India. Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF). As per the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Statistics confirm the number of distilleries in India to be as many as 290 at present. In India there is growing number of alcohol consumers and as of date. These harmful substances when let into the water bodies without proper treatment handicaps aquatic life and also degrades quality of water and land.4 Introduction: Industrialization today. dyes etc. Several alcohol manufacturing units are already in the process of making best of their wastes generated while many others are yet to follow suit.
rum and others are among those that undergo the process of distilling. fermented fruit juices. . The base material is the made to react chemically with yeast to produce ethanol (also known as ethyl alcohol) and water. In the process of distillation the mixture of ethyl alcohol and water is further heated and ethanol having a lower boiling point than water vaporizes at a faster rate. The collected and cooled vapors are then condensed into a stronger concentration of ethanol liquid. water and live yeast produce beers and lagers. Whiskey: Whiskey is a type of distilled beverage that is maid from fermented grain mash. and maize (corn). Consumable alcohol and their base materials: Beers and Lagers: Barley. Beers. wheat. Sugar for beer comes from sprouting barley. Rum: Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. malted barley. Vodka: Vodka is made from fermented substances like grain and potatoes. barley. Also called as distilled spirits these can be produced from a large number of materials such as fermented mashes of cereal grain. Vodka. sugarcane juice. malted rye. Potatoes are the source for sugar in vodka. honey and cactus juice.5 How is alcohol made? And what are its multiple uses? Consumable alcoholic spirits are manufactured through the process of distillation and milder forms through the process of brewing and fermentation. rye. The grains used to extract the desired glucose content include a variety of grains like barley. This is the most raw form of alcohol and therefore to create stronger spirits distillation is required. hop. molasses. Wine: In the process of making wine the sugars or glucose required is obtained from the flesh of crushed grapes. lagers and wine are less toxic alcohols obtained through brewing and/or fermentation.
The main components of alcohol being derived from agricultural produce. has led the industry to have a huge impact on the agricultural scenario. Chemical Use: In laboratories ethanol is used dissolve chemicals that are insoluble in water. Tequila: The Mexican spirit. Other uses of Alcohol: What most of us associate alcohol with is its direct consumable use.Tequila is made from a blue-agave base. Wine which is obtained by fermentation of grapes is further distilled to produce brandy. Burn it: Ethyl alcohol can be used as another available alternative to fossil fuels as it burns easily.6 Gin: Gin is a spirit whose flavor and glucose content owes credit to a type of berriesJuniper Berries. This translates into about five million people addicted to alcohol. We do not realize how many other industries are favored or favor the alcohol industry. . it is estimated that of these 5 per cent can be classed as alcoholics or alcohol dependent. leaving behind only carbon dioxide and water. According to The Hindustan Times. Alcohol is considered a renewable source of energy as it is made from by products of sugar cane. There are said to be over 300 million plants of blue agave harvested each year. Clean with it: Alcohol can be effectively used to clean stains as a result of paint. Some of the major uses of alcohol including direct consumption are: Drink It: Between 15 and 20 per cent of Indian people consume alcohol and. the number of drinkers has increased from one in 300 to one in 20. This proves very useful to countries that lack an efficient oil industry and reduces the burden on imports of petroleum. Brandy: Brandy is that form of spirit which is obtained by distilling wine. over the past twenty years. Wear it: Ethyl alcohol is used in perfumes as it is the least toxic of all alcohols.
Unlike dairies. This is an easy method employed by many to avoid making separate provisions for treatment of the effluent. Brewing is the second largest source of industrial waste creation after dairy industry which ranks first. the NV Distilleries contributed to the many sorrows of the villagers of Ambala. the forest department had reportedly done tree plantations in the village of Sherpur. ³Locals also complain bitterly about the fact that the natural flow of Begna. Water consumption in distilleries is 10:1 (water to product) which is much less than that used in breweries. anywhere between 5 to 20 liters of water is used. Colorado added to the mayhem with a 2500 barrel spill which killed 54. However the distillery allegedly cleared three acres and chopped 157 trees. The waste water from breweries is weak as compared to the waste generated from distilleries which is very strong. in its June 2008 issue.´1 In 2003.000 fish in a nearby creek. Distilleries in the past have been allowed to dispose their unwanted sludge into the sea or at land sites after proper aerobic treatment. Haryana. . has also resulted in the caving in of natural rivulets that freely flowed under it earlier. As reports the Indian Express. the Coors Brewing Company. They have the opportunity to effectively channelize their waste material through the drainage facilities provided. breweries have the option to discharge their waste efficiently as they are mostly based in urban areas. The world beer production as estimated recently is around 180 billion liters. villagers say. a seasonal river. Though these industries have stimulated many late night discussions. In 2000.7 The Negative Impact of Distilleries and Breweries. will be hampered since the distillery has been constructed right on the river bed. The construction of the 31-foot-road. The environmental impact of the beer industry is considerable by virtue of the total volume of the beverage consumed worldwide. But does the treatment take place before disposal is what is of major consequence. the industries large impact on environment is rarely considered. For every one liter can of beer produced. which may result in flooding of their fields and even villages.
Cases of people and animals getting skin infections after bathing in the river are common. Over the years. the water has turned dark red or black as result of the effluents. . says Bhupendra Narayan Singh of Athri village in Runnisaidpur block. The situation is reported to be an outcome of delay in the disposal of waste-molasses generated from the distillery. which also invited houseflies to the surrounding villages. Locals blame the distillery for water-borne diseases like diarrhea and jaundice. The locals complain that the Manusmara River. People have stopped using river water. According to the locals.8 Besides. alleging that foul smell emanated from the unit. mango and jackfruit is badly affected says Singh. the effluent treatment plants inside the factory are used as storage space. A distillery in Sitamarhi district of Bihar. also allegedly did not treat its effluents before discharge thus killing aquatic life. the yield of sesame. air pollution too has increased manifold around the plant and people are suffering from dust allergy and asthma. Samastipur. posing health concerns. former senator of Rajendra Agricultural University. It is neither fit for drinking nor for irrigation. is full of kala pani. residents of the Redu Jhiriwala Region near Nalagarh had filed a complaint earlier in the year to the sub-divisional magistrate of Nalagarh against Sabacchus Distillery Private Limited. In the kala pani -impacted area. Effluents from distilleries severely deplete dissolved oxygen in water.
wherever possible. the Company fully complies with and often exceeds the legal requirements and guidelines that the Government of India prescribes in its environmental policies.´ Says Mr. they always ensured that they were in sync with their surroundings. what was observed was the location. Waste is efficiently channelized through the right methods. According to Mr.9 A Case Study. and. positive. ³At our offices and locations. Almost 200 kilo grams of used/spent oil per year is generated which is sold out to authorized dealers while 400 kilo grams of spent carbon is generated which is sent to the hazardous waste incinerator.The UB Group Having visited one of India¶s top most distilleries and breweries the United Breweries Group in Goa. Situated in Ponda. we have always ensured that our impact on the environment is minimal. Anand Rao Palekar. The UB Group is environment conscious. . here is a brief view of the company¶s environmental responsibility. A questionnaire was conducted and the answers were provided by Mr. The area occupied by the unit is large and is well maintained. Palekar. The major type of waste generated by the company is used or spent oil and spent carbon. Anand Rao Palekar. Goa it is much secluded from everyday life. They have a simple four step plan which they follow: y y Creating a green zone by planting saplings of trees and plants at all our locations. Even at a time when it was not yet fashionable to be Green. Installing state-of-the-art Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs) to ensure zero pollutant discharge at our factories y y Segregation of any waste into proper categories for appropriate disposal Recycling of waste and use of recycled products On going personally on an industrial visit.
to achieve zero levels of pollution is not practically possible. they have a simple answer. Y Cost/Benefit in Rupees MCC MBC O High B Low A X . Palekar. They believe in incurring environmental costs on account of maintaining ethical business practices which fetched them the standing they currently possess. With the decrease in pollution levels the cost for control measures increases considerably. The graph below goes on to explain the economics of control costs. The returns however are been much more since then. The effluent treatment plant was initially installed several years ago with an investment of around rupees 200 lakhs.10 When asked about how they incorporate such costs in their financial structure. As explained by Mr.
In addition. . In order to solve these environmental problems on a global scale. The distillery company should see to it that preventive measures are in place and are observed. flame retardants. Grains tend to get damp if stored in a closed room or warehouse for a long period of time. During the process of fermentation there is the release of refrigerant gas which poses toxic risks and again poses the threat of fire hazards and other health malfunctions. foaming devices and or other safety devices to prevent the spread of fire in any eventuality. If one inhales the alcohol vapors especially during the process of transportation or decantation in reservoir are considered as health hazards.´2 Reduce the volume of vapors and gases emitted from distillation units to tolerable levels. Elimination of Potential Fire Hazards: The volatility of grain dusts especially if stored in great concentrations present threats of dust fire and possible explosions. it will be the responsibility of the distillery company to construct or install tank vents.11 What are the environmental responsibilities of Corporate Distilleries? Both local as well as world wide industry has significant impact on the environment so much so that the quality of natural resources is diminishing or degrading alarmingly. ³An example of a preventive measure is rotating the grain storage by transferring contents from bin to bin or to avoid prolonged storage by adopting the µjustin-time¶ grain delivery policy. The danger is more prominent when such activities take place in enclosed or confined spaces where ventilation is considered inadequate. existing trade restrictions between countries are being imposed to achieve each nation¶s environmental rehabilitation goals. This will produce heat that poses the threat of fire.
Anaerobic treatment is widely recommended for molasses-based distilleries as it achieves 80 percent BOD removal and recovery of energy in biogas form. advances such as this new development show that there innumerable ways in which our waste can be made useful for others. This type of waste is known for its capacity to increase chances of water and soil pollution." said MillerCoors CEO Leo Kiely. ³Technology and innovative partnerships have a crucial role to play as we work towards becoming a zero-waste operation. Carbon dioxide released during fermentation can be collected and processed for use for flash meat freezing processes and in carbonated beverages. Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid which is present in the wastewater of distilleries and has an unpleasant odor. The Glenturret Distillery in Perthshire. charcoal and nylon fibers is another way of dealing with toxic waste. SABMiller and Molson Coors' joint venture in the US. has discovered a novel use for waste water at its breweries. is aiming at turning the fumes generated in the process of manufacturing whiskey into . as bioremediation processes to be used as treatment of this distillery spent wash. The Miller Genuine Draft and Coors Light brewer said that it has worked out how to produce fish food from the waste water. MillerCoors. Anaerobic absorption of distillery spent wash using different support materials like coconut coir. Implement Pollution Prevention Alternatives as a method for waste management. It is a waste product generated during alcohol production. in order to achieve zero waste in the near future. There are new technologies available to distillery companies. Distilled grains can be repurposed as ingredients for livestock feed as it contains high levels of nutrients like protein.12 Explore current technologies to discover newer ways of pollution prevention and effective waste management. One of Scotland's best known whisky distilleries is taking part in a scheme to cut carbon dioxide emissions using oil-producing algae.
head of Scottish Bioenergy. The algae are used to break down carbon dioxide and convert it into oil and protein. In the fight against climate change we need soft engineering alternatives to be applied at every opportunity.13 biodiesel. and this alternative to pumped carbon capture and storage holds great promise. Edrington Group and the Scottish Environmental Technology Network we have built Britain's first pilot scale bioreactor. said: "A couple of years ago the idea of using algae as carbon recycler sounded absurd but with the support of Shell. David Van Alstyne. If it proves to be economically competitive and can be scaled up the potential could be absolutely huge." .
14 Conclusion Keeping in mind the fact that we are currently standing at a comparatively new phase of environmental protection. constructing and operating most of the control devices. and all efforts should be made to come up with the best solution to the environmental problems and the industry should make arrangements to introduce such essential devices. The county has the necessary talent for designing. both the Government and the industry need to see that the money allotted for pollution control measures is well spent and the environment is protected. .
Annually 40 billion litres of effluents are discharged from such industries. such industries fail to address environmental issues on account of their staunch inclination towards profit making rather than social welfare. ³For every litre of alcohol produced. 12 to 15 litres of distillery effluent are generated. Fondness for alcohol is common among many societies of India today. Alcohol production is an important industry in India and has been drawing attention in many areas including the stock market.Impact of Distilleries and Breweries on Environment. Vapors .´ 2 Thus distilleries help raising standard of living by providing electricity and employment in rural areas. employment etc. Waste management is an area which is often neglected. politics. Growth of alcohol industries is seen due to rising income levels and changing drinking habits of Indians. Often. the alcohol industry considerably detoriates the environment. thus harming aquatic life. agriculture. Having spoken with residents living near one of the top most Distilleries and Breweries in the United Kingdom. Land is a wise alternative for the disposal of these effluents because when bi-products are treated properly they serve as a source of ferti-irrigation for agricultural crops. The sludge from distilleries is also used as fuel along with coal.15 Synopsis. it has been brought to notice that large amounts of waste is discharged in water bodies. what intrigues me is the influence of the industries on the environment. Being part of a family employed in breweries and distilleries over the years. ³Distilleries burn bagasse to provide heat and electricity .´ 1 There are around 290 distilleries at present in India. While distilleries and breweries are conducive to the economy.for the plant and even produce electricity for sale. Many sugar companies are benefitted by expansion of distilleries which counterbalances losses from sugar price fluctuations.
Research will also include case studies. The research will include the economical. Questionnaires targeted at such corporations have been scheduled as an approach to collecting data. environmental and social responsibility of Distilleries and Breweries and the methodology employed in the process will involve basic study of literary works on the subject matter and reference to trustworthy internet based information.16 and gases are released through large chimneys during the process which pose as a threat to the health of people living in and around. The paper will throw light on the following questions Do Companies care? What are the costs and benefits of changing? How do such companies incorporate greener alternatives? .
Jules.just-drinks. Fourth Edition. Arlem Beer Factory. London. London. 2005.com Field work includes industrial visits to various distilleries in Goa. Sujit.com www. Indian Express Newspaper. India. www. Dimensions of Environmental and Ecological Economics.P.N. Ecological Intelligence. K. The SAGE Handbook on Environment and Society. Environmental Concerns and Strategies. 1998. New Delhi. S. 14/02/2008.brighthub. S. Thursday. Jeanne Mager. Penguin Books.bbc. International Labour Office. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety.17 Bibliography and Webliography T. Universities Press (India) Private Ltd.uk www.co.com 1 www.indianexpress. Tonia Liquors. 2007. SAGE publications Limited. N.The UB Group. Volume III. Nirmal Chandra and C. India. Ashish Publishing House. Khoshoo. Impala Distilleries.alcoholandyou. . 2010.com 2 www. July 23. G. Daniel. Down To Earth. Amita Kumari. 1988.
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