NICOLAECU~A MACEDO-AROMANII DOBROGENI

THE MACEDO.AROMANIANS DOBRUDJA IN

NICOLAE CU~A

MACEDO-AROMANII DOBROGENI
THEMACEDO-AROMANIANS IN DOBRUDJA
Traducere alltorizatif in limba englezif de OTILIA-CRISTINA PACEA

EX PONTO Constanta 2004

NICOLAE

CU$A

.

OTlLlA PACEA

Nicolae Cu~a was born in Mihail Kogiilniceanu, the county of Constantza, Romania, on October 6th, 1949. He graduated the Pedagogical Institute in Constantza and the University of Bucharest (1969-1978). History teacher in different secondary schools and high schools in Constantza. He published articles in the local newspapers (Cuget liber, Telegraf), and magazines (Tomis, Magazin Istoric). In 1990 (together with Vladimir Biiliinicii and Costin Antonescu) he edited the journal Cetatea whose director was until 1990 when the newspaper ceased to be published. Between 1990 and 1995 he was in the Board of Directors of Europolis'90 pic, as well as the publishing house Europolis as the deputy editor-in-chief.Between 1994 and 1996 he edited the Aromanian column in the local newspaper Telegraf. Among his publications we mentionMacedoromanii pe vaile istoriei (The Macedo-Aromanians throughout History), 1990, Europolis Publishing House; Scrieri din Diaspora (Writings from the Exile), 1991, Europolis Publishing House; Momente ale Revolutiei din Decembrie 1989 la Constanta. Ao)'a cum au fost (Moments of the Romanian Revolution in 1989 in Constantza. As it were), 1995, Muntenia Publishing House; Aromanii in Romania (The Aromanians in Romania) 1996,Muntenia Publishing House; Plaja Indragostitilor (The Lovers' Beach), 2002, Ex Ponto PublishingHouse.

6

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Macedo-aromanii dobrogenj

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

ill Dobrudja

Nicolae Cu~a s-a nascut In comuna Mihail Kogafniceanu, judetul Constanta, la 6 octombrie 1949. A facut studii de istorie la Institutul Pedagogic Constanta si la Universitatea din Bucuresti (1969 - 1978). Profesor de istorie In diverse scoli generale si licee din Constanta. A publicat articole In ziare locale ("Cuget Liber", "Telegraf") In revista "Tomis" si "Magazin 1storic". In 1990 (Impreuna cu Vladimir Balanica si Costin Alltonescu) a editat periodicul "Cetatea" al carui director a fost pana In /991, cand ziarul si-a Incetat aparitia. Intre anii 1990-1995 a facut parte din Consiliul de Administratie al S. C. Europolis 90' S. R. L. si al editurii Europolis. Indeplinindftlllctia de redactor sef-adjunct. illtre anii 1994-1996 a redactat "Rubrica armaneasca" la ziarul "Telegraf". A scris urmatoarele carti: "Macedoromanii pe vaile istoriei" (editura Europolis, 1990), "Scrieri din Diaspora" (editura Europolis. 1991), "Momente ale revolutiei din decembrie 1989 la Constanta. Asa cum au fost " (editura Muntenia, 1995). "Aromanii (macedonenii) In Romania" (editura Muntenia. 1996), "Plaja Indragostitilor" (editura Ex Ponto, 2002).

7

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OTILIA PACEA

Otilia Pacea was born in Constantza, Romania, on December, 24tl11976. She graduated the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures with a Major in English language and literature and German language and literature. MA in English Studies, University of Bucharest. Teaching Assistant, "Dimitrie Cantemir" University.

Note
We consider that the history of the Aromanians in Dobrudja in particular concerns their brothers, the Aromanians who live in the south of the Danube in Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Albania and who are not literate in the Romanian language as well as the other Europeans - why not? - and consequently, we have included an English version of the Romanian text. For the English version we called upon an authorised translator (graduate of the University of Bucharest, with a Major in English) to translate our text from Romanian into English.

The Author

8

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogeni'

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrlldja

-.,J

\

atilia Pacea s-a nascut in Constanta, la 24 decembrie 1976. Absolventa a Universitatii din Bucure$ti, Facultatea de Limbi $i Literaturi Straine, specializarea limba $i literatura engleza-limbi1 $i literaturd germana. Master in literaturi de expresie engleza, Universitatea din Bucure$ti. Asistent universitar, Universitatea "Dimitrie Cantermir".

,,'

Nota
Considerand ca istoria aromanilor dobrogeni ii preocupa $i pe fratii lor (aromanii care trdiesc la sudul Dunari; in Bulgaria, Republica Macedonia, Grecia $; Albania, dar care nu vorbesc sau nu CUlIOSC limba
romana). cat $i pe ceilalti europeni

-

de ce nu? - cartea de fata a fost

tradllsa in limba engleza; Am apelat la zm tradllcator autorizat (Absolvent al Universitatii Bllcllre$ti - Facultatea de limbi $i literaturi straine)
Alltorul

9

NICOLAE

CU$A

.

OTlUA

PACEA

It is a commonplace not only among the Aromanians but also among the Turks, the Bulgarians, the Albanians. that they have never ever caught a glimpse of any Aromanian beggar in Macedonia as well as In the other Turkish provinces where the Aromanians live; .and I could tell you that as far as I.could reach throughout Turkey which, by the way, is swarming with beggars of all nations, I have never ever glanced my eye down on allY Aromanian beggar, let alone an Aromanian living in misery and want.
[(Jan Neni{escu,

1895

The Macedonians
and temperate

are decent people. They are economical

and diligent.

By

reason

of all

this. they are

wealthy people. Traian Emilian Grigorescu. 1941 (Royal Resident of the Region Marea)

10

- - - ---

Macedo-aromiinii

dobrogeni.

The Macedo-Aromaniallt

in nnh,,,,Un

Se afirma nu numaide aromani,ei si de turei, si de bulgari, si de albanezi, cd nu s-a vdzut vreodatd un cersetor arman fn Macedonia, si fn celelalte provincii turcesti fn care locuiesc armanii; iar eu pot afirma di atat cat m-am miscat fn Tureia, care de altfel misund de cersetori de toate nationalitdtile, nu am fntalnit nici un singur cersetor arman, si nici mdcar arman fn mizerie.
loan NenilesclI, 1895

Macedonenii sunt oameni cumsecade, sunt economi, sunt sobri, sunt muneitori. De aceea, ei sunt si oameni cu stare. Traian Emiliall GrigoresclI, 1941 (Rezident Regal £IITinutului Marea)

11

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Macedo-aroma,,;; obroge,,; d

.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dobrudja

I. ETNOGENEZA NUMELE ~I
ACESTUI EAM N

Aromaniiunt urma~ii romanitiitii balcanice s
Originea aromanilor a constituit 0 preocupare viabiHi a istoricilor !>i lingvi!>tilor. Legat de aceasta problema s-au elaborat trei conceptii sau teorii I. Una, mai veche, - de pe vremea cronicarilor2 -, sustinea originea aromanilor la nord de Dunare. Adeptii acestei teorii ii considerau pe stramo!>iiaromanilor, romani stramutati din Dacia peste Dunare. Cu timpul dovedindu-se abstracta !>ilipsita de temei, aceasta teorie a fost abandonata. Au ramas doua; de!>isunt opuse intre ele exista 0 anumita convergenta: ambele sustin originea sud-dunareana a aromanilor. Atunci cand este vorba de 0 localizare aproximativa a acestei obiir!>iiapare deosebirea dintre ele insa.
l. Vezi, pe larg, N. Cusa, "Macedoromanii pe vdi/e is/oriei", 1990, p. 9-33, unde sunt prezenlate primele documente bizantine care se referii la originea vlahilor din sudul Duniirii, precum si principale1e opinii ale oamenilor de stiintii legate de etnogeneza aromanilor. 2. Miron Costin, in "De neamul moldovellilor"; Dimitrie Cantemir, in "Hron;cul vechimii aromallo-moldo-vlahilor"; teorie sustinutii apoi si de Petru Maior, reprezentantul Scolii Ardelene, in "Is/oria pelllrtl IncepulIIl romalli/or III Dacia", care stabilea si perioada in care s-a produs aceastii stramutare (in timpullui Gallienus - 268-270 - odatii cu marea invazie a gotilor); de Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu in "S/ra/ si Subs/ra/" din "Etymologicium Magnum Romalliae" (Buc. 1894, pag. 59-60), numai ca, dupil opinia sa, deplasarea aromanilor la sudul Dunarii s-a produs odata cu venirea ungurilor. sau migrarea

.

13

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NICOLAE

CUSA

.

011L/A PACEA

A doua teorie sustine originea aromanilor in nordul Peninsulei BaIcanice, unde exista, pana la venirea slaviIor, 0 puternica romanitate. Aceasta romanitate insa nu cobora muIt spre sud, adica dincolo de Iinia Jirecek3. La sud de aceasta linie, populatia autohtona de atunci traco-iIiromacedoneana a fost grecizata4. La nord de "Jirecek", odata cu venirea slavilor, populatia romanizata, spre deosebire de cea de la sud, a fost slavizata. Au scapat de slavizare, spun adeptii acestei teorii, numai aceia care s-au deplasat spre nord, ingrosand randurile romanismului nord-dunarean, sau spre sud si vest, unde au dat nastere aromaniIor, meglenitilor si istrieniIor5. A treia teorie sustine autohtonia aromanilor. Conform acestei teorii, promovata tot mai muIt in zilele noastre, aromanii sunt urmasii vechii romanitati balcanice, care au rezistat presiunii alogene. Spre deosebire de adeptii celei de-a doua teorii care afirma ca stramosii aromanilor sunt

. faimoasa linie de demarcatie

3. Constantin Jirecek, profesor la Universitatea din Praga si Viena, care a stabilit a romanit1itii balcanice, linie care ii poarta numele. Aceasta linie pornea de la Marea Adriaticii, din dreptul orasului Lissus (orasul albanez de astazi Lezhe), catre rasarit, pana la gurile Dunarii, cuprinzand Daeia Aureliana si cele doua Moesii. Avea ded drept "granita" la nord Dalmatia iar la Sud Macedonia. 4. Cf. ***, "Spatilll is/oric si etnic romanesc", III, Ed. militara, 1933, pag. 8. 5. Aceasta teorie a fost sustinuta la noi de: Dimitrie Oneiul, in lucrara sa "Romanii din Dacia Traian<lpiin<lla In/emeierea Principatelor" (Buc. 1932, pag. 32), care se opunea existentei unei romanitati dincolo de "Jirecek", vazand in aceast1l existenta I origine 0 chestiune periculoasa in slujba unor teorii ce nu recunosc continuitatea populatiei dacoromane in Dacia, promovate de Franz Joseph Sulzer, de I. ChI. Engel, dar mai ales de Robert Roesler (de unde si teoria roeslerista); de Ion I. Nistor, in "Originea Romani/or din Balcani si Vlahiile din Tesalia si Epir"(Analele Academiei Romane, III, Tom XXVI, Mem 7, pag. 2); C. C. Giurescu, in "Is/aria Romani/or"(vol. I, Buc., 1942, pag. 314); P.P. Panaitescu, in "/lIIrodllcere la iSlOria clli/Itrii romanes/i" (Ed. Stiintifica, Buc., 1969, pag. 118-120). Aceeasi opinie 0 impartaseau si filologii Ovidiu Densusianu, Alexandru Rosetti, precum si George Murnu. Un caz aparte in istoriografia romaneasca it reprezint1l A. D. Xenopol. in "Is/aria Romani/or din Dacia Traian<l (vol. I, Iasi, 1888, pag. 109), spre deosebire de istoricii mentionati, considera ca: "Daco-romi/nii si macedo-romi/nii ~'lInt dOll<l opoare diferi/e prin ob/irsia lor, care da/oresc asem<lnarea lor covi/rsi/oare fmprep jllrd,.ii cd se trag din ames/eclli acelorasi elemente", au 0 limba diferita, luand drept argumente cuvinte din lexicul aromanesc. in comparatie cu altele din limba romana. Se pronunla deci penlru originea meridional/i a lor - ceva mai la sud, decal ceilalli iSlorici, in Balcani adic1l - (considera Moesia mai putin romanizala in antichitate), dar, din aceleasi considerentc, "0 chestiune periculoasiL.". era mai transanl, ii considera un popor diferit. 14

Macedo-aroma,,;;

dobrogell;'

The Macedo-Aromall;ans

;11Dobrudja

pIOveniU numai dinspre nordul Peninsulei Balcanice, sustinatorii acestei teorii considera ca st.ramm;ii arumanilor sunt descendentii romanitatii din sudul Peninsulei, adica din Macedonia, Pind si sudul Albaniei6, adica regiunile unde s-au nascut, unde au trait si mai traiesc si astazF. Precizam. de asemcnea ca aceasta teorie argumentata la noi de Teodor Capidan8 si Tache Papahagi9 acceptii dlslocarea din Moesia si coborarea unor grupuri catre zona amintitii. Stabilirea acestei romanitati in Pind, Epir si Thesalia n-a fast intamplatoare, in sensul ca "di,flocarea spre slid, nu ne-o putem explica dealt admitiind cd aceastd populatie romiineascd a trecut $i

---

6. Infrangand Mal:cdonia (ill uuna d tlei razboaie grelc si indelungate, 215-168 i. d. Hr.) la Pj'dll<t, III allul168 i. d. Hr., romallii au impartit fostullegat ill palru state tributare; douazeci de alii lIIai tiirziu, in 148 i. d. Hr., Macedonia a fost transfonnata in provincie romanA (cu mult inaintea Dadei, ded!). 0 buna parte a populatiei de aici, macedoneni, traco-iIiri, greci, a fost romanizata. Vezi mai jos nota 8. 7. Teoria autohtoniei aromanilor si in Macedonia, Pind si Albania de sud a fost sustinuta de Nicolae Iorga, care in vasta-i opera istorid, neegalata pana in prezent in istoriografia noastra, a acordat 0 deosebita atentie istoriei Peninsulei Balcanice. in ceea ce priveste pe aromani, Nicolae lorga s-a pronuntat, in mai multe lucr1lri, in favoarea originii meridionale, admitand si sudul iliric ca obiirsic. in "/slor;a poporuilli I"OlIIanesc" (voU, 1922, pag. 139-140) de pilda, afirma: "Elelllellllllll/<leedolOlllali I/ebuie de/ivai din popllialia rumallicd a regillllilor ilyrice dllpd CIIIIIalballezii IIi se Infitliseazif ca 0 rifmifsilif izolalif a popllialiei lIerolllanizale complel d;n aeeleasi provineii (...) Mai cd 1111 e.tistif elemelll care sa jie lIIai cOllservator decal ace/a al locllilorilor de la IIIII/Ile si asa-zisii macedorolllalli sail romanii dill Pind /III $i-all dezminlit In veci firea lor proprie. De vreo slrdmlliare 1111e vorbesle niciodalit, nici chiar perioada iSlOricif s IIllli bine ClI/lOSClllif,lIIai nOllif: ei riflllall slrallsi legali de ClI/lOSClllalor ZOllifpifsloreasdl bille lilllitatif azi ca odinioa/if, panif III cele lIIai Indepifrtate ~'relllllri dilllreclIl, ei all cate 0 patrie de vard si alia de iamif, care all rifl/Ills pllrl/ri aceleasi. Cif soar ji refllgiat din Moesia III Tesalia dill pricina II/Ior barbari strifini slavi sail orice allii VOl'mai fi fosl pe all/nci /III eSle admis. " Gheorghe I. Bratianu, fiullui I. I. C. BrAtianu (seful P.N L), profesor la Universitatea Bucuresti, i-a urmat lui Nicolae Iorga la catedra de istorie universalA, (dupa asasinarea acestuia in 1940), din 1940 palla in 1947, cand a fost arestat. Cunosdtor al aromanilor (i-a vizitat in Cadrilater, vezi ziarul "Universul", XLV, nr. 81,7 august 1927), facea deosebirea intre romanitatea balcanica in general si cea a aromanilor in special (desi a avut 0 consideratie pentm izvoarele bizantine), punand in evidentA si versiunile populare (G. I. Bratianu a fost un adept, de altfel al traditiei). Confonn acestei traditii, numele de localitati unde au locuit sau locuiesc aromanii, ar putea fi un argument al unei existente mai vechi. (vezi G. I. Bratianu, "Tradilio isloricif despre IlIIemeierea slatelor romanesli", editie ingrijitA de Valeriu Rapeanu, Ed. Eminescu, BUl:. 1980, pag. 53-54). 8. Filolog si savant aroman, autor al unor lucrari lingvistice, etnografice si istorice de inalta tinuta stiintifidi: "Macedoromiillii, Elllograjie, istorie, limbif" (Buc. 1942) "Far.irolii.

15

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NICOL.4E

CU$A

.

OT/LIA PACEA

s-a .Habilitin reghmi in care avea cU/1O$tinfa existenfa unor consangeni ai de ei care emu vorbitori de acela$i grailO", altfel s-ar fi indreptat ditre vest, caIre romanitatea coastei dalmate, fugind din calea invaziei slave ce venea dinspre est ~i nord-est; mai mult, acest adaus de la nord nu a facut altceva ucdit sa consolideze romanitatea deja existenta. Accasta teorie a fost ~ieste sustinuta ~ide 0 serie de cercetatoride origine aromana din Grecia. Ace~tia sustin autohtonia lor dar, aromanii, potrivit conceptiei lor, sunt urma~iipopulatiei grece~tilatinizate in vremea romanilor.11 In concluzie, in concordanta cu cele doua teorii, putem afirma di originea sud-duniireana a aromanilor este un fapt de netagaduit. De netagaduit este ~i faptul ca inainte de venirea slavilor (in numar
Stlldill lillg\'istie aSllpra Romalli/or dill Alballia" (in D. R., 6, 1929) si mai ales "Aromanii. Dialeetul aromall. Studilllill}1vistie", (Bue. 1932),luerare premiatil de Academia Roman1l. intr-o ~lt1i lucrarc"Romanitatea bakallieil" (Bue., 1936, pag. 55-57), in legiitur1l eu etnogeneza aromanilor, afirmu urm1ltoarele: "Pelltm persis/enla /lIIei romallitdli la slldul Pellinslliei Haical/iee Sllllt mllite motive: fll priml/I rdnd, Illtinderea stdpdnirii romane fll IIceast/1 parte a peninslliei ell mull Illaillle de el/eerirea Daciei, el/ WI Illeeplll de romanizare, care 11.0F)st stanjellitcl de ellllllra greaeil Illmilsura In care s-a crezU/ pond aellm; fn al doi/ea n1nd, fnscI, aelllalele asezdri ale romalli/or (ale aromalli/or, n.)I.) all I/nele urme In unele loealitilti care fn jorma romdneased (aromdlleaseil, n.n.) Irddeazd 0 origille veehe. (Bdiasa, Salollie; ~'arJllri de /IIl/lIli: Moasa, Dzdna, Cillma-nalld, SlIma ell bradl/, 011-; ellvilltele suma si cil/llla lie origine Ia/ind, ell Inleleslll etimologie de Indllime lipsesc dill grail/I lor de as/ilzi." - dee; sun' euvinle moslenite de aromani in mod nemijloeuit in areste regiuni). 9. FHolog si savant aroman. A aeordat 0 desebitil atentie eereet1\rii limbii aromane. Cea mai de seamii oper1l a sa ramane "Dicliollarul dialeell/illi aroman gelleral .~ietimologie"(Bue., 1963), 0 adeviiratii enciclopedie si un instrument indispensabil in cereetarea aeestui idiom. in studiul intitulat "0 prob/emd de romallitate i/iried" in "Grai si Suf1et", (Bue.. 1923, vol. I, Fusc. I, pag. 72-75),reicseconeeptiasa cu privirela origineaaromanilor:"Treblliesd admitemdill Plll/("/de I'edere geografte si 0 romalli/ate existeJl/lIfll sudul ilirie flldirectlI contill/Ii/ateteri/oriaill ell Moesia SlIperior. Prill acest sl/d ilirie vreall slI fn/e/eg, fll special, masil'1I1 /IIUII/OSal Pilldlllrli,/JrecwII si slldlll Albaniei de as/dzi. Estefirese IlIerll sd admi/em cd fll aeeste provillcii ~'iala lIIilitard ea si - jaeto-ipso - eea de eolonii a trebuit sd /rdiascil Ined dill /impl/ri/e acelea ellcillve romalle,mai mari ,ml/lIIaimid, care si-all pds/ra/ timp de veael/ri de-a ralldlll IlIIreaga lor illdividllali/ate e/llolillg~'isticdpamlla eOJlSolidarealor IIImuse eompaete, eOllsolidareprodllsil fll IInlla re\'(1rsdrii sail a dizolvlIrii popllialiei dill Moesia fn IUlIgltl Pindllil/i."

to. Ibidem.
11. T. M. Katsoughiannis, "Despre aromallii din linlll/lrile greces/i" I, Contribulie la cercetarea originii aromiinilor, Salonie, 1964 (in lb. greacii); S. N. Liakos, "Originea arollllinilor". Salonic, 1965 (in lb. greaca): A. G. Lazarou, "L'arol/maiJlet ses rapports avec Ie
grec", Salonic, 1986.

16

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrl/dja

mare in timpul imparatului Focas, 602-610), pe ambele maluri ale Dunacii, "ea fnsasi multa vreme,artera de comunicatieinterna si nu frontiera de sepa'ratiea lumii romane"12,pe fondulunor straturicomune,s-a formatin cursul veacurilor de dominatie imperiala 0 numeroasa populatie romaniciL Aceasta populatie se intindea din Carpati pana in Macedonia (conform celei de-a doua teorii), cat i)i in sudul iliric, adica Pind, Epir i)i Sudul Albaniei (conform celei de-a treia). Un lucru este, de asemenea, cert, aceasta populatie a inceput, cu timpul, sa vorbeasca 0 limba asemaniHoare - protoromana -, cu diferente insa de natura regionala "datorate straturilor si trasaturilor caracteristice ale latinei vorbite de ocupantii romani" 13. Ai)ezarea slavilor la sud de Dunare a generat dezmembrarea unitatii originare a romanitatii in patru grupuri, devenite apoi, de-a lungul secolelor; romani (la nord de Dunace), aromani (la sud de Dunace, in tacHebalcanice), megleniti (in dimpia Meglen, la nord-est de Salonic) i)iistrieni (in Peninsula Istria); protoromana sau straromana, la fel, s-a descompus in patru dialecte: romana, aromana, meglenita i)i istriana,14 care au inceput sa evolueze separat, devenind limbi functionalel5.

Aroman(macedo-aroman) Arman (macedo-arman)
In izvoarele medievale striHne, romanii, aromanii, meglenitii i)i
istrienii apar sub numele de vlahi (termen de origine germana

-

walh - care

ii desemna la inceput pe toti romanicii; imprumutat i)i adaptat de slavi, unguri, greci, turci, a devenit nume etnic pentru toate cele patru grupuri mentionate) 16.
12. Cf. Nicolae Serban Tanasoca, peste DI/nilre", 1984, p. 8. in "Studii istorice privi/oare la trecl/tIIl romani/or, de

13. Cf. Matilda Caragiu Marioteanu, "Dictionar aroman", 1977, p. 440. 14. Aromiina, meglenita, si istriana, impreuna cu limba romana sunt dialecte ale limbii comune: protoromana sau straromana. Ele nu sunt dialecte ale limbii romane cum au sustinut unii lingvisti romiini. IS. Vezi, pe larg, Matilda Caragiu Marioteanu, 16. De aceea am consideral numele de macedo-vlah. mai concludent op. cit., pag. 439-448. termenul macedo-aroman, comparativ cu

17

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

mILIA

PACEA

Romanii din stanga Dunarii si aromanii din dreapta Dunarii, descendenti ai vechii romanitati, si-au mentinut constiinta unitatii originare prin numcle etnic pe care si unii si ceilalti si I-au dat: Ruman (rumani) - Ruman (rumani), reproducand dupa anumite norme lingvistice de prcfacere, forma latineasdi "romanus" 17. Evoluand separat, odata cu cele doua dialccte, "ruman", s-a transformat si el. In timp ce la nord de Dunare, in limba romana, "ruman" a dcvenit "roman", la sud de Dunare, in aromana, numcle de "ruman" a inceput sa se rosteasca cu un a protctic, rezultand "aruman", potrivit unei particularitati caracteristice din aromana de a se pronunta uncle consoane initiale greu de rostit eu ajutorul unei vocalel8. Acest "aruman" cu diderea lui u din prima silaba, a ajuns "arman"19.

Arman estesingurulnumeacceptat i ~ utilizat detoti romanii211
Numele "aroman" este un cuvant care provine din "arman", modificat dupa "roman"21, dat de oamenii de stiinta22 si folosit ca atare in lucrarile
17. rcpublicala 18. 19. Cf. Tcodor Capidan, "Aromclllii. Dialecll/l aroman. S/Udi/llingvis/ic", 1932, pag. 8; dc Juslina Burd si Camclia Ziibavil, cu 0 prefata de Lueian Chisu, 200 1. Cf. Teodor Capidan, "Macedoromanii. EI/lograjie, is/orie,/imbif", 1942, pag.40-47. Ibidem.

20. Esle cunoscul fJlplul ca in lucrarile de specialilale (vezi Teodor Capidan, ..Aromanii , pag. 3-7. Max Demeler Peyfuss, "Che.5/i/lnea aromaneasca", Ed. Enciclopcdid. Huc., 1994. pag. 12, lradusa de Nicolae Serban Tanasoca). se invocil, pc bunil drcplale, faplul cil ffirsirotii(ffirsirotil'i) sc numesc ci insisi nu aromani, ci rrilmilrii, deoareee ei nu eunose fenomcnul proleetici lui Ial (inainle de II'I prcluand din albanezil fenomenul putcmic Irrl (pronuntandu-I de fapl ea pc un Iyl aromanese, asemanalor ea in limba franeezil). Aeesl fenomen insa era valabil numai pcnlru filrsirotii din Albania. Farsirotii din Oreeia n-au folosil acesl fenomcn pUlernic rulant (rr), ei isi spuneau simplu - ruman. in familia mea: lala, Anaslase Cusa (1919-1985; naseul in Oramolicova, Orceia), mama, Florica Cusa (19251994; naseuta Rosu, in Patieina, Oreeia) pur farsiroleasea, unde s-a vorbil si se vorbeSle si a:li aromana, n-am auzil aeesl fenomcn [posibil sil fi fosl folosil (?) eu 100-200 de ani in urmil, dal fiind faplul ca loti fiirsirolii sun I originari din Albanial. Revenind la eei din Albania, in 1990 si 1992. eu oea7ia Vi7ilclor pc care Ie-am inlIeprins in areasla lara, am conslalal ca nici cj nu mai [oloseau in vorbirc aces I fenolllcn. adoplascril si ci numelc dc arman (chiar dad\ uncori,

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18

Macedo-aromall;;

dob/'Ogell;

.

TIle Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dob,."dja

~tiintifice in reviste ~i ziare23. Oiversele variante ce au circulat in litcratura 1;;tiintifidi espre aromani s-au demonetizat24, aroma" - arma" fiind unicul d nume unanim recunoscut de toti aromanii ce traiesc in Grecia, Republica Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria 5i Romania25. Mentionam insa ca ~i azi se mai pastreaza unele denumiri locale, ce obi5nuiesc ei in5i5isa ~i Ie dea pentru a desemna principalele tulpini 5i ramuri ale lor. Numele tulpinilor provine la fel ca la romani sau ca la alte popoare din lume, de la tinuturile geografice: pindeni (de la muntele Pindului), gramusteni (de la muntele Gramos, 0 prelungire a muntilor Pind), muzachiari (de la campia Muzachia din Albania), rur1;;iroti la 0 localitate, Pharsala). (de Numele ramurilor provine de la denumirea comunei sau ora~elului locuit de ei: plis6t (de la Pleasa, localitate din Albania), pruyian (de la Poroi fa! de Sus - Grecia), viryiot (de la Veria - Grecia), avdil'at (de la AvdelaGrecia), lupuvean (de la Lupova - Bulgaria), bujduvean (de la Bujdova Bulgaria), 5utruvean(de la Satra - Bulgaria), yeanic6ti (de la Ianita Grecia), gumaJ6ti (de la Giumaia de Sus - Bulgaria), barK)t (de la Bania -

RepublicaMacedonia),curtuvean(de la Curtova- Bulgaria),batacan(de la
Batac.- Bulgaria), livadyean' (de la Livadz - Grecia).

unii dimre ei il pronunlau in mod grcsit "armell "). PlisOlii - ffusirolii din Albania slabilili in Dobrogea -,Ia fel. Au adoplat cu lotii, deci, lermenul de arman si livrescul aroman. 21. Cf. "Die/iollarul expliealiv allimbii rOil/aile" (D.EX.), 1996, p. 60. 22. Primul a fosl Guslav Weigand, profesor la Universilaleil din Lcipzig; a scris mai multc lucrari Sliinlifice despre aromani pc baza studiilor inlreprinse la fala locului. Lucrarca sa fundamenlala: "Die ArOIl/I/1/ell: EII/llograpliiscli - philo[ogish - IIis/orisehe Ulllersuehllllgell iiber das Volk der sogellolllllell Makedo-Romallell oder Zillzorell", 2 vol, Leipzig, 1895. 23. Aromani in limba romana, aroumains in limba franceza, ammunen in limba germana, aromcni in limba ilaliana, aromanian in limba engleza. 24. Macedo-romani, romani macedoneni, maccdoneni, romani sudici. vlahi macedoncni, romani balcanici etc. 25. Aromani traiesc si in S.U.A., in orasclc New York, SI. Francisco, SI. Louis, BridgePort, in Australia. in McI~ourne si Sydney; sporadic in uncle state occidentale.

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Macedo-aromanii

dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aroll/anians

in Dobrlldja

II. TULPINILE DE AROMANI 5T ABILITE iN DOBROGEA

Far~erotii - Far~irotii
Primii aromani stabiliti in Dobrogea au fost farserotii. Ca numar, ei rcprezinHi a doua tulpina de aromani dupa gramosteni I. Numele lor vine de la Farsala, 0 localitate ce se afla la sud de Valona (Vlore, oras-port la Marea Adriatica, in partca de sud a Albaniei), unde au debarcat soldatii lui Caezar, care ar fi fost numiti asa de localnici si de soldatii lui Pompei2; - ar fi strigat sub panica debarcarii acelora: "V in farsaliotii! Vin farsaliotiiP Una dintre ipoteze. Alta, cea de-a doua, sustine di numele lor vine intr-adevar de la Farsala, dar nu de la cea mentionaHi mai sus (din sudul Albaniei), ci de la Pharsala din Tcsalia (Grecia de asHizi),localitatc unde in anul 48 1. d. Hr., a avut loc batalia dintre Caezar si Pompei. Acesta din
I. in Romania, nu si la sud de Dunare. unde farserotii sunt mai numerosi decat gramostenii. 2. Stationati in Epir si Iliria inca din 49 i. d. Hr., dupa infrangerea de la Brundisium din Italia, ci\nd Pompei s-a retras in Macedonia. Vezi Theodor Mommsen, "Is/aria romanif", vol. III, Buc., 1988, pag. 222-226. 3. Cf. etnografului italian Antonio Baldacei, apud Anastase Haeiu, "Aroll/anii. Call/err. indus/rie. ar/e. expansillne. civilizarie", 1936, pag. 142 (carte republicatala Editura Car/ea aroll/and, Constanta. 2003, de catre Tiberiu Cunia si Dumitru Stere Garofil). Multa vreme, mai rllcs cei din Orceia, si-rlu spus frlrsrllioti. Azi toti rlromanii din rlccrlsta mmura isi spun farsiroti

- fflrsiro\.
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urma, vazandu-~i zdrobite armatele de ditre generalul Caezar, a fugit de pe ciimpul de lupta, gasindu-1)irefugiu ditre Orient pe 0 corabie. Soldatii sai, partizanii din tabara sa atlati in Macedonia, inca din 49 i. d. Hr., s-au retras, urdindu-se in munti ca sa gaseasca azil 1)iadapost 1)isa dea, astfel, mai tarziu na1)teremarilor populatii de farsiroti 1)imegalovlahi.4 A treia presupunere ar f1aceea conform careia numele far1)irotilorvine de la 0 alta localitate a1)ezatain partea de sud-est a Albaniei: Fra1)arisau Fra1)eri (care numara in anii de dezvoltare maxima cincisprezece mii de sutlete - azi un sat mk albanez cu putini aromani)5. Mai mult, pastrandu-ne in sfera acestei presupuneri, nu numai ca numele vine de la aceasta localitate, ci intreaga tulpina s-ar f1 format in tinutul Fra~ari, unde s-au revarsat pastori din Gramos 1)idin Pind (ca urmare a unui surplus de populatie), admitandu-se insa 1)iexistenta altor populatii aromane1)tiin zona, inaintea acestei revarsiiri6. Conform traditiei insa, raspandita in randurile far1)irotilor, ei ar fi urma~ii vechilor coloni1)ti adu1)idin Italia dupa luptele dintre Caezar 1)i Pompei? . Aceasta origine nobilii a fost pusa in evidenta de loan Caragiani, conform caruia: "jlltre multele triburi de romalli (aromalli, n.n.) aflati in Peninsula Balcanicd este si unul raspandit ill Albania, Epir, Macedonia, Tesalia si in toata Grecia. intre ei se numesc «rumani» sau «rumeni», iar ceilalti aromalli ii numesc farsiroti sau fdrseroti. Cei mai multi au fost dintotdeauna si palla astazi nomazi fard sate sau comune stabile, ci vara isi fac satele lor in munti lang(l stane, iar iarna In campii, unde se coboara ca sa ierneze turmele. Patria farsirotilor dupa credilltele generale ale tuturor aromanilor a fost si este si astazi Albania, de unde se raspandisera apoi In mai multe locuri, afara de cei rdmasi Inca acolo. De la unul din acestia, cu care amfacut cunostinta In insula Corfu,
4. Cf. Anastase Haciu, op. cir., pag. 141. 5. Tcodor Capidan, "Romani nomazi", 1926, p. 42-47. 6. Ibidem. 7. In limpul prezenlei lui Caezar in Egipt, in Iliria: ",n imeriorulldrii mi$lmau pompietlii dispersali ,n urma rdzboiului lesalian" incat romanii au losl ncyoi!i sa aduca aici noi cohortc si cii/iircli care au pacificat n:giunea. Cand Caesar s-a reintors din Egipt se inlaturase pericolul din Iliria, Apud Thcodor Mommsen, op. cil., pag. 243. 22

Macedo-aromil"ii

dobroge"i.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

am aflat ca la toti fiir$irotii exista 0 traditiune foarte veche, dupa care ei ar fi venit In Albania $i Tesalia de dincolo de mare, $i ca odata cealalta lume Ii numea Farsaliofi, iar nu fiir$iroti pe ciind ei totdeauna se nwneau rumiini sau rumeni, $i prin urmare ca ei SWtt colonii vechi romane aduse din ltalia In lliria $i Tesalia dupa luptele dintre Caezar $i Pompei la Dyrachium $i la Pharsala. Unii dintre aromiini cred ca far$irotii ar fi dintr-un ora$el mic $i niciodata n-a fost a$a de mare ca sa cuprinda un numar de peste 200.000 de sujlete, cii{i aproape sunt toti far$irotii raspiindifi In Grecia $i Turcia "8. Semnificativa in acest sens este ~iconstatarea fikuta de loan Nenitescu, care i-a cunoscut in periplele sale in Turcia Europeana, tara sau imperiu ce cuprindea la acea vreme (1892) ~i provincia Macedonia: "Far$erotii sau fra$erotii, $i-arfi luat numele de la sattd Fra$ari, In Albania, iar'dupa altii
de la ora$ul Farsala, In Grecia, totu$i ciind am ,ntiilnit un far$erot - $i am ,ntiilnit multi - $i ciind I-am ,ntrebat: ce e$ti? el mi-a raspuns:«eu esc

Farsaliot». Daca cei doi lal soar preface In doi lal, cuviintul ar suna Farsaliot. Farsala este locul unde Caezar a Invins pe Pompei, a carei oaste risipita,jara afi zdrobita. dupa cum se $tie, a pututfoarte bine sa ramiiie In Peninsula $i sa cuprinda mWltii Tesaliei $i mulltele Pindului, ale caror piscuri, plaiuri $i viti Inca de veacuri Far$erofii Ie au In stapiinire, Impreuna cu ramura Epiriatilor, care tot de origine far$eroteasca este. A zice ca satllcanul Fra$ari ar fi putut - fie In ciiteva secole ar fi - sa dea na$tere unui Intreg popor, care numara mai bine de 320.000 de suflete, ca poporul Far$erot, este 0 ajirmatie, cel pUfin greu de sprijinit".9 A~adar, patria tuturor fiir~erotilor a fost Albania de sud, de unde s-au raspandit in afara de cei rama~i acololO, in Epir, Macedonia (de atunci)
8. loan Caragiani, "S/udii iSlOrice asupra romani/or din Peninsula Ba/canicit", 1929, pag. 4-5, 6-7. 9. loan Ncnitescu, "De /a romanii din Turcia Europeanit. Studiu etnic si statistic asupra aromani/or", 1895, pag. 27. 10. Adidl in Epirul albanez si in toata partea de sud si centralli a Albaniei. In lucrarea noastra, "Aromanii (macedonenii) fn Romania", Ed. Muntenia, Constanta, 1996, la pag. 13, am conscmnat cifra de 400.000 de aromani in Albania (pc baza informaliilor primite in anul 1992). Cu prudenla perspectivei de astazi, lipsita de entuziasm sau atasament, yom spune ca numarul lor se poale aprecia inlre 200.000 si 300.000 de sul1ete.

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Tesalia 1)itoata Grecia. Exodul acesta a fost generat de situatia survenita in Albania. in schimbul unor privilegii 0 mare parte din albanezi au imbrati1)at islamismui. De acest fapt au profitat conduciitorii locali care, in noile conditii, se bucurau de 0 mai larga autonomie. Mai muIt, turcii au inceput sa numeascii bey sau pa1)idin randurile acestora - masura lara precedent din partea sultanilor. Beneficiind de aceste functii deveneau mai rai decat turcii, purtandu-se ca ni1)teadevarati stapani; oamenii lor terorizau pur 1)isimplu sud-estul Albaniei, adidi regiune'a de ba1)tina a far1)irotilor. Profitand de izbucnirea razboiului ruso-turc din 1768-1774, bandele de ba1)buzuci musulmani s-au impus in regiune, invadand chiar 1)iGrecia. Se instaurase 0 situatie de anarhie, de nesiguranta, la bunul plac al acestora. Drumurile comerciale nu mai erau sigure, caravanele fiind atacate mereu. Puterea centrala, adicii Turcia, nu mai stapanea situatia in zona. in acest context nefavorabil 0 parte din randurile far1)irotilor au parasit pentru totdeaunatinuturilelor de ba1)ina Dangli 1)iColonia, unde se atla 1)iFra1)arialaturi de alte centre -, 1)ichiar Albania. Unii s-au stabilit in Epirul grecesc, in Pind, in vestul1)i nord-vestul Samarinei, in comunele Paleoseli (azi Palioseli), Furca 1)isatele Cucuf1iani, Verbiani, Prisogiani, Grizmani, Starciani 1).a.ll; in restul Greciei a1)ezatipe langa gramostenii 1)i moscoplenii din localitatile Florina, Pisuderi, Belcameni, pe Hinga pindenii din muntii Veriei in Horopani 1)iSelia de Sus, in regiunea Olimpului, in Caterina, Salonic (Samna in aromana) 1)iSeres, in Tesalia, in Armiro, Volo, Vele1)tin, Tricala, Calabaca, Uuisa, 1).a. Altii s-au stabilit in Macedonia pe Hingagramustenii din Beala, Molovi1)te,Tarnova, Nijopole, Magarova ~i in muntii Murihova, constituiti aici in grup separat 1)icompact. Ca un facut, insa, acest grup din Murihova, dupa 0 1)ederede aproximativ 100 de ani, au fost nevoiti din nou sa emigreze. Odata cu aparitia miscarilor revolution are bulgare in Turcia (pe atunci Macedonia apartinea Imperiului Otoman) ace$ti far1)irotis-au retras in regiunea Vodenei, unde
II. loan Ninitescu, in op. dr., cap. XV, p. 401-433, pomenindu-Ie, nu comenteaz1\ exislenla farsirotilor in aceasl1\ zon1\. Este posibil s1\ fi exislal consangeni de-ai lor din limpuri Slrilvcchi, mai ales eii I. N. ne spline cii pc la 1892 inlre raurile Bileasa si Sarantaporos multe familii de mrsiroti nefixati insil in sale. se aflau

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Macedo-aromall;;

dobrogetli

.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dobrudja

in frunte cu celnicii lor, au infiintat localitiitile Fetita, Paticina, Gramoticova, Candrova1z. Revenind la exodul initial, un alt grup care a pi1rasit regiunile originare sunt ffir$irotiidin Curtes, Costreti (sau Costre$ti), Zi1rcani(sau Jarcani) $i Zavalini (sau Javaleni). Ace$tia n-au plecat din Albania; s-au stabilit in vilaietul Corita, in localiti1tilePleasa, Disnita $i Stropani. In fine, un al treilea grup din neamul mrsirotilor - toti aromanii din Albania sunt farsiroti! -, destul de numeros, s-a stabilizat in sudul Albaniei, adica Epirul albanez, $iin campia Muzachia. Primii sunt cunoscuti $i sub numele de castrinioti, ca locuitori ai castrului 13,din jurul orasului Arghirocastru (azi Gjirokaster), sau numiti asa dupa localitatea Custretl4. Lor Ii se mai spunea $i cristinioti, pentru faptul, probabil ca tiind cre$tini, femeile lor purtau cruce-tatuaj pe fruntea lor, asa cum au purtat femeile de gramusteni sau ciparii din Macedonia $i mai ales ale celor din Bulgarial5. Intre acestia si far$erotii din Corita (Corcea sau Curceaua in aromana, Korce, azi), Pleasa, Disnita si Stropani, existau legaturi; ora$ul Corcea, ca centru administrativ si comercial, era frecventat si de castrinioti, cat si de
12. Am atlat de acest episod, ciit si despre exodul fiirsirotilor din Albania, de la bunieul meu Mita Cusa (1884-1977), fiu al celnicului Anastase Cusa, intemeietor al eomunei Gramoticova. Familia noastra de Ciirsiroti, cu aproape 200 de ani in urma, se atla in sudul Albaniei, intr-un sat numit Butca, nu departe dc Frasari, de unde si numele de Butcaru pc care I-a purtat in Albania. Dupa ec s-au stabilit in muntii Murihova si-au sehimbat numele de BUlcaru, in aeela de Cusa, dupa prcnumcle tatalui celnicului Anastasc, loan, care la aromiinii fiirsiroti cste sinonim cu Nachi sau Cusa; intocmai ca la turci, aromiinii, pc vremuri isi declinau identitatea dupa prcnumele tatalui, bunicului, strabunicului. Dc pilda atunci ciind tatal meu, eopil fiind, era intrebat: «AI cui esti?", el raspundea: «Sunt fiullui Mita al Tasi (Anastase) al Naehi (Cusa)". 13. Cf. Constantin Colimitra, Farscrotii, 1996, Cap. "indeletniciri si averi". Cartca este tiparita in regie proprie, rara cditura si paginatie. Acest lucru nu-i stirbcste eu nimic valoarea sa, autorul reusind sa realizeze 0 splendida monografie a comunei Pleasa. Ar fi dc ad1lugat, desigur, faptul c1I autorul, in incheierea monografiei intreprinde si unele ineursiuni istorice cu privire la aromiini, sustinute cu argumcnte motivate superficial (in favoarea integritatii ctnice), de genul "traistei" (desaga in rom.), martisorul...; aprecierea c1I aromiinii ar fi "cel putin 2 milioane", ca aromiinii ar fi "urmasi ai noului popor daco-romiin n1lscut din fericita incrucisare intre dad si romani"... 14. Cf. Nicolac Saramandu, 15. Cf. C. Colimitr~, op. cit. "Studii aromiinc si meglenoromane", 2003,pag. 25.

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mr~irotii existenti din vremuri imemorabile, eeva mai la nord-nord-vest de oras (mai ales dupa distrugerea Moseopolei), din Sipsea, Nicea, Grabova ~i Lunea (sau Langa), eunoseuti eu numele de moseopoleni. Cei din Muzaehia, 0 eampie situata pe ambele maluri ale raului Semeni (azi Seman), care se varsa in Marea Adriatica, ~i-au pierdut identitatea de far~iroti odata eu a~ezarea definitiva in aeeasta regiune, unde altadata a fost principatul Musatius sau Musacius, de unde apoi s-a numit Muzaehia. De la numele aeestei eampii, aeestor aromani Ii s-a zis muzacheari sau mizuehiari (in aromana). A~ezati in aeeasta zona, prin renuntarea la oierit ~i eiirvanarit, determinati, probabil prin pierderea averilor (oi, eapre, eai), au devenit agricultori, avand mici proprietati agrieole. Legaturile eu far~irotii mentionati mai sus, dat fiind elima insuportabila din aeeasta.regiune in timpul verii, au devenit tot mai rare. Multi dintre muzaeheari, la fel ca multi alti aromani din Albania, numiti ciobeni sau vlahi de catre albanezi, s-au raspandit in ora~ele din centrul ~i ehiar nordul tarii, devenind hangii, negustori, meseria~i (mai ales eroitori, dar ~i me~tesugari prieeputi).

Particularitati
De~i in general far~erotul este prezentat ea un arhetip, fizionomic este aproape identic eu eeilati aromani eompatrioti ~i eonsangeni din Peninsula Balcanica. Toti aromanii sunt asemanatori ea inniti~are. Barbatii sunt robu~ti, mandri, eu oehii negri si expresivi, cu spraneenele areuite, vioi ~i ageri. Femeile sunt zvelte ~ioneste. Femeia armana este 0 mama devotata ~i sotie eredincioasa pana la moarte, despiirtirea, de altfel, nu era eunoseuta la aromani. Este 0 femeie harnidi; tesaturile de lana, velintele, euverturile de toate culorile tesute la dizboi erau renumite in toata Peninsula Balcanica. Asa zisa pozitie subordonata fata de biirbat este eronata. Femeia i~i respeeta barbatul mai presus de orice, este adevarat, dar tot la fel de adeviirat este ca ~i ea, la randul sau, este respeetata de biirbatul ei; armanul nu-~i bate niciodata femeia lui, intre ei exisUind 0 perfectl1armonie ~i solidaritate in viata
de zi eu zi.

26

Macedo-aromiillii

dobrogellj

.

The Macedo-Aromallilllls

ill Dobrlldja

Cateva particularitati ce tin de viata nomada pe care au avut-o pana nu de mult fiir!)eroti,se cuvin a Ie aminti. Mai mult decat ceilaJti aromani, fiir!)erotiiiubeau libertatea deplina, de aceea au dus 0 viata nomada, pribegind Impreuna cu familiile, cu avutul !)i turmele lor; neavand obiceiul de a cosi !)istrange fanul necesar hranei vitelor pe timpul iemii, vara I!)ifaceau sate In munti langa stane, iar iama In campii (dUive) unde coborau sa-!)iiemeze turmele. Din aceasta cauza erau aproape independenti, tdiind In organizatii proprii numite faldiri sau celnicate, conduse de ditre un celnic. Celnicatele constituiau un fel de rest istoric al vechilor ducate aromane!)tidin Pind, Epir, Albania, Tesalia, In Balcani !)iIn Rodopi.160 falcare cuprindea sute de familii. Fiecare familie I!)iavea avutul sau: oi, capre, cai, catari, asini. Celnicul, ales dintre oamenii de vaza, provenea dintr-o familie avuta, la aromani averea fiind un criteriu important de apreciere. EI era !)efulIntregii fiilcari, dar nu un !)efabsolut cum este prezentat in majoritatea lucrilrilor despre aromani; nu era un voievod ca la nord de Dunilre, era mai degrabil unul dintre cei mai respectati oameni din cadrul fiHcarii,pentru avutul sau, pentru Intelepciunea sa. Cand se ivea vreun litigiu in fiilcare era consultat, dand sCatulcuvenit In solutionarea cauzei. Ocupatia principaHi a rar!)erotilor, ca de altfel a tuturor aromanilor a fost oieritul sau cre!)terea oilor. Spre deosebire de aJti aromani din Grecia !)i Macedonia de azi, care practicau 0 transhumanta la fel ca la dacoromani, vara la munte !)i iarna la !)es, dar numai barbatii cu turmele, Hir!)irotiipracticau 0 transhumanta totala, cu familie cu tot. hi strangeau turmele !)i avutul, Impreuna cu nevestele, copii !)i batranii 0 porneau primavara la munte iar toamna la !)es,In regiuni eu ierni blande (In partile Avlonei !)i sudul Muzachiei, cei din Epir !)i Pind !)i spre Tesalia cei din Murihova, pana la 1878). Sute de ani fiir!)erotiiau fost nomazi. Obi!)nuiau insa sa se Intoarca In locuintele lor de la munte, unde lasau, atunci cand plecau la !)es,cateva familii care Ie pazeau pe timpul iernii. Acest mod de viata, primitiv am putea spune, pe care I-au avut pana prin secolul al XIXlea, a avut !)i un aspect pozitiv. Traind izolati !)i-au putut pastra integritatea !)i libertatea. Limba lor s-a pastrat curata cu foarte multe eIemente latine!)ti !)ifara Imprumuturi grece!)ti. Avand un puternic spirit de casta nu
16.1. Ncnilcscu. D.R.T.E..pag. 175.

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s-au incuscrit cu membrii vreunei alte natiuni, ba mai mult, nici macar cu aromani din aha tulpina, chiar si atunci dnd traiau in acelasi sat sau comuna. Dorinta lor de libertate absoluta i-a determinat probabil sa fie mai putin religiosi si mai mult liberi cugetatori 17 cunoscut fiind faptul ca , biserica era subordonata Patriarhiei grecesti de la Constantinopol, iar preotii predicau slujba in limba greaca. Aveau chiar aversiune pentru popi si calugari, circuland in randurile lor un "blestem" in acest sens: "Preftu sa-n'i ti ved!" (Vedea-te-as popa!)18. Doua elemente ale portului fiirserotesc sunt demne de consemnat. Unul ar fi faptul di portul (costumul) barbiitesc este in intregime de culoare alba - mostenire romana evidenta -, iar al doilea este acela ca femeile fiirseroate purtau pe cap 0 podoaba, numita ciceroana sau titeroana in aromana, podoabil inexsistenta la alte popoare din Balcani, despre care I. Nenitescu afirma:" Un fel de conulnac din lI1naImpodobit cu bani de aur. Aceasta gateala au adus-o cu numele Inca de pe vremea lui Caezar si comallecl/l dceroana era atund a la mode, raspandit si pe la tara In [talia, fiindca poate nevasta lui Cicerone Ii dadu 0 noua forma" 19. Tot I. Nenitescu spune despre ei ca obisnuiesc sa spuna: "alba s'hie", adica alba sa-ti fie viata si traiul, in loc de multumesc pe care aromanii nu-I au in IimbiL Ceilati aromani pentru multumesc intrebuinteaza grecescuI efharisto20. Filri;lerotii evitau cuvintele grecesti. lntr-adevar, dar, adaugam noi, "alba s'hie" era folosit doar de fiirsirotii din Macedonia. Cei din Grecia (din Paticina, Gramoticova, Cilndrova, Caterina) pe care Nenitescu nu i-a vizitat in ciilatoria sa din 1892, ou-I foloseau. Ei, ca de altfel i;lialti aromani, fiirseroti sau nefiirsiroti, pentru multumesc obii;lnuiau si obisnuiesc i;liastazi, cand vorbesc armaneste intre ei, sa adreseze 0 dorinta de bine (0 urare). Cele mai folosite sunt: "s-banedz", adica "sa traiesti", "hiirios (oasa)" , adidi "bucuros (bucuroasa) sa fii". Culoarea alba insa, asa cum constata Nenitescu in lucrarea sa, la fari;lerotiera foarte pretuitiL Mireasa cilnd facea primul pas in casa viitorului
17. I. Ncnitescu, op. Cil., pag. 29; si Ion Caragiani, S.I.P.B., pag. 4-5. 18. Anastase Hiiciu,A.C1A., pag. 145. 19. I. Nenitescu, D.R.T.E.. pag. 174; si 1. Caragiani, op. cil., pag. 65, care afirma ca titeroana provine de la Cicero; Dimitrie Abeleanu, "Neamul aromiinesc din Macedonia", pag. 43. 20. I. Ncni\escu, lac. cil. 28

Macedo-aroma,,;; dobroge"i

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

ei sot i se intindea in cale - obicei pastrat si astazi - 0 panza alba pentru ca sa-i fie, conform credintei lor, viata dulce si curata in casa sotului2J.

Far~erotii - Far~erotii din Dobrogea
Farserotii stabiliti in Dobrogea provin din Grecia si Albania. Cei din Grecia sunt din regiunea Vodena (Edessa de azi), din 10calitatiJe Paticina, Gramoticova, Candrova, din regiunea Veria, din localitatile Selia de Sus si Horopani, din localitatea Caterina (Katerini de azi).22Toate aceste localitati fac parte23 din provincia Macedonia, cea mai mare si mai nordica dintre cele noua provincii ale Greciei, ce se invecineaza la nord cu Bulgaria, Republica Macedonia si Albania. Gmpul acesta de farsiroti, poate cel mai urgisit din neamul aromanesc, isi are obarsia, asa cum s-a aratat, in Albania (in sudul Macedoniei de aItadata24.in contextul crizei manifestate in a doua jumatate a secolului al XVlIl-lea in Macedonia, bandele de albanezi de atunci au profitat de ocazie, instaurand 0 stare de anarhie in partea de sud a provinciei. in aceasta conjunctura nefavorabila, ciind viata lor devenise de nesuportat, s-au decis25 sa paraseasdi locurile natale (Dangli si Colonia), luiind calea pribegiei ditre nord, inspre Republica Macedonia de azi.
21. Ibidem. 22. Nicolae Saramandu, in S.A.M., pag. 25, adauga d\ localil1\li de provenienla pentru ffirserolii din Dobrogca, Papadia si Felila. Din documentele cercctale (Arhivcle Stalului. fond ONAC) rezulta ca din localilatea Papadia au venit in Dobrogea doar 4 familii iar din localitatea Fetila numai doua. 23. Gramoticova de Sus aproape ca nu mai exisla. A fost parasita in intregime. Toli farserolii de aici au cmigral in Dobrogea. 24. Adica regiunea cuprins1\ pe atunci intre Marea lonicii si Marea Egee la vest si la est, in nord pan!\ in Albania centrala si cursul superior al Vardarului, iar la sud pana in Epir si Tcsalia. Regiunca Vodena, Veri a si loc. Caterina din Grecia de azi faceau parle si ele din Macedonia "turceasca". Abia dupa r!\zboaiele balcanice (1912- I 9 I 3), aceste regiuni, impreuna cu insula Creta, vor intra in componenta statului grec. 25. a parte din randurile lor. Altii s-au asezat in jurul localil1\lii Corila. Vezi mai sus dcspre cxodullor la subc,\pitolul Farserolii.

29

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CU$A

.

OT/UA

PACEA

Grupul acesta, compact s-a asezat in muntii Murihova, aproape de granita actuaHicu Grecia, unde au trait mai bine de 100 de ani. S-au ocupat cu cresterea oilor si in paralel cu exploatiiri forestiere (posedand ferastraie sau joagare pentm cherestea) si cu fabricarea mangalului. lama coborau cu turmeIe in Tesalia, iar primavara se intorceau in locuintele lor din acesti munti. Linistea lor n-a durat prea mult. Odata cu aparitia misciirilor revolutionare bulgare din Macedonia au fost nevoiti sa paraseasca, dupa aproximati v 100 de ani si acest tinut. Dupa 1878, sub conducerea celnicilor: Leolea, Cusa, Nasta, Celea, Butcaru, Pariza, Fotu, Gartu, Zdru, Musi, Buciunana, Velenza, Zega, Tragoni, 400-500 de familii, ducand cu ei 80.000 de oi si 12.000 de catari si cai s-au asezat in comuneIe: Paticina, intemeiata de Hristu Papanicola, Fetita si Gramoticova de Gusu Celea si respectiv de Anastase (Tea) Cusa, Caterina, intemeiata de celnicii Zega, Caramitru si Colimitra, Candrova , de Mita Zdru. 26 La inceput au locuit in coli be (calive in aromana), iar dupa ce au cumparat aceste locuri de la bey turci, si-au construit case din piatra in fiecare com una mentionata; au ridicat biserici si scoli, subventionate de statui roman. Soarta insa nu avea sa Ie fie favorabila nici in aceasta regiune, prea multa vreme; au fost nevoiti sa emigreze din nou (a treia oara!) in afara Macedoniei, in Romania de asta data, in Cadrilater sau Dobrogea Noua (partea de sud a Dobrogei de atunci). Au Costcolonizati in judetul Caliacra (intre 1925-1928) in localitatile: Alexandria, Arman, Armutli, Azaplar, Babuc, Bazaurt, Caraci, Ciair, Ceamurlia, Carasular, Cioban-Cuius, Denicler, Doimuslar, I. Gh. Duca, Enigea, Ezibei, Fiindacli, Hardali, Hasan-Dede, Hasim Kiosetar, Ghelengic, Nicolae Filipescu, Muzalchioi, Opancea, Seidali, Salaman; in judetul Durostor, doar cateva familii in localitatile: G-ral. Praporgescu, Caraorman, Carasular si Aidemir27.
26. Apud Tcodor Capidan, "Romall; lIolllaz;", 1926, pag. 75; Anastasc Hficiu, A.C.I.A., pag.221. 27. Cf. Dosar: 76/1947,5311947; 5511947; 30/1947.39/1947.89/1947. Arhivele StatuJui, Constanla, fond O.N.A.C. 30

Macedo-aroma"ii

dobroge"i.

Tile Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudjll

i. I

Far:)erotii din Albania stabiliti in Dobrogea sunt cunoscuti sub numele de plisot (pentru di cei mai multi HlI':)eroti in Albania sunt din localitatea d Pleasa). Li se mai spunea :)i arbine:)i, adidi aromani din Albania. Pentru di totu:)ise facea confuzie cu albanezii din Albania, numele de plis6t s-a gencralizat. Au fost botezati astfel de far:)erotiidin Grecia (in Cadrilater) pentru a se face desebirea dntre ei :)icei veniti din Albania; la randullor plisotii leau spus celor veniti din Grecia ~opari, datoriHi folosirii frecvente de ditre ace:)tia a cuvantului ~opat, care inseamna ci:)mea, adica izvor construit de mana omului, unde, printr-un jgheab sau conducta, apa curge mult :)icontinuu. Plisotii provin din vilaetul Corita (a:)ezatiaici pe la 1780 din partile de sud ale Albaniei28) din Corita propriu-zisa, din Pleasa (localitate cumparata
:)i intemeiata

-

avea initial doar cateva case

-

de majoritatea grupului sosit,

in frunte cu celnicii Balamaci :)i Colimitra), din Di:)nita :)i Stropani (intemeiate de un grup mai putin numeros, condu:)ide celnicul Pitu). Au fost colonizati in judetul Durostor, in localitatile Fra:)ari29; Aidemir-Delengi, Calipetrova, Babuc, G-ral Praporgescu (impreuna aici cu far:)ero\ii din Grecia), Suneci, Baltagiu Nou, Cara-Omer, CaraischioPo. (intre anii 1925-1928). Tot din Albania, provin :)icateva familii din Lunca, Nicea, Moscopole, a:)ezarisituate in partea de nord-est a ora:)uluiCorita (Curceaua in aromana). Aceste familii, sosite mai tarziu, intre anii 1931-1933, au fost colonizate tot in judetul Durostor, in localitatea Cociumar31:)iBaltagiu-Nou32.

28. Vczi mai sus subcapitolul Farserotii. 29. Primii coloniSli aromani din Cadrilaler au fosl plisotii din Albania (desi demersurile au fosl facute de aromanii din Veria, Vodena si Mcglenia), care inca din augusl 1925 si-au cacul aparitia, venind cu lrenul. Ei au intemeial satul Frasari, prima asezare aromaneasca din Cadrilaler. (Vezi in acesl sens: "Tribuna romani/or de pese lIo/are", nr. 1,2/1927, p. 10; "Vii/orul Silis/rei", VI, 40, din 30 oclombrie 1926, "Aclill/lea romaneaci1", I, 5. I Noiembrie 1926; "Peninsula Balcanici1 " , 31 octombrie 1926. 30. Cf. Dosar: 1/1047; 65/1947; 89/1947, fond cit. 31. Cf. Dosar nr. 61/1947, fond cit. 32. Cf. Dosar nr. 33/1933, Fond Prefeclra ludetului Durostor. Arhivele Slatului, Rfimnicu ViUcca.

31

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NICOLAE

CU$A

.

OTILIA PACEA

Gramustenii
Numele de gdimusteni vine de la Gramostea, localitatea lor de origine, a~ezaHiin mijlocul muntilor Gramos, 0 prelungire de fapt, ditre nordest, a muntilor Pind. Comuna sau mai bine zis ora~elul se intindea pe un platou inalt de 1600 m, in forma de amfiteatru, inconjurat de munti. Cel mai inalt varf, numit de aromani Ciuma al Penti, are 2380 m, fUnd al doilea varf ca inaJtime dupa Smolica (inalt de 2574 m), din intregullant al muntilor Pind. Aromanii din celelalte tulpini Ie spun ~i cipani (cipari - in aromana). Le-au dat acest nume datorita faptului di, gramustenii denumeau, ~igunea sau ~agunea (0 tunica rara maned, de culoare alba sau neagdi, lunga pana la genunchi, insa croita pe talie), cipune; la gramusteni ~agunea avea pc umeri ni~te proeminente (sau falduri) ascutite, 10 sau chiar 20, care in aromaneste se numesc cipuri. Gramostea se afla intr-o zona naturala deosebita, la poalele muntilor, cu 0 clima sanatoasa, cu izvoarc ~i ape, cu pa~uni grase ~ibogate. Din ace~ti munti izvorastc tluviul Bistrita (anticul Aliakmon), care curge apoi sprc sud-est pc langa localitatile Hrupi~tea ~i Seati~tea; raul Devol, care izvora~tc chiar de langa Gramostea, pe langa care trece, lasand-o in dreapta si pc lfinga Niculita (asezata in apropierea unui alt rau, Nicolea - de unde ~i numele a~ezarii). Beneficiind de asemenea conditii, a~ezarea s-a dezvoltat rapid devenind dupa Moscopole a doua a~ezare importanta a Macedoniei din acele vremi.33 Gdimustenii erau un popor de pastori, dar cu mult mai putin migratori decat fratii lor fiirseroti. Se indeletniceau insa si cu industria (cea legata tot de principala lor ocupatie) fiind me~teri buni in arama - aramari -, confection au cazane, vase, obiecte din argint, podoabe (cercei de aur ~iren:n. Th. Capidan, in "Macedoromiinii", pag.l6, afinna ca "prill comer/Ill $i meseriile sale Gramoslea a slrilillcil /nainle de Moscopole {lin Albania". 32

Macedo-aromallii

dobrogelli.

The Macedo-Aromallia/ls

i/1 Dobrudja

umitul "tas" de argint pe care 11purtau pc cap frumoasele femei gdimustence), cutite si arme; erau de asemenea iscusiti tabacari. Carvanaritul era 0 alta ocupatie importanta a gramustenilor (meserie practicata si de farserotii din Albania). Avand in vedere relieful inalt si anevoios al Macedoniei, lipsa diilor de comunicatie, transportul de bunuri necesare omului (zahar, ulei, branzeturi, fructe exotice etc.) se facea exclusiv cu animale de povara: calul, magarul, catarui. Aceste caravane (care uneori aveau chiar si 20 de animale de tractiune), conduse de mai multi dirvunari, curajosi si cunosciitori ai treciitorilor si potecilor, strabiiteau Macedonia in lung si lat indiferent de anotimp sau de primejdii. Este drept insa ca de pc urma acestei ocupatii se castigau bani frumosi, carvunarii fiind o categorie de oameni instariti, alaturi de proprietarii de turme de oi si herghelii de cai. Femeile, gospodine si hamice, erau tesatoare pricepute. Velintele (iambulele), cuverturile, covoarele, dar mai ales ciorapii din Hina,realizate de ele, erau cautate si apreciate. Gramostea era impartiHi in mai multe cartiere; cartierul Paciura, Pisota, Hagisteriu, Sthatu (dupa numele principalilor celnici ai acestei tulpini). Casele erau din piatra, cu etaje. In oras se anau doua biserici mari si vechi: biserica Sf. Gheorghe si biserica Sf. Maria. Hergheliile de cai. si de caUlri, turmele de oi, erau renumite in toata zona. A. Haciu ne spune ca era atat de mult lapte indit celnicul Paciura a fost nevoit pentru usurarea transportului sa construiasca 0 conducta de ditiva kilometri, prin care laptele era adus de la stane in vale, unde se prelucra in branzeturi, unt si urda.34 Gramostenii erau foarte prolifici, acest lucru i-a detenninat inca din vremuri mai vechi sa-si caute si alte asezari. Surplusul de populatie, supunea Th. Capidan35, a Iacut ca 0 serie de grupuri de gramusteni sa se reverse in Albania, stand la baza popularii localitatii Frasari. Conform traditiei, sustinuta si de I. Caragiani, de I. Nenitescu s.a., farserotii au () alta descindere36, urmand ca pe parcurs sa aiba aceeasi evolutie etnidi ca celelalte tulpini de aromani.
34. Hficiu, A.C.I.A., p. 136. 35. Capidan, R.N., p. 42. 36. Vczi mai sus suhcapilolul

"Fllrsiro/ii".

33

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NICOLAE

CUSA

.

011LlA PACEA

Dediderea Gramostei a inceput odata eu epoca de islarnizare a albanezilor cand bandele beylor turcizati au ineeput sa ataee loealitatile aromane:>ti.Gramostea, patria aromanilor gramusteni, a carei intemeiere se pierde in negura vremurilor va avea aeeea:>isoarta ea :>i oseopole, citadela M aromanismului din BalcanP7. Avutiile lor fara seaman le-a adus pieirea. Exista un articol in revista
"Lumina" allui Filip Mi:>ea38(semnat eu pseudonimul Ciuma al Penti

-

dl.

Mi:>eaera originar ehiar din Gramostea), semnalat de A. Hiiciu, care evoea acest sfiir:>it ureros: "Era in J5 August, probabil in 1760, hramul bisericii d Sf. Maria. Slujba religioasa se oficia de 12 preoti. Un incident: icoana fac(ltoare de minuni a troznit, candela s-a stins. 1n clipa urmatoare, doi carviinari, venind dinspre Colonia (Albania), anuntii ca mari forte albanezesti se fngramadeau in apropiere. Repede, s-au con:,fatuit si s-a organizat apararea. Clopotele tuturor bisericilor au inceput sc1dea alanna. Se ocupii pozitiile pe stanga Nicolei (raul, n.n.), cu trecc1torisi fortarefe naturale. Aripi ale j()rtelor albaneze au fncercat sa ocoleasci'irezistenfa pe alte p(lrti. Ora era critica. Dar, spre seara, 0 ploaie torentialaumjla apele Nicolei si oamenii lasa paza trecatorilor pe seama acestui fenomen providential. 1n ora.~,se ineelreel,cu febrilitate, caravanele de fuga pentru vecie. Ciind fJuhoiul s-a potolit si albanezii au patruns, acestia au gasit orasul care I1wnara40.000 - pustiu. 111uga lor, au uitat numai icoana facatoare f de milUlIlidin aur .~iargint"39. Ca a:>as-au petreeut lucrurile nu yom :>tiniciodata eu eertitudine. Un lucru este admisibil insa: Gramostea a fost distrusa in jurul anului 1760, iar populatia a reu:>itsa se retraga, dovada fiind numarullor mare in regiunile unde s-au refugiat. Aceea:>i soarta au avut-o :>ilocalitatile Nieulita :>i Linotopea. Populatia din aceste localitati, gramustenii deci, au parasit pentru totdcauna locurile natale, raspiindindu-se inspre nord, in localitatile; Hrupi:>tea,Blata, Pisuderi, Belcameni, Neveasea, Bitolia, Perlepe, Cru:>ova,
37. Pentru Gramostea. transpunerea traditiei populare In balada lui N. Vel\!: "Sana ~i arderea Gramoslei", sugcrcaza si un alt motiv: apararea Sianei. fiica lInui celnic dc catre gramusteni si de aici razbunarca Illi Ali-Pasa, (eel care si-o dorea In harclllul sau), distrugcrea Gramostei, adicii (d. Hikiu, p. 139). 38. "Lumina", V, nr. 1/1907. 39. Cf. Cillma al PcnO, "Lumina", V, 1111107,apUlI Hiicill, p. 13\1-140.

34

Macedo-aromallii

dobrogelli

.

The Mucedo-Aromullialls

ill Dobrudja

Nijopole, Magarova $.a.; un grup, insemnat ca populatie, s-a a$ezat in dimpia Megleniei, unde au infiintat com una Livadz, iar altul, mult mai numeros, s-a stabilit in muntii Rodopi.

Gramustenii din Dobrogea
Gramustenii stabiliti in Dobrogea provin din Grecia, Bulgaria $i Republica Macedonia. Griimustenii din Grecia sunt din Livezi (Livadz, in aromana). Comuna Livezi este a$ezata in regiunea Megleniei, marginita la rasarit cu Vardarul, la sud cu plaiurile lanitei $i ale Vodenei, la nord cu muntii Marian$ca $i BIatec, invecinati cu muntii Murihova, iar la apus cu muntii Cosuf $i Nigea40;0 regiune muntoasa constituita din doua masive de munti Karagiov $i Pajik (Paic, in aromana), despartite de raul Meglen sau Moglen, de unde $i numele regiunii. Prima a$ezare a comunei Livezi a fost intemeiata de gramusteni fugiti din Gramos datorita prigonirilor lui AIi-Pa$a, la inceputul secolului al XIX-lea. Ace$ti gramusteni fiind ultimii din aceasta tulpina care au plecat din Gramoste (sau din imprejurimi, n.n.), dupa distrugerea ei.41 Grupul condus de celnicii Gheorghi Stapator ~i Tegu Paputa Aro~ie al Barba s-au refugiat pe muntele Paic. Aceasta informatie considerata drept legenda (i-a fost relataHi d-Iui A. Haciu de lancu Cepi - celnicul delegat al
comunei Livezi

-

din cei 14, sositi la Bucure$ti la 1 februarie 1925, stabiliti

apoi in Tatar Atmagea, judo Durostor), se confirma $i de catre Demetru Chihaia (Kehaia), care, in calitate de delegat al societatii "Meglenia" din Bucure$ti, in Grecia, in raportul sau din anul 1925 (trimis lui C. Noe), spunea: "Prima comllna lInde am descills a fost Livezile, comulla Ilatala a parinlilor mei,fondatorul acestei C01llUIle fost c/liar bunicul meu, celnicul a Dincea Barba, care acum WI seco/ si ceva, spre a scapa de urgia satrapului Ali-Pasa de Tepelill, distrugatorul frul1loasei Gramoste si impilatorul
40. CLI. NenilesclI, op. cil., pag. 384; pcnlru delalii si denllmiri mai aClUalevezi Virgil Coman, "MeglelloromGlliila illcepll/IIIseeolullli XX", 2003, pag. 149. 41. Cf. Th. Capj~an, "Meglello/"OI/Illllii", pag.28. I, 35

NICOLAE

CU$A

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OT/LIA PACt"'A

poporului aromall, s-a retras cu falcarea so III mUllfii Caragiova, In fillutul Megleniei, unde au lntemeiat prima comuna «Si1rai» - a carei ruille exisla si astazi, iar mai tarzu, din cauza pamantului mliistinos. a pus temelia primei case, La0 depi1rtare de circa un kilometru de «Si'irai», a C0111llllei Livezi42". Griimustenii din Liviidz sunt eunoscuti sub numele de liviidyeari (adidi din Livadia, denumirea greceascii a comunei Livadz) sau yanicot
(dupa numele localitatii Ianita azi Yianitsa

-

unde coborau eu turmele la

iemat $i unde se atla un targ renumit. In Cadrilater, gramustenii din Livezi au fost eolonizati in judetul Durostor. Primul contingent a sosit in luna aprilie 1926; au fost a$ezati in localiHitile: Tatar Atmagea 5i Uzungi Orman43. Un alt grup a sosit in vara anului 1927,44 iar altul, in anul 1928,45 au fost colonizati in Vischioi, Haschioi, DelisufIar, Asfatchioi, Vetrina, Caraorman, Cociular, Bazarghian. Tot din Grecia provin 5i gramustenii din Hrupi$tea sau Hrupisti - azi Aryos Orestikon. Acestia, in numar de cca. 50 de famiIii, au sosit in Romania in aprilie 192846 5i au fost colonizati in localitatea Sarsanlar, judctul Durostor, plasa Turtucaia47. Gramustenii din Bulgaria constituic grupul cel mai numeros din randurile aromanilor stabiliti in Dobrogea. La fel ca Hirsirotii, acesti gramusteni practicau transhumanta. Nu aveau localitati stabile in care sa
scada tot timpul; aveau locuinte de vara

-

calivele in munti, iar pe timpul

iemii coborau in cfimpii. In functie de regiunile unde practicau transhumanta si locul unde isi aveau ciilivele, tulpina gramustenilor originari din Bulgaria se imparte in
42. Apud Constantin Noe, "Colollizarea Cadrilaterutlli", pag. 140. 43./bitlem, pag. 149. 44./bidem, pag. 153. 45. Cf. "Romalllll", 19 iunie 1928, pag. 2. 46. Cr. "Romallll/", 31 martie 1926, pag. 2. 47. Cr. Dosar ne. 30/1928, Consilieratul Agricol al judetului Durostor, Arhivcle Statului, Riimnicu Viilcca. Fila I. In acest document se precizeaza ca in primavara anului 1928 in comuna Sarsiinlar, plasa Turlucaia, s-au asezal 50 de familii de coJonisli macedoncni din Hrupistea - din Grecia. Se propune ca aceste familii sa fie improprictarite din zona padurii dcfrisatc "laican" (80 ha). 36

Macedo-aroma"ii

dobroge"i

.

The Macedo-Arol11anians

in Dobrudja

mai multe ramuri: gumal6t, bariot, batacan, curtuveari, lupuveari, bujduveari, ~utruveari,papaciryiot. Gumalotl'i (gumaliotii) provin din regiunea ora~ului Giumaia de Sus (pe turce~te Baaly - Djumaia - azi Blagoevgrad) - de aici si numele lor -, din localitatile: Be~bunar, Ravna Buca, Rila, Ceacalita, Dupnita, Samocov ~i Giumaia de Sus, toate situate in muntii Rila48 (stabiliti aici in sec. XIX din muntii Rodopi). Au fost colonizati intre 1928 - 1933 in Durostor. BanotJ'i (banotii) provin din Bania (localitate in Republica Macedonia, de unde ~i numele lor), ~i din alte localitati din apropierea ora~elor ~tip, Veles ~i Cociani. Au plecat din aceasta zona (Serbia pe atunci) in secolul al XIX-lea si s-au stabilit tot in muntii Rila alaturi de gumalot. Au fost colonizati tot in judetul Durostor49. Batacariil'i sunt gramu~teni care se opreau cu oile la iernat in Batac, in dimpia de Hinga Filipopol - azi Plovdiv (din aceasta regiune au sosit in Durostor un grup numeros din localitatile lavrova ~iLeascova). Curtuveari"iI'i provin din tinutul Curtova, din calivele din Bachita, mare comuna aromaneasca din Rodopi. Alte calive din muntii Rodopi erau cele din Caramandra ~i Sufanlu5o. Lupuveariil'i, bujduveariil'i, ~utruveariil'i, papciryiotl'i provin din calivele Lopova, Bojdova, Satra ~i Papaceair (tinuturile de azi Melnik ~i Gote DeIcev- fost Nevrocop )51. Au fost colonizatiatat in judetul Durostor cat ~iin judetul Caliacra.

48. Cf. Saramandu, pag.20. 49. Localil1\tile fiind numeroase nu au fost trccule in text. Cei interesati Ie pot afla (pcntm fiecarc familie) in Jumalele Consiliului de Minislri referitoare la acordarea naturalizArii colonistilor macedoneni, publicate mai jos. 50. Cf. Saramandu, pag. 21. S!. De menlionat cA acesti grAmusteni, iarna se deplasau cAire Drama, Cavala si Seres, in locuri mai calde. PanA la declansarca rAzboiului balcanic (1912-1913), nu era nici 0 problemA, toate aceste teritorii apartineau Turciei (Macedonia de atunci). Dupa rAzboaiele balcanice insA, Macedonia s-a impArtit. Aceste locuri de iernat au rcvenit Greciei, astfel gramustenii din calivele din Bulgaria, mai ales cei din Lupova, care se

gAseau aici, au rAmas, vrand, nevrand, in Grecia. De aceea acesle grupuri de gramusleni au
sosil mai tiirziu in Cadrilater in intervalul Bulgaria. sositi in Dobrogea in 1928. 1931 - 1933, spre deosebire de fratii lor rAmasi in

37

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Pindenii
Pindenii locuiau si locuiesc in muntii Pindului de aici si numele (care este livresc) in Tesalia, Olimp si in regiunea Veriei. Pindenii din Epir si Tesalia (Grecia de azi) reprezinHi tulpina cea mai numeroasa. In muntii Pindului ei s-au pastrat pana azi in mase compacte in centrele: Furca, Samarina, Avdela, Perivoli, Baiasa, Aminciu (Metova una dintre cele mai mari comune aromanesti) S.a.. In Tesalia, pindenii sunt grupati in satele din apropierea orasului Tricala. Aromanii din Olimp sunt asezati in localitatile Neohori, Milia dar mai ales in Vlaholiviidz52. Pindennii din Veria sunt veniti tot din Pind. Atacurile albaneze sau atacurile savarsite de mult discutatul Ali-Pasa, i-au determinat sa pIece din Pind53. Un grup numeros - aproximativ 600 de familii, mai ales avdelia(i (avdel'a(i in aromana) din Avdela, dar si din Samarina si Perivole, sub conducerea celnicului Badralexi, s-au asezat in muntii
Veriei, in ciilive la inceput

-

calivele lui Badralexi

-

care apoi a devenit

sat cu case frumoase. Unii dintrc acesti avdel'ati au intemeiat localitatea Selia de Jos, altii s-au asezat in Xiroliviidz, Neagusta. Aici se afla si grupul de rarsiroti din Selia de Sus, si Horopani, (acestia din urma, fiind aproape se bucurau de protectia celnicului Badralexi). Pindenii veniti in Dobrogea sunt proveniti din imprejurimile Veriei (adidi din Xirolivadz, Selia de Jos, Doliani) si din Poroi de Sus (localitate aflata in nordul Greciei, aproape de granita cu Bulgaria). Grupul pindenilor din jurul Veriei sunt numiti viryeari iar cei din Poroi, pruyeari. In general insa aromanii din celelalte tulpini, obisnuiesc sa-i numeasca pe toti pindenii stabiliti in Dobrogea: avdel'a(i.
52. Th. Capidan, "Aromilnii". pag. 12. 53. in 1775, in primul caz. cf. Capidan, R.N.. pag. 55. ceva mai tarziu, in al doilea caz. cf. I. Caragiani, S.J.P.B.. pag. 50. 38

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Macedo-aromlinii

dobrogelli.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

Au fost colonizati in judetul Caliacra (in comuna SabIa si imprejurimi) intre anii 1926-1928.

MeglenifiiMeglenoromanii) (
Odata cu aromanii colonisti in Cadrilater s-au colonizat Si meglenitii din Meglenia (Grecia). Prin caracteristicile lor lingvistice, etnografice si foldorice meglenoromanii se deosebesc insa de aromani. Sunt si ei un rest al romanitatii sud-balcanice, lara indoiala, dar s-au stabilit aici venind dinspre nord si nu dinspre sud de unde au venit aromanii din Gramostea care s-au asezat in Livezi (in aceeasi regiune cu ei). Sunt un rest probabil al celor care au intemeiat imperiul, Asanestilor (bulgaro-vlahii), cum ii considera G. Weigand, sau un rest al romanismului din sudul Dunarii, romanism care insa avusese contact 0 buna perioada de vreme cu elementul romanesc din nordul Dunarii, cum ii considera Th. Capidan54. Meglenitii stabiliti in Dobrogea provin din comunele Lundzini si Birislav, sositi la 5 martie 1926, odata cu vecinii lor aromanii din Livezi; din Liumnita, Cupa, Osani, sositi in luna aprilie acelasi an, impreuna cu cei din Livezi Poroi, Veria. . Au fost colonizati in judetul Durostor, Aidodu, Srebarna, Haschioi, Visichioi, Cadichioi55.

54. Th. Capidan, "Megleno-romlinii", I. "lslOria si graiullor", Buc. 1923, pag. 57. Pentru cei interesati a se vedea si Pericie Papahagi, "Meg/ello-Romanii. Studiu etnograficofi/%gic", Analele Academiei Romaniei,ser.II,35, 1912-1913. 55. Cf. C. Noe, Ol?cit., pag. 149. 39

t

'

-

Macedo-aromlinii

dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

III. iMPREJURARILE CIRCUMSTANTE ALE COLONIZARII AROMANILOR iN DOBROGEA

Cauzele care i-au determinat pe aromani sa-~i paraseasca locurile lor de obar~ie, pentru a se coloniza in Dobrogea rezida insa~i din transformarile social-politice petrecute in Macedonia. A~ezata intre statele nou create1 ~i recunoscute de Imperiul Otoman, intrat in ultima faza a trairii sale, Macedonia va cunoa~te la inceputul secolului XX, 0 noua situatie de efervescenta. Criza politica s-a manifestat in interior prin regruparea ~i organizarea etniilor in sens militar. Astfel, au aparut comitagii la bulgari, andarti la greci, armatoli la aromani. Atilt comitagii cat ~i andartii proveneau din afara regiunii. Evident conflictele interetnice nu au putut fi evitate. Starea de tensiune generaIa era desigur impulsionata ~i de statele din jur, mai ales ca fiecare in parte nutrea avantaje de pe uema unei eventuale dezbinari a Macedoniei. Bulgaria dorea partea estica, a~a-zisa Macedonia bulgareasca, Serbia, partea de nord-vest, iar Grecia, partea de sud, teritoriile din lungul Bistritei ~iOlimp, porturile Salonic ~iCavala2. Grupurile etnice actionau deci in interesullor. Bulgarii, din Macedonia, action au pentru autonomia lor. Aromanii, fara un alt sprijin din afara -

I , i
I

I
I L

I. Grccia in 1829,Serbia in 1878, Bulgaria, autonoma in 1878, apoi indcpendcnta in 1908. 2. Boldcscu R., Marinescu M., "Ri1zboiul balcanic". 1912 si 1913.Sibiu. 1936. pag. 3-5.

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statuI roman se confrunta cu alte probleme si idealuri -, s-au apropiat de bulgari si chiar au colaborat cu ei, cu cei din Macedonia. Exista insa si 0 aWi tabiira, in special bulgarii din afara Macedoniei, care actiona in vederea alipirii Macedoniei in cadrul preconizatei: Bulgaria Mare3. Primii au organizat ccte de comitagii, care au colaborat cu armatolii aromani4. Cetele de comitagii erau organizate pe teritoriul Bulgariei, sprijiniti deci de statuI bulgar, de unde patrundeau in Macedonia. Adeptii celei de-a doua tabere au organizat Comitetele Macedonene, care faceau agitatie la frontiere, iar presa 0 vie propaganda in favoarea Bulgariei. Grecii urmareau realizarea "Greciei Mari", in care in afara paetii de sud si de vest a Macedoniei, trebuiau sa intre Thesalia, Peninsula CaIcidica cu Sfiintul Mormant, tiirmul de nord al Miirii Egee, Creta si arhipelagul Dodecanezului. Deoarece in Macedonia de sud grecii erau in minoritate, ei si-au propus mai intai grecizarea regiunii. Misiunea insii nu era deloc usoara. Aromanii, chiar daca erau ca niste insule presarate in toata Macedonia, formau grupuri compacte, iar satele lor erau curat aromanesti. Singura regiune in care aromanii apar amestecati cu grecii era regiunea dintee Larisa si Tricala5. In plus, majoritatea satelor si comunelor aromanesti aveau scoli si biserici sprijinite de statuI roman inca de la mijlocul secolului al XIX-lea. Limba folositii atat in scoli cat si in biserici era limba romana6. S-au folosit doua cai de actiune. Una era persuasivii, adicii atragerea populatiei aromanesti, mai ales in locaIitiitiIe unde nu se intemeiaserii scoli romanesti, ditre implinirea aspiratiilor grecesti. Cea de-a doua cale era
3. Ibid.
4. Vezi "Macedoromiillii pe vdi/e iSlOriei", pag. 50-56. 5. 0 alta regiunc unde aromanii erau amestecati, dar de data aceasta cu albanezi era regiunea dintre Berat si tarmul Marii Adriatice. 6. La inceput abecedarele si materialele de studiu erau in aromana, ulterior, s-a introdus limba romana. Acest lucm nu a adus servicii aromanilor. Introducerea limbii romane in clasele primare, afirma loan Cardula in lucrarea sa recenta, "lslOria aromiilli/or macedollelli", Editura Condor, Bue., 2004, pag. 122, a fost 0 decizie "disc/llabild. dacd 1111rolla/d". e Profesorlll Max Deme/er Peyfllss, III CA.. cOllsiderd cd asemellea specllia/ii corespulld IIl/llwi IIIparle reali/d/ii", (pag. 72), argumentand ca aromana se foloseste si azi in familie. Personal, cred ci\ 0 limbii materna - aromana fiind limba malerna penlru loti aromanii daeil nu estc studiata in scoala primara, aliituri de limba tarii respective este sortita, cu vremea, pieirii. 42

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Macedo-aromiinii

dobl'Ogeni

.

The Maeedo-Aromalliam

ill Dobrudja

atacul direct. Avand asentimentul tacit al Turciei, care i-a preferat in locul bulgarilor :>iaromanilor ce actionau pentru autonomie, in anul 1904 s-au format unitati organizate de andarti. Scopul lor era anihilarea comitagiilor bulgari, dar mai ales a comunitatilor aromane:>tidin Macedonia. Acestea din urma, din punct de vedere geografic, erau prime)e '~are Ie stateau in cale. In satele lor, aromanii erau adevarati stapani asupra versantelor tesaliote :>i pirote ale Pindului, a trecatorilor,:>i buni cunoscatori ale tuturor e potecilor.7 ACtiunea bandelor grece:>ti(intre 1904-1908) s-a amplificat mai ales dupa obtinerea unor reale succese pentru aromani: infiintarea consulatului romanesc la lanina (Yanya), inlocuirea comunitatilor biserice:>ti de pana atunci prin comunitati civiles, obtinerea iradelei imperiale de la 9/22 mai 1905, prin care aromanii din Imperiul Otoman au fost recunoscuti de Inalta Poarta (consfintindu-se autonomia lor cu)turala :>i eligioasa). r Dintre atrocitatile savarsite de andarti intre 1905-1908 amintim pe cele intrepinse asupra localitatilor: Avdela din Pind9, Gramoticova :>i Paticina din regiunea Vodena \0. In aceasta stare de lucruri se gasea Macedonia in preajma razboaielor balcanice II. Marile puteri 12, au intervenit instituind chiar un fel de jandarmerie pentru mentinerea lini:>tiiin Macedonia, cu tulburarile sale permanente. Bulgaria reclama ca insuficiente reformele Turciei in Macedonia, iar Grecia :>iSerbia lansau fiecare noi pretentii. Turcia, la randul ei, acuza pe toate trei de intretinerea stacii de tensiune in Macedonia. Primul razboi balcanic s-a inchciat cu infrangerea Turcici. Statele mentionate, la care se adauga Muntenegru, au obtinut victoria. Tratatul de la Londra, (mai 1913), consfintea victoria aliantei balcanice asupra Turciei.
7. Ziarul"Dimineata", miercuri. 13 ianuarie 1916. 8. M.D. Peyfuss, CA, pag. 81; 9./bidem, pag. 93. 10. N. Cusa, A.R., pag. 17-20. II. Desi "lullii /IIrei" (in 1908) au ineereat 0 redresare a situatiei, in speranta pastrarii statu-quo-ului,evenimcntele aveau sa se precipite tot mai tare. 12. Este vorba de Anglia si Franta, eelelalte, Austro-Ungaria si Rusia, dimpotriva, avand proprile interese in Balcani, ineilau spiritele. Odata cu declansarca celui de-al doilea razboi baJcanic, Austro-Ungaria sprijillea Bulgaria, in delrimenlul Serbiei, in limp ce Rusia, care nu vedca ell oehi buni infiilltarea unui slat putcnie in Baleani, era de partea Serbiei.

I

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srar~itul Imperiului Otoman era iminent. Neintelegerile survenite intre aliati13 i-au prelungit insa agonia pana la finele primului razboi mondial. Cauza acestor neintelegeri era din nou Macedonia. Bulgaria, care obtinea avantaje deosebite - toata Turcia rasariteana (din fosta Turcie din Peninsula Balcanica) dorea sa pastreze pentru sine intreaga Macedonie. Ca urmare a acestor disensiuni izbucnea cel de-al doilea razboi balcanic, cu 0 noua intorsatura a sistemului de aliante. Grecia, Serbia, Muntenegru, alaturi de care intra, la sfar~itul razboiului, Turcia ~i Romania, impotriva Bulgariei. A~a cum era de a~teptat razboiul s-a incheiat cu infrangerea Bulgariei. Tratatul, semnat la 10 august 1913la Bucure~ti,eonstintea soarta Macedoniei. Cea mai mare parte a ei era impartita intre Grecia ~i Serbia, state invingatoare in eel de-al doilea razboi balcanic. Grecia primea, pe langa alte teritorii, Macedonia de sud, iar Serbia, Macedonia centrala ~i de nord. 0 mica regiune, din partea estica a fostei Macedonii, ramanea Bulgariei, iar 0 aIta regiune, cea de vest a Macedoniei, era incadrata Albaniei, stat eonstituit inca din 1912, cand ~i-a proclamat independenta, reeunoscut ca atare la Londra ~i Bucure~ti. Cadrilaterul, adica partea de sud a Dobrogei intra in component a Romaniei. Astfel minoritatea aromaneasca traia de acum nu intr-un singur stat, ea pana inainte de pace, ci in patru state diferite,14 Pacea de la Bucure~ti echivala pentru aromani cu 0 lovitura de gratie.15 Romania, la tratatul semnat la Bucure~ti, punea totu~i in discutie chesiunea aromaneasca. Ea cere a garantarea libertatilor culturale ~i spirituale ale aromanilor din fosta Macedonie, teritorii ce apartineau acum statelor semnatare ale tratatului de la Bucure~ti.16 Acestea insa n-au fost respectate.17
13. Statcle aliate hot!lriisera chestiunea teritorial!l in Balcani. doar asupra coopcr!lrii militare, nu si in ce priveste

14. Cf. M.D. Peyfuss, CA, pag. 117. 15. Cf. Sterie Diamandi in "Oameni si aspec/e din is/aria aramiinilar", 1950, pag. 23. 16. Tratatlll a Cost semnat de Tonceff D. (din partea Bulgariei), de N. Pasici (Serbia), de E. Venizelos (Greeia), de 1. Vucotiei (MlIntenegru). 17. Prima care a inchis scolile si bisericile romiinesti a fost Albania, urmata de Serbia si Bulgaria. in Greeia sHuatia era oarecum "deosebita". Existau in mod ofieial dar se aplicau persccutii pentru cei care Ie freeventall, pentn! ea in sfiirsit, dup!l al doilea razboi mondiaf sa fie definitiv inehise. 44

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogelli

.

The Macedo-Aronrallialls

in Dobrudja

In fine, in anul 1914, izbucnea primul razboi mondiaJ. Peninsula BaJcanica, numita pe buna dreptate, "butoiul cu pulbere~', va cunoa~te din plin prima conflagratie mondiala. Statele participante, in functie de interesele lor, influentate de marile puteri, aderau la unul sau la altul din cele doua blocuri militare. Imperiul Otoman, in alianta cu put,.;ile centrale, ca de altfel ~i Bulgaria, avea sa imparta~eascii soarta invin~ilor. Razboiul in aceasta zona nu s-a incheiat in 1918, insa. La srar~itul anului 1918 ~i la inceputul lui 1919, armatele Angliei, Frantei, Italiei ~i Greciei au trecut la ocuparea unor regiuni din Imperiul Otoman. Tratatul de la Sevres, din august 1920, care consfintea aceste cuceriril8, insemna de fapt srar~itul acestui imperiu. Prevederile tratatului n-au fost recunoscute insa de Mustafa Kemal Atatiirk, conducatorul revolutiei nationale, indreptata impotriva ocupantilor straini ~i impotriva sultanului. S-a ajuns la un conflict direct intre Grecia ~iTurcia. Conflictul desfii~uratintre 1919 ~i 1922, se solutiona tot la interventia marilor puteri,19 prin tratatul de pace intre marile puteri ~iTurcia de la Loussane din iulie 1923; tratat care stabilea (dupa infrangerea armatei grece~ti de catre turci) granitele dintre cele doua tari, precum ~i libertatea navigatiei prin stramtorile de la Marea Neagra. Pe de alta parte, pentru a rezolva conflictele interetnice, conferinta de la Loussane prevedea, de asemenea, schimbul de populatie intre Grecia ~i Turcia. Aceasta hotarare a fost precedata de Conventia de la Neuilly din 27 noiembrie 1919, prin care Bulgaria ~iGrecia s-au invoit a inlesni emigrarea bulgarilor din teritoriul grec ~ia grecilor, din teritoriul bulgar. In consecinta, populatia greceasca din Turcia era stramutata in Grecia, iar populatia turdi din Grecia (Macedonia ~i insula Creta) in Turcia. Majoritatea refugiatilor (magirilor) din Turcia, 1.200.000, la care se adauga 60.000 din Bulgaria, 50.000 din Rusia, in total 1.310.000,20au fost instalati in Macedonia ~i Tracia. Ca urmare, populatia aromaneasdi din aceste zone
18. Tratatul de pace de la Sevres, 10 august 1920, intrc puterile Antantei si Turcia, imp1\rtea posesiunile arabe ale Turciei marilor puteri; Grecia obtinea Tracia cu Adrianopolul, malul european al Dardanelelor, precum si Izmir, cu teriloriile inconjurilloare. 19. in martie 1920, trupele britaniee au ocupat Istanbulu\. 20. Cf. Conslantin Noe, "Colonizarea Cadrilalerului". 1938, pag. 124. Dalele aceslea au [oSl preluale, spune autorul, din calea lui C. Eve/pidis, "Les Etats BalcGlliques", Paris, 1933. 45

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respectiv Veria, Vodena, Caterina 5i Meglenia, S-Raflat intr-o situatie dificila. Guverul grec a dispus nationalizarea proprietatilor mai mari de 10-15 hectare; m05iile mari erau ale bey lor turci (fugiti odata cu declan5area razboaielor balcanice) care obi5nuiau sa Ie inchirieze pentru pa5unat, atat la 5es cat 5i la munte, aromanilor din zona. Aromanii, far5erotii din Paticina, Gramoticova, Candrova, Caterina, Selia, Horopani, pindenii din jurul Veriei, gramustenii din Livadz, meglenitii, 2t a caror ocupatie principala era cre5terea oilor, se gaseau astfel in prag de ruinare 5i stramtorare, prin disparitia acestor proprietati care au fost atribuite noilor veniti. Frunta5ii aromanilor, afectati de aceasta situatie, dupa contactele avute cu reprezentantii guvernului roman, cu aIte personalitati politice 5i culturale, au hoHirat emigrarea in Romania.22 In urma sosirii delegatiei aromane5ti, formata din 14 membri23, la 1 februarie 1925, a tratativelor purtate, s-a stabilit, de comun acord, a5ezarea aromanilor in sudul Dobrogei, in cele doua judete din Cadrilater, Durostor 5i Caliacra, intrate in componenta Romaniei dupa razboaiele balcanice. Alegerea acestei zone nu era intamplatoare24. Elementul romanesc se afla aici in inferioritate, in plus, 0 buna parte din populatia turco-tatara, din cele doua judete ale Cadrilaterului a emigrat in Turcia. Obiectivitatea istorica ne indeamna ded sa afirmam ca aceasta colonizare a aromanilor in Cadrilater era corelata cu politic a de atunci: intarirea elementului romanesc. De obicei, in lucrarile dedicate acestei teme (emigrarea 5i colonizarea) se considera ca principal a cauza a stramutarii populatiei aromane5ti din
21. Meglenitii fliceau exceplie,ei se ocupau Cll agricultura. 22. Penlru emigrarea si colonizarea aromanilor cal si penlru inlreaga problemalica referiloare la aromanii stabiliti in Cadrilater, vezi: Steriu Hagi-Gogu, "Emigrarea aromilnilor", Buc., 1927; Revista "Peninsula Balcanica", nr. 8-10, 1925; "Revista romanilor de pesle hotare", numerele: 1.2,7,8,12 din 1925; Vasile Th. Musi, "Un veac de c%nizare In Dobrogea NOl/it", 1925-1935; Constantin Noe, "C%nizarea Cadrilaleru/l/i", 1938; Stoica Lascu."improprielitrirea romanilor ba/canici In Cadrilaler", 2002, pag. 28-40, care comenleaza sliintific lucrarea lui C. Noe, dar care face precizari peninente cu privire la slabilirea gramustenilor din Bulgaria; Nicolae Cusa, "Aromilnii (macedonenii) In Romania", Editura Muntenia, Constanta, 1996. 23. Vezi V. Th. Musi, Op.cil. ,pag. 24, C. Noe, 01'. cil., pag. 24, N. Cusa, Op.cil., pag. 24. 24. Din punctuJ de vedere aJ slaluJui roman.

46

Macedo-aromanii dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

ill Dobrudja

Grecia a fost situatia creaHiprin stabilirea refugiatilor, in regiunile mentionate,25 ~i indiutatirea in general a conditiilor de existenta; puse in evidenta uneori, epitetic vorbind, cu exagerare; "situatie dramatica", "rasfrangere catastrofaJa" etc. Analizand insa mai atent aceasta emigrare (det" ,ati de impresiile subiective), la aproape 80 de ani de la acest evenimcnt, yom spune ca, pe langa aceasta cauza, reala de altfel, trebuie adaugata ~ialta: aparitia unei noi
posibilitati / alternative

-

colonizarea in Cadrilater

- devenita

un miraj pen-

tru aromani. Daca nu ar Ii existat aceasta alternativa atractiva pentru ei, cu siguranta ca ar fi ramas in acele regiuni ale Macedoniei din Grecia. In plus, au emigrat acei far~iroti ~i gramusteni care erau mai mobili ~i se stabilisera la 0 data recenta in regiunile respective.26 Adaugam ca ace~ti aromani proveniti din regiuni de rezistenta (Veria, Vodena, Meglenia) cu sate compacte de aromani, au hotarat sa se expatrieze ~i pentru ca n-au vrut sa accepte noile stari de lucru care afectau structura lor nationala. Gramustenii din Bulgaria aveau ~i ei motive intemeiate pentru emigrare. Dupa primul razboi mondial autorit1itilc bulgare au introdus taxc prohibitive pentru aromanii considerati str1iini in Bulgaria. Pentru 0 oaie (taxa pa~unat) de plida plateau 12 leva la stat, 12 leva la comuna, 12 leva la Comitetul Revolutionar, pe cand bulgarii din acelea~i sate plateau numai 12 leva; erau impu~i pentru calla 400 leva; iar bulgarii nu plateau nimicP (deci un tratament discriminatoriu, aromanii de aici tiind lipsiti total de drepturi politice ~i nationaJe, fiind exclu~i de la improprietarire.28) Pentru construirea ~oselelor ~i cailor ferate erau considerati insa ceHiteni bulgari, drept pentru care erau sco~i la munca cu forta. La toate aces tea se adauga atacurile bandite~ti asupra calivelor din munti, conditionandu-li-se 0 chirie pentru propriile lor case. Conditiile de trai devenind tot mai greu de suportat, cea mai mare parte din randurile
25. Refugiatii n-au fost asezati si in alte regilll1i ale Grcciei,locliite de aromani, Epir de cxemplu; Cf. si 51. Laseu, op. cit., pag. 30. 26. Cf. Mariana Bara, in "Nico/ae Saramalld,,: Swdii aromalle si meg/elloromiine", din "Dimandarea", nr. 4, 2004, pag.9-1O. 27. Periodicul "Legionarii", Bazargic, 23 ianuarie 1929. 28. Diseursuri Adunarea Depulatilor 1930, Apud Cusa. "Aromanii", pag. 31.

47

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OTlLlA PACEA

gramustenilor din Bulgaria s-au hotarat sa emigreze in Dobrogea (incepand cu 1928). La fel au Hicut 5i fratii lor din Grecia, rama5i aici dind s-a trasat granita intre cele doua tari.29 (ace5tia au venit mai tarziu, in intervaluI1931-1933). Gramustenii din Regatul Unit al Sarbilor, Croatilor 5i Slovenilor, nu 0 duceau nici ei mai bine. Prin reforma agrara-discriminatorie 5i aid au fost confiscate de fapt proprietatile din munti cumparate de aromani de la turd. S-a recurs la 0 stratagema. Sub pretextul verificarii s-au cerut actele de proprietate de la toti locuitorii; actele au fost trimise la Belgrad, de unde n-au mai fost retumate. in urma protestelor, inclusiv ale sarbilor, 0 parte din terenuri au fost redate proprietarilor, muntii insa niciodata. in felul acesta pastorii aromani erau nevoiti sa plateasca taxe pentru propriile proprietati. Cei afectati s-au hotarat sa emigreze in Romania; 0 parte din ei, cei mai multi din randurile gramustenilor de aid (azi Republica Macedonia) - numiti de celelalte tulpini sarbeni (sarbean, in aromana), au ramas 5i traiesc azi in republica mentionaHL Evenimentele pomenite, razboaiele balcanice, proclamarea independentei Albaniei (1912-1913), primul razboi mondial au influentat 5i viata f'ar5irotilordin Albania, a caror ocupatii, carvanaritul 5i cre5terea oilor erau tot mai greu de practical. Carvanaritul, una dintre ocupatiile de baza ale fiir5irotilor din aceasta zona, odata cu sfar5itul primului razboi mondial, a decazut. Construirea 50selei care lega Tirana de ora5ul Corceua (Corita) de catre armatele franco-engleze, introducerea mijloacelor de transport (camioanele) a fiicut ca aceasta meserie sa dispara. Reducerea suprafetelor de teren30 (pa5Unile) prielnice iernatului, a contribuit la reducerea treptata a marilor turme. Se punea deci, la modul serios problema existentei, cu atat mai mult cu cat ace5ti far5eroti erau foarte prolifici; fiecare casa (familie) numara cate 10-12 suflete. Tinerii nu mai aveau unde sa lucreze; unii au plecat in America. Era vorba inga de intreaga populatie. Trebuia gasita 0 solutie.
29. Vezi mai sus nota 27, de la subcapitolul "Grail/listen;; din Dobrogea ". 30. Prin nationalizare, sau reforma agrarii, in noul stat creal.

48

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Macedo-aromlinii

dobrogeni

.

Tire Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

Creandu-se precedentul, prin tratativele delegatiei aromanilor din Verla, Vodena ~i Meglenia, rar~irotii din Albania s-au hotarat sa emigreze in Dobrogea; 0 parte din ePl, cei mai multi au ramas in Albania, unde triliesc ~i astazi32.

31. Vezi mai sus subcapitolul ..Fllro1erolii din Dobrogea". 32. Pentru situatia de azi (a localitalilor unde traiesc aromanii op. cil., pag. 13.

in Albania),

vezi Cusa,

49

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Macedo-aroma"ii

dobroge"j

.

The Macedo-AromaniallS

in Dobrudja

IV. COLONIZAREA iN CADRILATERDOBROGEA NOVA

Colonizarea in Cadrilaterl s-a fikut in baza Legii pentru organizarea Dobrogei Noi de la 1 aprilie 1914, care delimita formele de proprietate funeiara existente2; lege care n-a fost aplicata datorita izbucnirii primului razboi mondial. Dupa razboi, punerea in vigoare a acestei legi s-a realizat prin promulgarea Legii modificatoare din 22 aprilie 1924. Articolul 117 al acestei legi, care de fapt completa pe cea din 1914, stabilea di posesorii terenurilor "mirie" devin proprietari deplini pe aceste pamanturi, fie abandonand statului 0 treime din pamantul aflat in posesie fie platind statului 0 rascumparare; articolul 129 se referea in mod direct asupra colonizarii: "Pe pamanturile astazi proprietatea Statului cum si pe cele intrate fn patrimoniul sau prin legea de fa/a sau prin expropriere, statui poate face colonizari si fnstrainari fn loturi mid prin Casa Centrala a improprietaririi (devenita in 1930 O.N.A.C., adidi Ofieiul National al Colonizarii,
I. Teritoriu din sudul Dobrogei de azi allat in poscsia Romaniei in perioada anilor 1913-1940. in prezent se aOa in eomponcnla Bulgariei. 2. in Dobrogca NouA, eum se mai nurnea Cadrilalerul, in afara proprietatii de stat se allau 5 eatcgorii de proprietali funeiare; "mulk", adica proprietate absoluta, eu iradele (aete) de la sultan - foarte rara, "mirie", proprietatc aOata in folosinla, eel mai des intalnita, pcntru eare se platea 0 dare anlicipata iar poscsorii aveau un titlu de eoneesiunc, "mcveufc", tercnuri dc mana moart1\si inulienabile, "melrukc", tcrenuri pentru uzul public si "mcvat", adic1icele complct neproduetive. Vezi pc larg, "A"alele Dobrogei". IX, vol. II, 1938, "CadrilateruI1938. Cerllll/lti" . 51

NlCOLAE

CU$A

.

OTILIA PACEA

institutie creata prin a treia lege zisa de complctare din 17 iulie 1930, care sa adaugat celor din 1914 si 1924, n.n.), In baza IInllijllrnal al Consiliu/ui de Ministri". In urma referatului prezentat de Alexandru Constantinescu3, Consiliul de ministri a adoptat Jurnalul cu Nr. 1698 din 13 iunie 1925. Potrivit acestui jurnal (care aproba de fapt sus-numitul referat), colonizarile din Cadrilater trebuiau sa se faca pe terenul domenial al statului (preluarea treimelor fiind abia in faza de inceput) existent la acea data, respectiv 28.324 ha aflate in Durostor Si 12.780 ha in judetul Caliacra; cu un total de 41.104 ha in ambele judete. Din aceste motive s-a stabilit, prin acelasi jurnal ca deocamdata sa fie colonizate 1500 de familii din vechiul regat sil500 de familii de macedoneni emigranti, in baza unor tabele sau tablouri intocmite de delegatii colonistilor. Colonistii urmau sa primeasdi dite un lot de 15 ha pentm cei care se vor aseza in apropierea granitei cu Bulgaria Si 10 ha pentru cci ce se vor aseza in interiorul judetelor4. Desi colonistii aromani cerusera, prin Comitetul de initiativa al aromanilor din Bucuresti5, acordarea de credite pe termen lung pentru construirea locuintelor si injghebarea gospodariilor, transportul gratuit pe mare si pe uscat (C.P.R.), interventia guvernului Romaniei pe langa guvernul grec pentru rascumpararea averilor imobiliare parasite, Jurnalul nu pomenea nimic de aceste doleante. Cu alte cuvinte colonistii trebuiau sa se descurce singuri. Pamiliile aprobate de aromani urmau sa soseasea treptat, pentru a usura actiunea de repatriere si improprietarire. Nu s-a intamplat asa, insa. Biroul de colonizare de la Bucuresti din cadrul Casei Centrale a Improprietaririi avertizase pe reprezentantii comitetului ca tcrenurile, pc care urma sa se faca colonizarea, nu puteau ramane nearendate si di, colonistii, dad\ vor sa dobandeasca loturi, trebuie sa vina pana in 15 martie 19266. Raspandindu-se zvonul, colonistii
3. Ministl1ll Agricullurii Romania. si Domeniilor, unul dintre sustinalorii coloniz1\rii aromanilor in

4. Plus eale 50 arii islaz si 2000 mp loc de casa pentru fiecare colonist. 5. Comitetul de initiativa s-a formatla data de 3 ianuarie 1925 la BucureSli, cuprinzand urmatorii membri: C. Noe, V. Musi, Dumilru Babus, P. Marcu, Stere Hagigogu, N. Balamaci, T. Hagigogu si Dionisie Dumitru. Cei care s-au implical insa in mod direct, coordonand colonizarea aromanilor au fost: Constantin Noc, Vasile Musi si Gheorghe Celea (ultimul a coordonal miscarea de emigrare a aromiinilor din Grecia). 6. Cf. C. Noc.op. ci/., pag. 147.

52

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Macedo-aroma"ii

dobroge"j

.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

in Dobrudja

~i-au lichidat avutiile (mai bine zis conturile pentru ca de vandut ~i-au vandut doar vitele, la un pret mai mic decat cel obi~nuit, bunurile imobilliare - casele ~i pamantul - n-au putut sa Ie valorifice) ~i s-au grabit sa pIece pentru a nu pierde loturile. Astfel in intervalul de la 26 octombrie 1925, panr :" 14 aprilie 1926, au sosit trei vapoare7 cu coloni~ti care, impreuna cu capii de familie sositi in vara anului 1925, intregeau numarul celor 1500 de familii aprobate. Au intervenit cauze neprevazute insa. Unii dintre coloni~tii aromani, sesizand ca inca nu era reglementat un cadru legal al improprietaririi, dar mai ales al cazarii emigrantilor ce urmau a fi colonizati ~i-au amanat venirea intrand in conflict cu Gheorghe Celea8, cunducatorul delegatiei sosite din Grecia. In locullor au venit aItii insa care nu erau trecuti in tabloul anexat Jurnalului Consiliului de Mini~tri, ceea ce insemna ca erau un fel de clandestini, punandu-se problema excluderii lor de la colonizare. Acest lucru insa era inuman ~i nedrept; coloni~tii respectivi lichidandu-~i, la fel ca ceilaIti inscri~i pe liste, averile, nu mai aveau unde sa se intoarca. In cele din urma, prin tratativele purtate s-a renuntat la tabloul cu pricina cu conditia sa se respecte numarul de 1500 pc care delegatii se angajasera verbal ca-l vor respecta. Din satelc Macedoniei insa se anuntau alte contingente de emigranti care solicitau colonizarea. Din Bulgaria, aromanii nomazi (gramustenii), afland de colonizarea in Cadrilater, au inceput sa vina la granita Cadrilaterului cerand aprobarea de a intra in tara. Opriti initial de gdiniceri Ii s-a permis in cele din urma intrarea in tara. Deocamdata veneau in grupuri razlete, in anii urmatori insa procesul a cap at at amploare (gdimustenii din Bulgaria constituiau grupul eel mai numeros, 1/2 din totalul aromanilor dobrogeni)9. S-au creat astfel doua mari difi7. Vapoarcle care au lransporlal coloniSlii maccdoneni (loale nu numai aceslea Irei) apartineau S.M.R. (Scrviciului Marilim Roman), care la inloarcerea din cursele lor prin Marea Medilerana pre]uau din Salonic pc coloniSIi. Coslullransporlului, care varia inlre 200.000 si 400.000. in functie de m1lrimea vaporuilli, a fosl suporlal de coloniSIi. 8. Membrii delegaliei grupului de aromani din regiunea Vodena au pus sub semnul inlreb1lrii bunele sale inlenlii, observand sl1lruinla si graba pc care acesla 0 imprima procesului de emigrare. Ulterior, aceaslll suspiciune S-;1adcycril; Gheorghe Celea a devenil unul dinlrc cei mai mm"i mosieri din Cadrilalcr. 9. Saramandll, op.cir., pag. 20.

I

i

I

53

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OT/UA l!.M:.Ei1

cultati: prima a Yostaceea ca nu s-a putut da pamantul tuturor celor veniti $i cea de-a doua ca s-a dat ocazia na$terii unor contlicte intre ba$tinasii bulgari si coloni$tii macedo-aromani care locuiau cu chirie in casele primilor. In lipsa unor locuinte (de unde $i constatarea fireasca a multora ca opera de colonizare a fost 0 lucrare lipsita de sprijin moral $i material din partea statului, rara planuri sau pregatire prealabila) unde sa se adaposteasca, colonh,;tiiau trebuit sa-$i gaseasca singuri cazare, "administratia locala a avut grija doar sa adudi din sate dirute, ii incarca (din Silistra sau din alte localitati unde soseau n.n.) $i apoi Ie spunea: duceti-va in judet $i cautati-va locuinte" 10. Astfel, 0 serie de colonisti, care nu $i-au putut lichida averea (de
pilda meglenitii care in Meglenia aveau loturi de pamant

-

ei ocupandu-se

cu agricultura -, n-au putut sa-$i yanda proprietatile, utilajele, vitele de munca; din Bulgaria din randurile gramustenilor nomazi), venind cu mijloace materiale modeste se aflau intr-o situatie grea: erau lipsiti ~e pamant, de utilaje, seminte si vite, batjocoriti $i izgoniti de pe loturile unde s-au a$ezat pentru ca acestea erau concedate de stat localnicilor (prin abuz $i coruptie locala), privati de sprijinul $i apararea autoritatilor, complice de cele mai mite ori cu bastina$ii, contra coloni$tilor. Existau insa $i coloni$ti avuti, destul de multi, care n-au a$teptat ajutoare de la stat. Ei au cumparat sate intregi de la turco-tatarii si bulgarii care au parasit Cadrilaterul. A$a a fost cazul cu gramustenii din Livezi care au cumparat: Atmageaua Tatareasca cu 120 de gospodarii mari, cu pamanturi $i vite, de la locuitorii tatari, emigrati in Turcia, localitatea Uzungi Orman cu 120 de case, cu pamanturi $i vite cumparate de la bulgarii si turcii, emigrati in Bulgaria $i Turcia, Haschioi cu 40 de locuinte, cumparate de la bulgari; altii au infiintat a$ezari noi (prin ridicarea de construetii de case): Fra$ari cu 240 de case, Babuc, eu 90 de case, [ormand satul G-ral Praporgescu, Caraorman cu 70 de case, Ialiceatlagea cu 40 de case, G-ral Dragalina cu 80 de case, Cocina cu 80 de case,
9. Saramandu, op.cit.. pag. 20. 10. Cf. deputat Stefan Peneof, unul dinlre cei mai inversunati aparalori ai locuitorilor bulgari din Cadrilater, al carar reprezentant era In Par/amentu/ Romaniei; CIIatal mai mull verosimiliHlh.:a frazei de mai SIIS,D.A.D.. 1930. Apud Cusa. pag. 47. 54

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Macedo-aroman;;

dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-AToll/anions

in Dobrudja

Sarsanlar cu 30 case 11; aItii in grupuri mai mid au construit ei singuri case in Vischioi, Aidemir, Bazarghian, Cainargeaua Mare, Cainargeaua Micii, Arabagilar, Garvan-Cioara, Doimuslar, Carageat S.a., in judo Durostor, si in Ezibei, Ceair, Casim, Denicler, Seidali, Suiciuc, Caraci, Ceamurlia, Alexandria, Cioban-Cuius, Fandachi, Ha~.:-Kioselar S.a., in judetul Caliacra. In 1927 (in timpul unei noi guvernari liberale, partid care aprobase colonizarea), au inceput sa soseasdi noi colonisti inSa.12Inca din vara ei isi anuntasera intentia de a Ii se permite intrarea tara pretentie de colonizare din partea statului. Se crea in felul acesta un precedent convenabil Casei Centrale de Colonizare care sdipa de obligatii fata de colonistii macedo-aromani. De altfel intreaga opera de colonizare fusese Iasata in grija comitetului de initiativa si a Societatii de Cultura Macedo-Romana, care se ocupau intr-adevar de repartizarea colonistilor, dar care nu erau totusi institutii ale autoritatii de stat. S-a ajuns la un compromis. Casa Cenntrala aproba intrarea noilor contingente, dar nu-si asuma niei un fel de obligatie. Se permitea aducerea noilor colonisti cu conditia ca acestia sa semneze 0 declaratie prin care recunosteau di nu vin in calitate de colonisti si ca au cunostinta de faptul ca guvernul nu Ie poate da, deocamdata, nici pamant nici ajutoare; inca de Ia primele tratative cu dl. AI. Constantinescu, Ii se sugerase delegatilor aromani, ca macedonenii ee vor veni sa fie din randul oamenilor instariti pentru a-si putea injgheba singuri propriile gospodarii deoarece statuI nu poseda fonduri suficiente.13 Vasile Musi, ca reprezentant al Comitetului de initiativa din tara, anat in permanenta legatura cu Gh. Celea, le-a comunieat eelor de la Salonic sa semneze orice declaratie.
11. Musi,pag. 124. 12. in limpul guvemarii precedenle (1926-1927) conduse de AI. Avereseu, avusese loe o slagnare a colonizarii; eei doi prefeeti din eele doull judcte au inslaurat un regim defavorabil coloniSlilor, eolaboraml eu loealnicii bulgari, savarsimlu-se aslfcl 0 seric de abuZllri. 13. Semnifiealiv in aeest sens esle raspunsul minislrului subseerelar de sial D. Cipllianu. Alunci dind i s-a adus la eunoSlinta ea nu se respecla angajamcnlele Casei Cenlrale eu privire

la ajutoare (lcmne pcnlru conslruclia easelor - contra-cost evident!) accsta a riispuns:
"Co!oni.ytii macedonelli all Pllllgile p!ille de /ire $i II-all lIevoie de ajllloare" Da/eallid''', IV, nr'A-5,1?26). (apud, "Pellinsula

55

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CUSA

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OTIUA PACEA

A fost 0 greseaHi, chiar dadi V. Musi 0 face a cu bune intentii - aducerea grabnica a colonistilor care asteptau intrarea in tara - pentru ca in felul acesta se ingreuna si mai mult situatia. Aceste grupe neavand un loc stabIit pentru colonizare s-au asezat in 10caIitatile unde aveau rude, dar unde nu mai existau disponibiIitati de teren. In consecinta, s-au iscat neintelegeri chiar intre coloni:;;ti. Asa s-a intamplat de piJda in comuna Fra:;;ari din judetul Durostor, unde colonisii vechi (in numar de 60 de familii) au intrat in conflict cu colonistii noi in numar de 130 de famiIii). Disputa dintre ei s-a dcclansat datorita faptului ca cei vechi si-au insu:;;it (la comasare) loturile bune din apropierea comunei iar colonistilor noi, Ii se dadeau loturi HHuralnice(in afara comunei). S-a iscat un protest din partea colonistilor noi care putea degenera intr-un conflict in toata regula daca nu ar fi intervenit jandarmii 14. Ulterior, in 1928, in urma punerii de acord a Ministerului de domenii si Agricultura, a Ministerului de Exteme (un rol in aceasHi chestiune I-a avut D. Djuvara, directorul afacerilor poIitice de la acest miniSter), s-a revenit asupra acestei masuri, aprobandu-se din nou venirea noilor contingente din Livezi, Vodena-Veria si apoi a celor din Bulgaria. Casa Centrala, avand acceptul celor doua ministere, punea acum la dispozitia familiilor care soseau si cele 10 ha de teren de cultura si locuri de casa. Se inregistra apoi 0 alta stagnare pana in 1930, dnd au sosit grupe numeroase de aromani, gramusteni din partile Bulgariei, dar Si din p1irtile regiunii Seres si Cavala (ramasi acolo cu ocazia impartirii granitei intre Grecia si Bulgaria), din Republica Macedonia. Colonizarea ineeta in anul 1933, odata cu ultimul contingent de 450 de familii sosit la Constanta in

timpulguvemuluicondusde VaidaVoievodl5.

.

14. Cf. Arhivele Statului Ramnnicu Valcea, fond Prefectura judo Durostor, Dosar 36/1934, fila 175. Conflictul s-a declansat intrc clanul veehilur eolunisti, in frunte cu primarul comllnei C-tin Culctll si toti fllne!ionarii primilriei si colonistii noi in frunte cu Spiru T. Babll, Anastase H. Ghita, Teodor Calesu si Hristu Maca. Autoritatile au displls ea loturilc colonistilor sa fie imp!ir!itc in mod cchitabil, considerandu-se toli coloniSlii egali Ja primirea lolurilor. 15. Dc la aceasta data soseall nllmai grupllri izolate, in 1933-1937. In 1937 de pildil au sosit 50 de fmniJii din localitalea PeSlera (Bulgaria). 56

Macedo-aroma"ii

dobrogell;

.

Tire Macedo-Aromanians

ill Dobrudja

incetatenirea macedo-aromanilor
o alta problema ce trebuia rezolvata era incetatenirea coloni~tilorI6. Dobandirea cetateniei romane insa, conform legii de atunci, se acorda numai dupa un stagiu de 10 ani. 0 vreme, coloni~tii aromani au trait in Cadrilater fiira cetatenie, avand un statut bizar: erau ai nimanui.17 In anii de inceput problema cetateniei nu era a~a de stringenta. Altele erau problemele ce trebuiau rezolvate. Dupa 1930, cand, cat de cat acestea (constructiile de case, improprietarirea etc.) se aflau pe faga~ul eel bun, incetatenirea a devenit 0 chestiune prioritara. Era vorba de 4000 ~i ceva de familii de macedo-aromani ce fusesera aprobate ~i colonizate ca atare. Tinerii majori trebuiau sa faca armata. Aromanii care indeplineau varsta nu puteau insa sa fie inrolati intrucat nu erau cetateni romani, articolul 2 din Legea pentru recrutare interzicea strainilor sa faca parte din armata romana. Atat la recrutare cat ~i la dobiindirea cetateniei iti erau necesare acte de stare civila: act de na~tere, de casatorie, act de identitate. Aceasta era intr-adevar 0 problema. Toti aromiinii sositi in Dobrogea Noua nu aveau acte de stare civiHi. In Turcia (Macedonia) autoritatile din vilaete18 nu tineau evident a crestinilor. Na~terea, botezul, cununia, moartea, toate erau indeplinite de preotul satului care din proprie initiativa tinea un registru. Fara acte de stare civila nu putea nimeni sa obtina cetatenia. S-a recurs la singura solutie care putea sa rezolve bizareria: macedonenii stabiliti in Dobrogea Noua i~i vor stabili starea civila printr-o declaratie in scris, netimbrata (ca sa nu se mai plateasca timbrul), adresata primarului comunei unde domicilia in care se preciza data na~terii ~i a casatoriei lui, data na~terii copiilor ~i a sotiei sale etc. Primarul avea obligatia, dupa cercetarea veridicitatii celor cuprinse in declaratie, facuta la domciliul
16. Inclusiv a romanilor colonisti veniti din Timoc si Timis-Torontal. 17. Pledind din tilrile de origine (Grecia, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia) ei renuntaseril Ja

cetatenia tilrii respective, semnand 0 declarat.ie in acest sens.
18. Judet sau diviziune administrativil in Imperiul Gtoman condus1l de un valiu.

57

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CUSA

.

OTIUA PACEA

dec1arantului. sa ordone transcrierea in registrele de stare civila. In cazul dnd primarul constata 0 inexactitate referea cazul judecatorului de ocol care se pronunta in instanta. N-au fost asemenea cazuri. Se crea ce-i drept drum liber fiecarui colonist sa-~i declare ce varsta dore~teI9. Legea privitoare la dobandirea cetateniei romane s-a votat de Adunarea Deputatilor in ~edinta de la 27 aprillie 1934 ~i de catre Senat in ~edinta de la 28 aprilie 1934; a fost promulgata apoi la 19 mai 1934 de catre regele Carol al II-lea. Legea era de fapt 0 completare a celei din 24 februarie 1924. prin adaugarea in ceea ce ne prive~te - acordarca cetiiteniei aromanilor din Dobrogea. art. 10 bis. Punctul lal stabilea obligatia Oficiului National al Colonizarii de a intocmi tablouri pentru fiecare comuna cu coloni~tii dirora Ii s-au atribuit loturi ~i care s-au a~ezat efectiv in acea comuna. Tablourile astfel intocmite trcbuiau inaintate in termen de trei luni de la promulgarea legii, Comisiei de Naturalizare de pe langa Ministerul de justitie. Punctul Icl prevedea ca. Consiliul de Mini~tri sa decida printr-un jurnal care sa cuprinda numele ~i prenumele celor carora Ii s-a acordat naturalizarea. In celelaIte puncte ale art. 10 se mai prevedeau: obligatia autoritatilor locale de a afi~a timp de 15 zile. in fiecare com una numele ~i prenumele celor care au dobandit naturalizarea; dreptul celor care eventual vor fi colonizati posterior promulgarii legii sa beneficieze ~i ei de prevederile acestei legi. pana la data de 31 decembrie 1935; dreptul celor omi~i din tablourile intocmite de O.N.A.C. sa se adreseze Comisiei de Naturalizare prin cerere individuala (cu acte doveditoare) pentru obtinerea ceHiteniei. In fine. art. 10 (artieol unie) al acestei legi prevedea obIigatia Ministerului Justitiei sa publice acest jurnal in Monitorul Oficial ~i sa se ingrijeasca de eIiberarea ~i inmanarea diplomei de naturalizare ficcarui colonist indreptatit20. A~a s-a ~i intamplat, remiterea diplomelor de naturalizare a coloni~tilor s-a desIa~urat intr-un cadru festiv in ziua de 21 septembrie 1935 la
19. Unii dintre aromani s-au declarat mai mici sau mai mari ca viirstll pentru a nu Ii inrolati in armata. Farll a incerca sll disculp aceastll practicll voi spune c1I serviciul militar de atunci in Romania era 0 adevaratll pacoste pentru tineri. 20. Monitorul Olicial nr. 115, 1934, pag. 3210.

58

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-

-

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogetli

.

The Macedo-Aromallians

ill Dobrudja

Silistra. Din partea guvernului21 au participat ministrul Valeriu Pop, care le-a inmanat personal diplomele, Mircea Concicov, subsecretar de stat la Domenii ~i Agricultura; de fata erau ~i cei doi prefecti ai Cadrilaterului ~i aIti demnitari, precum ~i deputatul G. Fotino, initiatorul proiectului Icgii pri vitoare la incetatenirea coloni~tilor22. De acum inainte macedo-aromanii colonizati in Dobrogea Noua erau cetateni romani! Consiliul de mini~tri in ~edintele sale de la 11 iulic 1935 ~i de la 2 ~i 21 august 1935 a elaborat 139 de jurnale care acordau naturalizarea coloni~tilor macedoneni din judetele Caliacra ~i Durostor precum ~i a unor romani proveniti din Timoc ~i Timi~-Torontal; aceste jumale au fost publicate apoi in Monitorul Oficial, partea I, nr. 192 din 23 august 1935. Mentionam ca in alcatuirea tablourilor, O.N.A.C .-ul a beneficiat de "recomandatia" permanenta a Societatii de cultura "Macedo-Romana"23, a~a cum se subliniaza in jumale de fiecare data. Este drept di, din prea mult zel sau mai degrabii din apatie se specifica acela~i lucru si in cele cateva jumale care consemneaza pe cei din Timi~-Torontal. Din aceste jumale am preluat numai numele familiilor de aromani. Enumerarea, in cele ce urmeaza a tuturor coloni~tilor (capii de familii, aprobati ~i improprietariti cu loturi de colonizare) ne aduce in postura de cunoa~tere a acestora, a numelui lor,24 pe de 0 parte, iar pe de alta parte, a cunoa~terii localitatilor unde au fost colonizati in Cadrilater. Pe langa selectarea pe care am Iacut-o, am intervenit, de asemenea, ori de cate ori a fost nevoie, corectand numele ~i prenumele transcrise eronat.

21. Guvem al partidului liberal condus de Gheorghe Tatarescu, 1934-1937. 22. "Tara lui Mircea", Silistra, 20 octombrie 1935. pag. 4. 23. De allfel. inca din 1926. Societatea de cultura Macedo-Romanil apcla la delegatii colonistilor macedoneni s1l intocmeasdllistele cu capii familiilor din fiecare comun1l pcntru a se elibera ccrtificatele de nationalitate necesare la incetiltenire. Apud "Ac/iullea romaneascu". I. II,., 6. I decembrie 1926. 24. Mulle. asa cum se va putea observa au disparut san sunt din ce in ce mai rare.

59

I

NICOLAE

CU$A

.

OTILIA PACEA

Familiilede aromani colonizatein Cadrilater
1. In com una Cainargeaua Micii,jud. Durostor. Se aeorda naturalizarea eu dispensa de stagiu, urmatorilor eoloni~ti: Panait Gh. Bitu, Fote Dimu Tararaehe, Dimu Fote Tararaehe, Hristu H. Vanghele, Vanghele Hristu Hagi, Gheorghe Ta~u Stavrositu, Maru~a H. Bizaeu, Gheorghe St. Naum, laneu N. Tutungiu, Mihail N. Tutungiu, Ta~u V. Stavrositu, Athanase D. Varza, Dumitru Ath. Varza, Gheorghe Atanase Varza, Steriu M. Ergoveanu, Mihail St. M. Ergoveanu, Ta~u M. Ergoveanu, Enaehe St. Mitru, Tudora At. N. Gu~u, Mihale Caranica, Panait Hristu Vanghele, Vanghele P. Hristu, laneu St. Stavrositu, Mi~u Gh. Caraiane, Constantin Papa Gheorghe, Nicolae Constantin Papa Gheorghe, Constantin I. Gana, Nicolae Costa Gana, Athanase St. Papazica, Ta~u Gh. Stavrositu, laneu Gh. Bitu, Vasile Gh. Stavrositu, laneu V. Stavrositu, Atanase Constantin Chiata, laneu N. Be~inicu, Nicolae I. Be~inicu. Dumitru St. Pipi, Nicolae Ghe. Boz Constantin, Stere St. Be~inicu, Tudora Atanase St. Grasu, Nicolae Ghe. Cu~u, Dumitru Ghe. Bitu, Hristu St. Naum, Nicolae M. Caranica, Mihail Gh. Casapu, Apostol Gh. Casapu, Anton I. Cote, Steriu I. Cote, Gheorghe Dardani, Dumitru C. Babu, Maria C. Constantin, Mihail St. Ergoveanu, laneu St. Grasu, Steriu I. St. Grasu, Gheorghe Damu Canciu, Enaehe D. Canciu, Stila D. Canciu, Hristu D. Mataranga, Gaehe St. Mataranga, lanu~ Gh. Ergoveanu, Vasile Dumitru Pipi, Gheorghe D. Damu, Vasile Ath. St. Papazica. 1

2. Comuna Carali,jud. Caliacra. Loealitati:Sandu Aldea, Bagdali, Ciamurliile ~iCarali.
laneu M. Posnava, Paris Gh. Stere, Sterie M. Sterie, Enaehe Gh. Bu~u, Dimu St. Franeu, Cat. Mihale Siret, Dinea I. Goga, Gheorghe M. Siret,
l.Toti (63 capi de familie) colonizati in comuna Cainargeaua "Jumalul COllsiliului de MilliSlri". nr. 1283. Micii. judo Durostor. cf.

60

-

Macedo-aromilnii dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromanialls

ill Dobrudja

Nicolae Gh. Bujdoveanu, Dinea Stere M., Dumitru E. Pastrama, Gheorghe E. Pastrama, Panait N. Pasat, Mihale St. Malin, Tu~a Stere Malin, Nicolae St. Malin, Costa Mihale, Dimciu Chiparu~, laneu M. Darlaiani, Enaehe Ghe. Cioe, Panait Stere Bajdu, Gheorghe St. Bajdu, Steriu Gh. Bajdu, Mihail St. Bajdu, Dimu M. Papaz, Gheorghe Costa P~7;banela, Dumitru Costa Bazbanela, Dinca M. Haliti, Nicolae Culaesaz, Panait N. Culaesaz, Sterghiu Nasta, Mihail N. Araciu, Nicolae St. Arapi, Atanase D. Siret, Costa N. Bujdoveanu, Gheorghe C. Bujdoveanu, Constantin N. Bujdoveanu, Maria N. Bujdoveanu, Petre Trifu Militaru, Atanase Gh. Calcida, Nicolae Sapira, Dumitru N. Sapira, Trifu I. Militaru, Enaehe Dindi Cioe, Gheorghe Enaehe Cioe, Dimu Stila Giagiu, Stere Enaehe Gheorghe, Dinca laneu laneu, Dimu N. Dimeiea, Zoita Gh. Hr. Dimeidi, Gheorghe laneu Dimeica, Pascal D. Gheorghe, Stere Gh. Mantu, Gheorghe Steriu Mantu, Nicolae Atanase Calcida, Atanase N. Caleida, Stila Dimu Giagiu, laneu H. Panait, Timu laneu Dimeiea, laneu Gh. Dimeiea, Hristu laneu Dimeica, Steriu Nicolae Dimcidl, Sotir Atanase Calaigi, Nicolae Gh. Ueiu, Sultana Gh. Ueiu, Gheorghe HI. Dimeica, Dimu Hr. Dimciea, Maria HI. Dimciea, Dumitru Hagi Costa, Mi~u Gh. Siret, Mi~u Dimu Gheorghe, Maria Dimu Cutumi~, Sterghiu D. Dimeiea, Dimu Gheorghe, laneu M. Sapira, Maru~a Mihail. 2

3. LoealitateaChesegic - comuna Bairam Bunar

- Caliacra,

Costa N. Pistalu, Stere Gh. St. Barzu, laneu St. Barzu, mo~tenitorii defunetului Nieolae St. laneu (Chirata, Sterghiu ~i Zoita), laneu St. laneu~, Sterie Mihail, Dimu St. Tanase, St. Barzu, Costa St. laneu~, Nicolae Granzula, Stoian St. laneu~, Sterie laneu~, laneu C. Galana, Ta~u St. Barzu, Costa C. Mueeanu, Hristu M. Anton, Dimu C. Samata, Chirata Gh. Bozu, Dumitru St. Caraba~u, Stere D. Caraba~u, Nicolae CaramihaIe, Dumitru N. CaramihaIe, Atanase St. Dadaciu, Sterghiu Tasi Cale~, Hristu St. Carabasu, laneu D. Caraba~u, Dimu Polihrom laneu, Dumitru laneu
2. Toli 76 colonizali pe raza comunci Corali,jud. Mi"i$lri". nr. 1284. Caliacra, cf. "fllmallll COII.5ililllui de

61

- ---

-- -

--

-

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OTILIA PACl:.'A

Caraba~, Sterie Ta~u Barzu, Hristu Gh. Mueeanu, Ta~u St. Dadaeiu, Gheorghe Ta~u Barzu, Gheorghe Dimu Samata. Gheorghe Mihai Caraba~, Gheorghe C. Pi~talu, Ta~u St. Cale~u, Mihail Andon, Vasile Mihai Zisu, Mihai M. Zisu, Zisu Mihale Zisu, laneu M. Zisu, Gheorghe N. lane, laneu Gh. VangheIici, Nieolae St. Hagi, Costa laneu Sapera, St. Dumitru Beaciu, Tanase Gh. Frangu, Gheorghe Dumitru Frangu, Costa Dumitru Frangu, Nieolae Costa Hagi, Gheorghe laneu Sapera, laneu Gh. Beaciu, Dumitru N. Hagi Stere, Stere Gh. Vanghelici, Costa Dimu Hagi, Stere laneu Vangheliei, Gheorghe D. Costa Franeu, laneu Gh. Sapera, Gheorghe I. Sterie, Stere I. Stere, Enaehe Stere Enaehe, Nieolae D. Beadu, Paris Stere Enaehe, Gheorghe Paris St. Enaehe, Nicolae Paris St. Enaehe, Costa laneu Beadu, Steriu Gh. Bude~u, Costa St. Bude~u, Sterie Arghir Bageva, Constantin Stere Arghir Bageva, Gh. St. Ceaeu, Costa Gh. Bude~u, Sotir Dumitru Calaigi, lanu~ Sreda (nume rar, n.n.), Mihail C. Jiru, Naida Dima C. Bude~, Gheorghe D. Calaigi, Dumitru Mantu, Dima Gh. D. Calagi, Chirata C. Jiru, Nicea laneu Mantu, Dimciu A. Bageva, Stere Mihail Zisu, Nicolae lane Zisu, laneu St. Caramihale, Paris N. Caraba~u.3

4. LoealitateaRegele Mihai - com una Alfatar - Durostor.
Nicolae Hristu Hristu, Dimeea Sterghiu Mihu, zis Lieu, Gheorghe N. Samargiu, Mihai P. Patoni, Mita Costa Vaiu (rar, n.n.), Sotir St. Birzu, Enaehe St. Zahu, Costica Atanase Ghita, Constantin St. Vaseu, Gheorghe I. Simiti, N.N. Geogea, Hristu St. Seoea (foarte rar sau transmis eronat), Nicolae laneu Caciu, Nasta Tu~u Nasta, Gheorghe St. Va~eu, Sterie N. Celnicu, Sterie St. Stefan zis Tefa, Atanase laneu Ghila, Zoila Sotir Patoni, Arsene D. Gogea, Nicolae D. Grasu, orlanii: Gheorghe D. Grasu, Stere D. Grasu; Constantin Gh. Ghila, laneu Gh. Ghila, Nicolae Gh. GhWi, Atanase N. G. Ghila, Tanase Gh. laneu, Stere I. lanu~, Nicolae lanu~ Nicolae, Costa N. Vrseanu, Nicolae C. Vrseanu, Mihai Stere loan, Stere Mihai loan, Nicolae Atanase Nata, Nieolae Dima zis Candara,
3. Toli 85 colonizati in COlluna Bairam-Bunar,jud. de Ministri", nr. 1285. 62 Caliacra, cr. "JlImallll Consi/illllli

--

- - - -

r
Macedo-aromli"i; dobroge"i

.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dobrudja

Nicolae St. Caramaci (probabil Caramiciu), orfan;;: Ta5CUSt. Damu, Gheorghe St. Damu Zica; Gheorghe St. Celnicu, Stere Gh. Celnicu, Gheorghe N. Celnicu, Dindi N. Celnicu, Enache Gh. Nicea, Nicolae E. Mortu, Stere Atanase Ghita.4

5. Comuna Asfatchioi - Durostor.
Maria St. Giaca, Hristu I. Papa Constantin, Sterie T. Camburu, Sterie N. Nasta, Gheorghe St. Zicu, Constanntin N. G. Pulpa, Gh. St. Giaca, Constantin Hr. Giaca, Hristu St. Giaca, Gheorghe St. Pulpa, Gheorghe St. Bica, Foti D. Bica, loan N. Buidi, Constantin N. Nasta, Gheorghe D. Muia, loan St. Giaca, Mihail St. Candu, Dumitru Gh. Caraulani, Stere D. Muia, Hristu D. Giugiumica, Chirata I. Nasta, Dumitru M. Culina, loan M. Epure, Constantin N. Zarcu, Gheorghe St. Alexe, Costa I. Caraulani, Maria St. Hr. Zicu, Ion Hristu Papa Constantin, Dumitru St. Giaca, Nicolae C. Bica, Constantin I. Bica, Sterie Mavrocapa, Dumitru Baca, Nicolae St. Fuica, Zoita N. Caraulani, Athanase Tulica, Dumitru A. Tulica, Gheorghe D. Nicolae, Mihail St. Zicu, Ganuea Paris Stere, Ganuea C. Paris, Bala N. Athanase, Nicolae St. Popa Dumitru, Constantin A. Alexe, Dafa A. Alexe, Ion Hr. Zicu, Maria M. Culina, Gheorghe C. Giugiumica, Nicolae D. Culina, Gheorghe T. Gramci, Hristu Premciu, Nicolae St. Giugiumica, Gheorghe St. Condu, Anastasia E. Pa5ata, Constantin Hristu Zicu, Dumitru N. Baniota, Nicolae St. Baniota, Sterie M. Samara, Sterie C. Paris. Constantin St. Paris, Sterie M. Caracostea, Ghizari Mihail, Ghizari loan, Pala St. Dumitru, Premciu C. Nicolae, Stere E. Pa~ata, Petre I. Zicu, Nicolae Bala, Constantin M. Manacu, Stere D. Samara, Sunda Gh. Babagian, Sterie Ghe. Pulpa, Sultana St. Gica. Hristu N. Caraulani, Nicolae Hristu Caraulani, Sterie Hr. Giaca, Constantin St. Giaca, Apostol G. Toda, Sterie A. Toda, Vanghele A. Buidi, Maria St. Buicli. 5

4. Toti 46 din comuna Alfatar,jud. 5. Toate
cf."Jl/rna/ul

Durostor, cf."Jl/malul

COllsiliului de MilliSlri", nr. 1286. Asfatchioi, judo Durostor,

accste

familii

au fosl colonizale
nr. 1287.

in comuna

COllsilillllli

de M;IIiSlri",

63

-----

NlCOLAE

CUSA

.

OT/L/A PACEA

6. Stana

- Cadaru,

com. Hasi-Kioseler,jud.

Caliacra.

Mihail Andon Cota, Anton Nic. Gana, Vasile Iancu Sarafu, lancu, Nicolae Gana, Mihail I. Gana, Andon M. Cota, Stere Iancu Derdene, Iancu Derdene, Tasu M. Muha, Panait Atanase Gana, Nicolae Atanase Gana, Gheorghe Atanase Gana, Nicolae Tasu Constantin, minorii defunctului Tasu Constantin (Tanasi), Gheorghe Gh. lanus, Costa St. Dimu Stere, Gh. Dimceara, Mihail Gh. Panait, lancu Gh. Panait, Stere Gh. PanaH, mostenitorii dcfunctului Mihail Tasu Muha, (Tasu si Gheorghe).6

7. Susuchioi, comuna Ceairlighiol, judo Caliacra.
Chirata Gh. Costa, Dumitru Costa Pelican, Stere Gh. Mihai, Mihail Niculae, Nicolae Damu, Zisu Stere, Stere Eftimie Nicea, Costea St. Gula, Stere N.N. Dimcea, Gheorghe E. Joiaa, Nicea Eft. Nicea, Iani Mitra zis Dumitru, Elena Dumitru, Nicolae St. Dimciu, Stere C. Pelican, Gheorghe C. Pelican, Nicolae St. Fudulu, Stere D. Pungaru, Gheorghe Eft. Nicea, Mihalache C. C., Gheorghe N. Bencu, Stere N. Garofil, Gheorghe St. Pelican, Dimu St. Papazica, Iancu C. Pelican, Nicolae Gh. Mihai, Stere C. Gula, Nicolae St. Beciu, Stere N. Beciu, Stere N. Biscu, Misu N. Grasu, Atanase M. Grasu, Costa Pelicanu, Gheorghe St. Calanciu, Eftemie Niciu, Dimu M. Mihail, Nicolae Gheorghe.?

8. Garvan Cioara comuna Garvan Cioara,jud. Durostor.
Anastase N. Hagi Vretta, Nicolae Anastase, N. Hagivretta, Gheorghe D. Gica, Dumitru Gh. Gica, Nicolae Dospra, Gheorghe Dospra, Gheorghe Dospra, Constantin N. Hagivreua, Dumitru Hagivreua, Ion Stere Tica,
6. Toate aceste familii au fost colonizate in centrul Stana-Cadaru, cf. "Jllrnoll/I Consilil/illide Millislri", nr. 1288. 7. Toale cele 37 de familii au fost c%nizatc in Susuchioi, cf. "JI/motlll Consililltlli de MiniSlri". nr. 1289. 64

J

Macedo-aromanii

dobrngell;

.

The Macedo-Aromonians

in Dobrudja

Sultana Stere Tica, Constantin G. Sotie, Jon C. Sotir, Sterie Gh. Sotir, Ion Stere Gheara Coslea, Stefan I. Ciimiciu, Mihail Dida Ciirniciu, Tache Gh. Ciimiciu, Constantin Gh. Hagivretta, Tiim!sp. h. SOlir,Tascu Gh. Sotir, Stere G Nicolae Hagivrelta, Dumitru Tica, Naum I. Hagivretta, Sterie Naum Hagivreua, Constantin Naum Hagivretta, Constantin r. Ciara, Nicolae C. Ciara, Foti N. Bisir, Nicolae Foti Bisir, Gheorghe Foti Ihsir, Nicolae D. Popa, Hrislu A. Hagivrelta, Mihail Cudela, Mihail St. Solir, Dumitru Gh. C. Culerda, Tascu Gh. Culerda, Tascu Gh. Culerda, Gheorghe D. Culerda, Zoita St. Culerda, Maria N. Hagivrelta, Constantin Tica Tica, Gheorghe Nicolae Hagivreua, Nicolae Gh. Hagivrp-ua,Dimciu St. Umona, Sterie D. Umona, Vancea Musi Baturi, Sterie Costa Naum, Nicolae D. Culerda, Panait M. Gilep, laneu Costa Mihu, Dima Zicu Miliu, Costa Zicu Mihu, Zicu Gogu Mihu, Anaslase Ianaehe Pala, Mihail Musu, Gheorghe Nieolae Musa, Maria Dumitru Beli, Sterie Tas!:u Hagivrett:t, Chirata Tascu Hagivreua, Gheorghe Tasa Hagivreua, Nicolae TascH Hagivrettf1,Zisll Costa Sutar, Dumitru Costa Gogu, Costa Gogu Mihu, Agora DumitJll Aida, Dumilru Nicolae Hagivreua. Constantin Dumitru Hagivretta, Constantin D. Culerda, Mihail Gh. Guli, Constantin M. Parpodi, Nicolae Gh. Solir, Rnache Misu Pala.8 9. Gargalac, comuna GargaU\c,jud. CaHacn~. Ion Gh. Dela, Pelre Ciabuca, Gheorghe.A. Vuma, Slere Blacioti, Hrislu M. Manaculi, Slerie Armcanu, Ion D. DeJa, Ghp.orgheD. Buzbuchi, Dumill1l Buzbuchi. Ion D. Buzbuchi, Sterie Gil. Viana, Nicolae P. Ceara, Petre N. Ceara, Sterie Bucovala, Ion SI. BUl~ovaJa, Oumilru Gh. Vrana, Eftimie Gh. Darlacoti, Gula D. Condulimazi, Sleric D. Condulimazi, Ion Gil. Condulimazi, Dumilru Gh. Condulimazi, Gheorghe A. Armeanu, Anton D. Dela, Nicolae Dela, Nicolae Dela Dumitru Dela, Pavel Duchin, Alexe Grosu, Pavel milan, Sima Balan, Adam S. Balan, Maria D. Muzache, DumilrUG. Carafoli, Nicolae G. Carafoli, Anaslase G. CariJJoJi,Sterie P Vrana,'}
8. Toale 73 de familii au fost colonilate "Jurna/III Consili"l"i de Mini$lri", nr. 1290. III comuna Garvall Cioara. judo DuroSlor. cf ConsiliI/III; d€'

9. Toale cele 36 de familii au fost colrmi7.I1!I' in Gargaliic, cf. "Jumallll Mil/i.Wi" ,nr. 1291.

6<;

---

---

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OTlLlA PACl:.A

10. Antimova. comuna Sarighiol,jud.

Durostor.

Mihail D. Paja, Ion M. Paja, Gheorghe D. Paja, Sterie D. Paja, Sterie Gh. Pala. Nieolac D. Paja. Petre BuicJiu, Maria Gh. BUlcJm{In lext: treeUt grel;iitBlIichiliu 1)iBlIiehiuJ, Sultana A. Buicliu, Mihail Bazarghea, Dumitru Stere Barba, Ion T. Costidi. Petre I. Cucot (trecut in text: Coco!), Petre Ion Barba, Gheorghe N. Hagicu, Gheorghe I. Barba, Gheorghe N. Beiu. Stere Oh. Hngu, Despa M. Nebi, Ion Lazar Nebi, Nicola D. Brozi, Vanghea St. Gheorghe, Nicolae Dumitru Beiu, Tasu N. Beiu, Ion Dumitru Brol.i, Stere Athanase Costidi, Costea St. Anagnosti (in text Nagnosti), Ta!)u Ion Cueot, DumiLruBrozi, Ion Tascu Cueot, Lazar D. Nebi.1O 11. Regina Maria, comuna Calipetrova,jud. Durostor. Hristu T. Dima, Tanase Vanghele, Tache Nastu, Alexe B. Vanghele, Hristu Docu, Aristide Atanse Dima, Vanghele Teja, Vad. Atena L. Teja, Tacu Mustaca (in text Mustece), Vall Vasiliehia Meca, Vad Nata St. Bardu,
Gheorghe D. Maca (in text trecut gresit

-

Mike), Atanase Fati (in text Fate),

Vad Zoita N. Stilu, Dionisie StiJu. Vanghele N. StiJu, Stelian Sp. Teja, Gica Steriu, Dumitru Bid, Toma B. Batu (In text: Batu), Vall Anghela Ap. Batu, mostenitorii lui Chirata Batu-Nicola, Dumitru Gh. Batu))

12. Srebarna, comuna Srebarna, judo Durostor. Petre DU 'tru Baciu, Gheorghe Nicola Colin, Dimu Taneiu Resa, Dimu Avram Isa, Gh orghe Dumitru Cionchi, Gheorghe Strase Ciolac, Dumitru Vasile Manca, umitru Peiu Lola, Dumitru A. Bandula, Dumitru Dumitru Deliman, Dio 'sie Gheorghe Zloici, Stefan Dumitru Hogea, Petre Zlate

~
~

10. Toate ce 31 de familii au fost colonizatc in Antimova, com. Sarighiol. COllsiliului de Milli$ ri", nr. 1292.

cf. "Jumalul

II. Toti 23, lonizati in cenlrUl Regina Maria, com. Calipctrova. de Millistri", nr. 129 .

cf. "Jumalul COllsiliu/ui

66

--

---

r
Macedo-aromiinii dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

Paituti, Dumitru Dima Vicica, Gheorghe Dumitru Dufta, Hristu Nicolae Colin, Donca Stefan Azahore, Stanca Stavre Hogea, Dumitru Stavre Figa, Petre Stavre Murgea, loan Buju Cricea, Vasile Anagnoste (in text Agnanoste) Profir, Dumitru Dima Cricea, Stamina Duniitru Colin, Petre Vasile Vanoc, Dumitru Anastase Ida, Atanase Tanciu Bota, Nicolae S..a Rada, Gheorghe Sava Rada (in text; Radu) Pena Atanase St. Pota, Maria D. Ecea, Petre Atanase Velcu, Gheorghe Anastase Bandula (in text Bondela), Petre Stefan Zahore, Tanase Gh. Munichi, Zlata Atanase Macri, Gheorghe loan Viciea, loan St. Gagute.12

13. Vetrina, comuna Vetrina,jud. Durostor. Gheorghe N. Puia, Nicolae St. Puia, Gheorghe Foti Titu, Costa Foti Titu, Stere Nicolae Cuturela, Alexandru N. Cuturela, Anastase N. Catain (posibil Hataim), Gheorghe St. Cuturela, Stere N. Puia, Hristu I. Mangiuchi, Gheorghe Dumitru Barzache (in text trecut gre1;>it ardache), Dumitru B Gheorghe Barzache, Tascu I. laneu, Nicolae Stere, Toscu Gheorghe, T01;>cU Gogu Stere, Dumitru Gh. Toscu, Stere Toscu, Sultana Toscu, Tascu T. Nicolae, Stere Vasile, Zica Vasile, Stere M. Ecea, Tasa Stere Toza, Zica Nicolae Costa, Sterie Nicolae Costa, Dumitru Nicolae Costa, Foti Stere Toza, Dumitru Gh. Todi, Stere Nicolae Adam, Nicolae Adam Adam, Nicolae Mina (in text Mino) Ecea, Zurzu Gh. Mina, Stere Gh. Zurzu, Costa C. Naca, Naca Goga, Zica C. Saban, Steriu C. Saban, Stere Gheorghe Barzache (in text Varzache), Dumitru Stere Barzache, Nicolae Stere Barzache, Naum Mihail, Mihail Costa, Naum Chirata, Costa Naum Chirata, Mihail T. Gheorghe, Elena Stere Zardova (in text Zardava), Atanase Gheorghe, Agora Mihail, Ion Costa Chirata, Lambru Costa Cherata, Gheorghe Stere Sanuti, Agurita M. Costa, N. Adam, Ion I. Somu, Nicolae Gh. Gheorghe, Gheorghe lanciu Misiricu, Hristu Dumitru Stere, Dumitru Hristu Hristu, Nicolae Gh. Papacu (in text Popacu), Sotir Costa Gheorghe, Gheorghe lancu Deda, Pepa St. Sameti, Nicolae St. Sameti, Mina Ecea, Stere Regiu, Nicolae Dimu
12. Toli 39, coJoni7.ati in Srebiima mcglcniti. cr. "1l1mallll Consilill/lli de Minis/ri", nt. 1294. Sunt

; .

67

---

--

----

NICOLAE

CU:jA

.

OTIUA PACEA

Gheorghe, Nicolae Stere Sguma, Vasile Costa Cutuli, Nicolae V. Costa, Tache N. Cariola, Gheorghe Tache Cariola, Stere Dumitru Cariola, Dumitru Costa Gheorghe, Chirata Cuturela, Nicolae Stere Baturi, Gheorghe Costa Gheorghe, Sultana N. Costa.I3

14. Sahangi, comuna Enigea,jud. Caliacra. Mihai Dumitru Tu~a, Nicolae lanache P~a, Nicolae Hagi Mihail, lancu C. Pa~a, Sultana C. Pa~a, Gheorghe D. Babu, Nic. Constantin P~a, Gheorghe M. Tararache, Nicolae E. Caramihale, Enache Caramihale (in text Cara Mihale), Steriu I. CaramihaIe, Hristu I. Tararache, Costa I. Tararache, Steriu I. Tararache, Apostol D. Tararache, Steriu Dumitru Tu~a, Gheorghe D. Tararache, Ion Ghe. Dona. 14

15. Baltagiu Nou, com. Baltagiu Nou, judo Durostor. Harila losif, Cristache Canebina, Cristea Tanase, Vasile Tone, Fila Tone, Tanase Ilie Barda, Vanghele Ilie Barda, Constantin Buza, Mihai Constantin Buza, Haralambie D. Vanghele, Leon Vasile, Sotir Vasile Nicea, loan Gu~i, Vera P. Pocea, Vanghele Ciuciu, Simion P. Pocea, Tache S. Gare (in text Gara), Andu~a S. Gare, Simion loan Tica, Marina Gare, lane Tase Gare, Mihail Zisu Smina, Petre Rovina, Sotir Rovina, Simion Rovina, Lazar Ni~cu, loan Constantin, Vera Spiru Sotir, Tofa Tru~i, Gheorghe Ndoti, Sotir Pihon, Elisabeta Hristu, Filip Banu, Tase Nicola, Grigore Bora, loan Ceciu, Marcu Lazar, Naum Tarziu (in text Naum Terziu), Cociu Tarziu, loan Tarziu, Nicolae Tarziu, Lazar Mihai Tarziu, Vanghele Stefan, Constantin Ilie Barda. 15
13. Toti (capi de familie), 78 colonizati in Vetrina, cf. "Jumalul COllsiliulu;de MilliSlri", nr.1295. 14. Toti 18 au fost colonizati in Sahangi, com. Enigea, judo Caliacra, cf. "Jurnalul
COlI$iliului de Ministri", or. 1296. 15. Toti 44, colonizati in BaJtagiu Nou,jud. Durostor, cf. "Jumalul Consiliului de Ministri", nr. 1298. 68

r

Macedo-aromiinii

dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

16. Samson, comuna Bairam-Bunar,jud.

Caliacra.

Dumitru Gheorghe, Dimciu N. Arnaut, Gheorghe V. Gheorghe, Vasile Gh. Vasile, Costa N. Arnaut, Enaehe N. Arna'" , Gh. N. Arnaut, Dima Gh. Cueu, Stefan N. Amaut, Nicolae D. Amaut, laneu N. Ghizdaru, Stere Gh. Vasile. 16

17. Suneci, comuna Fr~ari, judo Durostor. Sotir Seandu, Hristu Nicola, Pandele Dumitru Chepa,17

18.Elibei,comuna Gargalac,jud. Caliacra.
Gheorghe St. Armeanu, Ilie Armeanu, Anastasia N. Ciuea, Sofia N. Ciuea, I. St. Panaia (in text Paenirea), Taehe I. Panaia, Zoita Ha:>oti(in text Ha:>ioti),Dumitru Ha:>oti,Ion N. Ciuea.18

19. Matlamora (Matlanova) com. Ezibei,jud. Caliacra. Zoita Mihail Paeea, Nicolae George, I. Mamolita, Hristu Spiru Paeea, Aristide Hristu Paeea, Hristu Chendra Paeea, Costa N. Daia. 19

20. Baraclar, comuna Hasi Kioseler, judo Caliacra. Hristu laneu Mandila, viiduva Maria a lui laneu MandiHi, Stere laneu
16. Toti 12, colonizati in centrul Samson, com. Bairam-Bunar, judo Caliacra, cr. "Jurnalul Consiliului de Minis/ri", or. 1299. 17. 3 Eamilii coJonizate in Suncci, Durostor, cf. "fllrnallli COllSililllui de Ministri", or. 1301. 18. Toti 9, colonizati in Elibei, cE. "iurnallll Consiliullli de Ministri", or. 1302. 19. Toti 7 colonizati.in Matlanoya. cf. "illmallll Consi/illlui de Mini,wi", or. 1307.

69

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OTlUA PACEA

MandiHi, Dumitru Miindila, Gheorghe Dumitru MandiUi,Dinca TU$aGoga, Dumitru Stere TU$a,Stere Enaehe BU$u,Gheorghe Mihail Gana, Gheorghe Costa Zicu, Dimciu Stila BU$u,Dimu Dimciu BU$u,Nicolae Gh. Mandila, vaduva Ecaterina a Iui Gheorghe Mandila, Nieolae Costa ZicU20.

21. Gramostea, comuna Caraorman,jud.

Durostor.

Nicolae V. Gumeni, Stere N. Delieoti, Gheorghe Stere Zaroha, Stere C. Gargale, Gheorghe I. Bebe, Hristu Stere Zaruha, Ion A. Dasealina, Ion Stere Vasile, Gherghe M. Carali, Panait Gh. Novae, Mihai St. Bajdeehi, Tiinase Gh. Dasealina, Nicolae A. Bajdeehi, Vasile N. Delieoti, Constantin N. Delieoti, Ion St. Bajdeehi, Gheorghe D. Vasile, Foti C. Bajdeehi, Anastase St. Gargali, Maria D. Galani, Stere D. Galani. Nicolae St. Tahu, Stere D. Stavian, Nicolae I. Arava, Ion Gh. Bebe, Nicolae Gh. Stambuli (in text Stamboli), Maria I. Stavian, Gheorghe N. Stambuli, Hristu Gh. Somu, Stere Gh. Bajdeehi, Ion D. Bica, Anton Papaeostea (in text Papa Costea), Gheorghe I. Stavian, Sotir I. Arava, Tului Cioci, Constantin D. Catara, Gheorghe St. Danti, Stere N. Ghizare, Stere Gh. Danti, Taehe Gh. Vasilea, Dumitru Gh. Dante, Gheorghe M. Milion, Vasile I. Arava, Nicolae I. Bajdechi, Gheorghe Delieoti, Stere Costa Vasile, Nicolae Ghizare, Nicolae Gh. Zaroha, Gheorghe N. Caticu, Gheorghe St. Somu, Hristu N. Bola. 21

22. Cainargeaua Midi,jud. Durostor. Gheorghe I. Mina, Ianeu Gh. Mina, Ianeu Caraman, Stere I. Caraman, Stere I. Iorgoveannu, Hristu N. GU$U,Vasile N. GU$U,Vasile N. GU$U, Nicolae Farmason, Gheorghe I. Caraman.22

20. Toti 15, colonizati

in Baraclar

cf. "illroollli

COIISilillllli de Millis/ri",

nr. 1308.

21. Toti 51, colonizati in Gramostea, com. Caraorman, judo Durostor, cf. "illmallli COllsilil/llli de MiIl4/ri", nr. I301. 22. Toti 10, colonizati in Canargeaua Midi, judo Durostor, cf. "illmallli COllsilil/llli de Minis/ri",nr.1309.

70

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogeni.

Tire Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

23. Zarnici

- comuna

Cainargeaua Micii,jud. Durostor.

Mihail St. Popescu, Misu Dumitru Arghir, Mihail Timu, Constantin St. Popescu, Athanase Mihale Timu, Nicolae St. Calispf'I.', Stere Constantin Popescu, Gheorghe D. Gm;u, Atanase Dumitru Sanchi, Dumitru Gh. Gusu, Panait D. Constantin, Mihale N. Casapu, Tosu N. Casapu, Gheorghe Vasile Frasteni, mostenitorii Vasile Frasteni - Gheorghe si Maria, lancu Osta Badeca, mostenitorii Niciu Darlaiani-Dumitru, Gheorghe Costea, Dumitru Costea, Iancu T. BucovaHi (in text trecut - eronat - Bucosala), Stere Constantin Stamatu (in text Stamato), Constantin I. Puflene (in text Pufliane), Enache (in text Ebache) V. Rafti, Elena V. Rafti, Mihale V. Rafti, Gheorghe T. Constantin, Paris Const. Constantin, Sirma Enache Constantin, Vasile Tanase Cionga, Nicolae Tanase Cionga, Vasile Dumitru Caluda, Nicolae M. Huleanu, Caluda D. Dumitru, Steriu Gh. Narciu.23

24. Aptat, comuna Camilaru,jud.

Caliacra.

Sterghiu Costa Badeca (in text Bodeca), Mihail Costa Badeca, Ion Stere Badeca, Mihale Stere Badeca, Stere Atanase Zgura, lancu Atanase Zgura, Atanase Hristu Zgura, Nicolae Atanase Zgura, Nicolae Atanase Zgura, Nicolae M. Papaz (in text Popaz), Hristu A. Zgura, Dumitru Barzu, Dinca Barzu, Nicolae Gh. Rodache (trecut in text Rosache), Gheorghe Nicolae Rodache, Gheorghe Papazica, Nicolae Ad. Cartali, Stere Gheorghe Misilaricu (in text Miselerica), lanus Atanase Stere, Atanase Stere Cutu, Stere Atanase Cutu, Stere Atanase Cutu, Gheorghe Stere Misilaricu, Hristu Misilaricu, Stere Hristu Misilaricu, Stere Gheorghe Fuduli (in text Foduli), Gheorghe Stere Fuduli, Adam Cartuna (in text Cortuna), Gheorghe Ciirtuna, Hristu Cartuna, Stere Atanase, Dumitru Carapit, loan Carapit, Sterghiu Guli, lancu Guli, Vasile I. Zeana (in text Zana), Nicolae C. Nicolae, minorul loan Dimu I. Zata, Dumitru Rodache, Dumitru Mih. Libus, lancu
23. TOli 34, colonizali in Zamici, com. Cainargeaua MilliSlri",nr.1311. Midi, cf. "ii/roolill Consilillilli de

71

NICOLAE

CU$A

.

OTILIA PACEA

Mih. Libus, Nieolae Mih. LibuS, Stere Carapali, (in text Carpoli), Paris Gh. Turilingu, Stere Tala, loan Tala, Tanase Stere Suflaru, Sterghiu Suflaru, Dimu St. Rida, Gheorghe Rida, Mihail Gh. Rodaehe, Hristu Fuduli, Nieolae Gh. Stila (in text Stoila), Tasu Stere Tasente, Costa Tasu Tasente, Gheorghe Tasu Tasente, Stere Caluda, Gheorghe Adam, Stere Adam, Ion Adam, Costa Rida, Atanase Rida, laneu C. Sadiea.24

25. Dorgut-Calfa,jud.

Caliacra.

Tudor Gheta, Vasile P. Goga.25

26. Centrele: Hardali, Parul Caprei, Alexandria ~i Bagd. Ciamurli comuna Hardali,jud. Caliacra

-

Atanase Constantin Tararaehe, Atanase Tararaehe, Dimu Constantin Mareu (in text Mereu), Stere Ta1;leu Gavuna, Sterghiu (in texte apar adeseori Sterghi) Gh. Sponte, Dumitru Gh. Sponte, Gheorghe Sponte, Panaiot Gh. Gheorghe, Gheorghe loti, Stere loti, Dinca Stere Sponte, Stere Mihail Saeu. Dumitru Mihail Saeu, Gheorghe Enache (in text Enate) Goga, Andon Stere Rida, Vasile Vlahbei, Mihail Dindi Rida Samara, Dindi Stere Rida, loan Culeafa (in text Coleafa), Dimu Gh. Samara, (in text Damava), Anton V. Butu, laneu G. lanu1;I,Dumitru C-tin lurgali, laneu G. Ciolaehi (in text Ciolati), Gheorghe laneu lanu1;l,M01;lt. anghele Giugica (in text Giogiea), V Atanase Stere lanu1;l, heorghe Atanase lanu1;l, heorghe N. lanu1;l, inca C. G G D Gdiniceanu, laneu Stere lanus, Arghir St. Grosu, Sterghiu A. Grosu, Dumitru Stere Grasu, Stere D. Grosu, Constantin D. Grosu, Dumitru A. Grasu, Nicolae laneu lanu1;l,Gheorghe At. Paris, Dumitru Vanghele Butu, Stere Gh. lanu1;l,Gheorghe C. Petu, Stere C. Petu, Constantin Anagnoste, laneu Anagnoste (in text Anagnosti), Stere I. Maica, Mihail Stere Mihalica, Stere I. Bacula, Stere laneu Moseu, Stere Donea Nurciu (in text Nurici),
24. Toti 63, (In text suntanunlatiIn preambuJ coJonizaliIn CamiJaru(in text eronat 61) Ciilirnaru),cf. "illrnallll Consililllllide Ministri", nr. 1311. 25. Cf. "illrnallll Consililllllide Ministri", nr. 1304. 72

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogeni

.

Tile Macedo-Aromanialls

ill Dobrudja

Mihail D. Nurciu, Gheorghe Mega, Nicolae St. BucovaHi (in text Bucova), Gheorghe I. Burgheana, Panait M. Anagnoste, Constantin G. Bu~u, lancu Gh. Bu~u, Atanase St. Mihalidi (in text Mihalica), Mihail Gh. Sighi, Mihail St. Mihiilidi II, Gheorghe I. Mi~caca (in text Masaca), Nicolae I. Mi~aca, Constantin D. Moscu, Minorii D-trii Moscu (Mihale ~i ~.faria), Dumitru P. Titu, Panai D-tru Titu, Alexandru Titu, Costa Zelca, Vasile C. Zelca, Tiinase C. Zelca, Nicolae Gh. Butcaru, Gheorghe N. Butcaru, Hristu Chendra (in text Chendru) Zelca, Atanase Chendra Zelca, Mihail Chendra Zelca, Dumitru Chendra Zelca, Nicolae Gh. Lenu, Nicolae At. Carabuz, Gheorghe At. Carabuz, Mihail M. Tu~a, Costa Hristu Petru, Stere Mihale Costara, Vasile M. Costara, Gheorghe lanachi Nucci, Enachi Nurci, Costa Vasile Enge (in text Euge) Vasile Costa Enge, Stere Vasile Enge, Tanase Bafane.26 27. Centrele: Prisecani, HamanHic (in text Harmanlac) ~i Melecler, comuna Prisecani,jud. Caliacra. Tiinase St. Vlahbei, Const. Ap. Ghernechi, Mihail At. Vlahbei, Atanase I. Naciadis, Gheorghe At. Vlahbei, Maria Costa Naciadis, Gh. En Caracostea, Sterie Const. Vlahbei, lani Costa Mola, lancu At. Vlahbei, Sultana I. Caracostea, Hristu C. Dalamita, Costa Dalamita, Costa At. Vlahbei, Chirata At. Vlahbei, lancu Sterie Vlahbei, Agora V-Ie Sapera, Stere E. Muhtare, Vasile Bachera, Stefan Bo~cu, loan Bonciocat, Tudor Bibu, Pavel Burie, Gheorghe Burie, Aurel Be~u, Cuzana Bachera, Gheorghe Rofa, Pavel Floca, Aron BO~CU.27 28. Capaclia,jud. Durostor. Hristu N. Ghiul, Dumitru Costa Ghiul, Gunda Costa Pu~a, Tasea lancu, Stere I. Hristu, Stere N. Culu~, lancu Tasu Hristu, Peanci (in text
26. Toti 90, colonizati Milli~lri",nr.1316. 27. Toti 29 colonizati Millislri",nr.13IJ. in comuna in comuna Hardali, judo Caliacra cf. "lumalul COllsiliului de Consiliului de

Prisecani, judo Caliacra, cr. "lumalul

73

, ....

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OTILIA PACEA

Panci) Costa Mihai, C-tin Gheorghe Costa, Zurzu Stere Haida, Zica laneuTega, Gheorghe lancu-Tega, Perifan Gh. Mihai, Maria Gh. Pa~;a,Costa M. Caracoti, Nacu Costea Caracoti (in text Caratii), Nicola Naeu Nicola, Toda laneu Tega, Ta~u N. Mita, Hristu N. Noe (in text Nae), Hristu I. Geolea, loan A. Geolea, Nicolae D. Sapugi, Dumitru N. Sapugi, Mina Paniu Miciu, Damian M. Peniu, Dumitru B. Hagi, Bojin A. Hagiu, Noe A. Noiei, Dumitru Noe S'amargi, Noe D. S'amargi, Riza Hristu (in text Histu) Chitu, loan I. Pae, Stefan D. Tanur, Hristu Gh. Geadi, Dumitru Gh. Nancea, Nicolae Dumitru No~ea, Arghir Minda, Hristu I. Hagi, Nicolae I. Stoli, Avram D. Geolea, Atanase D. Tanur, Atanase H. leiu, Hristu I. leiu, Atanase I. Paca, laneu N. Paea, Nicolae Atanase Pe~u, Nicolae D. Cania, Lazar N. Zlatea, Hristu St. Tanur, Mihail N. Pistol, Hristu Stefan Riza, Maria Hristu Vancea, Stana Hristu lani, Gheorghe Copciu, Dumitru Naici, loan Gh. Vaneea, Petre I. lane, Nicolae Hristu Noe, Hristu D. Pe~u, loan Gheorghe Puiu, Gheorghe Hristu Grosu, Petre D. Petru~, Hristu Xantis, Petre Dumitru Tanur, Mihail S. Nanta, Stefan Rizi Stefan, Hristu T. Talea, Petre St. Tanur, Anastase D. Moraru, Gheorghe R. Moraru, Hristu D. Moraru, Petre D. Ecea, Stefania N. Tamurea, Lazar Nicolae Tamurea, Trifu A. Tanur, Noe Gota, Hristu D. Pitu, Aneta I. B. Stodi, Uta R. D. Peiu, To~ea I. D. Ducica, loan C. Dueica, Cosma I. Duciea, Bujni Iloaci, Ilie D. IIoaei, Petre N. Popeiu, Atanase I. lani, Petre N. Mareu, Crista Rizu Chitu, Petre R. Sopu, Anastase R. Sopu, Lazar Noea, Petre A. Petru~, Ion Ghio~u, Gheorghe Traeolti, Ion Lazar Ziatea, Nicolae R. Conda, Hristu E. Mo~eu, Nicolae D. Petru~, Gheorghe Noanta~.28 29. Ghiorman, com una Sabla,jud. Caliacra. Nicolae AI. Danti, Sterie AI. Danti, Nicolae Gh. Buzbuchi, Anton Cucliciu (in text treeut eronat Cueuliciu), Aspasia Ap. Ceara, Dumitru Ap. Ceara.29
28. Toti 100 colonizati in comuna Capaclia. judo Durostor, cf. "}umalul Minis'ri".nr.1314. 29. Toti 6 colonizHli in Ghioffilan, com. Sabia, judo Caliacra, cf. "}umallli Millis'ri",nr.1317. Consiliului de COIlSililllui de

74

Macedo-aromiinii dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromanialls

ill Dobrudja

30. Arabagilar, judo Durostor Ianus M. Ianus, Mihail At. Stama, Nicolae A. St:-.ma,Gheorghe A. Stama, Stere A. Bagia (in text Bagea), Gheorghe N. Stamu.JO

31. Seidali, comuna Enigea , judo Caliacra. Gheorghe M. Giumba (in text Gimba),J1

32. Centre: Hasi-Kioselar, Baraclar si Bagd-Ceamurli, Hassi-Kioselar ,judo Caliacra.

com una

Dumitru N. Funda, Hristu D. Nati, Nicolae Trasena (in text Trisean), lani Ciolachi, Gheorghe Tusa, Iancu St. Bacula, Gheorghe Ciolache, Dumitru C. Mola, Mihail Dumitru Rafti (in text Orafti), Dinca I. Bacula, Stere Dinca Popescu.32

33. Enigea,jud. Caliacra. Ecaterina Cr. Bobolea, Hristu Vanghele Gherase, Costa At. Mihale, Ion Apostol Manca (in text Manea), Spiru D. Butcaru (in text Butearu), Hristu Chirata, N. Atanase, Atanase M. Pocea.33

30. Toli 6 colonizati in Arabagilar,jud.

Durostor, cf. "iumall/I

COllsilil/ll/i de MilliSlri", nr.

1318.
31. Colonizat in Seidali, cf. "il/mall/I COlISilil/ll/i de Millislri" , nr. 1319. 32. Toli II colonizati pe raza comunei Hasi-Kioselar, cf. "Jllmallli Consilil/illi de Millislri", nr. 1320. 33. Toti 7 colonizati in Enigca, cf. "il/mall/I COllsilil/ll/i de Millislri", nr. 1321.

75

--------

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OT/UA

PACEA

34. Marsalchioi, com Enigea,jud. Caliacra. Ion Gh. Atanase. Gheorghe St. Vlahu. Dumitru Samara. Joita I. Pa:>a. Dumitru N. Steriu. Gheorghe St. Rosu. Nicolae Gh. Atanase, Gheorghe Hasoti (in text Hasota), Dumitru Nicolae Trantu, Dincii Dumitru Ciobiinidi, Steriu St. Bozdanela (in text Bojdavela), Dimu Dumitru Trantu.34 35. Cazimir, com una Cocina, judo Durostor. Petre Prosu Promdi, Petre D. Papazarcada, Aneta Ceamba, Nicolae Hristu Stoian, Hristu P. Papaiani (in text Papatraian), Dumitru P. Papaiani, Traian Papaiani, Gheorghe Hristu Tiba, Atanase Hristu Tiba, Gheorghe P. Dumitrescu, Ion Petre Bija, Elisaveta Petre Bija, Ion Anastase BaWi, Vasile P. Zaica, Ion Nichita Barba, Costa N. Samara (in text Samora), Dumitru Hristu Mociu, Elena Papagheorghe, Anastase Hristu Mociu, Vasile Hristu Mociu, Dumitru Stere Geambazu, Maria St. Geambazu, Maria St. Geambazu, Haralambie Hristu Mocica, Dumitru N. Zaicu, loan D. Dinoglu, Gheorghe Constantin Tomi, Nicolae Tache Biti, Gheorghe Palicari, Constantin Tomi Gheorghe, Petre Hristu Mociu, loan D. Ciolac, Nicolae Gh. Ghezu, Mihail C. Tomi, Sterie C. Tomi, Dumitm Mihai Nicola, Polixenia Hagivreta, Anastase Sascav.35

36. Rahova-de-Jos,jud.

Durostor.

Constantin A. Cu:>u,Pavel Colci Gheorghe (in text Colcea), Panta D. Vaga, Gheorghe Dima Cu:>u,Dima Ion Cusu, Oprea Marin.36

34. Toti 12 co!oni7A'\tiin Mursalchioi, d. "lllmalul Consilill/lli de Ministri", nr. 1322. 35. To\i 37 colonizali In Cazimir, com. Cocina, cf. "Jllrtlallll Consilill/lli de Millistri", nr. 1323. Alilturi de aromani, aid cat si la Capaclia. au Costcolonizate si Camilii de megleniti. 36. Toti 6. colonih1ti in Rahova-de-Jos, cf. "lllmallli Comi/ill/lli de Millistri", nr. 1324.

76

--

! .....

Macedo-aromanii dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromallians

ill Dobrudja

37. Arnautlar, comuna GargaHic, judo Caliacra. Alexe Pitulea, Zoita N. Pitulea, Atanase M. Caramiha, Stere Dumitru Giumurtu, Pavel St. Vrana, Gheorghe D. Fuduli, Stere D. Fuduli, Constantin D. Caracoti, Dimu Gh. Fuduli, Nicolae D. Fuduli, Sterie N. Fuduli, Paris C. Puflene (in text Pufleani), Mihail Dimu Fuduli, Stere Hr. Covata (in text Covatei), Dumitru Paris Topa, Paris D. Topa, Hristu Ciamitru, Dimu N. Zdumba, Constantin Gh. Puflenc.37 38. Doimu~lar,jud. Durostor. loan Gh. Mangalim, loan Vasile Caceamac, Constantin Mihail Gudu, Gheorghe loan Cuculici, Paris loan Cuculici, Gheorghe Stere Usandra, Gheorghe M. Gudu, Stere Mitu Bu~u, Dumitru Nicolae Bu~u, Ion Dumitru Chehaia, loan No~mCodina, Nicolae Stere Palo!>ca,Gheorghe Nicea, Mitru Piti, Stere D. Lungu, Gheorghe D. Piti, Costea loan Bara, Dumitru loan Chehaia, Gheorghe loan Chehaia, Constantin D. Caraman (in text Caramani), loan Stere Cuta, Nicolae lani Bara, Anastase Gh. Bleoara, Maria Epi, Nicolae Gh. lanu~, loan Nicolae Bara, Nicolae Constantin Bara, Dima Dumitru Lungu, Gheorghe Dumitru Bara, Mitru lani Bara, Gheorghe Dumitru Chehaia, Stere Costea Milea, Costea Dumitru Bara, Vasile Gheorghe Caramuzi, Matei Zisu Zuca, Dumitru Gh. Bara, Gheorge Lungu, Gheorghe D. Bu~u, Panait Stere Cutu, Dumitru St. Pala~ca,Ta~cu Ta$cu Nicolae, Cociu C-tin Nicolae, Muhcina A. Nicolae (in text Mucina), Caragheorghe (in text Cara Gheorghe) Gheorghe Dumitru, Gheorghe I. Caragheorghe, Chehaia N. Vasile, Costea Hristu Gatu (in text Gata).38

37. To\i 19 au fos\ coloniza\i in Arnaullar, com. Gargaliic, ct. "iurlll/lul Ministri", nr. 1327.

Consilil/illi de JJ28.

38. Tori 44 au fost coJoni7.<1rin DoimusJar, cf. "ll/malul COl/siliului de Millistri",nL i

77

I

NICOl,AE

CUSA

.

OT/UA

PACEA

39. Arabagilar,jud.

Durostor.

Ion Gh. Saule, Nicolae C. Staniu, Maria Boila Vanghele, Gheorghe Pa~ca, Chirata Ciota, Anastase Gh. Mi~ac (in text Misac), Constantin N. Chicheanu, Ecaterina Gh. Manica, Dumitru N. Car~eli,orf. Constantin Gioca, Maria, Constantin.39

40. Curt-Bunar,jud.

Durostor.

Dima M. Uzun, Gheorghe A. Frangu, Constantin N. Uzun, Vasile M. Uzun, Gheorghe D. Uzun, Gheorghe N. Uzun, Iancu Gh. Uzun, Iancu Gh. Beca, Dumitru N. Uzun, Dima Sotir Ciiju, Steriu N. Uzun, Dumitru Gh. Uzun, Sutir Mihail Ciiju, Nicolae Gh. Uzun, Enache Stere Botca.40 41. Eni-Mahle, comuna Florica, judo Durostor. Apostol St. Chi~i~,Stere M. Neare, Stefan D. Chi~i~,Chirata I. Palavra, Enache Stere Hagi, Costa I. Baturi, Ta~cuStere Gospodin, Gheorghe Stere D. Gospodin, Constantin Stere D. Gospodin, Panaiot St. Gurahan, Maria Dimcea, Costea I. Palavra, Dimcea Costa Chi~i~, Sotir Costa Chi~i~, Joita Costa Chi~i~, Mihale Stere Anastase, Dindi zis Constantin St. Chi~i~, Gheorghe Paris Pu~a, Nicolae Carapale, Dumitru Carapale, Hristu I. Atanase, Stere Costa Chi~i~.41 42. Saranebi, comuna Enigea, judo Caliacra. Enache Gh. Nancu, Adam Gh. Nancu, Gheorghe Neculai, Neculae Stere Paris, Paris Gheorghe Neculai, Mihai Adam Zugrafu, Arghir Adam Zugrafu, Stoian Stere Jaca, Sterie Jaca, Mihai Constantin Culita, Zisu Steriu
39. Toti 10 au fost colonizati in Arabagilar, cf. "Jumalul Consiliului de Ministri", nr.1330. 40. Tot; 15 au fost colonizati in Curt-Bunar, cf. "Juma/u/ Consiliu/ui de Minislri", 11f.1331. 41. Toti 22 au fost coJonizati in Eni-Mahle, cf. "Juma/u/ Consiliu/ui de Minislri", 11f.1332.

78

Macedo-aromlinii

dobrogeni

.

77/e Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dobrudja

Jaca, Gheorghe Constantin Caramihale, Iancu St. Jiru, Gheorghe St. Bianu, Nicolae Mihai Tugearu, Steriu Hristu Chitu, Iancu He.Chitu.42 43. Cuiungiue, eomuna Balagea,jud. Caliaera. Atanase N. Caratm),Iancu C. Cacianu, Dumitru St. Zguma, Vasile D. Zguma, Stere D. Zguma, Mihail T. Carata~, Gheorghe T Carata~, Nicolae T. Carata~, Atanase I. Carata~.43

44. Chioseler, com una Aiorman, judo Caliaera. Stere Partencu (in text Partenescu), Stere N. Bracu, Nicolae Gh. Paris (in text Parisu), Dumitru N. Goane, Gheorghe A. Ciuciu, Dindi A. Ciuciu, Dinca E. Trandafir, Enache D. Trandafir, Dinca St. Caramuzi, Stere N. Partencu, Stere D. Ciuciu.44 45. Ceamurlia,jud. Caliaera.

Gheorghe M. Pacea, Hristu Coti, Stere D. Mahera.45 46. Bazaurt, eomuna Enigea,jud. Caliaera. Hristu Criciu, Mihail At. Gima, Stere N. Rusa (in text Ruse), Leonida St. Stratostomi (in text Strarostomi), Atanse H. Dina, Vasile C. Rusa, lanache St. Niculescu, Vanghele N. Ru~a, Hristu Dumitru lanca, Sotir Hristu Vasu, Leonida He. Rusa, Ecaterina M. Mutisu, Hristu Mihali Cristu Rucea (in text Ruce), Vasile Dumitru Criciu, Gheorghe Hristu Bituleanu, Gheorghe Hristu
42. Toti 17 colonizati in Sariinebi. com. Enigea,jud. Milli$1ri",nr.1333. Caliacra, cr. "Jumulul COllsiliu/ui de

43. Toti 9 colonizati in Cuiungiuc. cf. "Juma!u! Comi!iu/ui de Mil/isl,-i". nr. 1334. 44.Toti II colonizati in Chioseler, cf. "Jurl/alul COllsiliului de Millisl,-i", nr. 1335. 45. Toti 3 coJonil;lti,in Ceamurlia, cf. "Jurl/alul COl/siliu/ui de Millisll'i". nr. 1336.

79

-

--

NlCOLAE

CUSA

.

071L1A PACEA

Rueea, Maria N. Giumba (in text Guniba), Vanghele St. Gima, Mihai At. lanula.46

47. Nicolae Filipescu, comuna Ezibei, judo Caliacra. Preot Hristu Paeea, Ion Hristu laneu, Ta::;uMinga, Dimitrie S1. Cutin, Maria Naeu Belu, Stere N. Ghizare, Stere Spiru Panaia.47 48. Chiringii, comuna Carasular, judo Caliacra.
Gheorghe M. lorgaehe.48

49. Rahman A~icler,jud. Durostor.
Dumitru Constantin.49

50. Suneci, comuna Fra~ari, judo Durostor. Ahile Nicola, VactuvaAgora, Taeu Nicola, Costa Athanasiu zis Teodor, Spiru Staicu, Teodor Staicu, Spiru Piti, Costa Staicu, Hristu N. Andrei, Athanase Pitu, Spiru Nicolae, Ilie Pitu, Pandele Pitu, Athanase Chepa, Dumitru HI. Chepa, Gheorghe Manole, Anastase Privenda, Hristu A. Privenda, Sotir Sota, Ahile Geambazu, Atanase Geambazu, Ilie Geambazu, Vasile Geambazu, Andrei Pitu, Atena Pitu, Vasile A. Gaia, Alexe Sdindu (in text Seandu), Spiru Ruea, Gheorghe Z. Tata, Dumitru'Z. Tata, Constantin N. Andrei, Maria N. Andrei, Gheorghe Ro::;u, ieolae Batu, Spiru Atanase Babu, N Gheorghe Despa Pitu, Adam Pitu.50
46. Toti 19 colonizati in Bazaurt, cf. "lumniui Consiliului de Ministri". or. 1337. cf. "lumaiui Consiliuiui de Minislri",

47. Toti 7 colonizati in loc. Nicolae Filipescu, nr. 1339.

48. cr. "lllrnailli Consiliului de MiniSlri", or. 1341. 49. cr. "lumnlul Consiliului de Ministri", or. 1340.

80

!

-

Macedo-aromiillii

dobrogelli

.

The Macedo-Aroll/Clllians

ill DobrudjCl

51. IaHi-Ceatiagea,jud.

Durostor.

Gheorghe Riza Ro~ca, Nicolae Gh. Caragop, Hristu Mi~u, Hristu C. Padore, Vasile Mihail Papu~anu, Dumitru Nicolae Dasdllu, Tudor Dumitru N. DascaJu Gheorghe Stere Zarcu, loan Stere Giogea, Hristu Pseftu, Tudor I. Sterescu, Zoe Dima Caraman, Zora Stere Tulica, Gherghe Dumitru Tocica, Constantin C. Adam, Ion Gheorghe Bizduna, Stere Ta~u Mihail, Panait Riza Ro~ca, Stere Dumitru Pitti, Hristu loan Delbederi, Gheorghe Dima Mazaca, Dinca Nicolae Tulica, Gheorghe Stere Tocica, Gheorghe C. Ghericociu, Ion Zima Caragop, Atanase Dumitru Pseftu (in text este trecut eronat: Xsiftu), Atanase D. Tripcea, Stere Gh. Raftu, Apostol Anastase Cucona, Gheorghe Stere Fustanela, Maria St. Fustanela, Stere Gheorghe Pambuca, Atanase N Stambuli, Ion Nicolae Pantoni, Mihai Nicolae Stambuli, Enache C. luruc (in text Juruc), Stere N. Carapciu, Sultana D. Caraman, Ion Tase Papci, Nicolae Tase Papci, Gheorghe Dimu Ciubena, Gheorghe N. Bizduna, Gheorghe Dumitru Caraman, Gheorghe Dima Caradima (in text Zima Carodima), Pascu Hagi, Dinca Apostol Tulid\, Apostol Bleara (in text Bleora), Mihail A. Stambuli, Gheorghe St. Namu, Hristu Bizduna, Sterie Culita, Musa Moceanu, Sterie M. Chihaia, Maria T. Ardeleanu, Gheorghe Pambuchita. 5\ 52. ~abla,jud. Caliacra. Dumitru C. Huleva, Margarit D. Margarit, ManoIe Manacu, Costea Bica, Sterie Gh. Capitanu, Nicolae Mazdrache, Anton I. Caraiani, Anastasia Caraiani, Gheorghe Deala, Nicolae Z. Balabuta, Ion N. Nula, Dumitru Sola, Gheorghe N. Nula, Nicolae Nula, Gheorghe Cati, Dumitru N. Cati, Nicolae C. Caraiani, Costea N. Caraiani, Ion N. Caraiani, Stamule N. Bagiani, Gheorghe M. Gherasi, Maria Cuturicu, Zissi Balabuti, Dumitru Mitrenga (in text Mitreanga), Ion I. St. Varsani (in text Varsanie), Gheorghe Caravede,
50. Toli 36, colonizali in Suneci. com. Frasari. cf. "ll1mallli Consilillilli de Millisfri", nr. 1342. 51. Cf. "JlIrlW[II[ C,J//silill[lIide Millisll'i". nr. 1343.
81

[

NICOUE

CU$A

.

OTIUA PACEA

Anton Z. Balabuti, Nicolae Dalametra (in text Dalametru), Sirma Demu, Gheorghe Demu, Sterian preot N. Carasimu (in text Carasinu), Sultana Gh. Nula, Dumitru Preot M. Carasimu.52 53. Regina Maria, com una Calipetrova, judo Durostor. Nicu I. Balamace.53

54. Cadichioi,jud.
Petre Baciu.54

Durostor.

55. Caraptula, comuna Curt-Bunar ,judo Durostor. Eftimie Gh. Nicea, Dumitru I. Lapa, Alexandru St. Botca (in text Botea), Maria St. Beldani, Costa D. Lapa, Gheorghe lancu Lieu, Dimciu Gh. Nicea, Dindi Beldani, Sultana Gh. Nicea.55 56. Siahlar, com. Satu Vechi, judo Durostor. Nicolae Helidon, Sarineanu Guli, Nicolae Zarcu, Steliana Z. Ciopa.56 57. Hasan-Dede, comuna Carasular, judo Caliacra. Mihail C. Colci (in text Colciu), Nicolae Geagiu (in text Geogiu), Vanghelina Enache Gh. Blana, Dumitru N. Popescu, Dumitru Colci, Nicola
52. 53. 54. 55. 56. Cf. Cf. cr. Cf. cr. "JunIalul Consilillilli "JI/mallli Consilillllli "1l1mallll Consililllll; "JllnIalul Consilil/Illi "1I//"II<llulConsilil//ui de Ministri", nr. 1344. de Mini:$lri", nr. 1345. de M;n;stri". nr. 1346. de MiniSlri", nr. 1347. de MiniSlri " , nr. 1347.

82

po-

Macedo-aroma"ii dobroge"i

.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dobrudja

Baia, Chirata, T. Baia, Elena R. Cote, Simula (in text Dimula) Sotir Lapa (in text Lupa), Petre Carali, Vasile Gh. Dm)u, Dumitru Sola, Tanase A. Gurita (in text Curita).57

58. Hagi-Dumitru, com una Unirea,jud. Caliacra. Cuzman Dirciu, Mihai Carciu, Tima Stefan.58 59. Regina Maria,jud. Caliacra.

Trifu St. Cata, Tima I. Stefan, losa I. St., Pana P. Mohanu, Panta I. Mohan, Dumitru P. Mioe, Pavel I. Birda, Apostol E. Arnautu, Dumitru A. Caratas, Mihail D. Caratas, laneu M. Carabas, Stere C. Guda, Gheorghe A. Caratas, laneu Gh. Caratas, v-va Tudora C. Mihail, Vasile C. Hagi, Mihail T. Balamuti, Anastase C. Mihail, Costa A. Caratas, Atanase C. Caratas, Gheorghe C. Poznava, Costa Gh. Costache, Vanghele C. Poznava, Mihail N. Caraba$, Gheorghe M. Caraba$, Nicolae M. Carabas, Gheorghe V. Ciuma, Dumitru C. lanuli, Stila C. Damu, Stere Gh. Sopu, Gheroghe N. Uzun, Nicolae Gh. Uzun, Nicolae M. Poznava, Stere N. Poznava, Costea D., Babu laneu, C. Arnautu, Gheorghe C. Arnautu, Gheorghe I. Arnautu, Atanase E. Arnautu, Stere N. Caratas, Stere E. Arnautu, Gheorghe M. Amautu. Stere C. Mita, Gheorghe C. Mita (in text Mita). Mihail St. Laseu, laneu D. Banioti, Gheorghe D. Findirieiu, Nicolae D. Coja, laneu St. Arnautu, T. N. St. Arnautu, Mihail C. Amautu, Dumitru N. Caratal$,Tasu M. Amautu, Nicolae St. Geaeu (in text Jeaeu), Costea St. Caprinciu, Tasu M. Palas, Costea St. Caju, Dima St. Caju, Gheorghe N. Carata$, Dumitru N. Ghiza (in text Ghizu), Ion I. Sfera, Costea St. Galan, Vasile St. Caju, laneu C. lanus, Dumitru St. Caramihale, Costea Gh. Granzulea, Nicea St. Andon, Stere N. Andon. laneu St. Laseu. Atanase I. Laseu, Gheorghe St. Arnautu, Costea St. Laseu, Gheorghe D. Gima, Mihail St. Tugearu, Tanase St. Tugearu. Sterie N. Tugearu, Stere Gh.
57. Cf. "Jumalul 5H. Cf. "Jumalul COllsiliului de Milli~.t,.i". nr. 1349. Cpllsiliului de Millist,.i". nr. 1350.

83

- -

--

-

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OTlUA

PACEA

Granzula, Atanase V. Ciuma, Mihai T. Palas, Joita Vanghele, M. Amautu, Mihail St. Galan, Nicolae D. Babu, Dima V. Ciuma, Hristu M. Panca, Constantin D. Costara, Stere C. Costara, lancu M. Palas, Ta~u C. Amautu, Costea A. Cucicu, Nicolae G. Mataranga (in text Mataroaga), Stere A. Cucicu, Atanase St. Cucicu, Joita Gh. Cucicu, Paris At. Cucicu (in text Cicicu), Nicolae Bagiu Costa, Anastasia St. Ciumeti, Dumitru N. Bicu, Atanase Gh. Gramaticu, Dima At. Gramaticu, Stere M. Caraba~, Mihail D. Babu, Stere D. Babu, Dumitru St. Babu, Dima D. Mantu, Stere D. Barbata~ (in text Barbato~), Constantin Gh. Guna. 59 60. Denicler, comuna Carasular,jud. Caliacra.

Petre Gache, Costa Buciunana, Costa Gh. Sima, Ion Lapa, Costa I. Mu~e, Gheorghe Ion Mu~e, Dumitru Mu~e, Gheorghe Carata~, Nicola Dula, Hristu Leolea, Tache Jujea.60 61. Ceadircea, com una Ezibei,jud. Caliacra. Ion Gh. Beca, Leonte Hristu Popescu, Dumitru Gh. Pitulea, Gheorghe Costa Nasta, M. Ion Caraiani (in text Cataraiani).61 62. Vii~oara, comuna Enigea, judo Caliacra. Hie C. Cianuta, Hristu Ion Geogea, Chirata Hristu Tapu, Tudor Costa Ciamita.62

59. Cf. "lilmalill 60. Cf. "Jumalul 61. Cf. "il/malul 62. Cf. "lumallll

Consilill/lli de Millis'ri",

nr. 1351.

COllsiliului de Millistri", nr. 1352. COIIJilillllli de Millis'ri", nr. 1353. COllsiliullli de Minim'i". nr. 1355.

84

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Ammanians

in Dobrt/dja

63. Fandacli, com. Enigea, judo Caliacra. Ion Cr. Giumba, Atanase M. Cotabita, Hristu Vasile Dimaca, Nicolae Durnitru Toni, Gheorghe V. Dimaca, Spiru L. Caramitru, Gheorghe I. Caramitru, Andrei N. Docu.63 64. Iazagilar, com una Unirea,jud. Caliacra.

Sterie Gh. Bedivan, Constantin Gh. Bedivan, Gh. D. Bacula (in text Bacola), Atanase Bar::;ova,loan Bar::;ova,Nicolae Varsani, Atanase Mahera, Stere I. lanca.64

65. Gramostea, comuna Caraorman, judo Caliacra. Niculae Caticu, Foti Bajdcchi.65 66. Carasular, judo Caliacra.
Atanase D. Dina, Ion D. Fotu.66

67. Chioiluc, com. Gargalac, judo Caliacra. Gheorghe Hr. Cealera (in text Celera), Sterie Guteandi, Dumitru Hr. Cealera, Ion Anastase Cealera, loan St. Vera, Apostol St. Cealera, Sotir He. Cealera, Hristu Cealera, Dumitru St. Cealera, Steriana St. Cealera.67

t .

63. Cf. "Jllmaltll 64. 65. 66. 67. Cf. CE. Cf. Cf.

Consilillilli de Millistr;"'. nr. 1356.

"Jllmallli COllsilit/llli de Millistri", nr. 1357. "ltlmallll COllsilillllli de Millistri", nr. 1358. "Jllmallli to/1.vilillllli de Millistri", nr. 1359. "Jllmallli COIISilillllli de Mill/stri", nr. 1360.

85

NICOLAE

CU$A

.

OTlLlA PACEA

68. Satu Vcchi,jud. Durostor. Atanase Heliade, Anastase Gatu (in text Gata), Apostol Tuliu, Vasiliehia Papahagi, Zizi Grina, loan Vasoti, Zotu Z. Zotu, Nicolae Z. Ciopa, Ion Z. Ciopa, Dumitru Topa Dumitru, Tache Z. Nola, Sterie Hagi, Anghel Tuliu.68

69. Paragic, Ergi ~i Azaplar, comuna Armutli,jud.

Caliacra.

Constantin Cumbaianu, Tasu Constantin Buciuneanu (in text Buciuveanu) Anastasia Bueiuneanu, Dumitru Calaigi (in text Calaidi), Leftei Calaigi, laneu Calaigi, Dumitru C. Dumitru, Nieolae Dumitru Babu, Tagu Cumboianu, Nicolae P. C. Popescu, Sterie Ciota, Mihail Stere Ciota, Gheorghe D. Apostol, Dona Gheorghe, Stere Gh. Goaeie, Nicolae Stere Beeiu, Gheorghe St. Tola, Nieolae Stere, Mihail Gh. Gheorghe, Dimciu Dina Apostol, Dumitru Enaehe Nancu, Dimciu St. Mega, Dinca St. Mega, Atanase St. Mega, Dima Cost. Naeeadis (in text Neeeades), Gheorghe Dima Naeeadis, Stere Gh. Naeeadis, Tasu Gh. Naceadis, Const. Atanase Uzun, Sterg. Grosu, Const. Atanasiu Raftu, Atanasi C. Raftu, Stere C. Naeeadis, Sterghiu Mihali Atanase, Atanase Mihai Atanase, Hristu D. Calaigi, Atanase M. Naeiadis, Gheorghe N. Apostol, Const. Anastase Gioga (in text Atase loga), Gheorghe C-tin At. Gioga, Atanase C. Uzum, laneu Atase Uzum. Hristu Butu, Stere Cusa Gamaeeanu, Constantin Stefan Grosu, Chirata St. Grosu, Hristu C. Gioga, Dumitru Calaigi, Atanase D. Calaigi, laneu A. Naciadis, Dumitru At. Pitu, Tanase M. Uzum, Elena M. Uzun, Dumitru N. Apostol, Maria St. Apostol, Sultana St. Apostol, Anastase D. Naeiadis, Nicolae Dofa Gamaceanu, Zoita Maria M. Atanase, Sultana M. M. Atanase, Anton Gheorghe Done, Elena Ion Tanase, Tagu Mihai Naciadis, Elena M. Naciadis, Gheorghe Stere Enaehe.69

68. Cf. "il/molul 69. Cf. "iI/maIl/I

COllsilil/lui de Millislri". nr. 1361. COllsiliull/i de Millistri". nr. 1362.

86

Macedo-aroma,,;; dobroge,,; Tile Macedo-Aroman;ans

.

;n Dobrudja

70. Centrale: Salaman, Cioban Cuius, I.G. Duca. comuna I. Gh. Du~a. fQsta ~Qmnna Casim,jud. Caliacra. Constantin D. Puiu, Sofia D. Puiu, Cota Teja. Mihail Gache, Dumitru M. Gache. Hristu Zugrafu, Nicolae Zugrafu, Ecaterina A. Puiu, Leonida M. Gulea, Ahile Adam GuJea (in text Guliu) Maria M. Cu~;a(in text numele acestei familii este trecut in mod eronat Cu~ea). Gheorghe Gearavela, Vasile Nebi (in text Nibi), Ion A. Cu~a, Ion Ro~u, Stefan Ciuci, Constantin Nibi, Mihail Nibi, Ecaterina Gh. Teja, Maria Const. Cu~a, Gheorghe St. Cu~a, Hristu A. Cu~a.Mita A. Cu~a.70 71. Camilaru, .jud. Caliacra. Gheorghe Iancu Ghioca, Iancu Gh. Ghioca, Dumitru I. Ghioca, Iancu Stere Mi~ocu, NicoJae lancu Mi~ocu, Dimciu Gh. Ghioca, Tanase Ghioca, Stere Mi~ocu, Nicolae Iancu Mi~ocu, Mihail Gh. Naum, Hristu Gh. Brandi. Gheorghe N. Brandi, Stere Hristu NauJII, Chentie Marti, Tanasc Hristu Naum. Costa Hr. Naum. Hristu Naum Brandi.?' 72. Fra~ari, judo Durostor. Nastu Cutachi, Hristu Z. Sola, Haralambie Gh. Zechiu (in text este trecllt gre~it:Zechinu), Ghita Tache, Sotir N. CuJetu, Hristu Bojicu.72 73. Aidemir, Regina Maria, Cocina I)iCainargeaua Mare, comuna Aidemir!>i comuna Cainargeaua Mare,jud. Durostor. Constantin Giacu (in text Chiacu), Epa Hristu Giacu. Nicolac Bichi,
70. Cf. ".lumalul COl/.riliului de Millislri". nr. 1:163. 71. Cf. "Jllmallll COIIS;lill/lli de Millistri". nr. 1364. 72. Cf. "Jumallll f-'ollJilill/ui de Millistri". nr. 1408.

87

- - --

-

NlCOLAE CUSA

.

OTILIA PACEA

Manole Pitu, Hristu Spau (in text Span), Nicolae Spau, Dimitrie Bichi, Hristu Bichi, Gheorghe A. Colimitra (in text Colimitre), Atanase D. Ciufeeu, Mihail A. Ciufeeu, Costa St., Curte Anghelina $uta (in text Suta), lancu A. BindeJa, Vanghele A. Bindela, Teodor Belu, loan Belu, Aristide (in text Aristu) Gramusteanu, Tudor P. Lolea (in text Lulea), Sotir Nacia, Tanasache Nacea (Ianula), D-tru Nasta, Gheorghe Caramitru, Sotir L. Geambazu (in text Geambazz), Maria Aristide Pacea, Alexandru D. Ciufeeu, VasiJichia D. Ciufecu, Costa AJexe Franchi, Dumitru Gh. Manole, Andrei Colemitra, N-Iae Andrei Colemitra, Paraschiva Hristu Lambru, HaraIambie Baboranti, Pandu Manole, Atena Geambazu. Dtr-u Bindela, Dionisie Popescu, Petre Dionisie Popescu, Nastasia Palla. Toeu Samulea, Vanghele Hristu Topa, Aurel Colemitra, Andrei Nastu, HrisuJa T. Trandu, PcricJe loan Pala, Atanase Gh. Batu, Busa Gh. Batu, Petre V. Costid\, Ecaterina V. Costiea, Dumilru Costa Batu, Dumitru Naum Nastu (in text Natu), Anghelina $uta (in text Suta). mostenilorii Vallghele Gioga, Pandu Popescu, Nicolae F. FarfoJea (in text Forfolea), Fati D. Farfolea, Petre D. Sola (in tex.t Siola), Toma Toli, Hristu Spiru Becea, Mihai Spiru Beeea, Nieolae Atanase Pascale, Tanase M. CioCU.73

14. General Prapogescu, com. Babuc,jud. Durostor. Tudor N. Pundichi, Eeaterina Pandichi, Vasile Gh. Stefu, Dumitru Ion Belu, Hristu D. Rumbecu, Gheorghe D. Rumbecu, Vasile Hr. Bagia, loan D. Zisu, Nicolae Costa Caratana, Gheorghe Fugearu, Nicolae D. Scupra, Pavel At. Scupra, Lambru D. Dargot, Dumitru Costa Slep, loan Sp. Butcaru, Hristu N. Pundichi, Vasile Costa Butearu, Stere At. Seupra, Atanase T. Enaehe, Gheorghe T. Enaehe, Nasta Gh. Dargate, Dimu Sp. Doeu, Vasile Costa Lenu, Aristide Chirvasitu, Mihail Gh. Tusa, Atanase D. Celea.74

73. Toti 61 colonizali in Aidemir si Cainargeaua Mare, judo Duroslor, cf. "fllmallli COll.vilililui e Millij"lri".nr. 1408. d 74. cr. "}umalul COllsililllllide Millij"lri",nr. 1423. 88

r

Macedo-aromallii

dobrogelli.

The Macedo-Aroll/allialls

ill Dobrudja

75. Vanatori, com. Teke,jud. Durostor. I"JihaiI E. Ciiju, Enaehe D. Ciiju, Stefan E. Cfiju, Vanghele I. Tanase, Tanase V. Vanghele, Gheorghe V. Vanghele, Gheorghe E. Gaga, Dindi Gh. Gaga, MihaiI Gh. Gaga (in text Gaga), Nieolae Gh. Patu, Cristea Gh. Patu, Maria Gh. N. Patu, Gheorghe D. Conducosta, Zoita Costea M. Tanase, Dimu G. Calagiu, Tanase D. Calagiu, Gheorghe D. Calagiu, Gheorghe N. Palehra, Janeu D. Sapira, Dumitru Gh. Sapira, Gheorghe N. Calagiu, Stere Gh. Samata, Dimcea Gh. Samata, Gheorghe D. Samata, Dinea Gh. Samata, Tanase Gh. Vanghele, Gheorghe At. Vanghele, Costa At. Bazacosta, Constantin D. Samata, Dimu C. Samata, Stere I. Chief, Dimu I. Chief, Stefan D. Cfiju, Ghiorghe St. Cfiju, Nieolae D. Caraba:) (in text Carana:), Stere D. Sapira.75 76. Suiuciuc, com. Ezibei,jud. Caliacra. Dumitru Cova. Atanase Cova, Nicolae Dica.76 77. Chituclia, com. Kiose Aidin, judo Durostor. Nicolae D. Zorica, Stere I. Boruna (in text Borune), Costa Gh. Osman, Gheorghe Nicolae Goga, Gheorghe lancu Frangu, Costea St. Zorica, StiIa (Stile in text), C. Bude:) (Bude in text) zis Mihale, Nicolae St. Sarafu, Stere Costa Bacelu, laneu D. Zorica, Stere D. Zorica, Constantin Panait Ciolae, Dimu G. Zorica, Bicea Gh. Zorica, Nicola St. Nirlu, orfanii Gh. Menasu, Elena Constantin Ta:)uGoga, Maria laneu Boruna (in text Buruna), Gheorghe Dumitru C. Azman, Gheorghe Costa Azman, Dumitru Panait Ciolac, Hristu Gh. Ghiara (in text Ghioara), Gheorghe Hr. Ghiara, Chirata Athanase Gh. Fucea, Paris Gh. Giugica, (in text Giugiuca), Mihale Mataranga (in text
75. Cf. ")l/mallll 76. Cf. ")lImallll Consilillllli de Ministri". Consilil/Illi de Ministri". nr. 1424. nr. 1425.

89

L

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

l

OT/LIA PACEA

Motoranga), Dumitru Tasu Caraman (in text Coroman), Mihale Tasu Caraman, Gheorghe M. D. Caraman, Gheorghe Atanase Fucia, Gheorghe Paris Giugica (in text Giugine),77 78. Uzungi Orman,jud. Durostor.

Stere Gheorghe Babagianu, Gheorghe 1. Duma, Vasile St. Gargali, Stere Gh. Gioga, Stamu Sterie Gioga, Dumitru Sterie Gioga (Tache), Sterie N. Stamanica, Nicolae St. Samanica, Mihail D. Costica, Mihail N. Stamanica, Nicolae M. Costica, Mihail A.Papari, Nicolae Gh. Peanci, Nicolae Gh. Lengiu, Hristu A. Papari, Nicolae M. Ciociu, Constantin Gh. Peance, Hristu St. Samanica, Gheorghe D. Gioga, Mihail D. Gioga, Nicolae I. Duma Dumitru 1. Duma, Dumitru St. Duma, Gheorghe D. Canacheu, loan St. Cuzeli, Dumitru St. Gheorghe, Dumitru St. Gioga, Mihail M. Misa, loan C. Peanci, Sterie D. Gioga. Sterie A. Papari, Nicolae Gh. Cociumita, Bizdrighian (in text Bizdirighian) F. Sterie, Sterie I. Sima, Fuduli I. Sterie (in text Fundali), Mihail Papazi, Nicolae St. Camiciu, Sterie C. Camiciu, Dumitru St. Carniciu, Gheorghe C. Bala, Costa St. Bala, Tudor M. Buzdica, Gheorghe Stamu, Sterie Stamu, Gheorghe I. Galani, Sterie C. Gargalii, Mihail G. Ciaciu, Anastasia Stamu, Mihail Gh. Canacheu, Zardova N. Ion, Bala St. Costa, Gheorghe A. Pala, Misa M. Tasu, Sterie Nicolae Ghitu, Mihai Nicolae Caleea, Gheorghe Mih. Calcea. Hristu Tascu Barba (in text Barbu). Nicolae Hr. Barba, Tascu Hr. Barba,78 79. Atmageaua TiiHirasca,jud. Durostor. Constantin D. M. Canacheu, Tona M. Babali, Nicolae I. Barba, Nicolae Gh. Umona, Constantin M. Saramandu, Gheorghe N. Beli, Constantin Gh. Umona, Hristu Gh. Cucliciu, Sterie C. Handuri, Nicolae St.
77. Toti 31 au fost co10nizati in comuna Consiliului de Mil/islri", nr. 1426. 78. Toti 59 au [ost c%n;z<I/i COllsiliului de Millislr;". nr. /428. in comuna Kiose-Aidin, judo Durostor, Cf. cr. "Jurnalul "Jllrnnllli

Uzung; Omwn, judo Dums/or.

90

----

r

Macedo-aromallii obrogelli d

.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dobrudja

Gatu, Dumitru N Mi~a (in text Mi~u), Sterie N. Zarcu, Dumitru N. Zarcu, Sterie M. Merca, Mihail N. Papari, Gheorghe N. Papari, Mita Dima Cuciumitra, Constantin N. Papari, Mihail Cupaciu, Sterie Curculescu, Gheorghe St. Magericu, Mihail St. Mi~a (in text Misa), Papa Const. N. Dumitru, Pari~cu Gh. Nicolae, Pari~cu N. Tascu, Pari~cu N. Gheorghe, Ta~cu N. Guli, Sterie N. Guli, Dumitru C. Chilili, Nicolae D. Anagnoste, Gheorghe D. Tenca, Steriana N. Papari, Agora Canacheu, Nicolae C. Canacheu, Ion Paris Barba, Nicolae St. Gioga, Sterie D. Gioga, Iftimie Constantin, Pari~cu N. Mihail, Agora M. Gheorghe, Barza D. Gheorghe, Calagi (in text Alagi), Sterie Ecaterina, Apostol Si~cu, Ion Gh. Mira (in text Mirea). 79

80. Cociular,jud.

Durostor.

Sima Gheorghe Mina, lancu Sima Mina, Nicolae Sima Mina, Mina Sima Mina, Nicolae Costea Stere, Stere Costea Stere, lancu Stere Ion, Gheorghe Dicea Dimu, Stere Costea Scoca, Mihale D. Dima, Gheorghe Sterie Botca, Dumitru lani Omba~i, Stere Nicolae, Tecea Zoita, Gheorghe C. lancu, Nicolae V. lani Ombas, Dodu (in text Doiciu) Gheorghe Costa, Stere Costa Stila. Stefan Enache Gheorghe, Paris St. Gh. Pu~a. Stere M. Gheorghe, Mina Costa Stila, Janco Dima Stamule (in text Stamole), Mihale Nicolae, Paris Enache Gheorghe, Gheorghe Paris Enache, Dumitru M. Dumitru. Mihale D. Sterea, Nicolae Enache Gheorghe, Nicolae Ta~cu Nicolae, Maria Gheorghe Stere, Gheorghe Costa Batura, Vasile Kina Vasile, Mihale Ta~cu Nicolae, Jancu D. Steriu Pasale, Dumitru Nicolae Stere, Gheorghe Nt. Enache, Nicolae Mina lancu, Mihale St. Gheorghe, Stere I. E Omba~i, Gheorghe qh. Mina, Paris Nicolae Enache, Nicea Tima Stoica.80

,

79. Toti 59 au fost colonizati COllsiliului de Milli~lri", nr. 1428.

in comuna Uzungi Orman, judo Durostor,

cf. "Jllnlallli COlisiliului

80. Toalc 43 de familii coJonizale in CociuJar, judo Duroslor, cf. "Jurnalul de MilliSlri", nr. 1430.

91

I
f l

-

- --

1
I

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OTlUA

PACEA

I

81. Cainargeaua Mare,jud.

Durostor.

Constantin I. Saguna, lancu Stere Botca, Dumitru C. Buda, Dima Stere BU1:iuric, Gheorghe D. Saguna, Zoita lancu Fulina, lancu Stere Saguna, Spiru Atanase Mataranga (in text Martague), Mihail lancu Lala, Gheorghe Mihail Guritii, Constantin lancu Stavrositu, Gheorghe Mi~u Ergoveanu, Cosma Guritii, Nacu Constantin Fate, Dimu lancu Lala, Stere lancu Saguna, Constantin Mi~u Ergoveanu, Ta~u Iancu Stavrositu (in text Stavrosit), Gheorghe lancu Jiru, Mihail Dima Saguna, Mihail Gheorghe Pascale, Nicolae Stefan Samargiu, Sotir Dumitru Tizec (in text Tejec), lancu Constantin Bafane (in text Bofane), Nicolae Stere Bu~uric (in text Bu~uridi, Stere Nicolae Jiru, lancu Nicolae Jiru, loan Mihail Guritii, Constantin St. Samargiu, Dima Zisu Ciiju, Gheorghe lancu Lala, Constantin Dima Saguna, Stere Dima Saguna, lancu NicoTae Bu~uric, Mihail loan Guritii, Stere Gheorghe Gu~u, Nicolae I. Perifan, Atanase Constantin Rencu (in text Renca), Vasile lancu Fulina, lancu Gh. Perifan, Dima Atanase Mataranga (in text Martagna), Gheorghe lancu Perifan, Elena D. Uti, Dimu Dumitru Pistalu, Gheorghe lancu Stavrositu, Dima Stere Saguna, Constantin C. Cocea, lancu Stere Teca, Nicolae Casapu, Mihai Polihron-Ianca, Mihail Nacu Fate, Constantin Gh. Rencu, Nicolae Iancu Jiru, Stere Gheorghe Bu~uricu, Nicolae Gh. Hiru, lancu Gh. Casapu, Elena Gh. Ciacu, Iancu Nicolae Giirbea, Constantin N. Baba, Constantin Gh. Hagi, Mihail Gh. Hagi, Gheorghe lancu Gheorghe, Stere Nicolae Babu, Mihail Stere Vulpe, Stere Cara Nicolae, Polihron Stere C. Nicolae, Dumitru Mihail Guritii, lancu Gheorghe Bacale (in text Beclea), Dumilru Coji Zisu, Gheorghe Nicolae Babu, lanache Gh. Perifan.81

81. Toti 71 (capi de famiJie), colonizati de Mini~'lri". nr. 1431.

in Cainargeaua

Marc. cf. "fllmallli

Consilillilli

92

Macedo-aroma,,;; dobroge"i

.

The Macedo-Ammallialls

ill Dobrudja

82. Balagea,jud.

Caliacra.

Ta~u N. Cale~u (in text Chela~u), Stere Gh. Gu~ita, Gheorghe C. Samata, Nicolae M. Caramiha, Stere N. Caprinciu, Mihail D. Panait, Jam;u N. Bacula, Tanase Gh. Steriu (in text Stercu), Hristu D. Zeana (in text Dzune), Angela D. Sapera, Mihail I. Dardac (in text Dadaci), Tanase St. Hapa, Jancu Gh. Gu~ita, Haida C. Gu~ita, Gheorghe M. Dardac (in text Dudaci), Nicolae Gh. Gu~ita, Gheorghe St. Hapa, Mihail N. Caprinciu. Nicolae St. Hapa, Gheorghe N. Gu~ita, Costa N. Caprinciu, Panait ~i Zoita Dimcea (in text Dimeica), Nicolae St. Steriu (in text Stercu), Costa M. Dadaci, Dimcea M. Caramihail, Gheorghe D. Zeana (in text Dzune), Dumitru M. Caramihail, Vanghele St. Hapa, Hristu Gh. Nicolae, Stere M. Caramihail, Stere D. Zeane (Dzune), Angela D. Zeane, Stere Gh. Hapa, Stila M. Bacula, Mihail N. Bacula. Nicolae M. Bacula. Gheorghe M., Bacula, Sofronie M. Bacula, Sultana Gh. Stavrositu.82 83. Giurghengic, judo Caliacra. Ianeu St. Baba~eu, Steriu Gh. Danti, Nicolae D. Samara, Steriu M. Dante, Gheorghe Costa Samara, Costa Gh. Samara, Ianu~ I. Ad\u (in text Arau). Lefter Panita (in text Panita), Dumitru Apostol Perceli, Gheorghe T. Buuesiu, Costa N Mergiu, Sultana I. M. Arau, Cristina M. Arau, Dumitru Gh. Dumitru, Stere Goga Dumitru, Enache C. Calnola, Gheorghe Dima Grecu, Jancu C. Samara, Stere C. Samara, Stere I. Arau, Gheorghe Dumitru Ianeu, Gheorghe M. Bafani, Mihali At. Bafani, Sultana St. Biu, Tascu St. Biu. Elena Enaehe Pa~a, Gheorghe Enache Pa~a, l11o~tenitoriiZoita St. Sapera (Elena St. Sapera), orfana 1918, Stere Gh. Stavrositu, Athanase Gh. Bafani, Stila M. Gh. Stavrositu. Gheorghe Dumitru Mola, Iancu D. Mola, DUl11itruI. Mola, Dumitru At. Apostol, laneu Gh. Bafani, Mihail St. Bafanc, Gheorghe St. Sapera. DUl11itru Panita, Nicolae I. Mola, Iancu N. N.
82. Toli 39 co]on;zati nr. 1494. in Balagca. judo Caliacra, cf. "Jumallli Comilillilli de Millistri",

93

---

----

NICOLAE

CU$A

.

OTlUA PACEA

Mola, Iancu St. Bafani, Nicola St. Bafani, Dumitru Ta1)u, Stere Gh. Apostol, Jancu Gh. Apostol, Gheorghe Ap. Perceli, Athanase Ap. Perceli, Stila At. Apostol.83 84. Arabagi,jud. Durostor.

Dumitru Hristu Babu, Gheorghe Hristu Caracota, Sofron Gheorghe Grosu, Gheorghe Nicolae Damu, Nicolae Enache Damu, Chirata (in text Chirita), Gheorghe Damu, Tanase Stere Abagiu Mic, Zoita Stere Abagiu, Enache Constantin Dardac, Constantin Stere Dardac, Hristu Constantin Dardac, Apostol Stere Dardac, Nicolae Dima Sarafu, Gheorghe St. Caraba1)u, Atanase Gheorghe Caranica, Gheorghe Nicolae Caranica (in text Caranicu), Dimciu Nicolae Sarafu, Stere Nicolae Dardac, Gheorghe Nicolae Dardac, Gheorghe Vasile Grasu, Iancu St. Abagiu, Atanase St. Abagiu, Zoita St. Abagiu, Iancu Dumitru Babu, Atanase St. Dardac, Mihale Hristu Dardac, Hristu I. Caraiane (in text Caracane), Iancu Hristu Caraiane, Gheorghe Hristu Caraiane, Stere Hristu Babu, Constantin Dumitru Hristu Babu, Mihale C. Vulpe, Anton St. Dardac, Stere Mi1)U Cutu Mi1)u,Apostol Stere Iuruc, Nicolae Stere Dimcea, Stilu Nicolae Sarafu, Iancu Gh. Atanase.84

85. Toccilar, comuna Aiorman,jud.

Caliacra.

Enache Gh. Paris, Mihail St. Paris, Nicolae St. Mi1)aca,Nicolae St. Gospodin, Stere R. Mihail, Gheorghe M. Nicolae, Stere C. Lima, Sultana C. Grosu, Naciu M. Raiciu, Nicolae St. Paris, Mi1)uSt. Fudulu, Dindi St. Fudulu, Damu St. Fudulu, Dumitru P. Pufleni, Dumitru Gh. M. Ciota, Elena C. Mihail, Naciu N. Raiciu, Stere M. Raiciu, Dinca Gh. Raiciu, Naciu St. Raiciu, Stere N. Raiciu, Mihail N. Raiciu, Dindi Gh. Andon, Ta1)uD. Garofil, Dimcea D. Pelican, Stere D. Pelican, Stere D. Pelican, Stere C.
83. Cf. "Jllmallli Consilil/illi cleMinistri", nr. 1495. 84.Toale celc 38 de familii au fosl colonizale in Arabagi, judo Duroslor, cf. "Jllmalul Consilil/illi de Millis,,.i", nr. 1497. 94

Macedo-aromullii

dobrogelli.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dobrudja

Trandafir, Sima N. Peseu, Naciu F. Peseu, Mi!)uF. Grossu, Adam D. Adam, Nicolae Ciota, Stere I. Ciota, Enaehe I. Cioti, Stere Gh. Paris, Ianeu C. lanu!)(in text Denu!», Stere M. Fudulu, Ianeu St. Paris.85

86. Sever Radulescu, com una Echiscea,jud. Caliacra. Nicolae Gh. Marzavan, Gheorghe D. Marzavan, Costa D. Marzavan, Stere Gh. Marzavan, Gheorghe Ta!)u Stere, Enaehe Gh. Enaehe, Anastasia Gh. Enaehe, Costea Gh. Enaehe, Paris Mihale Stere, Maria Ta!)u Stere, Panait Stere Zvereali (in text Svareoli), Stere Panait Zvereali, Mihai St. Ro!)u, Sotir Atanase Calaigi, Costea Mihai GheorghiHi, Dumitru M. Gheorghita, Gheorghe St. Guei, Caloian N. Ghindici, Dumitru Iani Celoea, Nieolae D. Caramihale, Costa M. Sapira, Stere C. Sapira, Dumitru E. Garofil (in text Carafil), Costea Dumitru Garofil, Damu Dumitru Garofil (in text Garafil), Gheorghe Mih. GheorghWi, Atanase Mih. Gheorghita, Haida Dumitru Gh. Marzavan, Costea M. Mueeanu, laneu St. Rafte (in text Raftica), Atanase St. Gheorghita, Atanase Gh. Carastere, Gheorghe St. Carasterc (in text Cara Stere), Nicolae M. Gaga (in text Gaga), Hristu St. Guci, Atanase St. Guci, Hristu Stere Sapira, Gheorghe Hristu Sapira, Simu Caramihale, Mihale D. Caramihale, Gheorghe D. Caramihale, Dimciu St. Lipara (in text Lipora), Sultana St. Lipara (in text Lepura), Gheorghe St. Sapera, Atanase St. Sapera, Atanase P. Zvereali (in text este treeut foarte eronat, Zvareoleseu), Tanase I. Ianu!), Ta!)u Dima Gaga (in text Gaga), Gheorghe I. Toseali, Stere C. Marzavan, Mihale Stere Sapira, Stere Mihail Sapira, Chirata D. Sarafu Apostol D. Raftu, Stere Dimu Caramihale, Nicola Gh. Ghinodichi (in text Ghincidi). Gheorghe Panait Zvereali (in text Zvreoleseu), Ianeu M. Gaga, Hristu D. Todura!),Costa Stere Rosu, Dumitru Stere Ro!)u, Dimu Stere Ro!)u, Stere Gheorghe Ro!)u, Gheorghe Tanase, Ianeu Stere Sapira, Dumitru Stere Sapira, Stere Atanase GUci.86
85.Toate colonizate in Toccilar. judo Caliacra. cf. "iumalu/ 1498. 86. Toale 68 de familii au fost colonizate in localitatea Sever Riidulescu, com. Echiscea. COlISiliu/lli de MilliSlri", nr.

95

L

j"d_ G.",".

d. "'"m.""

C,"..iII,,',,;d, M;,,;W;". 1499. .,.

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OT/UA

PACEA

87. Arman, Caraci, Nebicuius, com. Arman, judo Caliacra. Aristide Zega, Atanase C. Geambazu (in text Geambasu), Atanase Zizi Hagibira.87

88. Suneci ~iGolibina Ceatlagea (comuna),jud. Durostor.
Gheorghe Fima Manic, Mita Gheorghe Tega, Naum Tega (Unic), Gheorghe Tega Naum, Tega Mita Mihail, Vasile Tega Mita, Atanase Naum Costea, Bartavela (in text Barfavela) Cola, Mihail Tega Gheorghe, Gheorghe Tega Gheorghe, Nacu Gheorghe Tega, Tega Dima Stambuli (in text Staboli), Zoita Costea Dima Manci, Nicolae Dumitru Costea, Nacu Dumitru Costea, Stere Tasu Caracoti, Alexandru Gh. Tasu Caracoti, Gheorghe Tasu Caracoti, Nicolae Gicu Papacu, Dumitru Zicu Papacu, Tascu Zica Papacu, Stere Zicu Papacu, Naum - Nasu - Seaban, Nicolae Zica Mita, Tegus Gheorghe Dumitru, Dumitru Gheorghe Mosu Basbanela (in text Bastasela), Nasu N. Zicu Saban, Gheorghe Costea Dumitru. 88 89. Ghiaur Suiciuc,jud. Caliacra. Zisu (in text Zizi) Pascal Dumitru, Nicolae D. Musu, Costa M. Pilici, Ion H. Bucovala, Caluda H. Caluda, Vasile Murci, Mihail Sterie Gheorghe, Mihai Sterie Puflene (in text Sufleani), Costa Sterie Pufleanu, Sterie M. Pufleanu, Sterie Peamuti, Sterie A. Calinderi, Gheorghe A. Calinderi.89

87. Toate cele tTei Camilii au Cost colonizate in Arman, judo Caliacra, COllsiliullli de Millislri", nr. 1500. 88. Cf. "Jumallli COllsililllui de Millislri". nr. 1501. 89. Cf. "Jumalul COllsiliullli de Millislri". nr. 1514.

cf. "Jumalul

96

J

Macedo-aromallii

dobrogelli

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

90. Sarsanlar,jud. Durostor.
Naum Sotir Baliu, Nicolac D. Dici, Nicolae T. Meju, Teodor I. Pi~ota, Nicolae C. Caragiu, Elisabeta Sterie T. Stanbelu, Maria Nacu~a Ghiaciu, Zoita N. Ghiaciu, Teodota A. Stilu, Gheorghe M. Gioga, Constantin Ziguli, Nicolae M. Vla~i,Dumitru C. Caragiu, Ion St. Leta, Strati Zisu Mitacu, Sideri D. Funda, Aristotel Z. Mitacu, Nicolae St. Leta, Vera St. Leta, Sterie Gh. Zisu, Polehra I. Tachi, Anastasia T. Culina. Cristache C. Caragiu, Leonida Caranaum, Temistocle Screpa, Nicolae Hertu, Costa Caragiu, Dumitru Caranaum, Pi~ota(in text Pizota) D.tru, Gheorghe N. Meju, Agora Papa Stere, GargaIa N. Mihail, Anton I. Cutita, Toma Sterie Stambelu (in text Stanbelu), Atanase Hertu, Malancu Ion, Geogea G. Panait, Culina I. Atanase, Marcu Gu~u Sidcri, Papagogu Ta~cu,Zverca D. Gheorghe, Ziguli Oh. Constantin.90 91. Cociular, judo Durostor. Nicola St. lanache, Stere N. I. Stoica, Stere Paris Enache, Mihale T. Mihale, Ta~cu M. Ta~cu, loan St. Taciu, Nicolae lancu Carata~u, Maria Gh. Stere, Tudora M. Gheorghe, Dumitru Dima, Diciu Ciomu N. Uricea, Adam M. Stere, Botca St. Dumitru, Bebu St. Nicolae, lani N. Iancu, Perceli Apostol Gh., Scocu Coca Stere, Stila C. Stila, Mina Miha1e M.lancu,91 92. Daidar, com una Denizler, judo Durostor. Guli Hristu, Ta~cu Zarcu, Stere Gr. Zarcu, Chirata Hagicu, Nicolae Hagicu, Constantin C. Stila, Costea D. Stela. 92
90. Cf. "}umalul Consiliului de Minislri". nr. 1515 si Inventar nr. 705-1929-1949, Durostor. Fond ONAC nr. 986, Arhive1e Centrale de Stat. Bucuresti. 91. Cf. "iumallll COllsililllui de Mlllis/ri", nr. /516; /nvenlar nr. 707-/929-/949. Durostor, Fond cit. 92. Cf. "}umalul (onsi/iullli de Minislri". nr. 1517. 97

l
NlCOLAE CU$A

.

OT1LIA PACEA

93. Haschioi, 94. Chiose-Aidin, 95. General Praporgescu, 96. General Dragalina, 97. Cocina. 98. Rahman A!lic1er, judo Durostor !Ii centrul (99)Titu Maiorescu, judo Caliacra; comunele: Haschioi, Chiose-Aidin, Babuc, Bazarghian, Cocina, Rahman A!lic1er, judo Durostor!li com. Opanez,jud. Caliacra Petre D. Caraiani (in text Caearani), Eftimie D. Ripea, Hristu D. Vreta, Stefan St. Murta, Stefan Gh. Civga, Hristu I. Luea, Petre St. Lipea, Anastase St. Lipea, Anastase A. Dede, Stavre N. Ciolae, Anastase D. Ripea, Petre Vasile Vanoe, Ion D. Vreta, Stefan St. Tica, Stavre N. Haba, Ion Prondi Vasile, Dumitru T. Dudi, Stefan At. Dede, Gheorghe N. Samargiu, Anastase N. Ciolaehi, Constantin Gh. Caimaean, Gheorghe D. Simiti, Sterie I. Tulidi, Sterie Gh. Caimaean (in text Caimaeon), Nicolae A. Merea, Nicolae M. Merea, Gheorghe E. Merea, Sterie D. Bica, Sterie D. Dueea, Apostol N. Tolciu, Mihail C. Tolciu, Ion P. D. Ciolaehe, Cristea D. Danti, Mihail A. Criciu, Anastase G. Criciu, Gheorghe C. Cioseu, Constantin Gh. Chioseu, Maria Mihai C. Aita (in text Haita), Nicolae C. Aita, Gheorghe C. Aita, Gheorghe St. Ciolachi, Dumitru St. Ciolache, Anastase A. Carniciu, Nicolae C. Gherzu, Steriu N. Caniciu, Ion B. Ripea, Mihail St. Lutaru, Nastase St. Carniciu, Sterghie D. Epure, Gheorghe St. Lutaru, Chirata Nicolae Caraeostea, Sterghie Mihail, Paris N. Hagicu, Nacu St. Epure, Sterghie N. Epure, Sterghie M. Saradicianu (in text Sorocaeionu), Nicolae Gh. Saraeaeeanu, Mihail Gh. Saradiceanu, Sterghie N. Saracaceanu, Piha D. Caracostea, Dumitru St. Lutaru, Anastase N Bureeu, Dumitru Pieeava (in text Peeeova), Gheorghe Piceava, Sotir Mihail, Constantin C. Burecu, Gheorghe C. Burecu, Cristea C. Bureeu, Sterie T. Balla, Zicu Costa Piha, Stere Costa Epure, Costa (in text Costo) D. Piha, Anastase C. Piha, Dumitru T. Piha, Costa St. Epure Costa Gh. Saraeaeeanu, Gheorghe N. Gherzu, Chirata T. Piha, Dueea D. Zicu, Maria St. Ciolache, Nicolae D. Epure, Costa Duza, Nicolae M. Duza, Nicolae Gatu, Steriana Gh. N. Gatu, Ion Gh. Gusu, Dumitru Steric Caimaean, Constantin D. Damasaru (in text Damasare), Ianeu Gheorghe Pistalu, Iancu Dumitru Bavaleta, Dima Dumitru Hristu, Naciu Dima Mengiu, Mihail Gheorghe Cioti, Nicolae Dumitru Bavaleta, 98

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromallians

in Dobmdja

r

lancu Gh. Rapa, Constantin Dumitru Bavaleta, Stila Hristu Gicu, Mihail N. Pi~talu, Maria D. Gheorghe, Dumitru Hristu Tocea, Nicolae Constantin Mitracu, Ta~u Gh. Cioti (in text Cioti), Gheorghe Hristu Gicu, Gheorghe Constantin Pi~talu, Dimciu Constantin Dama~aru, Steriu Dumitru Bavaleta, Vasile Constantin Dama~aru, Steriu C-tin Dama~aru, Mihale C-tin Pi~talu, Stere Hristu Gieu, Vanghele N. Mitraeu, Nieolae C-tin Dama~aru, Atanase Steriu Plosearu, Gheorghe Hristu Tocea, Paris Gheorghe Pi~talu, Enach« D. Barzu, Gheorghe Dima Dama~ari, Gheorghe Hristu Caranica (in text CasaNicu), Dumitru Gh. Nurciu, Gheorghe N. Plosearu, Nicolae N. Plosearu, Stere Dima Papazicu, Naciu N. Caluda, Constantin Dimeiu Dama~ari, laneu Hristu Caranica (in text Caraniciu), Steriu Dimciu Magiru (in text Margiu), Dumitru Dimciu Garofil, Chirata Mi~u Garofil, Mihail D. Bavaleta, Atanase N. Pi~talu (in text Pistaliu), Gheorghe D. Zorica, Costa Ta~u Costa, Dumitru Nic. lane Vlasehi, Mihail Costa lama, Dumitru Nicolae Mitraeu, Nicolae Ta~u Fulina (in text Bulina), Constantin Nic. Fulina, Sterie Gheorghe Bangari, Gheorghe Steriu Bangari, Constantin Stere Dama~aru, Gheorghe Paris Coeea, Gheorghe Adam Ta~u, Stere D. Arghir, Stere Gh. N. Ploscaru, Arghiu D. Mihai Arghiu, Tanasc Nicolac Mi~u, Ta~u Adam Ta~u, Sterc Adam Ta~u, Ta~u Elena, St. Gheorghe Sia, Enache Gh. Muceanu (in text Moiceanu), Constantin A. Grasu, Dimu St. Custura, Apostol Sterie Ciaeu, Atanase C. Cu~u, Vad Calita Z. C. Buea, Nieula T. Bagia, Chendra Adam Indina, Gheorghe I. Brace, Gheorghe M. Mu~i, Mihail At. Tugearu, Gheorghe Chirvasitu, Hristu 1. BelIu, Ti\nase Mt. Magia, Ion Ta~u Enache, Hristu Gica, Nicolae C. Gad, Enache St. Ro~u, Vi\d Ecaterina N. Ro~u, Gheorghe En. Ro~u, Dumitru Ion Ro~u, Mihale P. Mu~i, Constantin Gheorghe Ro~u, Spiru Gh. Ro~u, Enaehe Hristu Stefu, Stefu 1. Gheorghe, Hristu 1. Gad (in text Brad), Mihail Gaci, Spiru D. Scupra, Vi\d. Sana Scupra, Dumitru Filiu, Ta~eu Hr. Nauea, Tudor C. Nieolae, Mihail I. Costid, Constantin Caratana, Viid Becea (in text Bece) Barbatu~u, Costa Fotu, Ion Gh. Mitru~, Vad. Nastasia Sp. Butearu, Viid Nastasia Barbata~, Ti\nase Sp. Butearu, loan Gh. Vasu, loan T. Pariza, Naeu Doeu, Aristide Doeu, Gheorghe Puci, Nicolae D. Cacsi, Hristu Gh. Stefan, Ta~u C. Butcaru, Haralambie D. Doeu, Vaduva Sofia Stavre, Hristu Bebi (in text Bebe), Ta~uli Toma, Viid Ianula G. Vasu, Anastase Belba, Sterie V. Giogea (in text Giorgia), Ion Gh. BelIu, loan A. Filiu (in text Filu), Nicolae 1.Toma, Tanase 99

l

NICOLAE

CU$A

.

OTILIA PACEA

C. Gace (in text Gacia), Dumitru I. Costidi, Ion Costa Bracia, Gheorghe D. Ze1ca, Vasile Gogeaman, Dumitru N. Chirvasitu, Gheorghe Adam, Hristu Stefu, Costa loan Bracea, Dumitru"Spiru Cocea, Ahileia D. Mizu, Dumitru Stilu, Stilu Dumitru Ilie, Hristu Nastu, Traian G. Curumi, Nicolae Gh. Zelca, Vad. Vasile Spiru Coeea, Mihail Caq;i, Ta$u Geogea (in text Georgea), Gheorghe T. Pariza, Vad Angela Gh. Curumi, Mihai H. Lenu, Costa V. Scupra, Ion Geavela, Sotir At. Doeu, Athanase V. Docu, Athanase Tugearu, Maria At. Costea, Alexa Zica Nasta, Costa Ta$u Geogea, Maria D. Doeu, Costa Hristu Lenu, Hristu C.Scupra, Dumtru Dargate, Lambru Gh. Dargate, Costa I. Costidi, Costea Nasta, Athanase R. Dumitru, Athanase N. Costica, Ta$u Gr. Scupra, Gheorghe Scupra, Dumitru N. Zechiu, Ta$u I. Mihale, Nicolae C. DU$u,Gheorghe I. Pandichi, Stambuli Costa (in text Stambellu), Zisu Curumi, Cristea E. Tagore (in text Tagare), Stefan E. Tagore, Dumitru Farin, Nanu Farin, Dumitru C. Papa C-tin, Dima Hristu Carapan, Avram Ciumpileac, Dumitru St. Prajea, Stefan Anastase Pamor, Gheorghe Ceafcoci, Dumitru St. Giorta, Hristu St. Cucoti, Stamate A. Tiliu, Dionisie Manole, Hristu A. Giarta, Preot loachim Gh. Porumbelu, Atanase P. Coeea, (in text Cociu), Anastase Trifan Sfircea, Vasile Hristu Becica, Gheorghe I. Bozna, loan R. Prajea, Gheorghe I. Oui, Hristu Gh. Misigea zis BO$eu,Petre St. Sotir, Anastase D. Sereea, Dumitru R. Pater, Dumitru R. Pater, Dumitru I. Oui, Dionisie St. Pranza, Trifan Hristu Bicica, Avram Gh. Tumba, Gheorghe I. Gaga, Vanghele I. Vanta, Dumitru Gh. Chinda, Petre A. Zeta, Tanca Gicu lanciu, Stefan D. Seu, Petre D. Pastrici, Dionisie Gh. Gaga, Gheorghe Manole Papamanu, loan T. leu, Gheorghe St. Gulub, Dumitru A. Cama$, Hristu Gh. Papamanec, Hristu Dionisie Mi$u, Gheorghe D. Pitu (in text Pitua), Dionisie P. Ciafca, Rizu A. Zeta, Gheorghe I. Tripca, Riza Atanase Sanchi (in text Stanehi), loan P. Ciumpileac, Atanase D. Ciupita, Dionisie H. Mi$u, Vasile Palan, Gheorghe Proia Baicio$i, Dumitra A. Anciu, loana I. Hristu, loan Dumitru Menci, Riza D. Eda, Pavel I. Vanta, loan Pupca, Hristu D. Chinda, Aneta Gh. Moscu, Beca D. Chinda, Maria V. OUi, Hristu C. Ciumpileac, Dionisie D. Tapan, Anastase D. Camu$, Traian Gh. Grosu (in text Grozea), Hristu Bi$u (in text Biju), Liciu Hristu, Gh. Cician, Hristu Ghionci, Vanghele G. Giorta, Hristu Tr. Sfircea, Dumitru A. Culea$i, Maria Culea$i, Boscu Papa Gheorghe, Dumitru C. Ciumpileac, Toma St. Argintaru, Stefan D. Ginau, Vanghele Gh. Pazu, Maria Gh. Sereca, Vasile V. Lazar, 100

-

Macedo-aroman;;

dobrogeni.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

Petre I. Prandi, Petre Cu~ea, Dumitru St. Cu~ea, Hristu P. Coeiu, Dionisie Gh. Gmsu, Ion St. Cuiruli, Nu~i I. Gheorga, Dumitru Rizu Sirli, loan Hristu Ta~a, Dumitru I. Paiea, Constantin C. Tahu, Armade T. Cara-Constantin, Nicolae Hristu Gaea, Gheorghe Hristu Gaea, Chendra I. Mezat, Mihail N. Merea, Gheorghe N. Merea, loan N. Merea, Mihaill. Merea, Hristu M. Nicola, Vasile Gh. Pana, Stana Hr. Casapu, Tu~i Gh. Ba~mi, Stefan D. Pre~a, Lazar Anton Pana, Ion Ion Broasea, Dumitru Pre~a, Hristea T. leu, Haralambie M. Pana, Lazar N. Gheorghe, Paulina M. Cioti, Gheorghe Gh. Stavri, Toma C. Hristu, Stefan Bratea, Dumitru T. Lala, Petre St. Bratea, Ion H. Vere~, Heraclea Gheorghe Leea, Dumitru C. Papaiani, Gheorghe Z. Hiohi, Anastase M. Nanu~, Nicola D. Biti, Elena Tache N. Biti, Chirata Stoica V. Deam, Constantin N. Merea, Hristu Peanci (in text Panciu), Tanase St. Lala (in text Lola), Ion Lazar Pana, Dumitru L. Pana, Gheorghe Petre Mezat, Eftimie Caeearea, Lambru N. Gheorghe, Ta~a Gherzu, Petre Papa Petre, Nicolae N. Gicu, Hristu N. Tulica, Trapeea Tanase leba, Stefan A. Terzi, Vasile A. Bujgoli (in text Bujgole), Dumitru Zeta, Steriu Dumitru, Nicolae Costea, Dumitru laneu (in text loaneu), Steriu Halep, Stere Costea Pa~a, Mihail Panait Stefan, Nicolae, Nicea Sterghiu Dumitru, Nicola Adam, Fimiu Mihai Anagnoste, Fimiu lanu, Steriu Mihai, Nicola lanaehe, laneu Gheorghe, Nicolae laneu, Mihail Nicea, laneu Anagnoste, Dima Hristu, Dumitru Fimiu (in text Fumin sau Fimin) Arghir Dindi, Costa Dima, Nieea Sterghiu (in text Stergiu~), laneu Grosu, Mihail lanaehe, Sterghiu Anagnoste, Gheorghe Mihail Levente, Steriu Paris, laneu Steriu, Elena Dumitru, Steriu Gheorghe Belu, Nicolae Steriu, Costa Gheorghe, Gheorghe Hristu, Sterghiu Gheorghe, Adam Steriu, Steriu Panait, Panait Steriu Uda, Gheorghe Steriu Bela, Adam Steriu, Nicola Steriu, Constantin Steriu Gramen, Nicolae Steriu, laneu Megit, Gheorghe Megit, Costa Stefan Gheorghe, Hristu Megit, Zoita Grosu, Maria Mihale Uda, Sultana Mihai Nicolae, Maria Mihale Bi~eu, Tanase Panaiot Stefan, laneu Mihail, Costa Nieolae, Constantin Gh. Gramen, Dumitru Mihai Stere, Dumitru Steriu, Maria Steriu, Costa Steriu, Steriu Dinea, Mihale Steriu, Arghir Dumitru, Costa Steriu, Tanase Costa, Costa Nicola, Costa Steriu, Dima N. Adam, laneu Mihale, Costa Nicola, Nicea Dumitru, Damu (in text Danu) Steriu Anagnoste, Mihalea Gheorghe, Dumitru Gheorghe Lcvcnte, Agora (in text Ahora) Dumitru Melu, Hristu Dimu, Gheorghe Dimu, Maria Dinea, Zoita Dumitru Steriu, Agora Adam 101

L

NICOLAE CU$A

.

OTIL/A PACEA

Mihai, Nicolae Gheorghe Elena Gheorghe, Panaiot, Hristu Tanase, Dimu Tanase, Maria Hristu, Maria Panaiot, Tanase Halep, Costea Halep (in text Halip), Marica (in text Mariuca) Mihale Halep, Nicolae Steriu, Steriu Dinca, lanu$ Gh. Megit, Steru Megit, Steru lancu, lancu Megit, Gheorghe C. Gramen, Gheorghe Cirac (in text Chiriac), Steriu Gh. Cirac, toti din comunele: Hasichioi, Chiose-Aidin, Babuc, Bazarghian, Cocina, Rahman, A$icler, judoDurostor $i Ciona St. Cinghinea, Enache St. Caranfil, Gheorghe I. Racu, Chirata Ion Racu, Dumitru zis TU$uS. Cinghinea, Maria Ch. Avrioni, Ecaterina Gh. Avrioni, Dumitru St. Caranfil, Tanase Gh. Avrioni, Gheorghe M. Saracaceanu, Dumitru Naum zis Mitiu Bi$ir, Cocea Naum Dumitru, Nicea C. Mandu, Sterghiu Mi$a Ficea, lancu Mihail Chichirim, Sterie M. Chichirim, Tudor M. Chichirim, Dimciu Mi$u Ficea, Gheorghe I. Baturi, Sterie Dima Dima, Gheorghe Mi$ea Ficea, Vasile D. Mihai zis Caju (in text Caje), Elena N. Gh. Gheorghe, Stere I Magiru, Nicolae St. Caranfil, Nicolae I. Bi$ir, Mihail Zica Nicolae, Dinca Gh. Nicolae, Constantin AI. Racu, lancu Zica Nicolae, Paris Costa Racu, Dinca I. Mi$ea, Mi$u N. Anagnoste, Enache I. Baturi, toti din com. Titu Maiorescu,jud. Caliacra.93-99 100. Cuiuchici, comuna Vulture~ti,jud. Caliacra. Gheorghe Steriu, Nicolae D. Pufleni, Gheorghe D. Pufleni, Costea D. Pufleni, Dumitru S1. Pufleni, Tegu Gh. Lambru, Vasile Gaia, Dumitru Dinca, Stere Dinca, Dinca St. Dinca, Elena lordachi, Gheorghe D. BU$u, Gheorghe S1. Puflene, Constantin D. Caciandoni, Culu$ Stere, Stere St. Culu$, Stefan Steriu, Dumitru Stere, Puflene Ceau$, Stere Dumitru, Puflene Ceau$, Dumiru Stere Puflene, Agora Stere, Paris Puflene, Stere Gh. Puflene, Vasile Steriu Puflene.too

93-99. Toate 535 de familii au fost colonizate in centrele si comunele mentionate in "iumolul Consiliullli de Minisrri". nr. /518. 100. Cf. "iumolul Consiliului de Ministri", nr. /519. 102

-- -

--

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

101. Deli-Iusuflar, com una Vischioi,jud. Durostor. Hristu D. Zdoea, Gheorghe C. Zareu, Nicolae Gh. Zuea, Ion Gh. Ghiuri, Dumitru Papa Enache, Mihail St. Mangu, Sterie A. Rida, Nicolae D. Barzu, Ta~cu M. Zeehiu, Ion M. Zechiu, Constantin St. Cirea, Dumitru C. Beta, Zoita Gh. Hristu, Maria N. Mangu, Nicolae Gh. Hristu, Gheorghe D. Zdoea, Constantin S. Zareu, Chirata D. Farin, Nieolae Gh. Premciu; Nicolae C. Sarbu, Dumitru N. Sarbu, Gheorghe I. Ghiuri, Anastasia C. Grosu, Stere N. Li~ita, laneu St. Saramandu, Dumitru St. Saramandu, Apostol I. Lengiu, Gheorghe Culerda, Nicolae M. Li~ita, Lazar Coeea, Costa Gh. Farmaehe, Saramandu St. Mihail, Mihail D. Gioga, Sterie Gh. Saramandu, Sterie N. Barzu, Sterie D. Galani, Mihail N. Barzu, Gheorghe Gh. Guli, Gheorghe M. Lengiu, Sterie C. Zuea, Anastase C. Carali, Nicolae Carali, Constantin A. Carali, Maria N. Chilipiru, Nicolae Gh. Farmaehe, Gheorghe Farmache, Ion C. Caramitru (in text Caramitra), Gheorghe Chiria, Sterie Gh. Hristu, Mihail I. Zeehiu, Dumitru N. Zduca, Ion C. Chiria, Dumitru Gh. Farmachi 10 1. 102. Ghiore, comuna GargaHic. Nieolae St. Ceara, Stere B. Ce~ra, Dumitru N. Ceara, Apostol I. Titimeaua (in text Titimeana), Stere A. Titimeaua, Vasile T. Blacioti, Gheorghe I. Titimeaua, Ion P. Masuri, Nicolae D. Tiviehi, Apostol N. Tivichi, Nicolae A. Tivichi, Dumitru P. Garba (in text Giirna) Atanase St. Tivichi, Atanase N. Tiviehi, Manole Maneea (in text Manecea), Sterie A. Tivichi, Sterie N. Ceara, Pavel N. Ceara, Ion N. Ganera, Ion B. Ceara, Ion N. Ceara, Sterie A. Guguleana, Sterie M. Cealera (in text Celera), Anastasia Ha~oti, Nicolae A. Blacioti, Steriana A. Blacioti (in text Bacioti), Zoita A. Titimeaua, Ion A. Titimeaua.102

101. Cf. "Jurnalul Consi/iului de Minislri". 102. cr. "Jumalul (onsiliullli de Minislri".

nr. 1520. nr. 1521.

103

NICOLAE

CU$A

.

OT/UA

PACEA

103. Ghiurghengic,jud.

Durostor.

lancu Nicola Mola, Toader I. Arau, Nicol Ta~u Bude~u, Gheorghe St. Mitrache, Atanase S1. Biu, Sterie M. Bafane (in text Bofan), Mihail S1. Samara, Stere Costa Arau, Atanase Gh. Apostol, Gheorghe St. Stavrositu, Dinca Custura, Dumitru D. Barzu, Steriu I. Carapit.\lJ3 104. Fra!>ari,jud. Durostor. Spiru T. Babu, Spiru Dumitrescu, Pandu Mila, Temistocle A. Batu, Epaminonda Culetu, Hristu Zonea, Nicolae Beca, Andrei N. Ghita, Ilie H. Mila, Hristu I. Mila, Fotu A. Apostol, Gheorghe H. Cutina, Dumitru L. Cutina, Licea St. Dolu, Athanase H. Bichi, Zicu D. Rigea, Hristu L. Ghita, Vanghele T. Nastu, Gheorghe M. Mustaca (in text Abustaca), Nicolae Gh. Mustaca, Stelian M. Babu, Dionisie S1. Babu, Vanghele G. Babu, Nicolae D. Muca, Atanase I. Geavela, Gheorghe I. Geavela, Spiru H. Bichi, Sotir Teja, Petre Sunda, Stefania Sunda, Hristu Gh. Sunda, Pandu V. Sunda, Anastase H. Ghita, Hristu D. Sola, Aristide H. Gaci, Steriu M. Mihalciu, Dumitru S1.Sunda, Ion S1.Paun, Athena M. Nastu, Hristu N. Gaci, Vanghele Becali, Dima H. Bujgoli, Paraschiva Caceaveli, Gheorghe Toma, Dumitru C. Fati, Zisa D. Grata, Constantin D. Memu, Popescu Vasile, Vanghele V. Popescu, Hristu D. Maca (in text Maca), Ilie H. Uscatu, Everdichia V. Uscatu, Spiru Spau (in text Span), Praca Gheorghe, Sterghiu Pitu, Pandu I. Pandu, Pericle Pitu ~i Leonida Teja, Athanase Pitu, Dumitru A. Pitu, Gheorghe A. Pitu, Pericle I. Mustaca, Pr. Nicolae Popescu, Sotir D. Adam, lanuli M. Mustaca, Anghela Sp. Cale~u, Miciu H. Uscatu, Hristu N. Pihu, Hristu Gh. Zechiu, Anastase H. Cale~u, Hristu ~i Elena Gaci, Vanghele P. Pati, Anastase Gh. Babu, Constantin V. Mila, Vanghele T. Suta (in text Suti), Sofia T. Suta, Lambru D. Sota, Vasile Atanase Statina, Ahilea M. Nastu, Hrista Gh. Caramitru, Chirata A. Culetu, Vad Maria C. Ghita, Pandu D. Ruca, Atanase I. Privenda (in text Pirivenda), Hristu St. Babu, Gheorghe
103. Cf. "Jumalul Consilil/ll/i de Ministri". nr. 1522.

104

Macedo-aromal/ii

dobrogel/i

.

The Macedo-Aromal/ial/s

ill Dobrudja

Murova, Hristu Ianula, At. Murova, Vasile N. Stilu, Pandu si Constanda P. Fotu, Dumitru N. Sola, Vad Evdoxia D. Calesu, Vad Maria V. Geavela, Viid Tasica Mila, Nicolae N. Bileca, Theodor, D. Adam, Gheorghe si Maria Ghita, Haralambie Gh. Ghita, Socrate Gh. Ghita, Constantin si Sofia Privenda, Maracu A. Talabac, Ahileia A. Babu, Ion T. Zonia, Constantin Culetu, Tomache P. Babu, Olimpia V. Sunda, Paraschiva P. Griva, Ilie Babu, Anastase I. Babu, Sotir I. Babu, Petrica N. Culetu, Constantin Margiiritu, Atanase Sp. Calesu, Spiru Mila, Andrei I. Mila, Hristu Cipu, Anastase Hristu Suta.104 105. Cavarna,jud. Caliacra.

Gheorghe N. Cadache, Vasile N. Caraiani (in text Caraini), Gheorghe Popa Dumitru, Ion Z. Papazi, Costa N. Ceara, Gheorghe I. Iota, Dumitru Gh. Godi, Ion C. Godi, Constantin St. Hulcva, Vangheli C. Huleva, Maria N. Iota, Dumitru Vrana, Gheorghe Fevga, Elena Mansenli, Anton Cusa, Gheorghe N. Blacioti, M~ria D. Papaianus, Gheorghe I. Caraiani, Gheorghe Gama, Ion M. Hasoti, Ion Ccamitru. 105 106. Petia, com. General Poctas,jud. Caliacra. Ecaterina D. Caraiani.106

107. Busuioc, com. GargaIac, judo Caliacra. Nicolae Gh. Cavache, Ion D. Ceara, Dumitru Gh. Cuvaci, Vasile Godi, Nicolae Gh. Vrana, Ion V. Pavlicu, Dumitru G. Zdralea, Nicolae G. Zdralea, Sterie I. Culusu, Maria Culusu, Gheorghe A. Zamani, Gheorghe D. Cutova,
104. Toale 117 familii au fosl colonizale COllsiliu/ui de Millislri". nr. 1523. in com. Frasari, judo Duroslor. "Jumalul

105. Cf. "1"1'1101,,1 COllsiliul"i de Millisl,.i". nr. 1524. 106. Cf. "Jumal,,1 CCJ/lsili"l"i lie Millislri". nr. 1525.

105

---

NlCOLAE

CU$A

.

OTILIA PACEA

Gheorghe I. Zamani, Anastase D. Cutova, Ion D. Gosehin, Apostol St. Gurmeanu (in text Germeanu), Nicula V. Pavlieu, Gheorghe Hagimasuri, Ion D. Zdralea, Apostol D. Cutova, Dumitru N. Ceara, Nicolae Cealera (in text Celera), Nieolae Cealera, Sterie Mazctraehe, Sterie Babanica, Ion Pavlieu, Dumitru I. Pavlicu, Pavel V. Pavlieu.107

108. Ceadarsig, com. Echingic,jud. Durostor. Stila Gh. Stavrositu, Gheorghe Stere Stavrositu, Iancu Stila Stavrositu, Stere I. Stavrositu, Gaehe Gh. Dafina, Hristu Gh. Dafina, Gache St. Enaehe, Gheorghe St. R. Caraman, Ianeu Stila Stavrositu, Nicolae Francu, Gheorghe Stila Stavrositu, Mihai N. Franeu, Dimeea Ta[)uEnache.108 109. lala Ceatlagea,jud. Durostor.

Nicolae Enaehe, Hristu Fustanela, Gheorghe St. Caradima, Stere Caradima, Nieolae St. Tocia, Ion E. Enaehe, Gheorghe At. Stambuli, Gheorghe St. Ciamani, Gheorghe Adam, Ion Z. lurue, Constantin I. Raftu, Ion Dalametra (in text Delamitra), Nicolae Stere Voevoda, Tudor Papu[)anu, Maria I. D. Caraman, Stere D. Ciaturi, A. Atanase Ghiftici, Constantin St. Soflara, Gheorghe N. Ciaturi, Gheorghe I. Ciorba, Dumitru I. Chihaia, laneu N. Raftu, Atanase Moroitu, Gheorghe N. Raftu, Constantin Z. Iurue.109 110. Vischioi, judo Durostor. Mihail Constantin Goga (in text Gogu), Dumitru Ion Tica, Sterie Dumitru Varghida, Constantin Sterie Varghida, Atanase St. Varghida, Ion Tica Tica, Aristide Tica, Gheorghe Constantin Goga, Sterie Dumitru Barzu, Hristu Nicolae Barba, Nicolae M. Carniciu, Nicolae Gh. Dueea, Dumitru St.
107. Cf. "JII/'IIollIl COIISilillllli de Millislri", nr. 1528. 108. Cf. "JllrtlollIl COllsilillllli de Millislri", nr. 1529. 109. Cf. "Jumollll COllsilillllli de Minislri", or. 1530.

106

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogelli

.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dobrudju

Barza H., Gheorghe Dumitru Dueea, Dumitru D. Pota, Mihail Nicolae Lolea (in text Loliu), Nicolae Dumitru Barza, Gheorghe N. Barza, Hristu Sterie Si1,ieu, ihai St. Barza, Elena Dumitru Bala, Eeaterina Gh. Sterie, Nicolae M D. Mueea.110

111. Sf. Teodor, comuna Ezibei,jud. Caliacra. Costa M. Vanghelieeseu, Mihail St. Vanghelieeseu, Naidan Enaehe Lipara, Maria Dimu, Enaehe Lipara, Costea St. Vanghelieeseu, Dimu Nicola Pandi, Gheorghe D. Chioreiu, Dumitru Gh. Chioreiu, Dimu N. Lepara, laneu Costa Pand, Nieolae C. Cumbuianu, Elena C. Gheorghita, Gheorghe Nicola Panea, Constantin N. Panea, Gheorghe C-tin N. Pand, Elena Nicolae C-tin N. Panea, Enaehe A. Dadaei, Chirata A. Dadaci, laneu N. Pandi, Nieulae I. Pand, Dimitrie C. Cumboianu, Nieolae D. Lepara, Gheorghe N. Lepara, Stere Mantu, Dumitru Stere Mantu, Dumitru Nieolae Mantu, Gheorghe C-tin Gheorghita, Gheorghe Cumbuianu, Mihai Cumbuianu, Dumitru V. Vanghelieeseu, Mihail V. Vanghelieeseu, Nicolae St. Zeana (in text Zeama) .111 112. Carageat,jud. Durostor.

Zoita Dumitru Lepar, Gheorghe D. Lepar, Hristu Dumitru Lepar, Hristu Dumitru Lepar, Dumitru Gh Babu, Hristu Hagi laneu, Gheorghe Hagi laneu,laneu Vanghele Pi1,itali in text Vi~tali), Gheorghe V. Pi~tali, Steriu ( qh. Pm:mta text Va~ata), Vanghelie N. Pi~tali, Gheorghe Dumitru Sapera, (in Mihail Drosi Taraeu, laneu Drosu Tararaeu, Dumitru Gh. Fendericu, Adam Steriu Gheorghita, Nicola Cutumi~u, Petraehe St. Ariciu, laneu Gh. Be~enieu, Nieolae Sofronie Polihrani, Stila Zgura Gheorghe, Mihail Atanase Bicu, Steriu N. panita, laneu St. laneu, C-tin N. Mi1,iu, postol Gh. Vasile, A Gheorghe D. Pa1,iata, onstantin Gh. Be~enicu, Dimeiu N. Casapu (in text C Casapri), Nieolae I. Tararaehe, Naciu I. Caluda, Costa N. Garba, Gheorghe
/10. Cf. "iumallil 1/1. Cf. "lumallil Consililllll; de Millist,.i", or. /532. COllsilil/lui de Millist,.i", or. 1533.

107

NICOLAE

CU$A

.

OTlLlA PACEA

N. Garba, Sultana Gh. Garba, lancu N. Bafani, Gheorghe Dumitru Babu, Nicolae Dimu Pa~ata, Vasile Nicola Cutumi~u, lancu Gh. lolgiu, Gheoghe I. PanHa, Hristu St. Zgura, Gheorghe St. Zgura, Vanghele Costa Beciu, Gheorghe V. Pi~talu, Vasile St. Stavrositu, lancu St. Zgura, Costa Dumitru Sapera, Stila Dumitru Sapera, Mihail D Custura (in text CusturoQ.112 113. Suiuciuc, com. Eibei. Dumitru Cova, Atanase Cova, Nicolae Didi,113 114. Bei Bunar,jud. Durostor

Stefan Ta~u Arnautu, Vanghele Nicolae Beca, St. loan Calintaru, Dumitru D. Custura, Mihale Dumitru Custura, Costa Gheorghe Gheorghe Enache Ta~u Nicolae, Vasile A. Sterea, Dumitru Nicolae lane, Hristu Nicolae Eane, Nicolae Hristu Eane, Dumitru Costa Gheorghe, Gheorghe St. Giogea, Constantin M. Bude~u, Vanghele Gh. Stere, Ta~u Nicolae Gheorghe, Atanase V. Verioti, Stere Atanase Gheorghe, Gheorghe M. Gheorghe zis Gramalinga, Naciu Mihale Mihale, Mihale N. Mihale, Mihale 1. Calintaru, Maru~a 1. Calintaru, Stere Gheorghe Stere, Mihale N. Ta~a zis Beca, Nicolae Ta~u zis Beca, Halciu N. Ta~u zis Beca, Atanase N. Ta~u zis Beca, Gheorghe Costa Ha~oti, Nicolae Costa Demeca, Constantin N. E., Gheorghe Costa Nicolae, Hristu Costa Hristu, Hristu M. Stere, Alexandru Stere Gheorghe, Stere Alexandru Stere, lancu Atanase Beca, Gheorghe N. Saricu, Dimciu N. Saricu (in text Salicu), Gheorghe Stere N. Nicolae, Stere N. Atanase, Nicolae Gheorghe Dimcea (in text Dimcia), Gheorghe Dimcea Nicolae, Vanghele N. Gheorghe, Vasile Dumitru Nicolae, Sterie lancu Sterie, Ta~u lancu Sterie, Nicolae Ta~cu Gudina, Zica Gheorghe Zica, Gheorghe Nicolae Amautu, Steriu Hristu Sterea zis Baku, Atanase Paris Sterea, Sterea St. Amautu, Nicolae St. Amautu, Gheorghe C. Grasu (in text Grozu), zis Adam, Damu Costea Grasu, Steriu Mihale Steriu, Dumitru
112. Cf. "J"mallli Consilil//I/i de Minisl,.i", nr. 1534. 113. Cf. "JI/mall/I Consilil/llii de Minislri", nr. 1535.

108

Macedo-aromallii

dobrogell;

.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dobrlldja

Nicolae Mita (in text Mita), Maria Gh. N. Mita, Atanase St. Pa~;a,Constantin Vanghele Lusu, laneu Gheoorghe Tanase. 114

115.Cavurga, com. Sahinlar,jud. Durostor
Nicolae D. Buhora, Nicolae At. Cioeiea, Chirata D. Ambasi (in text Ombasi), Gheorghe lanus, Nicolae D. Panca, Vanghele Gh. Tudor, Nicola Naciu Bajdana (in text BujdanoO, Vanghele T. Damu, BIaja lon, Atanase M. Gicu, Costa Gh. Gicu, Sultana Nicolae Damu, Janeu Steriu Costa, Enaehe Gh. Gieu, Gheorghe Mih. Gicu, Dumitru Dimu Marusaneu, laneu Naciu Bojdana, Vasile Gh. Gicu, Drosa CV. Vanghele, Gheorghe Gh. Vagu, Gheorghe D. Vanghele, laneu Costa Gheorghe, Costa Damu Tasu, Naciu Costa, Enaehe Atanase Dimu, Steriu Mitra Mita, Atanase C. Stere, Stefan Dumitru Hristu, Atanase Tudor, Joan Gh. Ristea, Gheorghe Gh. Ristea, Eeaterina I. Casota, Steriu At. Ciociea, Zisu Nicola Panea. 115 116. Cabasacal, comuna Ghclengic,jud. Caliacra
Atanase Papagheorghe.116

117. Sinirul Nou,jud. Durostor laneu T. Verioti, Damu C. D. Tapieu, Teodor St. Verioti, Taseu T. Verioti, Maria Const. D. Tapicu, Constantin lani Dumitru, Costea Hristu Verioti, laneu St. Verioti, Gheorghe I. Verioti, Hristu St. Verioti, Gheorghe St. Avganti (in text Avgnti), Sterie Gh. Biti (in text THi), Mihail Costea Pungaru, Nicea C. Mergeani, Dinea N. Mergeani (in text Mergioni), Naciu C. Mergeani (in text Margianu), Stere C. Mergeani, Sterie Mita Mergeani, Tuiu laneu Timi, Sterie Nicea Mergeani, Maria Mita Mergeani, Constantin
114. Cf. "illrllallli CO/Isilillilli de Millis,,.i", nr. 1536. 1/5. cr. "illmallli COllsilillllli de Millislri". nr. J537. 116. Cf. "iurlla!lI! COllsiliullIi de Millisl!"i". nr. 15:18. 109

NICOLAE CUSA

.

OT/LJA PACEA

Mita Mergeani, Dumitru lancu Verioti, lancu Constantin Tapicu, Dumitru Hristu Verioti, Dima Nicea Mergeani, Sirma Gheorghe lani, Constantin Gh. ComW, Costea M. Pungaru, Constantin Dimciu MergeanLI17 118. Cadichioi,jud. Durostor Tod Gh. Aita, Mihail Gh. Aita, mo~tenitorii defunctului Nace A. Aita.'ls

119. Ellgechioi, com Vischioi,jud. Durostor Ciadiri (in text Ciacari) C. Atanase, Sterie A. Rida, Dimu A. Rida, Mi~u St. Adam, Mi~u St. Gheorghe, Enache Hristu Bacali, Dindi H1'. Constantin, Gherase (in text Gerase)St. Nicolae, Panait St. Dauti (in text Daut), Fuduli St. Dimu, Fuduli N. Stcrie, Zota Nasta Nicolae, Maria Feca, Sterie C. Teouor, Gherase N. Mihail, Fuduli St. Gheorghe, Paris Mi~iIenga, Bacali Costa Enache, Carmuzi St. Gheorghe, Tanase Adam Tefa, Nicolae St. Fuduli, Nicea St. Fuduli, Sterie P. Dauti, Chirata Lachina, Gheorghe E. Bacali, Vda (in text Vde) Panait Gheorghe, Mi~u Arghir Constantin, Arghir Mi~u Mihali, Constantin P. Uda, Sterie N. Stefu, Sterie Dumitru Sterie, Adam Sterie Cartali, Trantu Damu Nicolae, Dimu Gh. Pucerea, Dumitru E. Caragheorghe, Trantu Damu Panait, Ciciu D. Nicolae, Nicolae Sterie Stefu, Trantu Damu (in text Danu) Sterie, Nicolae Stefu Adam, Mihail Gh. Pucerea, Costa Caragheorghe, Gheorghe I. Caragheorghe, Chirata Adam Stefu, lancu Caragheorghe, Mi~u Sterie Panait, Elena N. Murga, Sterie Panait Mi~u"19

117. Cf. "Jumalul

CUlIsiliului de Millistri".

nr. 1539.

118. Cf. "Jumallli COlI.filiullli de Millistri", nr. 1541. 119. Cf. "Jumallll CUlIsililllui de Millistri". nr. 1620.

110

--

Macedo-aromil"ii

dobrogeni.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

ill DobTlldja

120. Cagealar, com. Curt-Bunar,

judo Durostor

Ta~u D. Caraeota, Hrisu Panait Caraeota, Gheorghe Stere Bizdu, Gheorghe Steriu Zisu, Costa laneu Taeu, Mihail Sterie Dadaciu (in teX't Dodaciu), Dimeiu Drosi Caju, Mlhail Sterie Zissu, Drosi Enaehe Caju, Steriu Enaehe Caju, Hristu Enaehe Caju, Dimciu St. Caju, Steriu Gh. Caju, Mihale St. Bizdu, laneu St. Zissu, Nicola Dimu Paneu, Gheorghe Hristu Caraeota, Gheorghe laneu Tararaehe, Nicolae laneu Tararaehe, Dimeea laneu Tararaehe, Dimu Gh. Caju, Mihale laneu Tararaehe, Gheorghe D. Calaigi (in text Calagi), Gheorghe Steriu Dimu, Elena St. Dimu, Panait Dimciu Caraeota, Hristu Costa Zaburda, Dumitru Hristu Zaburda, Costa Gh. Tapu, Panait Pavel Poja, Steriu laneu Taeu.120 121. Avdula, judo Durostor D. Stefan Arghir, Dimciu D. Arghir, Mihail A. Papazica (in text Paopuziea), Dimu Constantin Mueenu, Atanase Banugadu~ (?) Dinca laneu Cu~u, Sterie Gheorghe Cu~;u,laneu Gh. Guga, Nieolae 1. Ca~aridi, Zoita laneu Grosu, Elena Gh. H. Mantu, laneu Dimciu Cu~u, Zoita A. N. Caciutanu, Gheorghe I. Ca~arica, Hristu D. Calaigi (in text Calogi), Tudora I. Mantu, Dimciu Gh. Giru, Maria Enaehe Giru, Steriu N. Gh. Calintaru, Naidu N. Calintaru, Steriu laneu Gioga, laneu Mantu, Nicolae M. Coeea, Gh. Hristu zis Hatu, Nieolae Gh. Hatu, Enaehe Costa Gima, Costa B. Gima, Sultana Sofia Posnava, Hristu Gh. Calaigi, Gheorghe A. Tapu, Vasile laneu Zgura, Steriu laneu Zgura, Steriu Ca~aridi, Gheorghe D. Arghir, Mihail laneu Gavrizi, Gheorghe I. Gavrizi, Steriu Mihail T., Gheorghe Giru, Nicolae Calintaru.121

120. Cf. "il/l'llalul Consilillilli de Mil/i,flri". nr. 1621. 121. Cf. "Jllnlallli COllsilillllli de Mil/iSlri". nr. 1622.

111

L

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N/COLAE CUSA . OTlLlA PACEA

122. Arabagilar, judo Durostor Mihai Bajdechi, Gheorghe A. Bajdechi, Hristu A. Bajdechi, Anton Z. Bajdechi, Ion Z. Bajdechi, Ion Z. Bajdechi, Nicolae Z. Bajdechi, Atanase I. Bajdechi, Gheorghe S1. Bola, Sterie Gh. Bola, Ion S1. Zgura, Nicolae Ion Zgura, Foti S1. Zgura, Nicolae D. Farina, Sterk S1. Bizdrighian, Gheorghe A. Colcearu, Maria Gh. Colcearu, Atanase N. CoIcearu, Nicolae Colcearu, Gheorghe M. Hagea, Sterie N. Palicari, Gheorghe I. Peanci (in text Pance), Hristu I. Peanci, Atanase S1. Anagnoste, Atanase N. Satrapeli, Sterie C. Mahera (in text Machera), Constantin Gh. Cari)eli, Ecaterina N. Car~eli, Maria Ath. Ragea, Dumitru C. Zicu, Gheorghe A. Ragea, Ion S1. Ghindimeanu, Mihail C. Stamu, Gheorghe C. Stamu, Constantin C. Tode (in text Toda), Ion S1. Papa, Zurzu loan Sterie, Gheorghe L. Bizdrighean, Anastase M. Bajdechi, Sterie C. Chicheanu (in text Ghicheanu), Hristu S1.Chicheanu (in text Ghicheanu), Hristu S1. Chicheanu, Nicolae D. Sfirbu, Ecaterina D. Papacostea, Anastase Gh. Chicheanu, Gheorghe N. Mi::>aca,Gheorghe Papacostea, Sterie Umona, Anastase Ceara, Gheorghe Ceara (in text Ciara), Mihail Satrapeli, Petre N. MangiuchLI22 123. Sinirul Nou, judo Durostor Stere N. Avganti, Nicola Nisu (in text Niciu) Colci, Vanghele S1. Muhcina (in text Muchona), Sterie D. Saramandu (in text Smaranda), Stere Gh. Ghiuri (in text Ghiurea), Gheorghe Gh. Misu (in text Mosa), Agora S1. Misu, Mihail S1. Muhdna, Gheorghe S1.Misa, Costea M. Cfiju, Mihale S1. Dimciu, Mihail S1. Misa, Mache M. Cfiju, Dimciu Gh. Ghiuvea, Stavrositu C. loan, lancu Gh. Anagnoste (in text Anacnoste), Ghita (in text Ghito) N. Anastase, Paris Atanase Stefu, Gheorghe Costa Ghiuvea, lancu Gh. Ghita, Dumiru Gh. Ghiuvea, Elena I. M. Nicola, Alexe Gh. Gavrizi, Atanase I. GhiHi,Nicolae I. GhiHi, Nicolae S1.Cfiju, Musu M. Caraman Sterie Dimciu
122. Cf. "Jumalul CO/lsil;//I//; de M;/l;$lr;". nr. 1624.

112

r
Macedo-aroman;; dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrlldja

Mergeani, Paris St. Costea, Sterie Mihale lancu, Stere Dirnciu Mergeani, Paris St. Costea, Sterie Mihale lancu, Stere Dimciu Sirniti, Gheorghe Dirna Cuvata (in text Covata), Vanghele D. Maria, Mihail N. Ciiju, Stefan C. Vasile, Vanghele D. Vanghele, Enache St. Avganti, Dirnciu M. Sararnandu (in text Srnaramla), Mihail Gh. Teja (in text Teju), Gheorghe Teja Paris, Gheorghe Gh. Ghita, Dinca St. Mergeani (in text Mergearu).123 124. Hogeacoi, com Iala-Ccatlagea,jud. Durostor

Nicolae Steriu Pociu, Ion Nicolae Pociu, Costea Stere Pociu, Costea Atanase Learciu, Mihail Constantin Dirnci, Anastasia Tasu Gh. Bardu, Gheorghe Durnitru Duzi, Durnitru St. Ciulifica, Zisu Gheorghe Bardu (in text Pardu), Gheorghe Mihail Ciulifid1, Mitrus Nacu Paris, Mihail Gheorghe Cosca (in text Tosca), Ion Stere, Mihail Ciulilica, Vasile N. Farin, Mihail Stere Ciulifidi, Hristu Mihail Tosa (in text Tosca), Costa Durnitru Duzi, Mihailloan Rusa (in text Rusea), Gheorghe A. Anagnoste, Hristu Stere Ciullidi, Durnitru Constantin Duzi, Constantin Paris, Nicolae Gh. Farin, Stere Nirlu, Hristu Stere Toza, Sterghie Hristu Toza, Stcre T. Alcxc Nicola, lane T. Nicola, Dqrnitru A. Zicu, Adam Hristu Zicu, Foti Zisu Bardu (in text Pardu).124 125. Com. Ezibei, judo Caliacra Dirnciu Gheorghe, Enache Gheorghe Enache, Nicolae Ianeu, Panait Mihale, lancu Gheorghe, Gheorghe Enache Durnitru, Stere Enache Farrnason, Hristu Dirnu Dirnu Gheorghe, Nicolae Gh. lurue, Mihail luruc, Ecaterina Misa, Sterie Misa, Durnitru Panita, Nicolae Tasu, Gheorghe Iancu, Gheorghe Constantin Chiose, Mihail Ianus, Stere Gheorghe, Stere Nicolae Carabas, Gheorghe Nicolae Carabas, Gheorghe Nicolae Carabas, Nicolae Z. Carabas, Nicolae Gheorghe Chiose, Stere Tutungiu, Costea Gh.
123. cr. "Jllmallli Consilillilli de Minislri", nr. 1625. 124. Cf. "Jllmallli Consilil/illi de Minisl,.i". nr. ]626. 113

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--

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OTIUA PACEA

Buciuneanu (in text Buciveanu), Nicolae DervencuJ25. 126. Unirea,jud. Durostor Dimu Papaiane, Ion D. Papaiane, Stere D. Papaiane, Dumitru Papaiane.126

125. Cf. "ltlmalill 126. Cf. "lrlrlwlu/

Consilitli//i lie MiniSlri", or. 1425. Consilill/lli de MilliSlri". nr. 1282.

114

Macedo-aromanii dobrogelli The Macedo-Aromallialls

.

ill Dobrlldja

Victimeleromanilor Cadrilater a in
Neintelegerile dintre bulgari, populatia majoritara in Cadrilater ~i macedo-aromani, noii veniti, au degenerat adeseori in conflicte. Aceste conflicte erau oarecum previzibile ~i chiar inevitabile. lata de ce! Aromanii, plecati definitiv din tarile de origine, au fost a~ezati in Cadrilater, in Romania de atunci; au fost colonizati ::;iimproprietariti cu loturi de pamant in noua lor tara. Era firesc ca ei sa-~i apere noile proprietati ~i implicit acest teritoriu nou pe care Romania il dobandise la 1913.1 Bulgarii, locuitorii ba~tina~i,au devenit din 1913 cetateni ai Romaniei odata cu Cadrilaterul. Ei nu erau minoritari insa. Acest fapt Ii indreptatea sa spere ca noua schimbare este una provizorie ~i ca aceasta regiune pana la urma va reveni Bulgariei. StatuI roman cauta sa aplaneze aeesle eonflicte. Pe de alta parte insa, politica statului roman de atunci era orientata catre consolidarea autoritatii romane din punet de vedere teritorial, social-economic ~i national. De aceea s-au facut colonizari in Cadrilater, adueandu-se macedo-aromani si regateni. Colonizarea insa n-a fost 0 opera de binefacere sau de satisfaeere a intereselor acestor coloni~ti; ci 0 opera prin care se preconiza 0 mai buna asigurare a granitei de sud a statului. Siguranta statului ~i intronarea ordinii au dus la ideea de colonizare a Dobrogei Noi. StatuI bulgar ducea ~i el aceea~i politica. Pe de alta parte, insa, orice actiuni organizate in scopul revenirii acestui teritoriu in componenta sa erau binevenite chiar ~i cele subversive; se disocia, evident, de actiunile comitagiilor care treceau granita, actiuni care se soldau cu morti ~idiniti. Asa au aparut Societatea cultural a ~i de binefacere "Dobrogea", cu arie de raspandire in centrele cu populatie bulgara, ~i mai cu seama, Mi~carea revolutionara dobrogeana - V.D.R.O., infiintata cu statut in 1925; avea sediulla Sofia dar avea filiale ~i la Rusciuk, Vama, precum ~i
I. Macedo-aromiinii insoteau actunile organizate in acest sens_ intodcauna patrulele armatci la granita, participiind fa

115

-

.,
NICOI-AE CUSA

.

OT/UA

PACEA

in Durostor. Aceste organizatii pe langa scopuri culurale, aveau preocupari iredentiste: independenta Dobrogei si apoi alipirea ei Bulgariei.2 Conflictele locale, care de fapt erau mai mult de natura economic a (pentru obtinerea loturilor agricole) n-au putut fi evitate. Aromanii erau vazuti de bulgarii autohtoni si nu numai, ca unii care stricau vechea oranduiaUi si socotelile lor viitoare; bulgarii, la randul lor, erau vazuti de aromani ca unii care impiedicau statornicirea lor in regiune. Acesta este, de fapt motivul dedansarii conflictelor dintre ei, conflicte soldate insa de multe ori cu victime de ambele parti. Asa cum se intampla de obicei, victimele, in cele mai multe cazuri, sunt nevinovate; prin moartea lor insa produc in mod fatal disensiuni interetnice, incheiate cu urmari nedorite de partile aflate in conflict. Cu atat mai mult aceste victime trebuie venerate!

2. Aceste asociatii erau organizatii Viilcea. Dosar nr. 3/1933, fila 165. 116

de extrem1l stiing1l, cf. Arhivelor Statului. Riimnicu

I - --- J

Macedo-aroma"ii

dobroge"j.

The Macedo-Aroma"ialls

ill Dobrlldja

In Memoriam
Eftimie Carata!1, ucis la 4 septembrie 1927 la punetul Denicler, pe ~oseaua Silistra la 14 km de Bazargic, la 6 seara, Hinga padure. A fost omorat de eomitagii bulgari, impotriva carora eoloni~tii trebuiau sa se apere mai mult singuri. Referinte: "Peninsula Balcaniea", V, Nr. 7,8, 1927; "Universul", XLV, Nr. 223, 25 sept. 1927. Tanase Go~a, asasinat io noaptea de 1 spre 2 noiembrie 1927 de ditre eomitagii in padurea Caraeuz din loealitatea Cocina, judo Durostor, unde loeuia ~i T. Gota. Era un om harnic, lini~tit ~i gospodar. Aromanii veniti din alte loealitati s-au dedat la represalii, 0 serie de localnici bulgari banuiti de eomplicitate au fost batuti. Referinle: "Voin/a noastrii, I, Nr. 1, Silistra, 1928; "Ac/iunea Romaneasea din Durostor. 11,Nr. 23, Silistra, 1928; "Peninsula Balcanieii", V, Nr. 7, 8, 1927. Hristu Gicu, delegatul macedonenilor din Chiose-Aidin, loealitate de langa granita,jud. Durostor. A fost omorat in 23 deeembrie 1928, in padurea de langa aeest sat (destinat a fi eolonizat eu ai sai) in chip mar~av: i-au fost sfartecate mamntaiele eu baioneta iar degetele de la maioi si urechile i-au fost taiate. Coloni~tii revoltati din Chiose-Aidin au aplicat 0 corectie la 40 de bulgari. (Fara victime). Referinte: "Ae/iunea Romaneasea din Durostor", /11,Nr. 30,1928. Zizi Ha!1oti, din satul Ghiore, judetul Caliacra. A fost omorat io ziua de 21 decembrie 1928, in urma unui conflict minor, pentm ni~te paie ce apartineau localnicului bulgar Doniu Zlatef, alaturi de care erau ~i alti locuitori de origioe bulgara. Zizi Hasoti, doborat la pamant eu furca, a strigat dupa ajutor. Au sarit degraba mai muhi macedoneni din apropiere. S-au schimbat focuri de ~a. Colonistii macedoneni o-au tras in plio, au tras la 117

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NICOLAE

CUSA

.

071L1A PACEA

picioare. Din randullor au fost cativa raniti si unul mort Zizi Hasoti. Dintrc autohtoni, unul ranit in picior si unul batut. Referillfe: "Cuvan/ul Nos/m", I, Bazargic, 1928; "Legionarii", I, Nr. 1, Bazargic, 1929, "Peninsula Balcanic£/", VIII, Nr. 9, 1930. Gheorghe Dardac - 12 ani Tanase M. Dardac -13 ani (erau rude, veri) Au fost ucisi miseleste in ziua de 5 septembrie 1930. Corpurile lor au fost descoperitc in ziua de 6 septembrie, pe camp, la marginea satului Arabagi, jud. Durostor. Acesti eopii in varsta de numai 12 si 13 ani faceau parte din grupul de aromani imigranti din Bulgaria. Au fost asasinati in conditii de nemaipomcniHi eruzime; corpurile avand intepaturi de cutit, cu beregatele tiHate in profunzime, capetele fiindu-Ie aproape decapitate. In presa vremii s-a scris ca aceste crime de la Arabagi (Hinga Bei-Bunar) au fost savarsite de comitagii veniti de peste granitii, dar sprijiniti de Iocalnicii bulgari (prin gazduire si hrana), in scopul de a infricosa pe colonisti. Aeest lucru nu s-a intamplat, coionistii macedoneni au aplicat legea talionului. Un loealnic bulgar a fost ucis eu focuri de revolver, pe soseaua SilistraBazargic, langa Caraorman, drept razbunare. Acesta a cazut nevinovat fiind primul bulgar intalnit in drum. Referillfe: "Ac(illnea Romaneasca din Durostor", IV, Nr. 53, Silistra, 1930; "Patria", I, Nr. Bazargic, 1930, "Buciulllul", I, Nr. 32, Bazargic, /930. Hristu Dimcica, din satul Nadejdea, judoCaliacra (sat asezat la granita cu judetul Durostor, nu departe de Arabagi) a fost impuseat pe la spate de ditre M. GheorghietI. Desi Iocalnicii bulgari impiedicau pe colonistii macedoneni sa se colonizeze in satullor, in luna septembrie 1931, din penultimul, transport de colonisti, 7 familii de aromani repartizati, au reusit sa se stabileasca in Iocalitate. Cu toate ca erau in permanenta sieanati, colonistii nu s-au Iasat intimidati. In ziua de 26 decembrie 1931, la cafeneaua din sat (a bulgarului Dumitru Stoianoff), cativa colonisti macedoneni au fost provocati de niste iredentisti bulgari care Ie-au adus diverse injurii; cand accstia au ripostat verbal toti bulgarii aflati in cafenea au sarit asupra lor si au inceput sa-i bata dinind gray pe colonistii: D. G. Hagi, M. G. Hagi si D. Hristu. Alarmat de zgomote - in jurul cafenelci sosisera alti barbati inarmati cu 118

Macedo-aroma,,;; dobroge,,; The Macedo-Aroma"ialls

.

ill Dobrudja

topoare si coase -, Hristu Dimcidi a iesit din casa si s-a indreptat spre cafenea sa vada ce se inUimplaacolo. Din spate, dar de la distanta a fost impucat de caraula M. Gheorghieff. Dupa 0 ora de agonie cu toate ajutoarele date de colonisti, taniirul Hristu Dimcidi si-a dat sufletul. Caraula M. Gheorghieff, a fugit, trecand granita in Bulgaria. Multi colonisti din satele invecinate au sosit in satul Nadejdca cu prilejul inmormantarii lui Hristu Dimcicii. Unii au vrut sa se razbune, nu s-a intamplat insa nimic; majoritatea colonistilor au dispuns cu resemnarc intovarasind in tacere nelnsufletitul corp al lui Hristu Dimcica pe ultimul drum. Referinfe: "Buciumul", II, Nr. 83, Bazargic, 1932 Maru~a Tugearu - 14 ani, ucisa de / cu 0 grenada aruncata de comitagii In casa bunicului ei, Stere Tugcaru, fruntas macedonean din SaraNcbi (Saranebi), judetul Caliaera. Banda de comitagii de vreo 28 de oameni Inarmati eare au savarsit acest atae de la 9 octombrie 1933, a intrat In Cadrilater (venind din Bulgaria) prin judoDurostor, la finele lunii septembric 1933; avand drept tinta rapunerea delegatilor maccdoneni Gheorghe Celnieu din Alfatar si Stere Tugearu din Saranebi. Impotriva lui Stere Tugearu, delegat al celor aproximativ 20 de familii de colonisti macedoneni din Saranebi (om cu un trecut frumos In luptele nationale din Macedonia), au fost Intreprinse, de catre bandele de comitagii venite de dincolo de granita, mai multe atacuri. Astfel, In vara anului 1932 (cu un an Inainte deci!), un grup de vreo 12 persoane inarmate I-au capturat pe S. Tugearu (in momentul cand icsea din casa dueandu-se la arman), dupa ee I-au ranit cu baioneta. Datorita liului sau mai mic, Iancu, care In dipa aceea se intorcea de la camp, a putut seapa insa. La tipetele tatalui sau el a descarcat cateva focuri de revolver in grupul de banditi ranind pc unul dintre ei. In Invalmasala a putut sdipa batranul Tugearu. Comitagii au fugit. In urma acestui atae s-a facut 0 anchetii politieneascii minutioasa, anchetii care a stabilit complicitatea mai multor localnici bulgari din aeest sat. Unii dintre complici au trecut frontiera in Bulgaria iar altii au fost prinsi Sideferiti justitiei. In septembrie 1933, earn cu doua saptamani inaintea atacului de la 9 octombrie, banda a atacat pe Gheorghe Celnicu, diruia n-au reusit sa-i faea nimic, pentru ca el ,era Inarmat si le-a ripostat. I-au omorat doar, cu 0 119

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grenada 7 oi. Def:;imasurile de paza din zona erau severe (intre timp fusese prins un membru al bandei, Petre S. Petroff, care a denuntat ataeul preconizat ~i pe membrii bandei), eu ajutorulloeuitorilor bulgari din Saranebi, Conac si eelelalte sate din imprejurimi, banditii au putut sa se streeoare neobservati pana la loeuinta lui S. Tugearu pe care au ineercat sa 0 forteze. Din interior Ii s-a raspuns eu foeuri de revolver. in easa se afla sotia lui Tugearu, fiul eel mare, Nicolae si nepoata Marusa (I. Tugearu era in sat la 0 intalnire eu agronomul regiunii in vederea parceliirii loturilor). Furiosi ca cei din casa nu VOl' a se predea, banditii au inceput sa traga spre easa, ca intr-o s tinta dintr-un poligon militar. Vazand di n-au succes sa-i seoa!!i din casa au aruncat 6 grenade, cate una in fieeare camera a easei lui Tugearu. Au explodat 4 din ele fiicand prapad in jurul lor; fiul eel mare Nicolae a fost ranit grav, unul dintre picioare i-a fost complet sfiiramat (va muri, nu dupa mult timp), Marusa, nepoata lui S. Tugearu omorata pe loc iar bunica ei gray ranita. Cand eomitagii se pregateau sa dea foe intregii case Si acareturilor, un colonist eurajos din imprejurime a inceput sa traga asupra bandei. Speriati comitagii au parasit satul lasand in easa lui Tugearu un mort, un schilodit gray si un ranit. in fuga lor pe sosea au intalnit un convoi de coloni~ti macedoneni din satul Carageat, judo Durostor, eu earutele incarcate cu lemne. Au inceput sa traga asupra lor. Trei colonisti au fost atin~ide gloante, unul mortal, un copil de 18 ani (neimpliniti), Stere Adam Gheorghita si alti 2 gray raniti. A trcia seara banda a intrat in sawl Sever Radulescu. sat pur romancsc locuit de romani regatcni si macedoneni, profiHind ca marea majoritate a barbatilor se aflau la 0 nunta in satul Cageaolar din Durostor. Dupa ce au batut pe caraula satului Ulsandu-Iin nesimtire (aceasta cra inzestrat doar cu 0 pusca cu numai doua gloante in dotare) au patruns in gospodaria lui Nicolae Marzavan, unul dintrc cei mai instariti macedoneni, unde au maltratat pe mama acestuia de 75 de ani fortand-o sa Ie arate locul unde iSi tin banii (au intepat-o in 2 locuri cu baioneta, i-au taiat 0 parte din ureche si apoi i-au uns cu gaz un ochi Si ii-au incalzit...). Au luat 200.000 de lei in hartii de cate 1000 lei si multe monede de auI' Si lucruri scumpe. La plecare intalnind un colonist regatean ce venea de la moara I-au omorat. Bilantul atacurilor eomitagiilor bulgari in toamna anului 1933: 120

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The Macedo-Aromallialls

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1. La Sariinebi 2 morti (tata ~ifiica) ~iun ranit (mama primului). 2. Pe ~oseauaBazargic-Silistra I mort ~iun gray ranit. 3. La Sever Riidulescu un mort ~i 2 raniti (mama colonistului Nicolae Marzavan si caraula). Dupa inmormiintarea victimelor de pe urma atacului de la Sariinebi coloni~tii s-au adunat in fata prefecturii Caliacra la Bazargic. Au participat alaturi de macedoneni si romiini. Manifestantii au cerut masuri de siguranta. in urma discutiilor pe care delegatii Ie-au avut cu prefectul Vasile Tiparescu s-a ajuns la un consens, promitiindu-se un pachet de masuri pentru viitor, citite multimii de catre acesta. Printre ele: inlocuirea functionarilor ~idemnitarilor de origine straina ~i transferarea lor in vechiul regat, in vederea desfiintarii mafiei autohtonilor bulgari; inarmarea coloni~tilor; deschiderea unei anchete cu privire la atacurile saviir~ite etc. Coloni~tii multumiti de aceste promisiuni, s-au impra~tiat in lini~te. Localnicii bulgari din Bazargic (negustorii) in semn de protest fata de aceasta manifestatie au inchis magazinele iar, Societatea de Cultura ~i Binefacere "Dobrogea" a inaintat 0 pliingere Societatii Natiunilor de la Geneva, semnata de I. Stoianoff, pre~edintele societatii ~ide P. Gospodinoff, secretar. in' mod cinic in continutul pliingerii (text tic1uit la Sofia, in limba franceza) se invoca posibilitatea ca aceste crime ar putea fi facute chiar de colonisii macedoneni, numiti in textul pHingerii"Koutzovalaque". Referinte: Ancheta Prefecturii Durostor solicitatd de ministru/ de interne prin adresa Nr. 2262, A3, martie, 5, /934, fn Arhive/e Statului Rilmnicu Villcea, Fond Prefectura Judelului Durostor, Dosar Nr. 20/1934, Ji/ele 163-165;filele 170-189. "Romilnul", V1,Nr. 71, 15x, Sili.5tra,1933. "Plugarul",!, Nr. 6, 15x, Bazargic, 1933. "Legionarii",!, Nr. 35, 20x, Bazargic, 1933. Stoica Lascu, op. cit., 2002, pag. 28-40, cu mentiunea cd !ancu Tugearu a'intervenit, salvilndu-si tatdl, fn atacul din /932, nu fn ce/ de /a 9 septembrie 1933, cum se specified fn artico/u/ citat (p. 38); iar Stere Adam Gheorghild a fost fmpuscat de acceeasi banda, fntr-adevar, dar nu fn casa lui Tugearu ci
pe soseaua Bazargic - Silistra, Adam Gheorghila aflilndu-se fn convoiul de carule atacat de comitagii.
121

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Nicolae Tugearu, ranit gray la 9 octombrie 1933 de a grenada in atacul comitagiilor de la Sara-Nebi; decedat in urma acestei raniri. Stere Adam Gheorghita - 18 ani, ucis prin impu$care de comitagii la 9 octombrie 1933 pe $oseaua Bazargic-Silistra, in apropierea localitatii Saranebi. Gheorghe Barzu, ucis in chip mar$av la 10 aprilie 1933 in piidurea din apropierea satului Marzac de langa Bairam-Bunar judo CaIiacra. Era delegatul coloni$tilor din Marzac $i tata a $ase copii minori. In ziua de 10 aprilie 1933 a ie$it pe la ora 12, ducandu-se la camp. Nu s-a mai intors. A fast gasit a doua zi in piidure cu mainile legate cu fitil de lampa, HUatla gat $i brat $i cu un glonte in piept. Referinte: "Legionarii", /, Nr. 17, Bazargic, 1933. Gheorghe Lepar, asasinat in ziua de 13 mai 1934 in comuna Carageat, judo Durostor. In aceasta zi, Gheorghe Lepar, primar in comuna, intorcandu-se de la cafenea, a fost acostat de Gh. Jecoff $i Dimo St. Jecoff, padurar. Intre ei s-a iscat 0 discutie (in acea zi avusesera loc alegeri in comunii) altercativii. Din spate a aparut Gh. Coliu Ciolacoff, care I-a lovit in cap pe Gh. Lepar cu un par, omorandu-I pe loc; dupa care agresorul a disparut fugind inspre Bulgaria. Dandu-se alarma coloni$tii macedoneni s-au adunat in jurul cadavrului. Revoltati de imaginea ce Ii se prezenta in fata ochilor, s-au hotarat sa-I razbune. Au intrat in casa lui Dimo Jecoff, unde biinuiau cii se ascunde Gh. Ciolacoff, asasinul primarului. D. Jacoff, in loc sa-$i vada de treaba, i-a inHimpinat cu cuvintele: "A$a trebuia sa i se intample primarului"; I-au lovit cu toporul in cap omorandu-l. Referinfe: "Romanul", VI, Nr. 86, Silistra, 1934.

122

SOCIOLOGIE ROMANEAScA, 11I,4-6 Noe: Colonizarea Cadrilaterului

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Macedo-aromanii

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The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

V. RECOLONIZAREA AROMANILOR iN DOBROGEA

- JUDETELE ONSTANT~I TULCEA C A -

I

l
~ .

~

I

A doua colonizare sau recolonizare a macedo-aromanilur a avulloc in anul 1940. in acesl an Romania a pierdut Basarabia si Bucovina (prin dictatul de la Moseova din 26 iunie 1940) teritoriul de nord-vest al Transilvaniei (prin dictatul de la Viena din 30 august 1940), si Cadrilaterul (prin tratatul de la Craiova din 7 septembrie 1940). Cauzele eelei de-a doua colonizari s-au datorat, deci, tratatului de la Craiova. Tratatul si Anexele sale! au fust ratifieate prin Decretullege Nr. 30.999 din 10 septembrie 1940. in cadrul Anexelor la Tratatul ineheiat intre Romania si Bulgaria, art. 3 stabilea ca in termen de trei luni, ineepand eu data schimbarii instrumentelor de ratificare ale Tratatului, sa se proeedeze, "la un schimb obligatoriu supusii romani de origine etnica bulgara din judo Tulcea si Constanta si supusi romani de origine etnica romana din judo Durostori si Caliacra" . 2 Pentru aromani incepea asadar 0 noua stramutare: a treia pentru farsirotii din Albania, a patra pentru gramustenii din Grecia si Bulgaria si in fine, a cincea chiar, pentru fiin:lirotiiveniti din Grecia. Pard a fost un blestem asupra lor: sa nu aiba liniste si staturnieire.
I. Publical1n 2. Loc. ciL MonHorul Oficial, Nr. 212. 12 seplembrie 1940 (si in limba franccza).

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Important este faptul di n-au sucombat; au sfidat aceste dureroase exoduri de care au avut parte, constienti di nu Ie sunt harazite de soarta ci de conjunctura vremurilor respective. Tot astfel au tratat si aceasta ultima emigrare. Inainte sa aratam cum s-a desfasurat recolonizarea si care au fost localitatile unde au fost asezati, se cuvine a ne opri asupra unei chestiuni care necesita 0 clarificare:

Numarul romanilor olonizati Cadrilater a c in
Cunoasterea cu exactitate a numarului aromanilor pana in 1940, era imposibila. In tabelele recensamantului din 1930, nu au fost inclusi (probabil pentru faptul ca inca nu erau cetateni, intrucat in recensamanturi mai recente sunt trecuti, chiar daca aromanii din Romania nu sunt declarati etnie separata). Din aceste motive in lucrarile de specialitate au fost avansate diverse cifre, autorii minimalizand3sau amplificiind4numarullor. In ultima vreme sau luat in calcul cele doua cifre lansate de Vasile Musi si Constantin Noe. Unii au considerat ca etalon estimarea Iacuta de V. Musi, altii pe cea a lui C. Noe. Concret, primul, in cartea sa ..UIIdecelliu de c%llizare 111 Dobrogea Noua" , scrisa in 1935, indica cifra de 6.553 de familii (inmultit cu 5 media pe familie - rezulta 32.765 de suflete). Vasile Musi nu indica sursa acestei evaluari; Constantin Noe, in "Colonizarea Cadrilaterului" scrisa in 1938, indica cifra de 4946 de familii de macedoneni (adica 24.730 de suflete). C. Noe specifica sursa: tablourile de colonisti (capii de familii), aprobati pe centre si categorii la data de 15 februarie 1932, preluate de la Serviciile agricole ale celor douajudete si pe care Ie publica la sfarsitullucrarii mentionate. Deci, C. Noe evalua numarul aromanilor dupa tablourile cu colonistii
3. Th. Capidan, suflete. 4. Em. Bucuta in "Penillsllia Baleallieif", VI, 1928, alinna di numarullor ar Ii fost 40.000 de suflete, evident 0 exagerare: eu insumi am strecurat 0 inadvertenta in "Maeedoromullii pe vi1i1e ;s/or;e;". 1990, pag. 45, uode am scris ca "/0/01111popula/iei aromQlle sosi/e ill 1940-41 ill Dobrogea. se es/imeazi//a 65382. filii fae mea-ell/pa, precizftlld ei/ aceas/if cifrif pre/lla/if dill doellmen/e/e eerceta/e. indiClYdefl/p/ nllmi/ru/lIIllIror c%ni./i/or (deci.i rega/eni). 124 de exemplu in "Maeedorolllullii", pag. 8. estima numai 12.000 de

Macedo-aromiinii

dobrogeni.

The Macedo-Aromallialls

ill Dobrudja

I' ,

aprobati in cele douajudete, in februarie 1932, afinnand ca "de lafebruarie 1932, panii astiizi (pana in 1938, dind ~i-a scris lucrarea, n.n.), sitl/alia nl/mericii a colonistilor macedoneni nu s-a schimbat mult"5. Realitatea este alta insa, colonizarea s-a continuat pe tot parcursul anului 1932 ~i 1933; colonizarea inceta abia la sfar$itul lunii decembrie 19336. In acest interval au sosit grupe numeroase de gramusteni din Bulgaria ~i din Grecia, tinuturile Cavala $i Seres. Cercetand fondul Prefecturii judo Durostor, existent la Arhivele statului din Ramnicu Valcea7, am gasit un document care face lumina in aceasta problema; este vorba de un tablou numeric cu date exacte ale populatiei din acest judet, pe nationalitati ~i coloni$ti, existenti la I mai 1940. Din pacate pentru judetul Caliacra nu am gasit un asemenea document; fondul Prefecturii Caliacra este inexistent8, astfel ca tabIouI numeric pe localitati al populatiei din Caliacra, similar eu eel din Durostor (ambele tablouri au fost ordonate de guvemul Ion Antoneseu), nu este de gasit. Cunoa~tem insa numarul familiilor (eapii de familie), eolonizate in acest judet pana la 1 septembrie 1937, dintr-un tablou eoncis al O.N.A.C.-ului, care specifica totalul Camiliilor pe nationalitati. Tablourile (atat pentru Durostor dit pentru Caliacra) au fost cerute printr-~ cireulara expres de catre Tinutul Marea9, Serviciul administrativ prin Rezidentul Regal.

5. C. Noe, "Colollizarea Cadrilaterllllli" , 1938, pag. 154. 6. incetarea oficiala a colonizarii a fost in directalegalura cu asasinarca primului ministru I.G.Duca,la 29 decembrie 1933. La aceasta crim1i au participat doi sludenti macedoneni. Ion Caranica si Doru Belimace. Cel care a lras a fost Nicusor Constanlinescu. dar acesllucru a avut mai putina important1i, cei doi au participat si ei la asasinal. 7. Acest fond s-a aflat in mod firsc pan1i in 1996 la Constanta. fondul "Cadrilater" a fost mulat la Ramnicu Valcea. Din motive necunoscute

8. Din discutiile purtate cu doamna Angela Pop (c1ireia ii multumesc si pe accast1i cale pentru informatiile pertinente oferile cu multa generozitate), arhivist principalla Arhivcle Slatului din Constanta, am inteles c1ifondul respectiv a fost distrus. Se pare c1ia fost dus pe vremea comunistilor la fabrica de hiirtie Lelea unde a fost "recidal", adic1i a fost refolosil ca materie prim1i.

9. Prin Decretul-Lege Nr. 347 din 14 august 1938, denumil sau dcnumil1i "Legea
administativd" s-au infiintat 10 unit1iti administrative numile tinuluri

- cu

atributii

economice,

culturale si sociale. Adminislratia tinutului era condusa de un reziden! regal si de un consiliu formal din membrii a!esi si membrii de drepl. Tinutu! Marea avea resedinta la Constanta Si cuprindea judetele: Constanla, Tulcea, Ialomita, Caliacra si Durostor. 125

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Prefcctura Jud. Durostor Nr. 005478, 21 Apr.1940 Intrare ($tampilii) T/NUTUL MAREA SERVICIUL ADMINIS11?ATlV 20. IV '940 execlltat urgent Urgent col. indescifrabil seer.

Domnului prefect al juderuilli Durostor,

Cu onoare va rugam a ne fnainta de urgenra un tablou numeric cu popularia dinjuderul Durostor; pe narionalitati etnice si pe comwze, inc/usiv Toateorasele. Ni se vor trimite datele actuale, la zi; fn nici un caz nu ni se vor trimite datele recensamiintului din 1930, date pe care Ie avem si noi. Tabloul va cuprinde populatia pe sujlete si va avea si 0 rubrica speciala 1ll1dese va trece, tot pe sllflete nllmarul coloni.5tilordin comuna, cu provenienra lor (transilvaneni, bllcovineni, basarabeni, timoceni, macedoneni etc.). De asemenea 0 rubrica va cuprinde nwnarul turcilor emigranti din comuna. Dl. referent statistic va centraliza aceste date si va avea grijii sa Jie fnaintate Tinutului fn celmai scurt timp posibil.l
Rezident Regal S.S.lndescifrabil

Director S.S.lndescifrabil

I. Arhivelc Slalului Rm. ViHcea. Fond, Prefeclura Judelului Duroslor, Dosar 24/1940, fila I 15. 126

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The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrlldja

Tablou numeric de populafia dinjudelul Durostor pe nafionalitiifi la data de 1 Mai 1940 (suflete). Fond Prefectura ludelului Durostor. Arhivele de Stat Riimnicu Viilcea, Dosar Nr. 24/1940, Filele 175-178.

1. Totaljudel: 185.775 (suflete) 58.156 din care: romani: 46 unguri: 23 germani: 1.188 ru!)i: 1 ruteni, ucraineni 21 sarbi, croati, sloveni 79.632 bulgari 4 poloni 267 evrei 155 gred 5 albanezi 671 armeni 42.411 turd 1.171 tatari 11 gagauti 1.977 tigani 37 alte nationalitati II. Numiirul coloni~tilor # provenienla lor Total suflete: 36.469 (inclu!)iin totalul romanilor de 58.156) din care: transilvaneni 1.126 bucovineni 1.189 basarabeni 556 regateni 16.787 macedoneni 16.371 (suflete) banateni 30 timoceni 410 127

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Ill. NllIniirul macedonenilor injude/Ul Durostor (Ia 1 mai 1940),pe comune
I. Plasa Accadanlar: 755 suflete

Baharchioi Balabanlar: Caralar Ciler Hasan-Faca Rahman-A1>iclar

6 24 2 17 4 389

Sinirul Nou Sungurlar

312 1

2. Plasa Curt-Bunar: 2.934 suflete Alfatar: 449 Bei-Bunar Arabagi 449 Curt-Bunar Avdula 351 Sahinlar 3. Plasa Doimu#ar: 6.853 suflete Aidemir 342 Arabagilar 664 Bazarghian 529 Cocina 591 Doimu1>lar 998

342 944 399

Fra1>ari Garvan-Cioara Golebina Ceatlagea Haschioi lalii-Ceatalgea Srebarna Vetrina

1.148 266 589 428 659 242 397

4. Plasa Ostrov: 3.168 suflete Cociular 547 Babuc 618 Calipetrova 253

Chiose-Aidin Cainargeaua Mare Caraorman Cainargeaua Mica

650 366 267 467

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The Macedo-Aromanians

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5, Plasa Turtucaia: 2.661 suflete Ahmatlar 130 Asfatchioi 434 Atmageaua Tatareasca 559 Cadichioi 208 Rahova de Jos 20 Sarighiol: 164

Sarsanlar Satul Vechi Turksmil Uzungi Orman Vischioi

100 193 3 514 436

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A~adar, conform acestui document, numiirul macedo-aromanilor din judetul Durostor la 1 mai 1940 era de 16.371 de suflete, adica 3.274 de familii. In judetul CaIiacra au fost colonizate 2.690 de familii, adidi 13.450 de suflete. Statistica familiilor din CaIiacra a fost furnizata de O.N.A.C., printr-un tabIou concis pe nationaIitati a populatiei din acest judet la 1 septembrie 1937. Tabloul a fost publicat in presa locaIa a vremii: Tablou t De situatia coloni~tilor pe categorii aprobati de O.N.A.C. in judetul Caliacra pana la 1 septembrie 1937. capi de familie Regateni: 8.390 ~acedoneni 2.690 capi de familie Banateni 913 capi de familie Invatatori 183 capi de familie Total 12.176 capi de familie Numarul total al familiilor de aromani, colonizate in ambele judete a fost de 5964, adica 29.820 de suflete.2

I. Apud "Straja Cadrilaterului" "Romanul" si "Tara lui Mircea".

,II, Nr. 22, Bazargic,

1937. Tabelul a Cost publica! si in

2. Am aplical ca medie 5 membri. Pe alunci loale familiile de aromiini, formale din sOli, p1irinti si copii aveau inlre.5 si 10 membri, de mulle ori chiar mai multi.

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Evacuareaia~ezarearomanilor localitafjle ~ a in dinjudoConstantaiTulcea ~
In vederea organizarii evacuarii populatiei din Cadrilater se infiinta pe langa Ministerul Afacerilor Straine un Comisariat general cu sediul central la Bucuresti, dar care isi desfasura activitatea efectiva la Constanta, unde exista Comisariatul General pentru Dobrogea.3 Sarcina acestui comisariat era sa dud la indeplinire atat deplasarea populatiei cat si rezolvarea tuturor problemelor ce decurgeau din reasezarea ei. Populatia urma sa fie reasezaHi in judetele Constanta si Tulcea unde existau terenuri disponibile, in urma plecarii populatiei germane (prin conventia romano-germana) si a bulgariIor (prin tratatul de la Craiova). Evacuarea din Cadrilater s-a efectuat relativ rapid. Dupa 0 evidenHi tinuta la zi de catre Comisia de evacuare de langa Tinutul Marea, pana la 18 septembrie populatia romana a fot complet evacuata; in zona se mai gaseau capii de familie, care s-au rdntors pentru a recolta si transport a ultimele culturi, fIoarea soarelui, fasolea etc (unii dintre capii de familie).4 Deoarece insa, germanii si bulgarii nu parasisera localitatile din cele doua judete, s-a stabiIit ca populatia romaneasca din Cadrilater sa fie cazata temporar in judetul lalomita si in Dobrogea de sud (in zona localiHitiiNegru Voda cat si in Tuzla, Plopeni, Baraganul, Negresti). Sederea colonistilor aromani (si a celorIalti colonisti, evident), pana la urma a fost de durata mai mare; bulgarii n-au respectat protocolul romano-bulgar care prevedea ca ei sa paraseasca regiunea pana la 15 decembrie 1940. Ca urmare a acestei intarzieri aromanii au trebuit sa petreaca iarna anului 1940-1941 in judetul lalomita (unde se afla grosul de refugiati), fiiod cazati iarasi prin casele
3. Comisar general era penlru Dobrogea Cola CiumeUi. 4. Cf. unui raport adrcsal generalului I. Anloncscu, (condudilorul stalului). de caire generaillf N. SloenesclI, la 18 scplcmbrie 1940. Aplld. A.M.R.. fond M.R.. Secrclariallll General, dosar 2677. fila 324-327. 130

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The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

10calnicilor5,cu bagajele aruncate in curtile acestora, cu lipsuri de tot felul, in special cele alimentare (ale diror preturi crescusera vertiginos)6; nevoiti sa lucreze pentru intretinerea familiilor ca zilieri la construirea ~oselei Tandarei-Urziceni care se afla de-a lungul zonei de dislocare. Abia in aprilie 1941, Comisariatul Colonizarii a decis ca toti coloni~tii ~ezati temporar in judetele din vechiul regat (alti coloni~ti fusesera cazati ~i in judetele OIt ~i Teleorman) sa tie trimi~i in Dobrogea. Atribuirea de gospodarii ~i terenuri coloni~tilor s-a filcut de ditre comisii formate dintr-un reprezentant al Serviciului Comercial al Colonizarii, primarul comunei, preotul, invatatorul, notarul ~icate un delegat al coloni~tilor din tiecare centru de colonizare (la fel ca in Cadrilater). In decembrie 1941 s-a infiintat Inspectoratul General al Colonizarii in Dobrogea, care avea misiunea sa pregateasca lucrarile de detinitivare a colonistilor. Deocamdata se atribuiau colonistilor, in centrele repartizate, cate 0 gospodarie provizorie, rara acte de proprietate; aceasta situatic de provizorat a creat posibilitatea unora sa se mute dintr-un loc in altul. Mai mult, dintr-un raport al consilierului tehnic pentru recolonizarea DobrogeF, destul de tendentios la adresa aromanilor8, aflam ca in timpul dictaturii legionare mase mari de colonisti erau mutate dintr-un centru in altul; dupa cum dictau interesele dictaturii, diutand prin
5. Localitiltile unde au fost cazati temporar sunt trecute toate, cu ocazia instructiunilor difuzate prefecturilor, in Arhivele Statului Tulcea, Fond Prefectura judetului Tulcea, Oosar 67, 1940, fila II si Oosar Nr. 76/1940, filele 2-19; public ate si in N. Cusa, Aromanii, pag. 141158. 6. "NOlll", Fond Brigada 7 Cavalerie, Oosar 64, fila 164, apud AM.R., pag. 183-185. 7. Raportullui Oem Viltafu, consilier tehnic pcntru recolonizarea Oobrogei, in Arhivele Statului Constanta, fond Prefectura Jud. Constanta, 73, Dosar Nr. 16,1948, filele 15, 16. 8. Autorul afirmil c1I in 1941 cele mai mari si mai bune centre de colonizare erau supraaglomerate de macedoneni, care puneau pc fugil pe ceilalti colonisti. Prin aceasta, consilierul f1Icea aluzie la faptul c1I multi colonisti aromani au intrat in "Legiune" si c1I de aici avantajele. Este adev1lrat ca multi aromani au intrat in aceast1i organizatie (compusil insil in majoritate din romani), cil au f1Icut-o probabil cu gandulla obtinerea unor avantaje (se poartil si in zilele noastre); dar asezarea aromanilor fiirsiroti in localitiltile de care pomeneste el (Cocosu. Ovidiu, Ferdinand, Cogealac, Viile Noi. Anadalchioi). s-a datorat unci alte cauze. F1Irsiro\ii doreau sil fie impreuna. de aici si aglomeratia de care se vorbeste. Oeci asezarea lor in aceste

localitilti in grupuri compacte nu are vreo leglituriicu eventualul lor legionarism. Si
gr1imustenii, 0 parle din ei evident. judetul Tulcea. au fosl Jegionari si lotusi s-au asezat in localil1itile din

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accasta sa-i apropie de conceptiile lor. Dupa lichidarea dictaturii legionare de catre generalul Antonescu incep din nou muHirile, cu camioanele si mitralierele de data aceasta, risipindu-i pe banuitii simpatizanti sau membri ai legiunii in judetul Constanta, pc cei din Tulcea, iar pe cei din Constanta in judo Tulcea, la voia intampHirii, nu dupa posibiliHitile de colonizare ca 0 problema de stat. Toate acestea s-au petrecut intr-adcvar in anii 1941, 42, 43 si 44. Totusi in primavara anului 1942 s-a inceput intocmirea contractelor colective pentm arenzile si chiriile ce au de platit pentm casele si terenurile atribuite. Lucrarile de definitivare si dare in proprietate a gospodariilor si terenurilor agricole s-au desrusurat intre anii 1946-1947, cand au primit si actele de proprietate. Casele Ie-au platit, la fel ca in Cadrilater cu deosebirea ca acolo Ie-au construit ei (in afara celor cumparate de la turcii emigranti si de la bulgarii care au plecat din Cadrilater), pe cata vreme aid Ie-au preluat doar, casele fiind foste proprictati ale germanilor si bulgarilor refugiati din Dobrogea. Pe baza documentelor cercetate: Fondul Inspectoratului General al colonizarilor din Dobrogca (Arhivele Statului din Constanta), Fondul Oficial de Cadastru TuIcea (Arhivele Statului din TuIcea), Fondul O.N.A.C. al judetului Tulcea, inventar 1921-1941, (Directia GeneraHi a Arhivelor Statului din Bucuresti), yom prezenta localitatile si numarul de familii de aromani care s-au stabilit in Dobrogea in primavara anului /941.

Vom incepe mai intai cu judetul Constanta: 1. Agigea: 39 de familii (pindeni si rurseroti), 2. AnadaIchioi (fost cartier al Constantei): 79 de familii (rurseroti, gramusteni, pindeni), 3. Baia
(pe atunci facea parte din judo Constanta): 50 de familii (gramusteni

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Bulgaria), 4. Cobadin: 53 de familii (gramusteni - Bulgaria), 5. Cogealac: 169 de familii (runseroti - Grecia), 6. Colilia (azi acest sat s-a desfiintat; a apartinut comunei Pantelimonul de Jos): 61 de familii (gramusteni din Bulgaria si Grecia), 7. Dobromir Deal: 16 familii (gramusteni - Grecia), 8. Dobromir Vale: 43 de familii (gdimusteni Bulgaria), 9. Gradina - Cheia: 20 ~e familii (amestecati, 1arsiroti, gramusteni - Bulgaria si din HrupisteaGrecia), 10. Mangalia: 13 familii (pindeni - Veria - Grecia), 14. Ferdinand 132

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(actuala comuna M. Kogalniceanu): 229 de familii (farseroti - Grecia), 12 Mihai Viteazu: 239 de familii (Iarseroti, gramusteni - Livezi - Grecia), 13. Nisipari: 45 de famiIii (Iarseroti Albania 5i Grecia), 14 Ovidiu: 108 familii (far5eroti - Grecia - Albania), 15. Cocosu (azi Poiana-sat ce apartine comunei ora5 Ovidiu): 70 de famiIii (far5eroti - Grecia), 16. Palazu Mare: 119 familii (tar5eroti - Albania), 17. Palazu Mic: 39 de familii (Iar5erotiGrecia), 18. Panduru (pe atunci apartinea de judo Constanta): 228, 19. Ramnicul de Jos (la acea data facea parte din judo Constanta); 331 de familii (gramusteni - Bulgaria), 20. Sacele: 65 de familii (gramusteni - Bulgaria), 21. Sinoe (apartinea de Constanta): 268 de familii (gramusteni - Bulgaria 5i Grecia), 22. Tariverde:136 de familii (gramusteni - Bulgaria 5i Grecia), 23 Techirghiol: 60 de familii (pindeni - Veria - Grecia), 24. Tuzla: 30 de familii (pindeni 5i far5eroti), 25. Valea Neagra: 7 familii (gramusteni), 26. Viile Noi (fost cartier al Constantei):45de familii (far5eroti- Albania 5i Grecia). in judetul Constanta de atunci (azi Baia, Panduru, Ramnic, Sacele si Sinoe fac parte din judo Tulcea), au fost definitivate in 26 de centre un numar de 2562 de familii.9 Judetul Tulcea 1. Agighiol: 27 de familii (gramusteni), 2. Babadag: 8 familii (gramusteni), 3. Beidaud: 332 de familii (gramusteni din Bulgaria 5i Republica Macedonia de azi), 4. Camena; 129 de familii (gramusteni - Bulgaria si Grecia), 5. Congaz: 75 de familii (gramusteni si farseroti - Grecia Si Albania), 6. Cataloi: 53 de familii (gramusteni), 7. Casimcea: 14 familii (gramusteni), 8. Cerna: 262 de familii (megleniti, dar 5i cateva familii de gramusteni si chiar farseroti din Grecia), 9. Ceamurlia de Jos: 200 de familii (gramusteni), 10. Ceamurlia de Sus: 303 familii (gramusteni), II. Eschibaba: 231 de familii (gramusteni), 12. Lunca: 16 familii (gramusteni), 13. Lascar
9. Cf. (pentru fiecare localitate, in acciasi ordine): I. Oosar 1/1947,2.0.4/1947, 3.0.1111947; 4. 023/1947,5.076/1947,6.0.26/1947,7.038/1947 ,8.036/1947.9.0.46/1947. 10.051/1947, II. 0.53/1947,12.055/1947,13.0.16/1947.14.0.30/1947. 15. 039/1948, 16.0.65/1947,17.0911953,18.0.67/1947,19. Rcgistru AgricoJ 115,116, Fond Prirnarie Ramnic, 20.0.7511947,21. O. 79/1947,22. O. 81/1947. 23. O. 8411947,24. O. 86/1947, 25. O. 89/1947, Toalc din fond O.N.A.C., Arhivele Statului Constanta.

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Catargiu: 6 familii; 14. Malcoci: 12 familii; 15. Mihai Bravu: 10 familii; 16. Mihail Kogalniceanu: 307 familii (gramusteni si diteva familii de farseroti). 17. Principele Mihai (Nicolae Balcescu): 341 familii (gramusteni), 18. Razboieni: 15 familii; 19. Sarighiol Deal: 220 de familii (gramusteni _ Grecia), 20. Tulcea (comuna): 23 de famiIii; 21. Tistimelu: 84 de familii. In judetul Tulcea de atunci au fost definitivate in 21 de centre un numar de 2.668 de familiLIO In total, numarul familiilor de macedo-aromani colonizate in Dobrogea este de 5230. Diferenta de 734 de familii, din cele 5.964 de familii de aromani colonizate in Cadrilater, reprezinta famiIiile care nu au fost colonizate in Dobrogea.

Nota
Pe multi aromani, probabil ca aceasta cifra Ii va dezamagi si ii va face sa-si puna intrebarea fueasca: Oare noi, aromanii, in toata Dobrogea, suntem numai 5.200 si ceva de familii? Nu! Evident ca nu, cele 5.200 erau familiile mari, compuse din bunicii nostri, care aveau pe parintii nostri, aflati la 0 vftrstamajora (cu frati si surori de vftrsta apropiata cu ei). Din start deci, aici in Dobrogea, familiile de aromani deveneau prin casatoriile acestora de 2 , de 3 sau chiar de 4 ori mai multe in rastimp de numai cativa ani. Nicolae Saramandu, in lucrarea sa recenta (Studii aronulne $; meglenoromline, ed. Ex Ponto, Constanta, 2003), ne spune ca in 1968 erau in cele doua judete 7.145 de familii. De atunci numiirullor a crescut indiscutabil, depasind, dupa aprecierea noastra cifra de 10.000de familii. Majoritatea astiizi se afla in ora$ul Constanta prin stabilire de domiciliu.
10. Directia Generala a Arhivelor Statului, Bucuresti, Fond O.N.A.C., judetul Tulcea, inventar 1921-1941; Arhivele statului TlIlcea, Fond Oficiul de Cadastru TlIlcea, Dosar 368/1947, filele 1-17, penlru localitatea Camena, Dosar nr. 361/1947, filele 122, pentru localitatea Tistimelu (azi Vasile Alecsandri); Fond Primaria Eschibaba, Dusar 29/1948, filele 174-178. 134

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The Macedo-Aromallialls ill Dobrudja

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Multi se ami in ora~ul Tulcea, intr-o pondere mai micii tara indoiala; imbucurator este faptul cii se mai pastreaza grupuri compacte in satele armane~tidin judetele Tulcea ~iConstanta (Eschibaba, Tistimelu,Ceamurlia de 5us, Beidaud, Baia in judo Tulcea, ~i Cogealac, M. KogaIniceanu, Ovidiu, Poiana in judo Constanta). De relevat, de asemenea este faptul ca a incetat definitiv exodu1 ditre capitala, exod practicat in deceniile 6-7-8. Acum, chiar daca aromanii sc stabilesc in ora~, parasindu-~i satele, devenite pentru generatiile de dupa 41, de b~tina, se stabilesc in Constanta. Faptul estc salutar pentru ca in felul acesta se incheaga mau mult comunitatea compacta a macedo-aromanilorce exista in Constanta.

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I. ETHNOGENESISAND THE NAME OF THE
AROMANIAN PEOPLE

The Aromanians are the Descendantsof the Roman World in the Balkans
Historians and linguists have always been highly interested in thc origins of the Aromanians. Concerning this issue, three concepts or theories have been bornl. The first, an older one, reaching far back to the period of the chronieIers2, pleaded for the origins of the Aromanians in the north of the Danube. The champions of this theory regarded the ancestors of the Aromanians as the Romanians who had been transferred from Dacia across the Danube. Meanwhile, due to its lack of argumentationand sheer abstraction, this theory has been abandoned. Although the other two theories are contrary to each other, they still agree on one subject: they both plead for
I' 1 See Cusa 1990: 9-33 where early Byzantine documents are presented for the first time. They refer to the origins of the Vlachs in the south of the Danube. The most significant secondary sources on the ethnogenesis of the Aromanian are also included here. 2 Miron Costin in On the Romanian People; Dimitrie Cantemir in The Chronicle of the Origins of the Moldavian-Romanian-Vlachs; Petru Maior, the representative of The New School in Ardeal in The History of the Beginnings of the Romanian in Dacia established a period for the transfer (during the reign of Gallienus - 268-270)at the same time with the great invasion of the Goths; Bogdan Pietriceicu Hasdeu in 'Stratum and substratum'. Etymologicum Magnum Romaniae 1894: 59-60 argued that the Iransfer or Ihe migration of the Ammanian 10 Ihe soulh oflhe Danube occurred at the same time with the arrival of the Hungarian.

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the origins of the Aromanians in the south of the Danube. Controversy arise when foeus falls on an approximate localisation of the origins. The second theory pleads for the origins of the Aromanians in the north of the Balkan Peninsula where the Romans were ruling bcfore the arrival of the Slavs. The Roman domination, however, did not reach far towards the south, that is beyond the Jire~ck line3. To the south of the line, the Thraco-Illyrian-Macedonian native population had been greecised4. To the north of the Jire~ek line, at the same time with the arrival of the Slavs, the romanised population - unlike the population in the south had been slavised. The champions of this theory argue that the process of slavisation did not affect the population that moved northwards to increase the number of the Romanians in the north of the Danube or southwards and westwards to give birth to the Aromanians, the Megleno-Romanians and the Istro-Romanians5.
3. Constantin Jireeck, professor at the University of Prague anl! Vienna. who establishel! the famous line of l!emarcation of the Ronmn world in the Balkans. which bears his name This line was drawn from the Adriatic Sea. from the city of Lissus (tnday the Albanian city of Lezhe) towards the East to the mouths of the Danube, including the territory of Dacia under Aurelian' s reign and the two Moesias. It had as border Dalmazia in the North and Macedonia in the South. 4. The Historical and Ethnical Romanian Space 1933: 8 5. This theory was sustained by Dimitrie Onciul in The Romanians in Dacia during the Reign of Trajan before the Foundation of the Principalities 1932: 32. who doubtcd the existence of the Roman world beyond Jireeek as he regarded it as dangerous issue to be raised by other theories which did not admit the conlinuity of Ihe Daco-Romanian population in Dacia and which were promoted by Franz Joseph Sulzer. I (,hr Engel. and eSIX'eially Robert Roesler and his Roeslerian theory; Ion Nistor in The Origins of the Romanians in the Balkans and the Vlachias in Thessaly and Epirus, 'The Annals of the Romanian Academia' III vol. XXVI. mem.? p.2; C.c. Giurescu in The History of the Romanian People 1942: vol. I 314; P. P. Panaitescu in An Introduction into the History of the Romanian Culture 1969: 118-120. The philologists Ovidiu Densusianu. Alexandru Rosetti and George Murnu shared the same beliefs. One particular position among Romanian historians was adopted by A. D. Xenopol. Contrary to the historians we mentioned above, Xcnopol in The History of the Romanian People in Dacia during the Reign of Trajan 1888: vol. I 109. considers that the DacoRomanian and the Macedo-Romanian are IWOpeoples diJff!rem ".I' nOlllre oJtheir origins whn.<e hllge resemblance is due to circllmstalllial blending oJ the same elements and they speak a different language if we compare words from the Romanian and Aromanian lexis. He pleads for their meridional origins far more to the: south than all the other historians, that is in the Balkans (he also regards Moosia as less mmanised in anliquily) but althe same time and for the same reasons - dallgerous issues. he was categorical 138 in defining them as a (tifferen! pc>oplc.

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The third theory regards the Aromanians as the native inhabitants of the southern Balkan Peninsula. According to this theory, to which more and more researchers are subscribing today, the Aromanians are the descendants of the old Roman world in the Balkans who resisted the allogene pressure. Contrary to the champions of the second theory who argue that the ancestors of the Aromanians originate in the north of the Balkan Peninsula, the champions of this theory consider that the ancestors of the Aromanian are the descendants of the Roman world in the south of the Balkan Peninsula, that is in Macedonia, Pindus and the south of Albania6 - the region where they were born and lived and where they still live today7.
6. Having defeated Macedonia (as a result of three long 215 and 168 BC) at Pydna in the year of 168 BC, the Romans four tributary states; twenty years later, in the year of 148 BC, province (hence earlier, before Dacia). Most of the population lIIyrians and the Greeks) was romanised. See 8 below. and outrageous wars between divided the late kingdom into Macedonia became a Roman (the Macedonian, the Thraco-

7. Another champion of this theory was Nicolae lorga who in his vast, surpassing and unique historical writings - was particularly interested in the history of the Balkan Peninsula. As far as the Aromanians arc concerned, Nicolae lorga was in favour of their meridional origins he also admitted that they might have originated in the IIlyrian South. In The History of the Romanian People 1922: vol. I 139-140, he mentioned that The Macedo-Romanian elements should be derived from the Roman population of the JI/yrian regions in the same way as the Albanians originate from the isolated elemellls of a lIot completely romanised population from

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the same provinces [. ..J There have hardly been more conservatory elements thall those of the
inhabitants of the mountains and the so-called Macedo-Romanians or the Romanians in the Pindus MountaillS who have always been consistent with their nature. There is no melllioning of any shift in any period even a more recelll one: they remain aI/ached to their well-defined shepherding areas today as always, reaching far back 10 the eldest times; they ha~'e a summer homeland and a winter homeland and these have always remained unchanged. That they might have taken refuge in Moesia or Thessaly from any Slav barbarians or any other barbarians who might have been around back then - we could ,wt admit. Gheorghe I. Bratianu. the son of IJ.C. Bratianu (the leader of the National Liberal Party) , professor at the University of Bucharest between 1940 and 1947 when he got arrested, and who succeeded Nicolae Iorga in the Department of Universal History, after his assassination in 1940, an expert in the Aromanian history (he went to visit them in Cadrilater - see the newspaper Universul (The Universe), XLV no. 81, August, 7'" 1927), made the difference between the Roman world in the Balkans in general and that of the Aromanians in particular (although he did acknowledge the BY7.antine sources) at the same time also highlighting the popular versions (Gh. I. Bratianu was by all means a supporter of tradition). In the name of this tradition, an early existence could be supported by the names of the places where the Aromanians used 10live and still live today. (see Gh. I. Bratianu in The Historical Tradition on the Foundation of the Romanian States 1980: 53-54)

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We also notice that this theory whose champions included Teodor Capidan8 and Tache Papahagi9 acknowledges the dislocation from Moesia and the descent of several groups towards the above-mentioned area. The establishment of the Roman world in Pindus, Epirus and Thessaly was not at all circumstantial, in the sense that we could explain the di.vlocationtowards the South if we admitted that this Romanian population passed through and established in the regions where they were certain tofind others of their own kind, speakers of the same language as their own/a; otherwise they would have headed for the West, towards the Roman World on the Dalmatian Coast, taking refuge from the Slav invasion which was coming from the East and North-East. In addition, the supplement from the North did consolidate the already existing Roman world.
8. Romanian scholar and philologist, author of many surpassing linguistic, historical and ethnographic writings such as The Macedo-Romanians. Ethnography, History and Language, The Farsherots. A Linguistic Study on the Romanians in Albany, and especially The Aromanians. The Aromanian Dialect. A Linguistic Study, the latter receiving a reward from the Romanian Academia. In The Roman World in the Balkans 1936: 55-57, regarding the ethnogenesis of the Aromanians. he stated that There are many reasons for the persistence of a Roman world in the south of the Balkan Peninsula: jirst of all, the existence of the Roman domination in this part of the penillSula earlier then the conquering of Dacia as well as the beginning of a romanisation which had not been hindered by the Greek cullUre as we have considered so far; secondly, the presem selliements of the Romanians [the Aromanians] are obvious reminders of earlier origillS if we consider the names of dijferem places in their Romanian [Aromanian] form (Baiasa, Salonic, moumain peaks - Moasa, Dziina, Ciuma-nalti1, Suma cu bradu, ou - the words ciuma and suma, of Latin origin, with the etymological meaning of height are no longer used today - they are thus words inherited by the Aromanians in these regions) 9. Romanian scholar and philologist, with particular interest in the study of the Aromanian language. His most important writing is The Dictionary of the Aromanian General and Etymological Dialect, a real encyclopaedia and the most useful instrument of study of the Aromanian language. In An Insight into the IIIyrian Roman World, 'Speaking and Feeling' 1923: vol. I, fasc. I 72-75, he stated his opinion on the origins of the Aromanians: From the geographical point of view we must acknowledge the existence of the Roman world in the Illyrian Solllh in a direct territorial continuity with Moesia Superior. I memionthat the Illyrian South means the Pindus moumains as well as the south oftoday's Albania. It is also reasonable to admit that the Roman military life facto ipso within these provinces had to be led in bigger or smaller Roman enclaves, having maintained their ethno-linguistic individuality for centuries before their consolidation in compact groups produced by the overflowing or the dislocation of the population throughout the region of Pindus. 10 Ibidem.

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Tile Macedo-Aromanians in Dobrudja

This theory has been supported by many researchers of Aromanian origin in Greece. They advocate their Balkan origins - in their opinion, however, the Aromanians are the descendants of the Greek population which was latinised during the Roman domination.II In conclusion, in compliance with the two theories, we could confirm that the South Danubian origins of the Aromanians is peremptory. Peremptory is also the fact that before the Slav invasion (in a large number during the reign of Focas (602-610) on both banks of the Danube itself a mealtS of internal communication for so long and not at all a frontier to divide the Roman worldl2, on the basis of common ground, a substantial Roman population was born throughout centuries of imperial domination. This population was extended from the Carpathians to Macedonia (in compliance with the second theory) as well as towards the Illyrian South, that is Pindus, Epirus and the South of Albania (in compliance with the third theory). It is also beyond doubt
that this population started speaking a similar language

- Proto-Romanian -

with regional differences due to strata and features characteristic of the Latin language which was spoken by the Roman conquerors.13 The settlement of the Slavs in the South of the Danube produced the disintegration of the original unity of the Roman world in four groups,
which have later resulted in the Romanians

-

in the North of the Danube

-,

the Aromanians - in the South of the Danube, in the Balkan countries -, the Mcgleno-Romanians - in the Meglen Fields, in the North-East of Salonicand the Istro-Romanians - in Istrian Peninsula. The Proto-Romanian language or the Fore-Romanian was also divided into four dialects: Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian.l4 - which began to evolve separately as functionallanguages.l5
I\. T. M. Katsoughiannis, S. N. Liakos, A. G. Laz:orou 12. Cf. Nicolae Serban Tanasoca in Historic Studies Concerning the Past of the Romanians across the Danube 1984: 8 13. Cf Matilda Caragiu Marioteanu in The Aromanian Dictionary 1977: 440 14. The Aromanian, the Megleno-Romanian and the Istro-Romanian as well as the Romanian languages are dialects of a common language the Proto-Romanian or the ForeRomanian. In the opinion of many Romanian linguists, they are all dialects of the Romanian language. 15. See in M. Caragiu Marioleanu 1977: 439-448.

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Aromanian (Macedo-Aromanian) - Arman(Macedo-Arman)
The Romanians, the Aromanians, the Megleno-Romanians and the Istro-Romanians appear in medieval sources under the name of Vlachs (a word of German origin -Walh- which was initially used to describe all the Roman descendants; inherited and adapted by the Slavs, the Hungarians, the Greeks, the Turks, it became an ethnical name for all the four abovementioned groups).16 The Romanians on the left of the Danube and the Romanians on the right of the Danube, the descendants of the old Roman world, kept the living memory of an original unity and harmony in the ethnical name which both have assumed: Ruman (Rumani) - Ruman (Rumani), reproducing, as consequence of linguistic norms of transformation, the Latin form romal1us .17 As a result of a separate evolution, the term Ruman has undergone a radical transformation, the same as the other two dialects. Ruman has become Roman (or Romanian as we translate it into the English language) in the Romanian language in the North of the Danube; meanwhile, in the South of the Danube, in the Aromanian language Ruman has been pronounced with a prothetic fa! as in Aruman as a result of a characteristic feature of the Aromanian language according to which vowels are added in front of difficult consonants that occur at the beginning of a word. IS As a result of the fall of fuf from the first syllable, Aruman has become Arman.19

16. It is for this matter that I have considered the phrase Macedo-Aromanian more appropriate than Macedo-Vlach. 17. Cf. Teodor Capidan in The Aromanians. The Aromanian Dialect. A Linguistic Study 1932: 8 - reedited by Justina Burci and Camelia Zabavii 2001 with a preface by Lucian Chisu. 18. Cf. Teodor Capidan in The Macedo-Romanians. Language 1942: 10-17 19. Ibidem. 142 Ethnography, History,

Macedo-aromallii

dobrogelli

.

The Macedo-Aromanialls

in Dobrudja

Arman is the only name acknowledgedand

usedby all the Aromanians Armani20
The name Aroman (or Aromanian as we use it in the English language) is a word which has been derived from Arman, transformed from the word Roman (or Romanian as we use it in the English language)21, promoted by the scholars22 and used accordingly in scientific writings, in magazines and newspapers.23The various alternatives that were circulating in scientific writings about the Aromanians have been demonetised 20. It is a common place that in academic writings (see Teodor Capidan, 1932: 3-7, Max Demeter Peyfuss, The Aromanian Issue 1994: 12 in N. S. Tanasoca's translation) they rightfully argue that the Farsherots ( Farserotil'i) call themselves Ramarii not Armeln'; because they are not familiar with the linguistic phenomenon of the protection of Ial before 11'1 having adopted the strong linguistic influence of rolling Irrl from the Albanian language which is, in fact, pronounced as Iyl in the Romanian language, similar to the French language. All this held true only for the Farsherots in Albania. The farsherots in Greece were not familiar with this
strong linguistic phenomenon Irrl

-

- they

used

to call

themselves

Ruman.

In my family,

my

father Anastase Cusa (1919-1985, born in Grammaticuva, Greece) and my mother Flurica Cusa (1925-1994, bolll Rosu in Patichina, Greece) , a family of plain Farsherots, within which we have all spoken the Aromanian language, did not apply the rule of this linguistic phenomenon; it is, however, possible to have applied it (?) 100 or 200 years ago, since all the Farsherots originate from Albania. Concerning the Aromanians in Albania, between 1990 and 1992, during my visits to Ihis country, I noticed that they did not apply the rule of this phenomenon either they had adopted the name of Armal/ (or Aromanian as we call them in English) - even though some of them elTOneously pronounced it AnI/ell. The Plisots - the Farsherots from Albania who had settled in Dobrudja- did the same. They all adopted the name Arman and the literary name Aroman (or Aromanian as we translate it into the English language). 21. Cf. The Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language 1996: 60. 22. The first was Gustav Weingand, professor at the University of Lcipzig, who wrote many scientific papers on the Aromanians starting from studies undertaken at the place of thcir belonging. His fundamental writing is Die Aromunen: Ethnographisch-philosophisch-historische Untersuchungen iiber das Volk der sogenannten Makedo-Romanen oder Zinzaren in two volumes, published in Lcipzig, 1895. 23. Aroman in the Romanian language, Aroumains in the French language, Arumunen in the German language. Aromeni in the Italian language, Aromanian in the English language.

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Aroman I Arman being the only name unanimously acknowledged by all the Aromanians who live in Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria and Romania.24 We mention that several local names are still being preserved and are usually chosen by the Aromanians themselves in order to designate the most important stems and branches. The name of the stems are derived, as in the case of the Romanians or other peoples worldwide, from the geographical areas: the Pindeni (from the Pindus Mountains), the Gramusteni (from the Gramos Mountain, which is a extension of the Pindus Mountains), the Muzachiari (from the Muzakia Fields in Albania) and the Farsherots (from a place Pharsala). The name of the stems is derived from the name of the village or town in which they lived as it follows: Plisot (from Pleasa, a place in Albany), Pruyian (from Poroi/a/ Superior in Greece), Viryiot (from Veria in Greece), Avdil'at (from Avdela in Greece), Lupuvean (from Lupova in Bulgaria), Bujduvean (from Bujdova in Bulgaria), ~utruveaD (from Satra in Bulgaria), Yeanie6ti (from Ianita in Greece), Gumal6ti (from Giumaia Superior in Bulgaria), BaDot (from Bania in the Republic of Macedonia), Curtuvean (from Curtova, Bulgaria), Bataam (from Batac in Bulgaria), Livadyean (from Liviidz in Greece).

24. The Aromanians live in the United States, in New York, SI. Francisco, SI. Louis, Bridge Port; in Australia in Melbourne and Sydney; in several Western European countries. 144

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r

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Macedo-aromanii dobrogeni' The Macedo-Aromanians in Dobrudja

II. THE STEMSOF THE AROMANIANS
SETTLED DOWN IN DOBRUDJA

The Fra~eroti I Far~eroti or the Farsherots The first Aromanians who had settled down in Dobrudja were the Farsherots. They represent the stem of the Aromanians second in number after the Gramusteni.1 Their name comes from Farsala, a place situated in
the South of Valona (Vlore

-

a seaport on the Adriatic Sea, in the southern

part of Albania), where Caesar's soldiers landed, whom the local inhabitants and the soldiers of Pompeii2 had seen and called in the panic of landing: 'Watch out! Here come the Pharsaliots! The Pharsaliots!,3 There is a second theory which advocates the fact that the name comes indeed from Farsala; however, it was not the above-mentioned place the stem derives its name from, but Pharsala in Thessaly (today's Greece), a
I. In Romania and not in the South of the Danube numerous than the Gramusteni. where the Farsherots are more

2. Stationed in Epirus and IlIyria as early as 49 BC, after the defeat of Brundisium in Italy, when Pompeii had withdrawn in Macedonia. See Theodor Mommsen. The Roman

. History

1988:

vol.

III:

222-226.

3. Cf. the ethnographer Antonio Baldacci, apud Anastase Hilciu, The Aromanians. Trade, Industry, the Arts, Expansion, Civilisation 1936: 142 republished in Constantza by the publishing house "Cartea Aromilna" 2003; ed. Tiberiu Cunia and Dumilru Stere Oarofi!. The term Farsalioli was widely used especially in Greece. Today all the Aromanians in this stem call themselves Fiirsiroli'or F1irsiroti.

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place where in the year of 48 BC the battle between Caesar and Pompeii was fought. The latter had been watching Caesar defeating all his armies and had decided to flee from the battle field to take refuge on a ship towards the East. His soldiers, the partisans from his camp in Macedonia, had retreated up in the mountains to take refuge and shelter as early as 49 BC to later give birth to the great populations of the Farsherots and the Megalo-Vlachs.4 The third theory supports the assumption according to which the name of the Farsherots comes from another place situated in the South-East of Albania: Fra$ari or Fra$eri (which included 15,000 inhabitants in the years of maximum growth, today it is only a small Albanian village with a few Aromanian inhabitants).5 Moreover they also assumed that the entire stem had originated in the region of Fra$ari, where shepherds from Gramos and Pindus were settling down (as a result of population in excess); they admit, however, the existence of other Aromanian populations within this area before the overflow. 6 It is, however, a tradition of the Farsherots to reach far back for their origins to the old times of the colonists brought from Italy after the battles between Caesar and Pompeii and whose descendants they believe they are.? This noble origin has been pointed out by loan Caragiani who argued that among numerous tribes of Romanians [Aromanians] in the Balkan Peninsula, there is one in particular which spreads in Albania, Epirus, Macedonia, Thessaly and all around Greece. The call themselves Rumani or Rumeni whereas all the other Aromanians call them Far~eroti or Far~eroti. Most of them have always been nomadic without any village to permanently live in during the summer they live in their own villages in the mountains, near their sheepfolds and

-

4. Cf. Anastase Haciu 1936: 141 5. Teodor Capidan, Nomadic Aromanians 1926: 42-47 6. Ibidem 7. During the presence of Caesar in Egypt, in IIIyria, the soldiers of Pompeii were swarming illside the country as they had been scallered by the war ill Thessaly. so that the Romans had to bring there new cohorts and riders 10maintain the peacein the region. Whell Caesar ret/lrlled to Egypt, the danger llad beell overcome ill I//yria Apud. Theodor Mommsen 1988: 243

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r

Macedo-aromdn;;

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Tile Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

during the winter they live in the fields where they descent with their flocks to winter. In the popular belief of all Aromanians. the country of the Farsherots has always been Albania, where they had spread from in many places with the exception of those who remained behind and still
live there. It was from one of the latter
Corfu

whom I had met in the island of
the Farsherots had come to

-

that I learnt that, by an old tradition,

Albania and Thessaly far over the sea and they were once called Farsaliots and not Farsherots whereas they used to call themselves Rumani or Rumeni and consequently. they are the old Roman colonists brought from Italy to Illyria and Thessaly after the battles between Caesar and Pompeii in Dyrachium and Pharsala. Some of the Aromanians believe that the Farsherots would come from a small village that had never been so large to include over 200,000 inhabitants that represents the number of all Farsherots in Greece and Turkey.8 At this point I. Nenitescu's pertinent observations are worth mentioning. loan Nenitescu met the Farsherots in his journeys throughout European Turkey, a country or rather an empire which also included the province of Macedonia in 1892: The Farsherots or the "~ar~eroti I Far~eroti would have derived their name from the name of the village of Fra!>ariin Albania and according to others - from the name of the town of Farsala in Greece.
However, when I met a Farsherot

-

and I have met so many

-

and I

asked himlher What are you? he/she answered I am Farsdliot I eu esc Fdrsaliot. If we operated a transformation of the two lat into two Ia/, we would have the word Farsaliot. Farsala is the place where Caesar defeated Pompeii whose army scattered, without being completely defeated, as we all know, could have tarried in the Peninsula and spread into the mountains of Thessaly and the Pindus Mountains, whose peaks, lands and valleys have been in the hands of the Farsherots for centuries, together with the branch of the Epiriats
8. loan Caragiani. Historical Studies on the Romanians in the Balkan Peninsula 1929: 4-5.6-7. 147

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whose origin is also Farsherot. The claim that the small village of Fra(lari could have given - or could give a few centuries later - birth to such a people that includes more than 320,000 individuals as the Farsherot people does - is hard to submit, to say the least. 9 To conclude, we could say that the country of all the Farsherots was the South Albania, where they spread from - with the exception of those who had remained there 10_ to Epirus, Macedonia (as it was in those years), Thessaly and throughout Greece. The exodus was determined by the new situation in Albania. In exchange of many privileges, a part of the Albanians was converted to the Islam. This was for the benefit of the local leaders who enjoyed autonomy to a greater extent than before within the new circumstances. Moreover, the Turks started appointing them bey and pasha - the sultans had never appointed any local leader to such positions before. Benefiting from these positions, the local leaders were turning into worse rulers than the Turks themselves. Their people were terrorising the South-East of Albania, that is the original land of the Farsherots.Taking advantageof the outbreak of the Russian-Turkishwar within the period 1768-1774,the bands of the Muslim ba$buzuciwere dominating the region, invading even Greece. All this was followed by a period of anarchy and insecurity, at the Muslim leaders' will. The commercial routes were no longer secure, the caravans were being attacked all the time. The central power, namely Turkey, could no longer be in charge of the situation within this area. Against the unfriendly environment, a part of the Farsherots left their
native lands forever

-

that is Dangli and Colonia, where Fra(lari was also

situated; they left even Albania. Some settled down in the Greek Epirus, in Pindus, in the West and North-West of Samarina, in the villages of Paleoseli (today Palioseli), Furca and the villages of Cucufliani, Verbiani,
9. loan Nenitescu, Study on the Aromanians From the Romanians 1895: 27 in Turkey. An Ethnical and Statistical

10. That is in Albanian Epirus and in all the southern and central part of Albania. In my paper, The Aromanians (the Macedonians) in Romania 1996: 13 I pointed out a number of 400,000 Aromanians in Albania (on the basis of the data received in 1992). I would say today. objectively and without bias. that their number could be estimaled at ZOO,OOO 300.000 individuals. 148

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I.

Macedo-aromanii dobrogeni

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrlldja

Prisogiani, Grizmani, Starciani etcl '; in Greece they settled down near the Gramusteni and Moscopoleni, in places such as Florina, Pisuderi, Belcameni, near the Pindeni in the mountains of Veria, in Horopani and Selia de Sus, in the region of Olympus, in Caterina, Salonic (Saruna in the Aromanian language) and Seres, in Thessaly, in Armiro, Volo, Velestin, Tricala, Calabaca, Larisa etc. There were others who settled down in Macedonia, near the Gramusteni in Beala, Moloviste, Tamova, Nijopole, Magarova and in the Murihova Mountains, organised here in a separate and compact group. As if on purpose, the latter group, after a stay of approximately 100 years, had to emigrate again. At the same time with the revolutionary movements of the Bulgarians in Turkey (back then Macedonia belonged to the Ottoman Empire), these Farsherots retreated to the region of Vodena where, under the rule of their leaders called celnici, set up settlements such as Fetita, Patichina, Grammaticuva, Candrova.12 Concerning the exodus, the second group which left the native territories is represented by the Farsherots in Curtes, Costreti (or Costresti), Zarcani (or Jarcani) and Zavalini (or Javaleni). They did not leave Albania; they settled down in Corita, in Pleasa, Disnita and Stropani. Finally, the third large group of the Farsherots - all the Aromanians in
Albania are Farsherots!

- settled

down in the south of Albania, that is in the

Albanian Epirus and in the Muzakia Fields.
II. loan Nenitescu 1895: 401-433 did mention them but he did not comment on the existence of the Farshcrots within this area. Inhabitants of Farsherot origin could have existed here from old times; I. Nenitescu mentions in particular that hetween the rivers Baeasa and Sarantaporos, around the year of 1892. there were lots of families of Farsherots who did not live in villages. 12. I learnt of this episode as well as of the exodus of the Farsherots from Albania from my grandfather Mita Cusa (1184-1977), the son of the celnic (leader) Anastase Cusa. the founder of the village Grammaticuva. 200 years ago, our Farsherot family used to live in the South of Albania, in the village of BUlca. not far away from Frasari - It is from the name of the village that my family derived their name: in Albania they used to be called Butcaru. Having settled down in the Murihova Mountains, they changed their name from Butcaru into Cusa, after the first name of the father of the celnic Anastase, whose first name was loan - a similar word with Nachi or Cusa for the Farsherots.ln those old times the Aromanians did the same as the Turks; they declined their identity after the first name of the father, grandfather, grandgrandfather. For example. my falher as a child was asked Wllo do you belonllto? - he lIsed to answer I am the son of Mi/{.' of Tasi [AnastaseJ of Naclli [Cusaj.

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The former are also known as Castriniots or the Castriniots, as the inhabitants of the Roman campl3 around the city of Arghirocastru (today Gjirokaster) or thus named from Cutret,l4 They were also called Cristinioti or the Critiniots since due to their presupposed Christianity, their women used to have a cross tattooed on their foreheads, the same way as the women of the Gramusteni and the cipaiIi in Macedonia and especially those in Bulgaria,l5 There were close relationships between, on the one hand, all the above-mentioned and on the other hand, the Farsherots in Corita (Corcea or Curceaua in the Aromanian language, Korce today), Pleasa, Di~nita and Stopani. As an administrative and commercial centre, the city of Coreea was frequented by the Castriniots as well as the Farsherots who had been there for ages, to the North-West from tile city (especially after the destruction of Moscopole), from Sipca, Nicea, Grabova and Lunca (or Uinga), known under the name of the Moscopolians. Those from Muzakia, a field situated on both banks of the river Semeni (today Seman) which flows into the Adriatic Sea, lost their identity as Farsherots once they settled down permanently in this region where the principality of Musatius or Musacius had been - later to become Muzakia. Some Aromanians were called Muzchiari or Mizuchiari (in the Aromanian language) from the name of those fields. Having settled down in this region and given up sheep breeding and caravanning, determined by loss of their estate (sheep, goats, horses), they became farmers and they owned small farms. Due to the unbearable weather conditions in this area especially during the summer, they stopped having close relationships with the above-mentioned Farsherots. Many Muzchiari did the same as lots of Aromanians in Albania13. Cf. Constantin Colimitra, The Farsherots 1996 in the chapter Occupations and Estate. The book is printed on his own, with no publishing house and no editing which has no influence whatsoever on its value. Colimitra is the author of a splendid monographic writing of the village Pleasa. We could also mention that at the end of the monographic writing, the author is having an insight into the history of the Aromanians supported by weak arguments (in the favour of the ethnical integrity), on the pattern of traista or miirtisor or the statement that the Aromanians would be at least 2 million or the Aromanians would be the descendants of the new Daco-Roman people born of the happy blending of the Dacians and Romans. 14. Cf. Nicolae Saramandu, Aromanian and MegJeno-Romanian Studies 2003: 25 15. Cf. Colimitra 1996.

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Macedo-aroman;;

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Tile Macedo-Aroman;ans ;n Dobrudja

who were called ciobe1li or vlai by the Albanians - they spread in the cities in the centre and the north of the country, and they became innkeepers, merchants, handicraftsmen (especially tailors, in general skilled handicraftsmen).

Specific F eatllres
Although the Farsherot is generally presented as the archetype, his physiognomy is almost identical with that of the other Aromanians of the same origin in the Balkan Peninsula. All the Aromanians resemble in their appearance. he men are strong, proud, expressiveblack-eyes,archedeyebrows, T quick and agile. The women are lithe and honest. The Aromanian woman is a devoted mother and a faithful wife - the divorce was not legitimate with the Aromanians. She is a diligent woman - wool weavings by hand, the so-called velinta, blankets and counterpanes of all colours woven by machine

were famous throughout the Balkan Peninsula. The so-called subordination in relation to her husband is erroneous. The woman is above all respectful to her husband and so is the man to her - the Aromanian man would never beat up his woman; harmony and solidarity keep them very close together in everyday life. At this point several specific features of the relatively recent nomadic life of the Farsherots are worth mentioning. The Farsherots used to love complete freedom to a greater extent than
the other Aromanians - thus

they led a nomadiclife, wanderingwith their

families, their estate and flocks. They never used to mow or to gather the
grass needed for the feeding of the cattle during the winter. In the summer they used to have their own villages in the mountains, near the sheepfolds where they descended from to live in the fields in the so-called elllive in the winter. They were thus almost independent, having their own organizations called fi1lei1ri or eelnicate which were led by a eelnie. The organization forms called eelnieate represented the historic remainings of the old Aromanian dukedoms in Pindus, Epirus, Albania, Thessaly, in the Balkans and in Rodopi.l6 An organization unit called fa/care included hundreds of
16. I. Ncnitcscu I~95: 175

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families. Every family would have its own estate which consisted of sheep, goats, horses, mules, donkeys. The leader called ce/nic would be selected from the elite and his family would be extremely wealthy since wealth has always been a criterion for evaluation with the Aromanians. He was in charge of the wholefiilcare; he was not, however, an absolute leader as he appears in most of the writings on the Aromanians. He would not be a voivode as in the north of the Danube; he would rather be the most respected man in thefiilcare for his estate as well as for his wisdom. In case of any litigation within the fi1lcare,he would be asked for advice to find the most appropriate solution.
The main occupation of the Farsherots

-

which was, in fact, the

same with all the Aromanians - was sheep breeding. Unlike many other Aromanians in Greece and today's Macedonia - who used to have the same living routine as the Daco-Romans in the sense that only the men with the flocks spent their summer in the mountains and their winter in the fields the Farsherots would also head for the mountains in spring and for the fields in autumn but together with their families, wife and children as well as the old members of the family, their estate, their flocks, choosing regions with temperate winter (those from Epirus and Pindus towards the region of Avlona and the south of Muzakia and those from Murihova towards Thessaly until 1878). The Farsherots have been nomadic for hundreds of years. In their villages they used to leave behind in the mountains a few families to take good care of their houses until they came back from the fields where they spent the winter. Their relatively primitive living conditions which remained the same until the 19thcentury had a positive influence as well. Their isolated existence enabled them to preserve their integrity and freedom. There are many Latin elements preserved in their language and no Greek borrowings are recorded. Their strong caste beliefs prevented them from marrying into other nations, including Aromanians from other stems even when they lived together in the same village. Their free spirit might
have determined them to be less religious and more free thinkersl?

-

it is a

common place that the Church was subordinated to the Greek Patriarchy from Constantinople and the priests performed the service in Greek. They would loath priests and monks and they had a curse phrase which is
17. I. Nenitescu 1895: 29. I. Caragiani 1929: 4-5.

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Macedo-aroma,,;; dobrogell; Tile Macedo-Aroma,,;ans

.

in Dobrudja

the living proof of their utmost dislike If only I lived to see you become a priest! (Preltu s-hi Ii ved!)/8 There are at least two elements of the Farsherot costume that are worth mentioning. First of all, the male costume is completely white - an obvious Roman inheritance. Secondly, the Farsherot women would wear an ornament on their heads, which is called ciceroana or 1iferoana in the Aromanian language that does not exist with other peoples in the Balkans. I. Nenitescu describe this ornament as a type of wool/en kame/aukion decorated with go/den coins. The name of the ornament reaches far back to the age of Caesar when the kame/aukion or the ciceronian - ciceroalla - used to be d la mode, also worn in the countryside in Italy since perhaps Cicerone's wife reinvented it,19 It is again I. Nenitescu who stated that they would often say alb s'hie which translates as may your life be white to replace 'thank you' - a phrase which the Farsherots do not have in their language. All the other Aromanians use the Greek word eflzaristo for 'thank you' .20The Farsherots would avoid using Greek words. It is indeed so but we could argue that only the Farsherots in Macedonia used to say alb s'hie. The phrase was not used by the Farsherots who lived in Greece (Patichina, Grammaticuva, Candrova, Caterina) whom I. Nenitescu did not visit in his journey in 1892. When they speak in their own language, all the Aromanians, however,
would add a well-wishing whenever they thank

-

the most popular

are

s'bnedz which translates as may you live long, hlirioasa which translates as may you be happy. Concerning the white colour, I. Nenitescu also pointed out that it was extremely valuable. When the bride was entering the house of her future husband, they would unfold a white cloth to her feet so that her life would be sweet and clean in her husband's house - a traditionwhich has survived to this day.2J
18. Anaslase Hiiciu 1936: 145 19. I. Nenitescu 1895: 174, I.Caragiani 1929: 65 who argued thai the ciceronian or fiferoalla came from Cicero. Dimitrie Abeleanu The Aromanian People in Macedonia p.43 20. I. Nenitescu 1895. 21. Ibidem.

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TheFarsherots Dobrudja in
The Farsherots who settled down in Dobrudja come from Greece and Albania. Those from Greece come from the region of Vodena (today's Edessa) - from Patichina, Grammaticuva, Candrova, from the region of Veria - from Selia de Sus and Horopani, Caterina (today's Katerini).I All these places are part2 of the province of Macedonia, the largest and the most northern province of Greece which, in the north, neighbours onto Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia and Albania. This group of Farsherots, perhaps the most oppressed of all the Aromanians, has its origins in Albania - in the south of former Macedonia.3 In the context of the crisis which was manifest in the second half of the 18th century in Macedonia, the bands of the Albanians took advantage of the situation and they encouraged anarchy in the southern part of the province. Against these unbearable living conditions, they decided4 to leave their native places (Dangli and Colonia) to wander towards the North, in today's Republic of Macedonia. This compact group settled down in Murihova Mountains, near the present border with Greece, where they lived more than 100 years. Sheep breeding, timber and charcoal exploitation were the major occupations. As far as timber is concerned, they even had the technical means to work it out,
1. Nicolae Saramandu 2003: 25 adds other places where the Farsherots in Dobrudja came from: Papadia and Fetita. On the basis of the documents we studied (The State Archives. Constanta, Fund National Office of Colonisation) we have concluded that there were only 4 families coming from Papadia and only 2 families coming from Fetita. 2. Grammaticuva Superior almost does not exist any longer. It has been completely deserted. All the Farsherots who used to live there had emigrated to Dobrudja. 3. That is the former area between the Ionic See and the Aegean See in the west and in the east. in the north far into the central Albania and the superior course of Vardar and in the south to Epirus and Thessaly. The region of Vodena, Veria and Caterina in today's Greece used to be part of the 'Turkish' Macedonia. After the Balkan Wars (1912-1913) these regions. together with the Island of Crete, would have become part of the Greek territory. 4. Some of them. Others settled down in Corita. See above the commentary on their exodus.

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Tile Macedo-Aromanialls

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such as saws and saw mills. In winter they descended with their flocks in Thessaly and in spring they returned to their houses in the mountains. Peace was not to last for long. As a result of the Bulgarian revolutionary movements in Macedonia, they had to leave this region as well, after approximately 100 years. After 1878, under the rule of the following leaders called celnici Leolea, Cu~a, Nasta, Celea, Butcaru, Pariza, Fotu, Gartu, Zdru, Mu~i, Buciunana, Velenza, Zega, Tragoni, there were 400-500 families with 80,000 sheep and 12,000 mules and horses who settled down
in the villages of Patichina - founded by Hristu Papanicola; Fetita and Grammaticuva - founded by Gu~u Celea and Anastase (Tea) Cu~a; Caterina

- founded by the celnici Zega, Caramitru and Colimitra.
At first they used to live in huts (cc'1live the Aromanian language); in then having bought these places from the Turkish bey, they built houses of stone in every above-mentioned village. They also built churches and schools subsidized by the Romanian state. Once again fate decided for them: due to unbearable conditions, they had to emigrate again (the third time!) outside Macedonia to Romania, in Cadrilater or New Dobrudja (the southern part of former Dobrudja). They were colonised in the county of Caliacra (1925-1928) in Alexandria, Arman, Azaplar, Babuc, Bazaurt, Caraci, Ciair, Ceamurlia, Carasular, Cioban-Cuius, Denicler, Doimush\C,LGh. Duca, Enigea, Ezibei, Fiindacli, Hardali, Hasan-Dede, Hasim Kioselar, Ghelengic, Nicolae Filipescu, Muzalchioi. Opancea. Seidali, Salaman; in the county of Durostor, only a few families in Gral. Praporgescu, Caraorman, Carasular and Aidemir.6 The Farsherots in Albania who settled down in Dobrudja are called the Plisoti or plisoti since most of the Farsherots in Albania come from a place called Pleasa. They are also called the Albinesi or albine$i, that is the Aromanians from Albania. In order to clear up the confusion between them and the Albanians in Albania, the name Plisoti generalised. This name was
6. Cf. files 76/1947.53/1947.55/1947.30/1947.39/1947.89/1947. Constantza. Fund National Offiee of Colonisation. The State Archives

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given to them by the Farsherots in Greece (in Cadrilater) to make the difference between them and the ones who had come from Albania. In their turn, the Plisoti called the ones who had come from Greece the Shopani or $opaflidue to the latter's frequent use of the word $opatwhich translates water pump, that is a spring deviated' by man where water flows abundantly and continuously through a pipe. The Plisoti come from the small village of Corita nearby (where they settled down from the southern parts of Albania around 1780)7, from the large village of Corita in Pleasa - initially only a few houses, this place was bought and founded by most of the group who had arrived under the rule of the celnici Balamaci and Colimitra -, from Di~nita and Stropani (founded by a less numerous group led by the celnic Pitu). They were colonised in the county of Durostor in Fra~ari8,AidemirDelengi, Calipetrova, Babuc, Gral. Praporgescu (together with the Farsherots in Greece), Suneci, New Baltagiu, Cara-Omer, Caraischioi (1925-1928).9 There are several families who came from Albania from Lunca, Nicea, Moscople - which are situated in the north-east of the town of Corita (Curceaua in the Aromanian language). These families who had arrived later (1931-1933) were also colonised in the county of Durostor in CociumarIUand New Baltagiu.11

7. See above the commentary on the Farsherots 8. The first Aromanian colonists in Cadrilater were the Plisoti from Albania (although the issue had been first approached by the Aromanians from Veria, Vodena and Meglenia) who came by train as early as August 1925. They founded the village of Frasari, the first Aromanian settlement in Cadrilater. See also Tribuna Romanilor de peste IlDtare (The Romanian Tribune Overseas) no. 1,2/1927; Viitorul Silistrei (The Future of Silistra) VI, 40, on October 30, 1926; Acfiunea romaneascii (Romanian Action) 1,5, November, 1st 1926; Peninsula Balcanicii (The Balkan Peninsula) October 31st, 1926 9. Cf. files 1/1947,65/1947,89/1947, Readers' Fund 10. Cf. files no. 61/1947 Readers' Fund 11. Cf. file no. 33/1933. Archives in Ramnicu Valcea. Fund of the Prefecture of the County of Durostor, The State

156

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Tile Macedo-Aromanians

i" Dobrudja

Tile Gramustelli Griimustelli /
The name is derived from the name of Gramostea, the place of origin
for the Gramusteni, which is situated amid the Gramos Mountains

-

a

north-eastern extension of the Pindus Mountains. The large village or rather the small town was situated on a 1600 m high plateau, amphitheatreshaped, surrounded by mountains. The highest peak which was called by the Aromanians Ciuma al Penti is 2380 m high, second in height after Smolica (2577 m high) in the Pindus Mountains. The Aromanians from the other stems call them the Chipani or cipafii (in the Aromanian language). They gave them this name since the Gramusteni used to call .yigunea / .ygunea (white or back sleeveless tunic,
long to the knee, and waisted), and cipune

-

on the shoulders of this tunic

the Gramusteni used to wear prominences, that is pointed folds, 10 or 20 in number, which are called cipuri in the Aromanian language. Gramostea was situated in a unique region at the foot of the mountains, with a healthy climate, springs and waters, rich grass lands. It is from these mountains that the river Bistrita ( the former AIiakmon) springs to flow to the south-east near Hrupistea and Seatistea; the river Devol also springs from a place near Gramostea to leave it behind on the right as well as next to Niculita - which is situated near another river, Nicolea, having its name given from the latter. Thanks to the friendly environment, the settlement evolved rapidly to become the second most important settlement in "the former Macedonia, after Moscople.1I The Gramusteni used to be a people of shepherds but less migrating than their brothers, the Farsherots. Their occupations also included the industry (only that part of the industry which related to their major occupation). They
were skilled handicraftsmen in copper - coppersmiths manufacture coppers, vessels, silver objects, ornaments
II. Th. Capidan 1942: 16 slaled Ihal due 10 ils lrade praclice Gramoslea oll/shi1le Moscople i1l Albania.

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they used to golden earrings

a1ld Ihe occupalio1l,

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and the famous silver las, which the beautiful Gramusteni women used to wear on their heads, cutlery and arms. They were also skilled tanners. The caravanning was also a major occupation of the Gramusteni (the Farsherots from Albania used to have it, too). As a consequence of the high and difficult natural Macedonian landscape as well as the lack of lines of communication, they used to transport all the necessary goods (sugar, oil, cheese, exotic fruits etc) exclusively by beasts of burden: horses, mules, donkeys. These caravans (which sometimes included even 20 beasts of burden) were led by many caravan-leaders who were brave and well-acquainted with all the mountain passes and roads. They travelled throughout Macedonia regardless of season or danger. It is indeed true that this occupation was extremely profitable - the caravan-leaders and the sheep and horse owners being extremely wealthy people. The Gramusteni women were diligent and hardworking housewives as well as skilled weavers. The so-called velil1feor iambule, the blankets, counterpanes, the carpets, and especially the woollen sockets were all famous and much sought for. Gramostea was divided in several neighbourhoods: the neighbourhood Paciura, Pi!>ota,Hagisteriu, Sthatu (after the names of the most important cell1iciof this stem). Their houses were of stone, multi-storeyed. There were two large churches in the town: S1.George Church and 51.Mary Church. Their studs and flocks were well-known throughout the region. A. Hiiciureportedthat they has so much milk that, in order to facilitatethe transport, the cell1icPaciura had to build a pipe, several kilometres long, for the milk to be brought from the sheepfolds to the valley where it was processed to obtain cheese, butter and whey.12The Gramusteni were extremely prolific, which determined them to search for other places to live in.Th. Capidan argues that the population in excess drove many Gramusteni groups to Albania where they populated the settlement called Fra!>ari.13 ccording to l. Caragiani and A I. Nenitescu, the Farsherots had traditionally another descend, later ethnically evolving the same as the other Aromanian stems.14
12. A. Hliciu 1936: 136 13. Capidan 1926: 42. 14. See above the subchapter on the Farsherots.

158

Mllcedo-aromallii

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The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

The fall of Gramostea began at the same time with the period 0;;Islamic conversion of the Albanians when the bands of the turkised Bey ha~ started attacking the Aromanian settlements. Gramostea, the land of the Gramusteni Aromanians, whose foundation reaches far back in the past, was to share the fate of Moscople, the citadel of the Aromanians in the Balkans.15 Their surpassing fortune brought about destruction. There is an article in the magazine Lumina (The Light) signed by Filip Miseal6 (who originates from Gramostea itself) under the penname Ciuma al Pell(i, in A. Hiiciu's account, which reports on this painful ending: It was on August, the 15th,1760 probably, during the festival of St. Mary's church. The service was being performed by 12 priests. An incident: The miracle-workingicon cracked, the votive light blew out. On that very moment, two caravan-leadersshowed up from Colonia (Albania) and announced that there were Albanian forces coming over soon. They consulted rapidly and defence was organiscd. The church bells started alarming people. Positions were taken on the left bank of the river of Nicola, with mountain passes and natural fortresses. Several wings of the Albanian forces made an attempt to surround the resistance from other angles. The critical hour was to come. In the evening, however, due to a providential pouring rain, the river of Nicola overflowed and the people could leave the passes. Downtown the caravans were being loaded to flee from this place forever. When the rain stopped and the Albanians could enter the town - which included 40,000 inhabitants -, they found it deserted. In their rush, they forgot only the miracle-working silver and golden icon,17 We shall never know whether things happened exactly as reported above. We acknowledge, though, that Gramostea was destroyed around 1760 and the population managed to retreat - a fact supported also by the
IS. As far as Gramostea is concerned. the popular tradition in the ballad of N. Velo 'Sana and the burning of Gramostea' suggesls another motif: the prolection of Sana, the daughter of a celnic. by the Gramllsteni was the cause of the revenge of Ali-Pasa who would have her in his harem hence the deSlmction of Gramostea. Cf. A. Hiiciu 1936: 139.

-

J6. Lumina

(The Ligh') V, no. II J907. (The Ligllt) V. 1/1907, apud. Hficiu 1936: 139-140.

J7. Cf. Ciuma al Penli. Lumina

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large number of the Gramusteni inhabitants in those regions where they had taken refuge. The settlements Niculita and Linotopea shared the same fate. The Gramusteni population from these settlements left the native places forever to head for the North in Hrupistea, Blata, Pisuderi, Belcameni, Neveasea, Bitolia, Perlepe, Crusova, Nijopole, Magarova etc. A significantly large group settled down in the fields of Meglena, where they founded Livdz and a less numerous group settled down in Rodopi Mountains.

The Gramustelli I Griimustelli in Dobrudja
The Gramusteni who settled down in Dobrudja come from Greece, Bulgaria and the Republic of Macedonia. The Gramusteni from Greece are from Livezi (Lh'i1dz in the Aromanian language). Livezi is situated in the region of Meglena, bordered on the east by Vardar, on the south by the lands of lanita and Vodena, on the north by the mountains of Mariansca and Blatec. neighbouring the Murihova Mountains, and on the west by the
mountains of Cosuf and Nigea 18 - a mountainous region which consists of

two massifs Karagiov and Pajik (Paic in the Aromanian language) divided by the river of Meglen or Moglen, where the name of the region comes from. The first settlementin Livezi was foundedby the Gramusteniwho had fled from Gramos because of the persecutionsof AIi-Pashaat the beginning of ]9th century. They were the last of this stem who had left Gramostea (or the surroundings)after its destruction,l9The group under the rule of the celnici Gheorghi Stapator and Tegu Paputa Arosie al Barba took refuge in Paic Mountain.The information above which is considered a legend (Iancu Cepi the celnic delegate of Livezi among the 14 delegates arrived in Bucharest on February, ]SI 1925, then settled down in Tatar Atmagea, the county of
Durostor

-

reported to A. Haciu about it) is also confirmed

by Demetru

Chihaia (Kehaia) who, as the delegate of the society 'Meglenia' from Bucharest, argued in his report in Greece in 1925 (a report sent to C. Noe) that

18. Cf. I. Ncnitcscu 1895: 384 For details and present names see Virgil Coman The Megleno-Romanians at the beginninR or 20"' century 20OJ: 149 19. cr. Th. Capidan The Megleno-Romanians 1923: vol.l: 28. 160

Macedo-aromallii

dobrogelli

.

Tile Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

The flIStplace where we settled down was Livezile, my parents' native place. The founder of the settlement was my grandfather, the celnic Dincea Barba who, more than a century ago, retreated with his/alcare in the Caragiova Mountains, in the region of Meglena in order to escape the fury of the satrap Ali-Pasha of Tepelin, the destroyer of the beautiful Gramostea and encroacher of the Aromanian people, where they founded the flIStsettlement Si1raiwhose ruins still exist today, and then, later on, in order to avoid the swampy land, he set up the fIrsthouse in Livezi 1 km away from Si1rai.20 The Gramusteni in Livdz are known under the name of livdyea'n (that is from Livadia, the Greek name for Livdz) or yeanicof (after the
name of lonita

-

today's Yianitsa

-

where they descended to with their

flocks to winter and where a famous fair used to be held). In Cadrilater,the Gmmustenifiom Liveziwere colonisedin the county of Durostor.The flIStgroup arrivedin April 1926;they were settledin Tatar Atmagea and Uzungi Orman.21Another group arrived in the summer of
192722 and another in 192823

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they were all colonised

in Vischioi,

Haschioi,Delisuflar,Asfatchioi,Vetrina,Caraorman,Cociular,Bazarghian. The Gramusteni in Hrupi:;;tea or Hrupisti - today's Aryos
Orestikon

-

come from Greece as well. The group arriving in Romania

in April 192824consisted of about 50 families and they were colonised in Sarsanlar, the conty of Durostor, Turtucaia.25 The Gramusteni from Bulgaria represent the largest group among the Aromanians who settled down in Dobrudja. They resemble the Farsherots in their living conditions - they had summer houses (dilive) in the mountains and in winter they descended to the fields.
20. Apud. Constantin Noc. The Colonisation of Cadrilater p.I40. 21. Ibidem p.149. 22. Ibidem p.153. 23. Cf. Romanul (Tile Romanian) June, 19th 1928 p.2. 24. Cf. Romanlll (Tile Romanian) March, 31st 1928 p.2 25. Cf. file no. 30/1928, the agricultural counselling committee of the county of Durostor, the State Archives in Ramnicu Valcea, First Leaf. This document specifies that in the spring of 1928 there were 50 Macedonian colonist families from Hmpistea, Greece, who settled down in Sarsanlar, TurlUcaia. It is being advised that these families were given land from the area of the degr,aded woods laicall (80 ha).

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Depending on the regions where they used to descend in winter and ascent in summer, the stem of the Gramusteni who originated in Bulgaria is divided in several branches: Gumlot, Biiflot, Biitiiam, Curtuveaii, Lupuvetiii, Bujduvean, Sutruvean, Papaciryiot. Gum3lotl'i or the GumaIots come from the region of Giumaia Superior (BaaIy-Djumaia in the Turkish language, today's Blagoevgrad) - where they derived their name from - from B~bunar, Ravna Buca, Rila,CeacaIita,Dupnita, Samacov and Giumaia Superior, all situated in Rila Mountains26(settledhere in the 19thcentury from the Rodopi Mountains).They were colonised in the county of Durostor (1928-1933). Biinotl'i or the Banots come from Bania ( a place in the Republic of Macedonia, where their name is derived from) as well as other place near Stip, \feles and Cociani. They left this area - the former Serbia - in the 19th century, and they settled down in the Rila Mountains next to the Gumalots. They were colonised in the county of Durostor as well.27 Biitii~anil'i are the Gramusteni who used to winter their sheep in Batac, in the fields near Filipopol- today's Plovdiv - (a large group came from this region to Durostor from Sagrova and Leascova). Curtuveanil'i come from the region of Curtova from the hills of Bachita, a large Aromanian village from Rodopi. The other so-called dllive in the Rodopi Mountains were those in Caramandra and Sufanlu.28 Lupuvea'nil'i, Bujduvea'nil'i, !)utruvea'nil'i, PapaciryioWi come from Lopova, Bojdova, Satra, and Papaceair (today's regions of Melnik and
Gote DeIcev - the former Nevrocop).29 They were colonised in the county of Durostor and the county of CaIiacra.
26. Cf. Sararnandu 2003: 20

27. Due to the large number of the places, I did not include them all in the text. Those who are interested could find them in The Journals of the Council of Ministers concerning the granting of the naturalisation of the Macedonian colonists, published herewith. 28. Saramandu 2003: 21. 29. We mention that in winter these Gramusteni used to head for Drama, Cavala and Seres, towards warmer places. Before the Balkan Wars (1912-1913) they could maintain their routes - all these regions belonged to Turkey (the former Macedonia). After the Balkan Wars, Macedonia was divided. The places they used to winter would belong to Greece then, so that !he Gramusteni in !he so-called cdlive in Bulgaria, especially those in Lupova, had to remain there in Greece. That explains why these groups of the Gramusteni arrived laler in Cadrilaler, 1931-1933, unlike their brothers who had remained in Bulgaria to arrive in DoblUdja in 1928. 162

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The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

ThePindeni
The Pindeni lived and still live in the Pindus Mountains, where their literary name is derived from - in Thessaly, Olympus, and the region of Veria. The Pindeni in Epirus and Thessaly (today's Greece) represent the largest stem. They have remained in the Pindus Mountains in compact groups in several centres as it follows: Furca, Samarina, Avdela, Perivoli, Baiasa, Aminciu (Metovo - one of the largest Aromanian villages) etc. In Thessaly, the Pindeni are grouped in the villages near the city of Tricala. The Aromanians from Olympus are settled in Neohori, Milia and especially Vlaholivdz,3o The Pindeni from Veria also came from the Pindus Mountains. The Albanian attacks or the attacks of Ali-Pasha determined them to leave Pindus.31A large group, which consisted of 600 families, especially avdel'ati (in the Aromanian language) from Avdela but also from Samarina and Perivole, under the rule of the celnic Badralexi, settled down in the Veria Mountains, in the so-called dllive at first - Badralexi's ciUive- which then became a village with beautiful houses. Some of these avdel'ati founded Selia de Sus, others settled down in Xirolivdz, Neagusta. The Farsherots from Selia de Sus and Horopani lived there too (as they lived close enough, the latter benefited from the protection of the celnic Badralexi). The Pindeni who settled down inDobrudja came from the surroundings of Veria (that is from Xirolivdz, Selia de Jos, Doliani) as well as from Poroi Superior (a place situated in the north of Greece, near the Bulgarian border). The group of the Pindeni surrounding Veria are called viryean and those from Poroi - pruyeait. The Aromanians from the other stems generally tend to call all the Pindeni in Dobrudja avdel'ati. They were colonised in the county of Caliacra (in Sabia and the surroundings) between 1926 and 1928.
30. Capidan 1932: 12. 31. In 1775 in (he first case Cf. Capillan Caragiani 1929: 50.

i

I I
~

I

!

1926: 55 and later in Ihe second case Cf.

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TheMegleno-Romanians
In Cadrilater the Aromanians were colonised together with the MeglenoRomanians from Meglenia (Greece). Due to linguistic, ethnographic and folkloric specific features, the Megleno-Romanians are different from the Aromanians. They are beyond doubt the descendants of the Roman world in the south of the Balkan Peninsula but they settled down coming from the north and not from the south where the Aromanians from Gramostea had come to settle down in Livezi (that is, in the same region). G. Weigand argued for their origins as the founders of the empire of the Asaneshti or the Bulgarian-Vlachs. Th. Capidan, on the other hand, argued for their origins as the southern Danubian Romanians who once had established close relationships, however, with the northern Danubian Romanians.32 The Megleno-Romanians who settled down in Dobrudja come from Lundzini and Birislav, on March, 5th 1926, at the same time with their
Aromanian neighbours in Livezi, from Liumnita, Cupa, O$ani

-

who had

arrived in April 1926 - together with those from Livezi, Poroi and Veria. They were colonised in the county of Durostor in Cocina, Cazimir, Capaclia, Bazarghian, Aidodu, Strebarna, Haschioi, Visichioi, Cadichioi.33

32. Th. Capidan 1923: yoU: 57 See also Peride Papahagi, The Megleno-Romanians. An Ethnographical and Philological Study The Annals of the Romanian Academia, series II, 35,1912-1913 33. Cf. C. Noe p.149

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Macedo-aromlinii

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The Macedo-Aromanialls

in Dobrudja

III. THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF
THE AROMANIAN COLONISATION

IN DOBRUDJA

The social-political transformations in Macedonia represent the leading cause of the colonisation of the Aromanians in Dobrudja. Due to its position among the newly created states. which had received recognition from the Ottoman Empire (itself in its last days), Macedonia was at a critical time in its history at the beginning of the 20thcentury. The internal political crisis manifested itself in military ethnic regrouping and organising. Consequently, the Bulgarian, the Greek and the Aromanian organised themselves in military units, the so-called komitag; in Bulgaria, alldart in Greece and the Aromanians had their own so-called armatol. Neither the komitag; nor the alldart came from the interior of the region. Obviously, the interethnic conflicts co.uld not be eluded. The neighbouring states were encouraging the tension in the region since they could all benefit from a possible division of Macedonia. Bulgaria was interested
in its eastern part, the so-called Bulgarian Macedonia, Serbia

-

in its north-

western part and Greece - in its southern part, the lands along Bistrita and Olympus, the harbour towns of Salonic and Cavala.2
J. Greece in 1829. Serbia in 1878. Bulgaria was granted autonomy in 1878 and then independence in 1908. 2. Boldescu. R . Marinescu. M., The Balkan War (1912-1913) 1936: 3-5.

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The ethnic groups were thus acting for their own benefit. The Bulgarians in Macedonia were highly interested in winning their own autonomy. In the absence of any external support (at that time the Romanian state was passing through critical moments itself), the Aromanians established a close relationship with the Bulgarians and they even collaborated with the Bulgarians in Macedonia. There was, however, a second party - that included, in particular, the Bulgarians outside Macedonia - who would be acting in favour of the desideratum Great Bulgaria3 which stipulated the annexation of Macedonia to Bulgaria. The former organised bands of the so-called komita@ who collaborated with the Aromanian armatol.4 These bands of the so-called komita@ were organised on the Bulgarian territory, with Bulgarian state's support, and later they would be entering Macedonia. The champions of the second party organised the Macedonian Committees who would create tension at the frontier. The newspapers, on the other hand, would propagandise Bulgaria's position. Greece, however, had its own interests in creating Great Greece which - with the exception of the southern and western part of Macedonia ought to include Thessaly, the CaIcidic Peninsula and the Holy Grave, the northern shore of the Aegean See, Crete and the Dodecanez Archipelago. At first, the Greek intended to greecise the region since they were the minority in all South Macedonia. And that was indeed a difficult mission to accomplish. Although the Aromanians were like islands scattered throughout all Macedonia, they stilI had their own well-organised compact groups and their villages were plainly Aromanian. The only region where the Aromanians did mingle with the Greek was the land between Larisa and Tricala.5 Moreover, most of the Aromanian villages used to have schools and churches that were supported by the Romanian state dating back as early as the middle of the 19th century. The language they use both in schools and churches was the Romanian language.6

-

3. Ibid
4. See my paper. The Macedo-Romanians throughout History 1990: 50-56 5. Another region where the Aromanians mingled with the Albanians was the land betweenBeratand theshoreof the Adriatic Sea. 6. At first the primers and the textbuoks were in the Aromanian language; latcr the Romanian language was introduced. The lattcr did not scrvc the Aromanians. loan Cardula 166

~

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Macedo-aromiinii

dobrogeni

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The Macedo-Aromanians in Dobrudja

Two strategies have been adopted. On the one hand, they appealed to the Aromanian population - in particular, in those places where no Romanian schools were founded - for the Greek to attain their ideals. Direct attack was attempted, on the other hand. In 1904, with Turkish tacit support - the Turkish chose them over the Bulgarians and the Aromanians who were interested in being granted their autonomy - they organised in military units, the so-called andart. Their objective was to annihilate the Bulgarian komitag; and, above all, the Aromanian communities in Macedonia. From a geographical point of view, the latter were the first to hinder them from moving onwards. The Aromanians used to be absolute masters of the mountain slopes, passes and paths in Thessaly and Epirus.7 The Greek bands intensified their activities in the region as a result of the Aromanian accomplishments between 1904 and 1908 which include the foundation of the Romanian consulate in Yanya, the replacement of the former church communities by civil communities8, the granting of the imperial order on May, 9th / 22nd 1905 according to which the Aromanians from the Ottoman Empire were recognised by the Sublime Porte (being thus granted cultural and religious autonomy). There are three places in particular Avdela in Pindus9, Grarnmaticuva and Patichina in the region of VodenalU - which suffered the most from the atrocities committed by the members of the military units, the so-called andart between 1905 and 1908. That would be the Macedonian milieu against which the Balkan wars

-

argues in his paper The History of the Macedonian Aromanians 2004: 122 that the introduction of the Romanian language in primary education was a debatable. if not erroneous decision. Professor Max Demeter Peyfuss 1994: 72 considers that these speculations are only partially true; he points out that the Aromanians speak the Aromanian language in
their families even today. In my opinion, a native language

-

and the Aromanian

language

is indeed the mother tongue for all the Aromanians is on the curriculum in primary education. on Wednesday, 7. The newspaper Dimineala 8. M.D. Peyfuss 1994: 81. 9. Ibidem p. 93. 10. Cusa 1996: 17-20.

- shall be doomed January, 13th 1916.

to extinction

unless it

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started II. It was the world powers 12 who intervened in Macedonia by founding military forces similar to the gendarmerie in order to maintain the peace in a permanently tensioned region. Bulgaria would argue that Turkey's reforms in Macedonia were not sufficient and Greece and Serbia would put forward new claims. In its turn, Turkey would accuse all the three countries of maintaining the tension in Macedonia. The first Balkan War ended with the defeat of Turkey. The abovementioned states - Montenegro is also included here - were victorious. The London Treaty in May 1913 acknowledged the victory of Balkan alliance over Turkey.The end of the Ottoman Empire was imminent.13 misunderstandings The which occurred among the allies prolonged, however,the agony until the end of World War I. The cause of these misunderstandings was again Macedonia. Bulgaria - which was to take great advantage, that is all East Turkey, from former Turkey in the Balkan Peninsula - was eager to keep Macedonia all to itself. As a result of all these variances, the outbreak of the second Balkan War brought about a change in the system of alliances. Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, which were joined by Turkey and Romania at the end of the war, were against Bulgaria. As they all expected, the war ended with the defeat of Bulgaria. The treaty which was signed in Bucuresti on August 10th, 1913 acknowledged the fate of Macedonia. Most part of Macedonia was divided between Greece and Serbia, the winning states in the Balkan War II. Greece was granted, among other territories, South Macedonia and SerbiaCentral and North Macedonia. Bulgaria kept a small region in the eastern part of former Macedonia. Another region - West Macedonia - was granted to Albania, a state founded as early as 1912, when independence was proclaimed to have been recognised in London and Bucharest. Romania was granted the
11. Although the young Turks attempted to change the whole situation for the better, hoping to maintain the status quo, the events would be changing for the worse, though. 12. It regards England and France; Austro-Hungary and Russia, on the other hand, had their own interests in the Balkans and they would encourage the tension in the region. When the Balkan war broke out, Austro-Hungary decided to support Bulgaria, to the obvious disadvantage of Serbia, and Russia would support Serbia because they were not at all in favour of the foundation of a new powerful state in the Balkans. 13. The allied states had met the decision of military co-operation. They had nol reached any decision concerning the territorial issue in (he Balkans. 168

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southern part of Dobrudja, Cadrilater. The Aromanian minority did not live thus within a single state as they used to before the peace, but in four different states.14The peace treaty signed in Bucharest would be similar to a finishing stroke for the Aromanians.15 The Aromanian issue was a point of debate introduced by Romania within the treaty signed in Bucharest. Romania demanded that cultural and spiritual liberties were guaranteed for the Aromanians from former Macedonia - territories which belonged then to the signatory states of the treaty in Bucharest.16They were, however, not observed.17 1914 witnessed the outbreak of World War I. The Balkan Peninsula - rightfully called the powder barrel - was the meeting place of a world conflagration. In their own interests and under the influence of world powers, the participatory states would adhere to one of the two military blocks. In alliance with the central powers, the Ottoman Empire as well as Bulgaria would share the fate of the defeated. The war in the region, however, did not end in 1918. At the end of 1918 and the beginning of 1919, the English, French, Italian and Greek military forces were making an attempt to occupy several regions in the Ottoman Empire. The treaty signed in Savres in August 1920, which acknowledged these conquests18- meant, in fact, the end of this empire. The treaty provisions were, however, not recognised by Mustafa Kernal Ataturk, the leader of the national revolution who was against the foreign occupation as well as against the sultan. Greece and Turkey were in overt conflict. The tension between 1919 and 1922 was to
14. MD.Peyfuss 1994: 117 15. Cr. Sterle Diamandi, People and Aspects 1940:23 16. The treaty was signed by Tonceff D. (on the Bulgarian side), Pasici, N. (on the Serbian side) and Venizelov, E. (on the Greek side), Vucotici, I. (on the Montenegrin side) 17. The first to close the Romanian schools and churches was Albania, followed by Serbia and Bulgaria. In Greece there was, however, a '~pecial' situation. They all existed officially but the auendants were persecuted to be eventually and permanently e\osed down after the World War II. 18. The peace treaty signed in SiJvres on August, 10th, 1920 between the powers of Amanta and Turkey granted the Arabic territories. which had belonged to Turkey, over to the world powers; Greece was granted Thracia and Adrianopol. the European shore of Dardanelle. as well as Izmir and the surrounding territories.

from the History

of the Aromanians

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be alleviated thanks to the intervention of the world powersl9: Turkey and the world powers signed a peace treaty in Loussane in July 1923 by power of which, after the defeat of the Greek army by the Turks, the borders between the two countries as well as the freedom of navigation along the straits in the Black Sea were established. In order to resolve the interethnic conflicts, on the other hand, the conference in Loussane also stipulated that there would be a population shift between Greece and Turkey. This decision was proceeded by the convention in Neuilly on November, 27th 1919 by virtue of which Bulgaria and Greece had agreed to enable the emigration of the Bulgarians from the Greek territory and of the Greek population from the Bulgarian territory. Consequently, the Greek population in Turkey was shifted to Greece and the Turkish population in Greece (Macedonia and the island of Crete) to Turkey. Most of the refugees (the so-called magir) from Turkey, 1,200,000 to which we shall add 60,000 from Bulgaria, 50,000 from Russia, a total of 1,310,0002°, were settled down in Macedonia and Thracia. As a result, the Aromanian population within these regions, which included Veria, Vouena, Caterina and Meglenia, faced a difficult situation. The Greek government provided that the properties larger than 10-15 ha were nationalised. The large estates belonged to the Turkish beys who ran away when the Balkan wars had started; they used to rent them to thn Aromanians in the region for pasturing in the fields as well as in the mountains. Due to the distribution of all these properties to the newcomers, the Aromanians the Farsherot Aromanians from Patichina, Grammaticuva, Candrova, Caterina and Selia-Horopani, the Pindeni Aromanians in the lands surrounding Veria, the Gramusteni Aromanians from Livadz, the Megleno-Romanians21 - whose main occupation was sheep breeding, found themselves in straitened circumstances. Having established contacts with the representatives of the Romanian government as well as the other political and cultural personalities, the
19. In March 1920 the British Iroops occupied Istanbul. 20. Cf. Constantin Noe, The Colonisation of Cadrilater

1938: 124 The author in Les

Etats Balcaniques 1933 by C. Evelpidis argues that these villages were taken over. 21. The Megleno-Romanians were the exception since they dealt with agriculture.

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Aromanian leaders decided upon the emigration to Romania.22 After the arrival of the Aromanian delegation, which consisted of 14 members 23,on February ISI,1925, negotiations were conducted and, consequently, decisions were reached unanimously in favour of the settlement of the Aromanians in the South Dobrudja, that is in the two counties of Cadrilater - Durostor and Caliacra - which had entered into Romanian territory at the end of the Balkan Wars. The choice that they had made was not at all accidental.24 The Romanian element within this area was scarce; in addition, most of the Turkish-Tartar population in the two counties of Cadrilater had already emigrated to Turkey. In the name of historic objectivity, we must admit that the colonisation of the Aromanians in Cadrilater was closely related to the politics of the time: the reinforcement of the Romanian element. In all papers concerning the emigration and the colonisation, it is customary to assume that the major cause for the shift of the Aromanian population from Greece was, in fact, the situation which arose from the settlement of the refugees in the above-mentioned regions25as well as the worsening living conditions, sometimes highlighted by epithetic statements such as 'dramatic situation', 'catastrophic impact' etc. A closer analysis of the emigration - under no subjective impression almost 80 years after the event itself, leads us to conclude that, besides the above-mentioned obvious cause - there is also another: the recognition of a new possibility / alternative, namely the colonisation in Cadrilater, which had become a mirage for the Aromanians. But for this appealing alternative,
22. Regarding the emigration and the colonisation of the Aromanians who seltled down in Cadrilater see Steriu Hagi-Gogu, The Emigration of the Aromanians 1927; the magazine The Balkan Peninsula no.8-lO, 1925; the magazine The Romanians Overseas no. 1,2,7,8. 12 1925; Vasile Th. Musi. A century of Colonlsatioll in New Dobrudja 1925-1935; Constantin Nac. The Colonisation of Cadrllater 1938; Stoica Lascu. The Land Reform for the Balkan Romanians in Cadrilater 2002: 28-40 who scientifically comments on Noe's paper and offers pertinent details concerning the seltlemerit of the Gramustenl from Bulgaria; N.Cusa, The Aromanians (the Macedonians) in Romania 1996 23. See V. Th Musi p.24,C. Noe 1938: 24; N. Cusa 1996: 24 24. As far as Ihe Romanian state is concerned 25. The refugees were not sellled down in other Aromanians lived. Epirus.for instance. Cf. Lascu 2002 :30 regions of Greece where the

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the Aromanians would definitely have remained in those regions of Macedonia in Greece. In addition, it was only the more mobile Farsherot and the Gramusteni Aromanians who emigrated and settled down in those regions at an early date. 26 We shall add that these Aromanians who had come from the resistant regions (Veria, Vodena, Meglenia), with compact villages of Aromanians, decided to expatriate because they did not accept the new situation which was affecting their national structure. The Gramusteni in Bulgaria had also sound and strong reasons for emigrating. After World War I the Bulgarian authoritiesintroducedprohibitive taxes for the Aromanians who were considered foreigners in Bulgaria.The state used to charge them 12 Leva per head of sheep (pasturing tax), the village also charged 12 Leva per head of sheep and the Revolutionary Committee charged another 12 Leva whereas the Bulgarians from the same villages were charged 12 Leva only once. They were charged 400 Leva for a horse whereas the Bulgarians did not have to pay anything. 27 The Aromanians were thus receiving discriminatory treatment; they were deprived of their political and national rights being excluded from the land reforms.28What with the building of the highways and the railroads, they were considered, however, Bulgarian citizens and as a result, they were forced to go to work. To al..lhi:'we shall add the criminal attacks on the calive in the mountains - they were conditioned to pay a rent on their own houses. Starting with 1928, against an unfriendly environment, most of the Gramusteni Aromanians in Bulgaria decided to emigrate to Dobrudja. Later on, between 1931 and 1933, they were followed by their brothers from Greece, who remained there when the border between the two countries had been established. 29 The Gramusteni in the United Kingdom of the Serbs, the Croatians and the Slovenians did not enjoy good living conditions either. By virtue of the land reform - discriminatory as well - the estates in the mountains bought by the Aromanians from the Turks were confiscated. By careful
26. Cf. Mariana Bara, in Nicolae Saramandu, 2004: 10. 1996: 31. 27. The journal Legio1larii, Bazargic, January, 23rd 1929. 28. Discourses in the Assembly of the Deputies J930, Apud Cusa 29. See above 27, The Gramusteni in Dobrudja.

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strategy and on the pretext of routine checking, the property papers were taken from all the inhabitants; the papers were sent to Beograd never to be retuned again. As a result of the protests, Serbian protests in particular,
some of the lands were returned to the landlords

-

the mountains, however,

were not. The Aromanian shepherds were thus forced to pay taxes for their own estates. Those concerned decided to emigrate to Romania; several of
them

-

most of whom were the Gramusteni

from that region (today the

Republic of Macedonia) and who were called by other stems Serbian
(Sarbedh in the Aromanian language)

-

remained there and still live in the

Republic of Macedonia today. The above-mentioned events - the Balkan Wars, the proclamation of independence of Albania (1912-1913), World War I - influenced the life of
the Farsherots in Albania. Their main occupations

-

caravanning

and sheep

breeding - became harder and harder to practise. One of the major occupations of the Farsherots from this region
caravanning

-

-

declined at the end of World War I. The building of the highway

which connected Tirana and the town of Corceaua (Corita) by the FrenchEnglish armies, the introduction of the transportation means (the lorries) determined the lack of interest in this occupation which was doomed to disappear. The reduction in land30 of the pastures propitious for wintering contributed to the gradual reduction in number of the flocks. Surviving became an issue since all these Farsherots were extremely prolific: each house (family) consisted of 10-12 members. The young people had no places to work for any more; some of them headed for the United States. The whole population was brought into question, though. A solution needed to be found. There was, however, a precedent for this course of action: the negotiations of the Aromanian delegation from Yeria, Yodena and Meglenia. The Farsherots in Albania thus decided to emigrate to Dobrudja. Most of them31 remained in Albania, though, where they live today.32
30. As a result of nationalisation or land reforms within the newly created state 31. See above Tile Farsllerots ill Dob,."dja. 32. For the present situation (of the places where the Aromanians live in Albania) see Cusa 1996: 13.

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in Dobrudja

IV, THECOLONISATION CADRILATER IN - NEWDOBRUDJA-

The colonisation in Cadrilaterl was carried out in compliance with the Law for the Organization of New Dobrudja on April ISI, 1914, which established the forms of the existent land properties2; the Law, however, never came into force because of the World War I. After the war, the reinforcement of this law was accomplished by the promulgation of the modified law on April 22nd, 1924. Article 117 of the law in force, which actually completed the law in 1914, stipulated that the owners of the lands called mirie would become absolute owners of these lands if the state was granted either a third of the owned lands or a compensatory payment. Article 129 in particular referred to the colonisation: On the lands which are being owned by the state today as well as on the lands which have entered its patrimony by virtue of the present law or by expropriation, the state shall be able to perform colonisations
I. A letTItory in Ihe Soulh Dobrudja which was pari of Romanian territory between 1913 and 1940. It belongs to Bulgaria loday. 2. In New Dobrudja - as Cadrilater used to be named- besides the stale properties. there were 5 calegories of land properties: IIWIk..thal is absolute property upon orders from the sultan. the so-called iradele; charged an anlicipalOry rics; JW:tJ:J.tJu:. thaI is extensively The Annals miriI:. that is properly in use, the mosl frequent, and for which Ihey lax ami the owners had concession righls; 1IliID:IW:. inalienable territolerritories in public use; JW:.l:a.t. thaI is unproductive territories. See of Dobrudja. 1938: IX, vol.Il, Cadrilater 1938. Ccmilti.

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and estrangements in small plots of land by the Central House of Land Reforms, which became National Office of Colonisation in 1930an institution which was founded by virtue of the third law of completion on July, 17th 1930, and which was added to those in 1914 and 1924 [Our Emphasisj, in compliance with a journal of the Council of Ministers. As a result of the report presented by Alexandru Constantinescu3, the Council of Ministers adopted the Journal No. 1698 on June 13th, 1925. According to this journal (which actually confirmed the above-mentioned report), the colonisations in Cadrilater ought to be performed on the domain lands of the state (taking over the third parts within the initial stage) which existed at that time, namely 28,324 ha in Durostor and 12,780 ha in the district of Caliacra, a total of 41,104 ha in both districts. Consequently, the journal stipulated that meanwhile, only 1, 500 families ought to be colonised from the former kingdom and 1,500 of emigrant Macedonians, on the basis of several tables drawn up by the delegates of the colonists. The colonists were to be granted a plot of land of 15 ha each for those who would settle down near the border with Bulgaria and of 10 ha each for those who would settle down inside the counties.4 Although the Aromanian colonists had made several requests, by means of lilt. Aromanian Committee for Initiative in Bucharest,5 such as the granting of long-term credits for the building of the houses and households, free sea and railway transport, the intervention of the Romanian government by the Greek government to be granted compensations for the estates left behind in Greece the Journal did not mention any. In other words, the colonists were

-

3. The Minister of Agriculture colonisation in Romania. house.

and Domains,

one of the champions

of the Aromanian to build hislher

4. Plus 50 areas each of common

and 2,000 sq m for each colonist

5. The Committee for Initiative was founded on January 3rd, 1925 in Bucharest and consisted of the following members: C.Noe, V. Musi, Dumitru Babus, P. Marcu. Stere Hagigogu, N. Balamaci, T. Hagigogu and Dionisie Dumitru. There were others who were direclly involved and who co-ordinated the colonisation of the Aromanians, including C. Noe, Vasile Musi, Gheorghe Celea the latter co-ordinaled the emigration movement of the Aromanians in Greece.

-

176

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on their own. The authorised Aromanian families were to arrive gradually in order to facilitate the land distribution and the land reforms. Things did not turn out as expected. The Colonisation Office in Bucharest within the Central House of the Land Reforms notified the representatives of the committee that the lands, which were destined for colonisation, could not remain without being leased and that the colonists had to arrive before March 151h,19266 if they wished to be granted plots of land. The rumour was spreading fast and the colonists were selling out their estates (they were rather closing their accounts since they sold only their cattle at smaller prices than usual; as far as the fixed assets are concerned, they could not turn the houses and the lands to the best account) and rushing off not to lose the plots. Consequently, between October 26th, 1925 and April 14th, 1926, three ships? arrived full of colonists who, together with their family heads that had arrived in the summer of the year 1925, completed the number of the 1,500authorised families. However, unpredictable circumstances occurred. Having noticed that there was no legal background against which the land reforms were being introduced or the emigrants were being accommodated upon their arrival on the lands where they were to be colonised, some of the Aromanian colonists postponed their arrival opposing thus Gheorghe Celea8, the leader of the delegation from Greece. There were others who arrived in their place, although they were not included in the table enclosed with the Journal of the Council of Ministers, which meant, in fact, that the latter were surreptitious colonists - their exclusion from colonisation became a point of debate. It was, however, savage and unfair - these colonists had sold out their estates the same way the former, who were included in the lists, had done; they had no place to return either.
6. Cf. C. Noe 1938: 147 7. The ships which transported the Macedonian colonists (all of them, not only the three above-mentioned) belonged to Romanian Maritime Service that. on their return route by the Mediterranean Sea, would take on the colonists from Salonic. The transportation costs which varied between ZOO.OOO 400,000, depending on the size of the ship, were paid by the and colonists. 8. The members of the delegation of the Aromanian group from the region of Vodena doubte!\ his good intentions as they noticed the eagerness and rush which he was imposing on the emigration process. Subsequently. their doubt proved to be reasonable; Gheorghe Celea became on of Ihe grealestlandlords from Cadrilater.

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Eventually, after successful negotiations, they renounced the table in question provided that the initial number of 1,500 colonists were observed as the delegates had verbally promised to. From the villages of Macedonia, however, other groups of emigrants (who demanded colonisation) were being announced to arrive. Having learnt about the colonisation in Cadrilater, the nomad Aromanians (the Gramusteni) from Bulgaria started coming to the border with Cadrilater and asking for permission to enter the country. Initially stopped by the frontier guards, they were eventually granted permission to enter the country. At first they would arrive in sporadic groups; then the process became more complex (the Gramusteni in Bulgaria were the most numerous group: 1/2 of the total of the Aromanians in Dobrudja).9 Two critical situations arose: in the first place, land could not be granted to all the newcomers; secondly, conflicts between the Bulgarian natives and the Macedo-Aromanian colonists, who lived on rent in the houses of the former, were created upon the occasion of land distribution. In the absence of any housing (which determined most historians to conclude that the colonisation was a process deprived of any moral or material support from the state, of any plans or previous preparation) where to find accommodation, the colonists had to search for shelters themselves the local administration took care only of the transportation means, namely wagons which were brought form the villages, they would had them in from Silistra or from other places where they had arrived to [Our Emphasis] and then they would tell them: 'Go now and search for houses in the county!,10 Thus some of the colonists who could not sell out the estate
(for instance, the Megleno-Romanians who had plots of land in Meglenia

1

I
j.

I

-

their main occupation was agriculture - could not sell out the estates, the equipment and the beasts of burden; from Bulgaria, among the nomad Gramusteni) and with poor material means found themselves in a critical situation: they were deprived of any land, equipment, seeds and cattle; they were insulted and driven away from the plots where they settled down since these were submitted to the native inhabitants by the state, by abuse and
9. Saramandu 2004: 20 10. Cf. dcputy [tefan Pencof. onc of the fiercest defenders of the Bulgarian inhabilanls in Cadrilater. whose representative was in the Parliament of Romania; Ihe above-quoted statement is indeed plausible: Discourses Deputy Assembly 1930, Apud Cusa 1996: 47.

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local corruption and deprived of the support and defence of the authorities, mostly in complicity with the native inhabitants, against the colonists. There were, however, many wealthy colonists who would not wait for the state to help them. They bought entire villages from the Bulgarian Turkish-Tartar who left Cadrilater. This held true for the Gramusteni in Livezi who bought Tartar Atmageaua (Atmageaua Tiitdreascii) with 120 large households, with lands and cattle from the Tartar inhabitants who emigrated in Turkey; the place called Uzungi Orman with 120 houses, with lands and cattle bought from the Bulgarians and the Turks who emigrated in Bulgaria and Turkey; Haschioi with 40 houses, bought from the Bulgarians. There were others who founded new settlements (by building new houses): Frasari with 240 houses, Babuc with 90 houses, thus founding the village of Grat. Praporgescu, Caraorman with 70 houses, Laliceatlagea with 40 houses, General Dragalina with 80 houses, Cocina with 80 houses, Sarsanlar with 30 houses.11There were also smaller groups who built houses themselves in Vischioi, Aidemir, Bazarghian, Cainargeaua Mare, Cainargeaua Mica, Arabagilar, Garvan-Cioara, Doimu]lar, Carageat etc, in the county of Durostor and in Ezibei, Ceair, Casim, Denider, Seidali, Suiciuc, Caraci, Ceamurlia, Alexandria, Cioban-Cuius, Filndachi, Hasi-Kioselar etc, in the county of Caliacra. In 1927 (during the rule of the liberal party which authorised the colonisation) new colonists started arriving,12 They had announced their arrival since summer, without any claim of colonisation on the state. There occurred a convenient precedent for the Central House of Colonisation that was thus free of any responsibility towards the Macedo-Aromanian colonists. The colonisation process as a whole was left to the concern of the Committee for Initiative and the Macedo-Aromanian Cultural Society that were indeed in charge of the colonist distribution and that were not, however, state authority institutions. A compromised solution was reached. The Central House authorised
11. Musi p. 124 12. During the rule of the previous government (1926-1927) led by AI. Averescu, the

process of colonisation stagnated: Ihe two prefects in the two counties were ruling to the disadvantage of the colonists and in co-operation with the Bulgarian native inhahitants, Ihus commiuing a scries of abuses.

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the entrance of the new groups but they did not assume any responsibility. The newcomers would be allowed to enter the country provided that they signed a declaration according to which they admitted that they were not coming as colonists and they were well acquainted with the fact that the government could not give them, meanwhile, either land or assistance. In fact, after the first negotiations with Mr AI. Constantinescu, the Aromanian delegates had been suggested that the Macedonians who were supposed to arrive ought to be wealthy people in order to afford the building of new houses and households on their own since the state did not have enough funds)3 Vasile Mu~i, as the representative of the Committee for Initiative in the country, in permanent contact with Gh. Celea, advised those in Salonic to sign any declaration. It was a mistake, even though V. Mu~i had good intentions - that the colonists who were waiting for permission to enter the country ought to be brought immediately - since the situation became thus more difficult. These groups who had not had any established place for colonisation settled down in those places where they found their relatives but where there was no land available. Consequently, misunderstandings occurred among the colonists. It was the case of the village of Fra~ari in the county of Durostor, where the first colonists (60 families in number) confronted with the last colonists (130 families in number). Their dispute was determined by the fact that the first colonists had takt,.i t!,~ better plots of land near the village and the last colonists were granted plots of land outside the village. The last colonists protested against all this and they could have
come into serious conflict unless the gendarmeries had intervened.
"

14

Later, in 1928, after the agreement between the Minister of Domains
13 The answer of the minister state sub secretary D. Cip1\ianu is worth mentioning at this point. When he was told that the commitments of the Central House concerning the assistance (wood for building the houses not for free, of course) were not being observed, the former replied: The Macedonian colonists have their bags full of pounds and they don't need any assistance Apud. The Balkan PeninSllla IV. no. 4-5, 1926 14 Cf. The State Archives in Ramnicu Valcea Prefecture Fund of the county of Durostor. File 36/1934, Leaf 175. The connict was between the clan of the first colonists led hy the mayor of the village Constantin Culetu and all the city hall clerks and the last colonists led by Spiru T. Barbu. Anastase H. Ghit1i. Teodor Calesu and Hristu Maca. The authorities established that the plots of land had to be distributed equally. all the colonists being considered equal at the granting of lands. 180

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and Agriculture and the Minister of External Affairs (an important part was played hereto by D. Djuvara, the director of political affairs within this ministry), the decision was reconsidered and they authorised again the arrival of the new groups from Livezi, Vodena-Veria and later, those from Bulgaria. With the authorisation of the two ministries, the Central House would grant the newcomers the 10 ha-tilled land as well as places [or building the houses. The process stagnated then again until 1930 when numerous Aromanian groups arrived, namely the Gramusteni from Bulgaria as well as their brothers in Seres and Cavala (who had remained there when the border between Greece and Bulgaria was established), from the Republic of Macedonia. The colonisation process ended in 1933 when the last group of 450 families arrived in Constantza during the rule of the government led by Vaida Voievod. 15

The Natllralisatioll of the Macedo-Aromallialls
The naturalisation of the colonists represented the next issue on the agenda. I They would need, however, a period of 10 years, in compliance with the law in force at the time, before they were granted the naturalisation papers. For a while, the Aromanian colonists lived in Cadrilater without any naturalisation papers, having an awkward position: they belonged to no one.2 At first the citizenship issue was not at all urgent. There were other issues to resolve. After 1930, when the other issues (house building and land granting etc) were more or less taken care of, the naturalisation became a priority. It involved more than 4,000 Macedo-Aromanian families who had been authorised and colonised as such. The young adult male colonists had to perform military service. The Aromanians who had come of age
15. From this date onwards only isolated groups would arrive (1933-1937). For instance, in 193750 ramilies arrived in Pestera (Bulgaria) I. We include hereby the Romanian colonists who came rrom Timoc and TimisToronlal. 2. Having left the native countries (Grcece, Bulgaria. Albania, Serbia) they had given up the citizenship o[ that particular countries by signing a declaration hereror. 181

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could not be enrolled since they were not Romanian citizens and in compliance with the Article 2 in 'the Law concerning recruitment, the foreigners were forbidden to be part of the Romanian army. For recruiting and citizenship granting, civil status papers are required such as birth certificate, marriage certificate, identity card. All this would create a major problem. All the Aromanians who had arrived in New Dobrudja had no civil status papers. In Turkey the authorities in the so-called vitaete3 would not keep a record of the Christians. Births, baptisms, wedding ceremonies, deaths were all perfonned by the priest of the village who kept a record on his own initiative. Without civil status papers no one could be granted citizenship. They found the only solution which could have put an end to their awkward positions: the Macedonians who had settled down in New Dobrudja would decide their civil status on their own in written declaration, no stamps needed (so that they did not have to be charged for the stamp as well), which was addressed to the mayor of the village where they lived and which specified the date of birth and of marriage, the date of birth of their children and of their wives etc. Having checked the truth of the specifications in the declaration upon the occasion of his visit to the residence of the applicant, the mayor was liable to order the transcription of the data in the registrar's office. Supposing the mayor noticed an inaccuracy, he would take the case to the ward judge who would pass on it in a court of law. There Wu~no record of such cases. Every colonist was, however, free to declare any age he wished.4 The law concerning the granting of the Romanian citizenship was voted in the Assembly of Deputies in the meeting on April 27th, 1934 and by the Senate in the meeting on April 28th, 1934; it was promulgated on May 19th, 1934 by King Carol II. The law completed, in fact, the law on
February 24th, 1924 by adding, as far as all the Aromanians in Dobrudja are

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concerned, the granting of the Romanian citizenship - Article 10 bis. The item /a/ established the responsibility of the National Office of Colonisation
3. District or administrative unit in the OUoman Empire led by the so-called valiu. 4. Some of the Aromanians declared themselves older or younger of age in order to escape army enrolment. With no intention to find an excuse for this practice, I would say that the military service in Romania used to be a real burden for the young adult male individuals at that time.

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to draw up tables for each village including the colonists who were granted plots of land and who settled down, in fact, in the respective village. The tables thus elaborated had to be handed over to the Naturalisation Commission attached to the Ministry of Justice by three months from the promulgation of the law. The item lei stipulated for the Council of Ministries to meet a decision by a journal which ought to include the surnames and the first names of those who had been granted naturalisation. Other items in Article 10 included provisions regarding the responsibility of the local authorities to post the surnames and first names of those who had been granted naturalisation for a period of 15 days; the right of those who were to be colonised after the promulgation of the law to benefit themselves from the provisions of the law until December 31SI, 1935; the right of those who had been omitted from the tables drawn up by the National Office of Colonisation to address the Naturalisation Commission by individual petition (enclosing certifying papers) for the granting of the citizenship. Eventually, Article 10 (unique article) of this law stipulated that the Ministry of Justice was liable to publish this journal in the Official Monitor and to make sure that every colonist was rightfully issued and handed in the naturalisation diploma.S II was indeed so: the colonists were handed in the naturalisation diploma in Silistra, on September 21SI,1935 within a formal ceremony. The government sent its representatives, namely the minister Valeriu Pop, who himself handed in the diplomas. Mircea Concicov, the state sub secretary for Domains and Agriculture; among the participants there were the two prefects of Cadrilater and other dignitaries as well as the deputy G. Fotino, the initiator of the law project concerning the colonist naturalisation. 7 From now onwards the Macedo-Aromanians who had been colonised in New Dobrudja were Romanian citizens. In the meeting on July 1ph, 1935 and August 2nd, 21sl, 1935, the Council of Ministries elaborated 139 journals which granted naturalisation to the Macedonian colonists from the counties of Caliastra and Durostor as well as to the Romanians who had come from Timoc and Timis-Torontal;
5. The Official Monitor no. 115,1934. 7. Tara Illi Mircea ( Mircea's p. 3210

COllntry) Silistra. October 20th 1935, p.4.

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these journals were then published in the Official Monitor, First Part, No. 192, on August 23rd, 1935. We hereby mention that on the elaboration of the tables, the National Office of Colonisation was permanently advised by the Macedo-Romanian Cultural Society8 - a point which is constantly highlighted in the journals. It is fair to say that out of too much enthusiasm or rather too intense apathy, the same specifications are made in the journals which enlisted the Romanians in Timi~-Torontal. Our selection from these journals includes only the names of the Ammanian families. The following list - which is enclosed in the Romanian text hereinbefore - of all the colonists (family heads of those who were authorised and granted colonisation plots of land) sheds a light on our knowledge of their names9; on the other hand, it highlights the places where the Aromanians were colonised in Cadrilater. In addition to our selection, we have occasionally intervened within the text to correct any surname or first name that was transcribed erroneously.

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8. As early as 1926, the Macedo-Romanian Cultural Society would ask the Macedonian colonist delegates to draw up the lists with family heads in each village in order to issue the nationality certificates necessary for the naluralisation papers Apud. Acliutlea Romiineascii I, no. 6. December 1st 1926 9. Most of which - as you could notice - have disappeared or are less and less frequent.

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TheAromalliall Victims ill Cadrilater
The misunderstandings between the Bulgarians, the majority of the population in Cadrilater, and the Macedo-Aromanians, the newcomers, often gave birth to conflicts. They were, however, predictable and even inevitable. Here are the reasons why. The Aromanians who had left their original countries for good were settled down in Cadrilater, in former Romania; they were colonised and granted lands in their new country. It was but natural that they defended their estates and, consequently, this new territory which Romania had been granted in 1913,1 The Bulgarians, the native inhabitants, became Romanian citizens in 1913, when Cadrilater was granted to Romania. However, they were not a minority. All this justified their belief that the changes were provisional and that the region would eventually be returned to Bulgaria. The Romanian state was doing its best to clarify the disputes. On the other hand, though, the politics of the time aimed at the reinforcement of the Romanian authority from the territorial, socio-economic and national point of view. It was for this particular purpose that the colonisations were carried out in Cadrilater, that the Macedo-Aromanians and the inhabitants from the kingdom were brought there. The colonisation was neither chm.itablc nor profitable in the senseof satisfying the interests of the colonists; it was meant to secure the southern border of the state. The state security and the order establishment gave birth to the concept of colonisation of New Dobrudja. The Bulgarian state encouraged the same political strategies. On the other hand, though, any operations having as objective the return of this territory to its initial structure were beneficial, even those which could be classified as subversive operations; they would never admit co-operation with the bands of the so-called comitagii that would cross the border to
I. The Maeedo-Aromanianswould join [he fronlier army palrols and parlicipaled in org:misedactivities for Ihis parlicul<lrpurpose.
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commit felonies. As a result, two organisations were founded: the Society for Culture and Charity 'Dobrudja', widely spread in the centres populated by the Bulgarians, and, especially, the Revolutionary Movement in Dobrudja, officially founded in 1925 with the headquarters in Sophia and subsidiaries in Rusciuk, Varna as well as in Durostor. Besides the cultural objectives, these organisations had irredentist interests, namely the independence of Dobrudja as well as its attachment to Bulgaria.2 The local disputes whose nature was mostly economic (for the purpose of obtaining the agricultural lands) could not be prevented. The native Bulgarians (and others) regarded the Aromanians as the ones who would upset the old order and their future plans; in their turn, the Aromanians would regard the Bulgarians as the ones who would prevent them from settling down in the region. These are, in fact, the reasons for their disputes which often resulted in casualties on both sides. As usually, the victims are mostly innocent; their death, however, caused interethnic conflicts that would end up with unintended outcomes for both parties involved. Moreover, these victims deserve to be worshipped!

2. They were extreme leftist organisations. File No. 3/1933, Leaf 165. 186

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In Memoriam
Eftimie Carata~ Killed at the frontier point, DenicIer, on the highway Silistra, 14 kIn far from Bazargic, near the woods, on September 41h,1927, at 6 pm. He was killed by the Bulgarian bands, the so-called comitagii, against whom the colonists had to fight mostly on their own. References: Peninsula Balcanica (The Balkan Peninsula) V, No.7, 8,1927; UniverSlll (The Universe) XLV, No. 223, September 251h,1927 Tanase Gota Assassinated by the Bulgarian bands, the so-called comitagii, in the woods of Caracuz, near the settlement of Cocina, the county of Durostor, where T. Gota lived, at night between November 1'1,and 2nd, 1927. He was a diligent, peaceful and thrifty man. The Aromanians who had come from other places carried out reprisals; a few Bulgarian local inhabitants who were suspected of complicity were beaten up. References: Vointii Noastrii (Our Will) I, No.1, Silistra, 1928; Actillnea Romaneascii din Durostor (Romanian Action in Durostor) II, No.23, Silistra, 1928; Peninsula Balcanicii (The Balkan Peninsula) V, No. 7,8,1927 Hristu Gicu The delegate of the Macedonians in Chiose-Aidin, a place near the border, the county of Durostor. On December 23rd, 1928 he was killed in the woods near this village (that was to be colonised) knavishly: they dissected his entrails by means of a bayonet and they cut his fingers and toes. The colonists in Chiose-Aidin revolted against the Bulgarians and gave 40 Bulgarians a good thrashing (no victims). 187

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References: Ac(iunea Romiineascii din Durostor (Romanian Action in Dllrostor) III, No.30, 1928

Zizi Ha~oti From the village of Ghiore, the county of Caliacra. On December 21s 1928 he was killed as a result of a minor contlict over some straw which belonged to the Bulgarian local inhabitant Doniu Zlatef, who was accompanie by other inhabitants of Bulgarian origin. Zizi Ha:)oti was forced to the ground with the pitchfork and he cried out for help. A few Macedonians nearby rushed to help him. There was an exchange of fire. The Macedonian colonists did not shoot straight but in the legs. Among them there were a few wounded and one dead: Zizi Ha:)oti. Among the local inhabitants, there were one with a wound in the leg and another beaten up. References: Cuviintlll Nostru (Our Word) I, Bazargic, 1928; Legionarii (The Iron Guards) I, No. I, Bazargic, 1929;Peninsula Balcanici (The Balkan Peninsula)VIII, No.9, 1930

Gheorghe Dardac, 12-year-old Tanase M. Dardac, 13-year-old Relatives (cousins) On September 5th, 1930 they were killed knavishly. Their bodies wer disclosed in the fields, on the outskirts of the village Arabagi, the county o Durostor on September, 6th. The 12-year-old and the 13-year-old children were part of the group of the Aromanians who had immigrated from Bulgaria. They were assassinated with extreme cruelty: the bodies had knif pricks, their throats were deeply cut and their heads almost decapitated. Th newspapers of the time reported that these crimes from Arabagi (near Bei Bunar) were committed by the Bulgarian bands, the so-called comitagii who had come across the border and who had been, however, assisted b the Bulgarian local inhabitants (with accommodation and food) in order t frighten the colonists. It never happened, though; the Macedonian colonist applied the law of retaliation. A Bulgarian local inhabitant was shot dead o Silistra-Bazargic highway, near Caraorman, in revenge. The victim wa innocent being the first Bulgarian inhabitant who happened to be on th road.
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ill Dobrruija

References: Ac(iunea Romlineascii din Durostor (Romanian Action in Durostor) IV, No. 53, Silistra, 1930; Patria (The Homeland) I, No.1, Bazargic, 1930; Buciumul (The Alp/10m) I, No. 32, Bazargic, 1930 Hristn Dimcica From the village of Nadejdea, the county of CaIiacra (a village which was situated at the border with the county of Durostor, not far from Arabagi). He was shot dead from behind by M. Gheorghieff. Although the Bulgariansprevented the Macedonian colonists from colonising in their village, 7 Aromanian families from the last but one transport of colonists managed to settle down in this place in September 1931. The constant cavils of the Bulgarians did not intimidate the Aromanian colonists. On December 26th, 1931, at the coffee house in the village (which belonged to the Bulgarian Dumitru Stoianoff) a few Macedonian colonists were challenged by some irredentist Bulgarians who insulted them repeatedly. When the former retorted, all the Bulgarians who were in the coffee house at the time rushed upon them and started beating them up, seriously wounding the colonists: D. G. Hagi, M.G. Hagi and D. Hristu. Alarnled by the noise - there were other men arriving to the coffee houses, heavily armed with axes and scythes - Hristu Dimcicii got out of his house and headed for the coffee house to see what was going on there. From behind, but from a distance, he got shot by the watchman M. Gheorghieff. After one-hour agony, despite the assistance provided by the colonists, the young Hristu Dimcica drew his last breath. The watchman M. Gheoghieff ran away crossing the border to Bulgaria. There were lots of colonists who arrived in the village of Niidejdea upon the occasion of the funeral of Hristu Dimcicii. Some of them wished to take revenge; nothing happened, though; most of the colonists were resigned to his death and they accompanied the dead body of Hristu Dimcicii on his last journey. References: Buciumul (The Alphom) II, No. 83, Bazargic, 1932

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Maru~a Tugearu 14-year-old Killed by a grenade thrown by the Bulgarian bands, the so-called comitagii, in the house of her grandfather, Stere Tugearu, a Macedonian leader in Sarii-Nebi (Sariinebi) in the county of Caliacra. The Bulgarian band, the so-called comitagii, of about 28 armed men who had committed this crime on October 9th, 1933, arrived in Cadrilater (coming from Bulgaria) through the county of Durostor, at the end of September 1933 and with a definite objective, namely the defeat of the Macedonian delegates Gheorghe Celnicu from Alfatar and Stere Tugearu . from SariinebL Several attacks of the Bulgarian bands who had arrived crossing the border were directed against Stere Tugearu (a man with a remarkable past in the national fights in Macedonia), the delegate of approximately 20 families of Macedonian colonists in Sariinebi. Thus, in the summer of the year 1932 (Le. one year earlier) a group of about 12 armed people captured S. Tugearu (when he was getting out of the house to go to the gardens) having wounded him with the bayonet. Thanks to his younger son, Iancu, who was coming back from the fields at that time, he could get away, though. Having heard his father crying out, he fired several shots into the group of bandits causing a wound to one of them. In all hustle and bustle the old Tugearu managed to escape. The Bulgarian bandits ran away. As a result of this attack, a thorough police investigation was conducted and they established the complicity of more Bulgarian local inhabitants. Some of the accomplices crossed the border to Bulgaria and others were caught and referred to justice. In September 1933, about two weeks before the attack on October 9th, the Bulgarian band attacked Gheorghe Celnicu who managed to get away without being hurt since he was armed and reacted promptly. They killed, however, seven sheep with a grenade. Although the security system was strengthened (meanwhile, a member of the band, Petre S. Petroff had been caught and he denounced the planned attack as well as the other members' of the band) assisted by the Bulgarian local inhabitants in Sariinebi, Conac 190

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and the other villages nearby, the bandits managed to sneak into the house of S. Tugearu without being noticed and they tried to break in. Shots were fired from inside the house. In the house there were Tugearu's wife, his older son, Nicolae, and the niece Maru~a (S. Tugearu was out to meet the agronomist of the region concerning the distribution of the plots of land). Furious with those inside the house who would not surrender, the bandits started shooting at the house. as if they were hitting the target in a military shooting range. Being unable to get them out, they threw six grenades in each room of Tugearu's house. Four of them exploded, causing a disaster
all around: the older son, Nicolae, was seriously wounded

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was completely smashed (he would die soon), Tugearu's niece, Maru~a, instantly killed and her grandmother seriously wounded. When the bandits were preparing to set the whole house and the annexes on fire, a brave colonist in the neighbourhood started shooting at the band. Frightened, the bandits left the village: behind them, in Tugearu's house, there were a dead man, a cripple and a wounded one. In their rush on the highway, they ran into a procession of Macedonian colonists from the village of Carageat, the county of Durostor, with wagons full of wood. They started shooting at them. Three colonists were hit, one of them who was to turn 18 soon, Stere Adam Gheorghita, was shot dead, and another 2 seriously wounded. On the third evening the band entered the village of Sever Riidulescu, a plainly Romanian village inhabited by the Romanians from the Kingdom and the Macedonians, taking advantage of the absence of most men who were participating in a wedding in the village of Cageaolar in the county of Durostor. Having beaten up the watchman of the village whom they left unconscious (he had only a riffle with two bullets), they broke into the household of Nicolae Marzavan, one of the wealthiest Macedonians, where they maltreated his 75-year-old mother forcing her to show them the place where they kept their money (they pricked her with the bayonet in two places, they cut part of her ear and then they oiled her eye with gas and heated it ...). They took 200,000 Lei in I,ODD-Leibanknotes and lots of golden coins as well as other valuable goods. While they were leaving, they ran into a Romanian colonist from the kingdom and they killed him.

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A survey of the attacks of the Bulgarian bands, the so-calIed comitagii, in the autumn of the year 1933 showed: 2 dead people (father and daughter) and 1 wounded person (the mother of the former) in Saranebi 1 dead person and 1 seriously wounded person on the highway Bazargic-Silistra 1 dead person and 2 wounded people (the mother of the colonist Nicolae Marzavan and the watchman) in Sever Radulescu After the funeral of the victims of the attacks in Saranebi, the colonists gathered in front of the prefecture Caliacra in Bazargic. The Macedonians as well as the Romanians took part. Those present demanded the provision of security measures. After the negotiations between the delegations and the prefect Vasile Tipasescu, there was eventually common ground between the two sides and they adopted a series of future security measures which were read to the audience by the prefect himself. Among them we mention the replacement of the clerks and dignitaries of foreign origin and their transfer to the old kingdom with a view to the elimination of the Bulgarian local mafia; the arming of the colonists; the conduct of an investigation concerning the attacks etc. Satisfied with the promise, the colonists cleared away peacefully. In protest against the manifestation, the local inhabitants in Bazargic (the merchants) closed down the shops and the Society for Culture and Charity 'Dobrudja' handed in a complaint to the Society of the Nations in Geneva, signed by 1. Stoianoff, the president of the society, and P. Gospodinoff, the secretary. Cynically the text of the complaint (which was written in French in Sophia) suggested the possibility that the crimes could have been committed by the Macedonian colonists themselves, who were called herein koutzovalaque.

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References: The Investigation of the Prefecture in Durostor requested by the Ministry of Internal Affairs by the Official Note No. 2262, A3, March 5th, 1934 in the State Archives Ramnicu VaIcea, Fund Prefecture of the County of Durostor, File No. 20/1934, Leaf 163-165; Leaf 170-189; Romanul (The Romanian) VI, No. 71, 15X, Silistra, 1933; Plugarul (The 192

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Plouglmlall) I, No.6, 15X, Bazargic, 1933; Legionarii (Tile Iron Guards) I, No. 35, 20X, Bazargic, 1933; Stoica Lascu 2002: 28-40: we mention hereby that Iancu Tugearu intervened and saved his father in the attack in 1932 and not in the attack on September 9th,1933, as the quoted article specifies (p.38) and Stere Adam Gheoghita was indeed shot dead by the same band, not in the Tugearu's house but on the highway BazargicSilistra, being part of the procession attacked by the Bulgarian bandits. Nicolae Tugearu Seriously wounded by a grenade during the attack of the Bulgarian bandits in Saranebi on October 9th, 1933 to later die from the wounds. Stere Adam Gheoghita 18-year-old Shot dead by the Bulgarian bandits on Silistra-Bazargic highway, near Saranebi, on October 9th, 1933. Gheorghe Barzu Killed knavishly in the woods near the village of Marzac close to Bairam-Bunar, the county of Caliacra, on April 10th,1933. He was the delegate of the colonists in Marzac and the father of six children. On April 10th, 1933 he got out of his house at noon heading for the fields. He never came back. The next day he was found in the woods, hands fastened at the back by lamp wick, throat and arm cut, bullet in the chest. References: Legiollarii (Tile Iron Guards) I, No. 17, Bazargic, 1933 Gheorghe Lepar Assassinated in the large village of Carageat, the county of Durostor, on May 13th, 1934. That day, Gheorghe Lepar, the mayor of Carageat, was accosted by Gh. Jecoff and Dimo St. Jecoff, a forester, on his way back from the coffee house. They started arguing (on that particular day the local elections took place in Carageat). From behind Gh. Coliu Ciolacoff came and hit Gh. Lepar with a club, instantly killing him; the aggressor disappeared

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rushing towards Bulgaria. Being alarmed, the Macedonian colonists gathered around the dead body. Revolted by its image in front of them, they decided to take revenge. They entered the house of Dimo Jecoff where they suspected Gh. Ciolacoff, the assassin of the mayor, to have hidden. Instead of minding his own business, D. Jecoff welcomed them with the following words: The mayor got what he deserved! They hit him with the axe and killed him. Re"terences:Romanul (The Romanian) VI, No. 86, Silistra, 1934

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v. THE RECOLONISATIONOF THE AROMANIANS
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INDOBRUDJA:

THECOUNTIES OFCONST ANTZAANDTULCEA

The second colonisation or recolonisation of the MacedoAromanianstook placein 1940.It wasin 1940that Romanialost Basarabia and Bucovina (by virtue of the dictate in Moscow on June 26th, 1940), the north-western territory of Transilvania (by virtue of the dictate in Vienna on August 30th, 1940) and Cadrilater (by virtue of the dictate in Craiova on September 7th, 1940). The causes of the second colonisation were thus determined by the treaty in Craiova. The treaty and its annexes' were ratified by the decree-law no.30999on September10th, 940.Withintheannexesof the treatyconcluded 1 between Romania and Bulgaria, article 3 stipulated that within a period of three months from the date of exchange of treaty ratification instruments they proceeded with a compulsory shift between the Romanian subjects of Bulgarian ethnic origins in the conties of Tu/cea and Constantza and the Romanian subjects of Romanian ethnic origins in the conties of Durostor and Caliacra.2 It was thus high time for the Aromanians to relocate again: the third
1. Published in the Official Monitor, No. 212, September 12th, 1940 (in the French language as well) 2. Loc. cil.
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time for the Farsherots from Albania, the fourth time for the Gramusteni from Greece and Bulgaria and, eventually, the fifth time for the Farsherots from Greece. They seemed to have been under a curse: never to enjoy peace and stability.What counts,though,is that they have neversurrendered;they defied the painful exoduses they experienced as they always knew that all the misfortunes were not brought about by fate but by the circumstances of those times. They felt the same about this last emigration. Before having an insight into the r~colonisation issue and the places where they were settled down, we shall ponder on another issue which demands further investigation:

TheNumberof theAromallians Colonised Cadrilater in
lt was impossible to specify the exact number of the Aromanians until 1940. They were not included in the tables of the census in 1930 (perhaps since they were not considered citizens, although in more recent censuses they were, however, even though the Aromanians in Romania are not considered a separate ethnic group). By reason of all this, the scientific studies mentioned different figures, the authors minimising3 or maximising4 their number. Lately the figures recorded by Vasile MU5iand Constantin Noe have been taken into consideration. Some would relate to the figures suggested by V. MU5i;others would rather refer to C. Noe' s figures. In his book A Century of Colonisation in New Dobrudja (1935) Vasile MU5ispecified the number of 6,553 families (multiplied by 5 - the average number of family members, which amounts to 32,765 individuals). Vasile MW$idid not mention the primary source for his estimation. In his book The Colonisation of Cadrilater (1938) Constantin
3. Th. Capidan (1942: 8) for instance, estimated their number to 12.000 individuals. 4. Em Bucuta in TTle Balkan Peninsula VI, 1928, stated that their number would be 40,000 individuais, obviously an overestimation. I overestimated them myself in Cusa 1990: 45 /he total oj /he Aromanian poplIla/ion who arrived in Dobrudja be/ween 1940 and /941

is estimated a/ 65,382 individuals. Mea cu!pa, I would say. I mention hereby that my former
estimation represents, in fact. the r.umber of all colonists (including kingdom) and it was made on the basis of the documents I researched. 196 the inhabitants from the

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Noe specified the number of 4,946 families of Macedonians (that is 24,730 individuals). C. Noe did mention the primary source for his estimation: the tables of colonists (family heads) authorised according to centre and category on February 15th,1932, within the Agricultural Services of the two counties which he annexed at the end of the above-mentioned paper. C. Noe estimated thus the number of the Aromanians according to the tables of colonists authorised in the two conties in February 1932; he stated
that since February 1932 to this day

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that is 1938, when the paper was

published [Our Emphasis] - the Macedonian colonists have not changed much in number.5 The situation was different, though; the colonisation process continued throughout 1932 and 1933 to be finally concluded at the end of December 1933.6 Large groups of Gramusteni from Bulgaria and Greece (the regions of Cavala and Seres) arrived within this period. Consequently, in this case, V. Musi is right in his accurate estimation of the number of the Aromanian colonists. In my research of the Fund of the Prefecture in Durostor, which is available at the State Archives in Ramnicu Valcea7,I came across a document which sheds light on this issue, namely a table of exact figures of the population in this county, according to nationalities and colonists extant on May 1st, 1940. As far as the county ofCaliacra is concerned, unfortunately, I have not found such a document; the Fund of the Prefecture in Caliacra does not existS, so that the table of figures according to different places of the population in Caliacra, similar to that in Durostor (both tables had been ordered by the government under Ion Antonescu) is nowhere to be found.
5. C. Noe 1938: 154 6. The official conclusion of the colonisation was directly related to the assassination of the prime minister, LG. Duca, on December 291h, 1933. There were two Macedonian students, Ion Caranica and Doru Belimace, who were involved in this assassination. Nicusor Constantinescu was the one to push the trigger but it counted for little since the former took part in the assassination anyway. 7. Naturally, the fund had been available in Constantza until 1996 when, for reasons best known to the authorities, the 'Cadrilater' fund was transferred to Ramnicu Valcea. 8. As a result of the discussions with Mrs Angela Pop (whom I would like to thank hereby for her pertinent observations generously shared), the chief archivist of the State Archives in Constantza, I understood that the respective fund had been destroyed. It seems that during Ihe communist regime it was taken 10 the paper faclory Letea to be recycled, that is to be reused as raw materia!. .

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We do know, however, the number of the families (family heads) colonised in this county until September 1st, 1937, from a concise table of the National Office of Colonisation, which specifies the total of families according to nationalities. The tables (for Durostor as well as for Caliacra) were ordered by an express form letter to the Region Marea9, the Administrative Service by power of the Royal Resident - which are also enclosed in the Romanian text hereinbefore. In compliance with this document, the number of the MacedoAromanians in Durostor on May 1st, 1940 was 16,371 individuals, that is' 3,274 families. In Caliacra 2,690 families, that is 13,450 individuals, were colonised. Concerning the families in Caliacra, the statistic was provided by the National Office of Colonisation, by a concise table according to nationalities of the population in this county on September 1st, 1937. The table was published in the local newspapers of those times. T ABLEIO On the situation of the colonists according to categories authoriseu by the National Office of Colonisation in the county of Caliacra until September 1st, 1937 8,390 family heads Inhabitants from the kingdom Macedonians 2,690 family heads Inhabitants from Banat 913 family heads Schoolteachers 183 family heads TOTAL 12,176 family heads

9. By virtue of decree-law no. 347 on August, 14th 1938,also known as the 'administrative law', 10 administrative units were founded. ..Iso called regions, with economic, cultural and social fUllct:on. The administration of th~ region is run by a royal resident and a council of elected me.nbers and members by right. The Region Marea was located in Constantza and. consisted of the fonowing counties: Constantza, Tulcea,lalomita, Caliacra and Durostor. 10. Apud. Straja Cadrilaterului (Tile Guard oICadri/ater) II. No. 22, Bazargic, 1937. The table was also published in Romiinul (The ROlllanian) and Tara Illi Mircea (Mircea's COlli/try). 198

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Macedo-aromdllii

dobrogelli

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The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

The total number of Aromanian families colonised in both counties was 5,964, that is 29,820 individuals)'

TheEvacuation andSettlement f theAromaniansin o DifferentPlaces from theCounties ofConstantza andTulcea
In view of the organisation of the population evacuation from Cadrilater they founded a General Commissariat in addition to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with the headquarters in Bucharest, but effectively functioning in Constantza, where the General Commissariat for Dobrudja'2 was set up. The twofold task of this commissariat concerned the successful completion of the population shift as well as the resolution of all the problems that arose from its relocation. The population was to be relocated in the counties of Constantza and Tulcea, where there were available lands, as a result of the departure of the German population (by power of the Romanian-German convention) and the Bulgarian population (by power of the treaty in Craiova). The evacuation from Cadrilater was cacried out relatively rapidly. As a result of an updated record by the Evacuation Committee in addition to the Region Marea until September 18th, the Romanian population was completely evacuated - within the area there remained the family heads, who returned to harvest and transport the last crops such as sunflower, bean etc. (of course, only some of the family heads)13 Meanwhile, the German and the Bulgarian population were not leaving, however, the places in the two counties they were supposed to depart from; consequently, they decided to temporarily accommodate the Romanian population from Cadrilater in the counties of Ialomita and
II An average of 5 members per family. In those limes all the Aromanian families which consisted of husband and wife, their parents and their children had between 5 and 10 members, frequently even more. 12 Cola Ciumeti was the General Commissar for Dobrudja. i3 Cf. a report to the general I. Anlonescu, the leader of the state, by the general N. Sioenescu on September '8'h, 1940. Apud. A.MR. Fund M.R., General Secretariat, File 2677, Leaf 324-327.

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South Dobrudja (within the area of the following settlements: Negru Voda, Tuzla, Plopeni, Badiganul and Negre~ti). The Aromanian colonists (and all the other colonists, of course) prolonged their stay; the Bulgarians did not observe the Romanian-Bulgarian protocol which stipulated that they left the region before December 15th, 1940. As a result of the delay, the Arorrianians had to spend the winter between 1940 and 1941 in the county of lalomita (where most of the refugees were) in the houses of the local inhabitantsl4, luggage thrown in the courtyard, shortages of all nature, especially food shortages (food prices were rocketingI5); in order to earn their living, they had to work as day labourers for the building of the Tandarei-Urziceni highway, which was situated along the dislocation line. It was not sooner than April 1941 that the Commissariat of Colonisations decided to send all the colonists temporarily settled in the counties of the former kingdom (other colonists had also been accommodated in the counties of Olt and Teleorman) to Dobrudja. The colonists were granted households and lands by commissions made up of a representative of the Commercial Service of Colonisation, the mayor of the village, the priest, the schoolteacher, the notary and a delegate for each group of colonists from every centre of colonisation (the same way as in Cadrilater). In December 1941 they founded the General Inspectorate of Colonisations in Dobrudja, which functioned in preparation for the completion of the colonisation. Meanwhile, a temporary household with no ownership papers was distributed to every colonist in all distribution centres; this provisional situation enabled some to move from one place to another. Moreover, a rather biased 16 report of the technical consultant for the colonisation of Dobrudjal7 pointed out the fact that during the Iron Guard
14. The places where they had been temporarily accommodated were all enlisted within the instructions sent to the prefectures, the State Archives in Tukea, Fund Prefecture of the County of Tukea, File No. 67, 1940, Leaf 11 and File No.76/1940, Leaf 2-19; also published in Cusa 1996: 141-158 15. Note, Fund Brigade 7 Cavalry, File No. 64, Leaf 164. Apud. A.M.R., p. 183-185. 16. The author stated that in 1941 the largest and the best colonisation centres were overcrowded by the Macedonians who would drive away the other colonists. Thus Ihe consultant hinted at the fact that many Aromanian colonists had joined the Iron Guard and that explained the advantages. It is true that many Aromanians had joined this organisation (which 200

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogelli

.

Tile Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

dictatorship large groups of colonists were being moved from one centre to another in the interest of the former and towards converting the latter to their own beliefs. After the fall of the Iron Guard dictatorship caused by General Antonescu the population shift would start over again, this time by force with lorries and machine-guns to scare away the suspected followers or members of the Iron Guard, those from the county of Tulcea to the county of Constantza and vice versa, at the mercy of luck and not at the expense of the state by power of colonisation rules. AII this indeed happened between 1941 and 1944. However, in the spring of the year 1942, they started drawing up the colIective contracts for the rents and leases they had to pay for the distributed households and lands. The colonisation and the ownership granting process was carried out between 1946 and 1947, when they were tendered the ownership papers. They paid for their houses, the same way as in Cadrilater; the difference lies in the fact that they built the houses themselves in Cadrilater (with the exception of those which they had bought from the Turkish emigrants and from the Bulgarians who left Cadrilater) whereas this time they took over the houses from the former German and Bulgarian owners who had taken refuge in Dobrudja. In compliance with the researched primary sources which include the General Inspectorate Fund of Colonisations in Dobrudja (the State Archives in Constantza), the Official Survey Fund in Tulcea (the State Archives in , Tulcea), the National Office of Colonisation in the county of Tulcea, inventory 1921-1941 (the Central Board of the State Archives in Bucharest), we shall consider the places and the number of Aromanian families who . settled down in Dobrudja in spring 1941 as it folIows:

, I

I

mostly consisted of Romanians) in expectation of some advantages (it is a common place to this day); the settlement of the Farsherot Aromanians in those regions he referred to (Cocosu, Ovidiu, Ferdinand, Cogealac, Viile Noi, Avaldachioi) was due to different causes. The Farsherots wished to stick together and this is the reason for the overcrowding he mentioned. Thus their settlement in these places in compact groups does not have anything to do with their having joined the Iron Guard. The Gramusteni, some of them of course, also joined the Iron Guard and they seWed down, however, in places from the county of TuJcea. 17. The report of Dem Vatafu, the tcchnicaJ consultant for the colonisation of Dobrudja, the State Archives Constan~, Fund Prefecture, County of ConSlantza, 73, File No.1611948, Leaf 15-16.

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Constantza County 1. Agigea - 39 families (Pindeni and Farsherot) 2. Anadalchioi (former residential district of Constantza) - 79 families (Farsherot, Gramusteni, Pindeni) 3. Baia (former Baia was part of Constantza county) - 50 families (Bulgarian Farsherot) 4. Cobadin - 53 families (Bulgarian Gramusteni) 5. Cogealac - 169 families (Greek Farsherot) 6. Colilia ( it does not exist today; it used to belong to the large village of Pantelimon de Jos) - 61 families (Bulgarian and Greek Gramusteni) 7. Dobromir Deal-16 families (Greek Gramusteni) 8. Dobromir Vale - 43 families (Bulgarian Gramusteni) 9. Gradina-Cheia - 20 families (intermingled, Farsherot, Gramusteni from Bulgaria as well as from Hrupistea, Greece) 10. Mangalia - 13 families (Pindeni from Veria, Greece) 11. Ferdinand (the large village of Mihail Kogalniceanu today) - 229 families (Greek Farsherot) 12. Mihai Viteazu - 239 families (Farsherot, Gramusteni from

Livezi,Greece)

.

13. Nisipari - 45 families (Albanian and Greek Farsherot) 14. Ovidiu - 108 families (Greek and Albanian Farsherot) 15. Cocosu ~todayPoiana - a village which belongs to the large village of Ovidiu) - 70 families (Greek Farsherot) 16. Palazu Mare - 119 families (Albanian Farsherot) 17. Palazu Mic - 39 families (Greek Farsherot) 18.Panduru (former Panduru belonged to the county of Constantza) - 228 families 19. Ramnicul de Jos (it used to be part of the county of Constantza in those times) - 331 families (Bulgarian Gramusteni) 20. Sacele - 65 families (Bulgarian Gramusteni) 21. Sinoe (it used to belong to Constantza) - 268 families (Bulgarian and Greek Gramusteni) 202

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22. Tariverde - 136 families (Bulgarian and Greek Gramusteni) 23. Tekirghiol- 60 families (Pindeni from Verla, Greece) 24. Tuzla - 30 families (Pindeni and Farsherot) 25. Valea Neagra - 7 families (Gramusteni) 26. Viile Noi (former residential district of Constantza) - 45 families (Albanian and Greek Farsherot) In the former county of Constantza (today Baia, Panduru, Ramnic, Sacele and Sinoe belong all to the county of Tulcea) 2,562 familiesJ8 were permanently settled in 26 centres.

Tulcea County 1. Agighiol- 27 families (Gramusteni)

2. Babadag- 8 families (Gramusteni)
3. Beidaud 332 families (Gramusteni from Bulgaria and the Republic of Macedonia today) 4. Camena - 129 families (Gramusteni from Bulgaria and Greece 5. Congaz - 75 families (Greek and Albanian Gramusteni and Farsherot) 6. Cataloi - 53 families (Gramusteni) 7. Casimcea - 14 families (Gramusteni) 8. Cerna - 262 families (Megleno-Romanians as well as a few Gramusteni and Farsherot families from Greece) 9. Ceamurlia de Jos - 200 families (Gramusteni) 10. Ceamurlia de 8us - 303 families (Gramusteni) 11. Eschibaba - 231 families (Gramusteni)
18. Cf. (for each place in the same order) 1. File 1/1947; 2. File 6/1947; 3. File 11/1947; 4. File 23/1947; 5. File 76/1947; 6. File 26/1947; 7. File 38/1947; 8. File 36/1947; 9. File 46/1947; 10. File 51/1947; 11. File 53/1947; 12. File 55/1947; 13. File 16/1947; 14. File 30/1947; 15. File 39/1948; 16. File 65/1947; 17. File 9/1953; 18. File 67/1947; 19. Agricultural Register 115,116 Funu City Hall Ramnic; 20. File 75/1947; 21. File 79/1947; 22. File 81/1947; 23. File 84/1947; 24. File 86/1947; 25. File 89/1947; all of them included in the National Office of Colonisation, State Archives Constantza. 203

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12. Lunca - 16 families (Gramusteni) 13. Lascar Catargiu - 6 families 14. Malcoci - 12 families 15. Mihai Bravu - 10 families 16. Mihail Kogalniceanu - 307 families (Gramusteni and a few Farsherot) 17. Principele Mihai (today Nicolae Balcescu) - 341 families (Gramusteni) 18. Razboieni 15 families 19. Sarighiol Deal- 220 families (Greek Gramusteni) 20. Tulcea (the large village of Tu"tcea)- 23 families 21. Tistimelu 84 farnilies

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In the former county of Tulcea 2,668 families were permanently settled in 21 centres. 19 The total number of the Macedo-Aromanian families colonised in Dobrudja is 5,230. The difference of 734 families out of the 5,964 Aromanian families colonised in Cadrilater is represented by the number of families that were not colonised in Dobrudja.

19. Centrcl Board of State Archives Bucharest,

Fund National Office of Colonisation,

County of Tulcea, inventory 1921-1941. State Archives Tulcea, National Office of Survey Tulcea. File 368/1947, Leaf 1-17 for Camena, File 36111947. Leaf 1-22 for Tistimelu (today Vasile Alecsandri); Fund City Hall Eschibaba, File 2!f/1948, Leaf 174-178. 204

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dobrogeni

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The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

Note
Perhaps many Aromanians will be disappointed in the reduced number of the Macedo-Aromanian families colonised in Dobrudja and naturally, they will wonder: Are we, all the Aromanians in Dobrudja, indeed only little more than 5,200 families? No, of course, we aren't...the 5,200 families were large families, which consisted of our grandfathers who had our own parents, who had come of age, who had brothers and sisters of an age. From the very beginning, the Aromanian families in Dobrudja would thus become by marriage twice or three times or four times larger than they used to within a period of only several years. Nicolae Saramandu in his recent paper Aromanian and MeglenoRomanian Studies (2003, Constantza, Ex Ponto) pointed out that there were 7,145 families in the two counties in 1968. Their number has beyond all doubt increased to exceed the number of 10,000 families, in my opinion. Today most of them have their permanent residence in Constantza. There are many in the town of Tu1cea, in reduced numbers, of course; fortunately, there are still compact groups in the Aromanian villages in the counties of Tu1cea (Eschibaba, Tistimelu, Ceamurlia de Sus, Beidaut, Baia) and Constantza (Cogealac, M. Kogalniceanu, Ovidiu, Poiana). It is also worth mentioning that the exodus in the decades 6 - 7 - 8 to the capital has ceased. In this day and age the Aromanians settle down in Constantza if they.decide to leave their villages, which have become native villages for the generation after 1941, to move to towns and this is but beneficial for the unity of the compact community of the MacedoAromanians in Constantza.

i I I

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rhe Macedo-Aromanians

ill Dobrudja

BIBLIOGRAFIE
Izvoare inedite ArhiveleStatului, Constanta
Fond Inspcctoratul General al Colonizarilor din Dobrogea (Oridul National al Colonizarii - O.N.A.C.). Dosar 1/1947,Agigea 6/1947, Anadalchioi 11/1946-1947, Baia 23/1947, Cobadin 76/1947, Cogcalac 26/1947, Colilia 38/1947, Dobromir Deal 36/1947, Dobromir Vale
46/1947, Gradina

, I

- Cheia

51/1947, Mangalia 53/1947, Mihail Kogalniceanu 55/1947, Mihai Viteazu

61/1947, Nisipari 30/1947,Ovidiu 39/1948, Cocosu (Poiana) -Ovidiu 35/1948, Ovidiu 65/1947, Palazu Mare 86/1948, Palazu Mare 9/1953, Palazu Mic 75/1947, Sinoe 79/1947, Tariverde 81/1947, Tekirghiol 84/1947, Tuzla 89/1947, Viile Noi

Fond Ministerul Agriculturii si Domeniilor Inspectoratul Agricol Constanta Fond Primaria Riimnic Dosar nr. 67/1947, Panduru Registrul Agricol pe anii 1951-1955, nr. 115, 116 Dosar nr. 78-1947-1952 (Fond SEatul raionului Harsova, Serviciul Financiar)

207

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Fond Tribunalul ludetean Constanta, Dosar 9/1948, Sacele Fond Prefectura ludetului Constanta, 1897-1950 Fond Nr. 73, Inv. nr. 27 - Dosar nr. 16/1947, fila 15, 16

Arhivele Statului,Tulcea Fond Prefectura ludetului Tulcea Birou straini, pasapoarte, Repatriati - colonisti. - Dosar 76/1940, filele 2,15,20,21,24 -Dosar 11O/1941,filele15-17; 18,19; 20-29 - Dosar 67/1940, fila 11; 95-96; 103-107; 168-112 Fond OCieiulde Cadastru Tulcea - Dosar 368/1947, filele 1-17, Camena - Dosar 361/1947, filele 1-22, Tistimelu (V. Alecsandri) Fond Primaria comunei Eschibaba (Stejarul) - Dosar 2911948, filele 174-178.

ArhiveleStatului, amnicu R Valcea Fond Prefectura ludetului Durostor. - Dosar 24/1940, filele 175-185. - Dosar 36/1934, fila 175 - Dosar 3/1933, fila 165, 167, 182,278,383 - Dosar 33/1933, fila 97, 224 - Dosar 20/1934, filele 170-182 - Dosar 36/1934, fila 53, 130, 175.

208

Dosar 30/1928, fila 1.

Macedo-aromii,,;;

dobroge,,;

.

The Macedo-AromaniallS

ill Dobrudja

Arbivcle Statului, Bucure$ti Fond Ofieiul National al Colonizarii, nr. 986 --Invcntar IlL 705-1924-1949, Cara1), Cernauti, Cetatea Alba, Durostor - Inventar nr. 704-1924 - 1949, Caliacra.

Izvoarepublicate
Monitorul 011cialnr. 94,12 noiembrie 1930, D.A.D., pag. 5130 Monitorul Oficial nr. 95,13 noiembrie 1930, DAD.,pag. 5159-5160 Monitorul Oficial nr. 96, 14 noiembrie 1930, D.A.D., pag. 5208 Monitorul Oficial nr. 115,22 mai 1934, D.A.D., pag. 3210 Monitorul Oficial nr. 202,4 septembrie 1935, pag. 6124-6126 Nota inlormativa privind starea de spirit a populatici din Cadrilatcr in evacuarea Cadrilaterului, Dosar nr. 64, fila 164 Fond Brigada 7 Cavalerie, Apud A.M.R., pag. 248-249. NoHi infonnativa a generalului N. Stoencscu, catre generalul Ion Antonescu. condudHorul Statului Roman si Prc1)edintelc Consiliului de mini1)tri.Dosar Ilr. 2677, filele 324-327, Apud. A.M.R.. pag. 248-249 Raportul Nr. 713, din 24 septembrie 1940, al Companiei a 4-a Observare, Dosar nr. 64, filele 191-192, Apud A.M.R., pag. 271 -274. Dare de seama asupra pregatirii, evacuarii 1)iprediirii Dobrogei de Sud, catre Statui bulgar, conform Tratatului Romano-Bulgar din septembrie 1940, a Rezidcntului Regal al Tinutului "Marea", General de divizie adjunct Traian Emilian Grigorescu, Fond Divizia a 9-a, Infanterie, dosar 1563, filele 392397, Apud A.M.R.,pag. 290-297. 209

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OTILIA PACEA

Studiu asupra evacuarii juu. Durostor si Caliacra, txceutarea operatiunilor, general T. E. Grigorescu, fond M. St. tvl., Seetia a 3-a Op(;ratiuni, Dosar 1799, filele 2-X,Apud A.M.R., pag. 57-61.
Nota ionformativa nr. 43 uin 26 aprHie 11140,DOSHI214. lilclc 1l).21. fond Divizia I Graniceri, Apuu A.M.R., pag. 6-1U.

A.M.R. Arhivelc militare IOmane. Ccntml de cercctmc ~i pastrare a arhivelor militarc istoricc. Publicate ue: Florica Dobre, Vasiliea Manea si Lenuta Nicolescu. Colee tie editata de fundatia General "Stefan Gu~ii", 200tJ. Euiwra Europa Nova, Bue., 2000/3 vol.).

=

Referinte (presa vremii)
"Ac(ilillea", organ al P.N.L. judo Caliacra, Bazargic, Pr. Elisabeta, or. 10 Anul 1,25 februarie, 1931. Anul 11,14 mai 1934. "Ac(irlllea Romalleascii", Silistra, Regina Maria, nr. 27, din 1 iulie 1926, 1 noiembrie 1926, 1 decembrie 1926, 15 iulie 1927, 14 august 1927, 23 oetombrie 1927, 30 noiembrie 1927, 14 decembrie 1927, 5 mai 1928, 15 iunie 1928, 30 august 1928, 30 septembrie 1928, 23 decembrie 1928, 24 martie 1929, 28 aprilie 1929, 22 uecembrie 1929, 13 aprilie 1930, 14 septembrie 1930. "Bliciumul", organ al PN.T., judo Caliaera, Bazargie, Calea Constantei, or. 45. Din: 5 aprilie 1930, 12 aprilie 1930,24 aprilie 1930,21 iunie 1930, 5 iulie 1930, 1 noiembrie 1930, 26 septembrie 1931, 14 noiembrie 1931, 28 noiembrie 1931, 6 ianuarie 1932, 23 ianuarie 1932, 1 septembrie 1932, 19 august 1933; Din 1930 adresa reuactiei s-a mutat pe str. Pr. Ileana, Nr. 16 si avea ea redaetori pe Cola C. Ciumetti, P. Caranica, Anastase Arginteanu, Chita Hasoti, A. HagiGogu, C.I. Papanaeea, lanell Caranica.
210

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dobrogen;.

The Macedo-Aromnn;ans

in Dobrudja

"Cadrilaterul", red. 1)iadm. Str. Eroilor, nr. 14, Constanta, (Dr. V. BurIan): 120ecembrie 1931. "CuVQ"tul Nostril", Bazargic Anul I: 31 dccembrie 1928,4 ianuarie 1929,31 ianuarie 1929. Anul II: 17 februarie 1929, 25 septembrie 1929, 11, 18, decembrie 1929; 22 ianuarie 1930. "Dobrogeajlmii", (Dr. C. N. Sarry - Red.1)i Adm. Scarlat Varnav, nr. 27, azi str. 1907, nr. 27, Constanta, din: Anul XXXVI, II septembrie 1940; 18 septembrie 1940; 9 noiembrie 1940; 14 noiembrie 1940. Anul XXXVIII, 3 aprilie 1941, 11 aprilie 1941; 31 august 1941, 8 mai 1941,25 mai 1941,31 august 1941,4 mai 1941. "Legionarii", red. 1)iadm. Str. Printesa Ileana, nr. 28, Bazargic, dir. Cola G. Ciumetti, din: 16 ianuarie 1929,23 ianuarie 1929, 14 martie 1929,20 aprilie 1929, 27 aprilie 1929,13 iulie 1929, I aprilie 1933,20 aprilie 1933, I mai 1933, 10 mai 1933, 1 august 1933,20 octombrie 1933, I noiembrie 1933,10 ianuarie 1934,20 iunie 1934, I septembrie 1934, I ianuarie 1935,15 iulie 1935, I octombrie 1935. "Plugarul": 15 octombrie 1933. Revista "Peninsula Balca"icii", Anu] II: nr. 10/1925, Anul IV. nr. 4-5/1926; 7-8/1926; Anul V: Dr. 1-2/1927;5-6/1927,7-8/1927; 9/1927; 3-4/1929; 8-10/1929; 9/1930; 10-12/1930. "Patria", red. 1)iadm. Bazargic, str. Romu]us, 10 din: 7 septembrie 1931; 12 octombrie 1931.
"Romolllll",]a inceput "Vointa Noastdi"

- din

16 martie 1928

-

apare sub

numele de "Romanul"), Silistra, red. 1)iadm., str. Titu Maiorescu, nr. 11, Dir. O-tru. Ciotti. Anul I: 3 martie 1928, ]6 martie 1928,31 martie 1928; Anu] II: 24 februarie 1929,24 iunie 1929,5 iulie 1929, 10 noiembrie 1929; Anul III: 15 aprilie 1930;
211

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OT/LIA PACEA

Anul V: 19 august 1932; 31 august 1932; 10 septembrie 1932 Anul VI: 13 octombrie 1933; 15 octombrie 1933; Anul VII: 21 mai 1934; 29 iulie 1934; Anul VIII: 30 septembrie 1935; Anul XII: 22 noiembrie 1938. "Santinela Romana", red. si adm., Piata Renasterii or. 3, Bazargic. Anul I: to septembrie 1926; 12 octombrie 1926; 17 noiembrie 1926; Anul II: 13 ianuarie 1927 "Glasul Coloni~tilor", (fost "Santinela Romana") Anul VIII: 15 decembrie 1933 Anul IX: 15 martie 1934. "Semanatorul", red. si adm., Principele Nicolae, or. 16, str. Plevnei nr. 6, Silistra. din: 19 februarie 1933, 15 iulie 1933, 17 august 1933, to septembrie 1933,6 decembrie 1933,3 mai 1934,25 decembrie 1934,2 aprilie 1935, 1 iulie 1935, 1 octombrie 1935. "Straja Cadrilatemlui, red. si adm.. Regina Elisabeta, or. 13, Bazargic. din: 1 iunie 1936 (Anul I) Anul II: 14 scptembrie 1937. "Tara lui Mircea", Silistra 1935-1940. Anul I: 15 februarie 1935; 20 octombrie 1935. Anul II: 15 septembrie 1936. Anul III: 1 iunie 1937, 8 decembrie 1937. "Universul", Bucuresti, 1927 (Cotidian national). Anul XLV, 7 august 1927; 15 august, 18 august 1927. Leontil Iliescu, Colonizarea in Dobrogea Noua; Ancheta mixta a Ministerului de Domenii $i a parlamentarilor din Cadrilater. in ziarul Universul: NT.236,10 octrombrie 1927, pag. 9.; or. 237,12 octombrie, pag. 3; nr. 239,14 octombrie, pag. 4, or. 241, 16 octombrie 1927, pag. 7, nr. 244,20 octombrie 1927, pag. 8; or. 248, 24 octombrie 1927. "Cuget Liber", Constan~a Nr. 494, 3 decembrie 1946, pag. 1-4. Nr. 650,12 martie 1948. 212

Macedo-aromlinii

dobrogeni'

The Macedo-Aromanialls

in Dobrudja

Referinte (autori)
ABELEANU DIMITRIE, Albania, Bucuresti, 1928, p. 39-40 Nemul Aromanesc din Macedonia, p. 43; 52. BARA MARIANA, Recenzie, Studii aromane si l1leglenoromane- Nicolae Saral1landu,in Dil1landarea,nr. 4, 2004, p. 9-10. BOLDESCU R., MARINESCU M., Ri1zboilllbalcanic, 1912 Si 1913. Sibiu, 1936, p.3-5. BRA.TESCUCONSTANTIN, Populatia Cadrilaterului fntre 1878-1938. Ed. Glasul Bucovinei, Cernauti, p. 12-14; Analele Dobrogei, anul IX, vol. II, Cadrilaterul, 1938. Glasul BlIcovinei. Cernauti. Publicatie festivi1. Dupa un patrar de secol. 1913-1938. BRA. IANU I. GHEORGHE, Traditia istorica despre fntemeierea statelor T romanesti, Ed. Eminescu, Bucurcsti, 1980, p. 53-54 (Editie ingrijiti1 de Valeriu Rapeanu). CARAGIANl lOAN, Studii istorice asupra romani/or din Peninsula Balcanici1.Cultura Nationali1.Bucuresti, 1929, p. 4-5; 6-7; 50; 65. CARAGIU-MARlOTEANU MATILDA, Compendiu de dialectologie (romana, Bucuresti, 1975, p. 216-218; Dictionar aroman (Macedo-valah), Editura Enciclopedidi, Bucuresti, 1997, p. 439-448. CARDULA M. lOAN, 1storia aromani/or l1lacedoneni, Editor Condor Bucuresti, 2004, p. 122. CAPlDAN TEODOR, Aromanii, dialectul aroman. Studiu lingvistic. Bucuresti, 1932, p. 2; 3-7; 8; 12. Macedorol1lanii,Etnografie, istorie, Iimbi1.Bucuresti, 1942, p. 10-17. Romanii nomazi. Studill din viata romani/or din sudul Penillsulei Balcanice (DR 4,1924-26) p. 42-47; 55; 75. Fi1rserofii. Swdiu lingvistic a.mpra Ronulni/or din Albania (D.R. 6, 1929,p.59. 213

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NICOLAE CU$A. OTlUA PACEA

Meg/enoromanii. I. Istoria $i graiu/ lor. Bucure~ti, 1925, p. 28,57. Romanitatea balcanica. Bucure~ti, 1936, p. 55-57. COLI MITRA CONSTANTIN, Far$erorii, 1996, Cap. indeletniciri $i averi. CONST ANTINESCU-MIRCESTI, C.D., Un sat dobrogean, Ezibei. Bucure~ti, 1939, Editura Bucovina, p. 71; 300-306, (cu colaborarea unor elevi aromani de atunci: Constantin Scrima, G. Papanace, Dumitru Badralexi, G. Bu~uleanga ~iconcursullui Tache Papahagi) CUSA NICOLAE, Macedoromanii pe vaile istoriei. Constanta, 1990. Editura Europolis, p. 9-33; 50-56. Aro11lanii (11lacedonenii) In Romania. Constanta, 1996. Editura Muntenia, p. 17-20; 24; 47. DIAMANDI STERlE, Oa11leni i aspecte din istoria aromani/or. Bucure~ti, $ 1940,p.23. FOTINO GEORGE, Pagini razlere. Cateva articole $i cuvantari. Bucure~ti, 1934. Ed. Cartea Romaneasdi, p. 37-44; 144-160. (incetarenirea c%ni$ti/or In Dobrogea). GIURESCU C. C., Istoria romani/or, vol. I, Bucure~ti, 1942, p. 314. HAGI-GOGU STERIU, Emigrarea aromani/or $i colonizarea Cadri/atemlui, Bucure$ti. 1927, p. 3; 39; 40; 70. HASDEU PETRICEICU BOGDAN, Strat $i Substrat din Etym%gicwn Magnum Romanae. Genealogia popoarelor balcanice. Bucuresti, 1894,p.59-60. HACm ANASTASE, Aromanil. Comerr, industrie, arte, expansiune, civilizarie,Focsani. 1936,p. 136; 139-140; 141; 142; 145,221. IORGA NICOLAE, Istoria poporului romanesc, vol. 1.,1922, p. 139-140. Histoire des Roumaines, de la Peninsule des Balcans, Cap. Les Origines.Bucure~ti, i924,p.I-3. LASCU STOICA, Improprietarirea romanilor ba/canici In Cadrilater. Dosare/e Istoriei, Anul VII, nr. 1,2002, p. 28-40. MOMMSEN THEODOR, Istoria romana, vol. III, Bucure~ti, 1988, p. 222226;243. MUSI TH. VASILE, UII deceniu de c%nizare In Dobrogea Noua, 19251935. Bucuresti, 1935, p. 24; 28; 58-60; 143-147; 50; 53. NEGOESCU AL. AUREL, DIMITRlU GH. PETRE, Durostor, CaHira~i, 214

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogelli

.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

1940, p. 74-82. (Tipografia Ionitl1Cristescu). NEICU ION, Colonizarea Dobrogei Noi cu macedoneni. Bucure~ti, 1924, p. 11. NENITESCU, lOAN, De la romanii din Turcia Europeana. Studiu etnic $i statistic asupra aromani/or. Bucure~ti, 1895, p. 27; 29; 149; 174-175; 401-433. NISTOR I. ION. Originea Romani/or din Halcani $i Vlahiile din Tesalia $i Epir, in Analele Academiei Romane, Mem. 7, Tom. XXVI, p. 2. NOE CONSTANTIN, Colonizarea Cadrilaterului, lnstitutul Social Roman, Sectia Sociologie, III, 4-,1938, p. 24; 140; 149; 147; 153. ONCIUL DIMITRIE, Roman;; din Dacia Traiana pana la lntemeierea Principatelor. Bucure~ti, 1902, p. 32. PANAITESCU P. PETRE, lntroducere la istoria culturii romane$ti. Bucure~ti, 1969, p. 118-120. PAPAHAGI Tache, 0 problema de romanitate Wrica in "Grai $i Sujlet", vol. I, Fasc. I, Bucure~ti, 1923, p. 72-75. PEYFUSS MAX DEMETER, Chestiunea Romaneasca, Bucure~ti, 1994 (Lucrare tradusa de Nicolae Serban Tana~oca), Ed. Enciclopedica, p. 12; 72; 81; Y3; 117. *** Spatiul istoric $i etllic romanesc, III. Ed. Militara, Bucure~ti, 1933, p. 8. SARAMANDU NICOLAE, Studii aromane si meglenoromane. Constanta 2003, Ed. Ex. Ponto, p. 15-17; 18-19; 24-26. TANASOCA NICOLAE SERBAN, Studiu introductiv la, George Murnu, Studii istorice privitoare la trecutul romani/or de peste Dunare. Bucure~ti, 1984, p. 8. XENOPOL D. ALEXANDRU, lstoria romanilor din Dacia Traiana, vol. I, Iasi, 1888, p.l09.

215

I.~

NICOLAE

CUSA

.

OTIUA PACEA

ABREVIERI
TITLURI DE CARTI

A.C.I.A.

= Aromanii, Comer" industrie, arte, expansiune, civilizarie, Anastase Hiiciu, Foc~anni, 1936. CA. Chestiunea aromaneasca, Max Demeter Peyfuss, Bucure~ti, 1994, (tradusa de Nicolae Serban, Tana~oca). D.R.T E. =De la romanii din Turcia Europeana. loan Nenitescu, 1895.

=

Sl.P.B.

= Studii

istorice asupra romani/or din Peninsula Balcanica.

loan

Caragiani,1929. S.A.M. =Studii aromane si meglenoromane. Nicolae Saramandu, 2003. R.N. =Romani nomazi. Theodor Capidan, 1924-1926. A.R. =Aromanii (rnacedonenii in Romania. Nicolae Cu~a, 1996).

216

Macedo-aromanii

dobrogeni.

The Macedo-Aromanians

in Dobrudja

CUPRINS
I. Etnogeneza ~inumele acestui neam II. Tulpinile de aromani stabilite in Dobrogea ill. Imprejurlirilecircumstante ale colonizarii aromfu1ilorn Dobrogea i IV. Colonizarea in Cadrilater - Dobrogea Noua V. Recolonizarea aromanilor in Dobrogea judetele Constanta ~iTuIcea 13 21 41 51

123

CONTENTS
I. Ethnogenesis and the name of the aromanian people II. The stems of the aromanians settled down in Dobrudja 137 145

V. The recolonisation of the aromanians in Dobrudja: the counties of Constantza and Tulcea

195

217

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