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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is the latest accepted revision, accepted on 13 October 2010. Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation).
Tsunami striking Thailand on December 26, 2004 A tsunami (Japanese: 津波 [tsɯnami], lit. 'harbor wave'; English pronunciation: /(t)suːˈnɑːmi/ (t)soo-NAH-mee) or tidal wave is a series of water waves (called a tsunami wave train) caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually an ocean, but can occur in large lakes. Tsunamis are a frequent occurrence in Japan; approximately 195 events have been recorded. Due to the immense volumes of water and energy involved, tsunamis can devastate coastal regions. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides and other mass movements, meteorite ocean impacts or similar impact events, and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The Greek historian Thucydides was the first to relate tsunami to submarine earthquakes, but understanding of tsunami's nature remained slim until the 20th century and is the subject of ongoing research. Many early geological, geographical, and oceanographic texts refer to tsunamis as "seismic sea waves." Some meteorological conditions, such as deep depressions that cause tropical cyclones, can generate a storm surge, called a meteotsunami, which can raise tides several metres above normal levels. The displacement comes from low atmospheric pressure within the centre of the depression. As these storm surges reach shore, they may resemble (though are not) tsunamis, inundating vast areas of land. Such a storm surge inundated Burma in May 2008.
• • • • •
1 Etymology 2 Generation mechanisms
2.1 Seismicity generated tsunamis
3 Characteristics 4 Drawback 5 Scales of intensity and magnitude
5.1 Intensity scales 5.2 Magnitude scales
6 Warnings and predictions 7 History
7.1 Ancient history 7.2 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
• • • • •
8 As a weapon 9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 References 12 External links
12.1 Images, video, and animations
The term tsunami comes from the Japanese, meaning "harbor" (tsu, 津) and "wave" (nami, 波). (For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese.) Tsunami are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. In recent years, this term has fallen out of favor, especially in the scientific community, because tsunami actually have nothing to do with tides. The once-popular term derives from their most common appearance, which is that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunami and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of tsunami the inland movement of water is much greater and lasts for a longer period, giving the impression of an incredibly high tide. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, and the term tsunami is no more accurate because tsunami are not limited to harbours, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers. There are only a few other languages that have a native word for this disastrous wave. In the Tamil language, the word is aazhi peralai. In the Acehnese language, it is ië beuna or alôn buluëk  (Depending on the dialect. Note that in the fellow Austronesian language of Tagalog, a major language in the Philippines, alon means "wave".) On Simeulue island, off the western coast of Sumatra in Indonesia, in the Defayan language the word is smong, while in the Sigulai language it is emong.
 Generation mechanisms
waves.  The waves formed in this way are then sustained by gravity. 2001). The Grand Banks and Papua New Guinea tsunamis came from earthquakes which destabilized sediments. They dissipated before traveling transoceanic distances. Possibilities include an overloading of the sediments. landslides. Smaller (Mw 4. in a wave shoaling process described below. The cause of the Storegga sediment failure is unknown. Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the earth's crustal deformation. A tsunami can occur in any tidal state and even at low tide can still inundate coastal areas. resulting in water displacement. hence referring to tsunamis as 'tidal waves' is inaccurate.2) (00:58:53 UTC) are recent examples of powerful megathrust earthquakes that generated tsunamis (known as teletsunamis) that can cross entire oceans. when these earthquakes occur beneath the sea. On April 1. the water above the deformed area is displaced from its equilibrium position. but the size of the largest of such events is normally too small to give rise to a significant tsunami. and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometers long). . They grow in height when they reach shallower water. This displacement of water is usually attributed to either earthquakes. tectonic uplift.8 (Richter Scale) earthquake occurred near the Aleutian Islands. which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea. Movement on normal faults will also cause displacement of the seabed.  Seismicity generated tsunamis Tsunamis can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. or more rarely by meteorites and nuclear tests. More specifically. 1964 Alaska earthquake (Mw 9.The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a tsunami is the displacement of a substantial volume of water or perturbation of the sea. volcanic eruptions. causing subsidence and releasing produces tsunami earthquake. due to the vertical component of movement involved. The area where the earthquake occurred is where the Pacific Ocean floor is subducting (or being pushed downwards) under Alaska. an earthquake or a release of gas hydrates (methane etc. causing The energy released plate boundary before under strain. Examples of tsunami at locations away from convergent boundaries include Storegga about 8. a magnitude-7. and 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake (Mw 9. energy into water. Grand Banks 1929. It generated a tsunami which inundated Hilo on the island of Hawai'i with a 14 metres (46 ft) high surge. a tsunami can be generated when thrust faults associated with convergent or destructive plate boundaries move abruptly. Tsunamis have a small amplitude (wave height) offshore.2) earthquakes in Japan can trigger tsunamis (called local and regional tsunamis) that can only devastate nearby coasts. forming only a slight swell usually about 300 millimetres (12 in) above the normal sea surface. Drawing of tectonic Overriding plate bulges Plate slips. Papua New Guinea 1998 (Tappin.) The 1960 Valdivia earthquake (Mw 9. Alaska. 1946. It is important to note that tides do not play any part in the generation of tsunamis. but can do so in only a few minutes.2).5) (19:11 hrs UTC).000 years ago. causing them to flow into the ocean and generate a tsunami.
that can travel trans-oceanic distances. the tsunami may take minutes to reach full height. As the tsunami approaches the coast and the waters become shallow.3 ft). wave shoaling compresses the wave and its velocity slows below 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph). Such a wave travels at well over 800 kilometres per hour (500 mph).6 ft). Only the largest waves crest. the approaching wave does not break (like a surf break). but due to the enormous wavelength the wave oscillation at any given point takes 20 or 30 minutes to complete a cycle and has an amplitude of only about 1 metre (3. Since the wave still has such a long wavelength. as it struck land almost immediately. Open bays and coastlines adjacent to very deep water may shape the tsunami further into a step-like wave with a steep-breaking front. it was discovered that larger tsunamis than had previously been believed possible could be caused by giant landslides. when a giant landslide in Lituya Bay. Ships rarely notice their passage. but another boat amazingly managed to ride the wave. Alaska. a tsunami in the deep ocean has a wavelength of about 200 kilometres (120 mi). These phenomena rapidly displace large water volumes. but rather appears like a fast moving tidal bore. caused the highest wave ever recorded. Its wavelength diminishes to less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) and its amplitude grows enormously. . Except for the very largest tsunamis. Scientists discovered that extremely large landslides from volcanic island collapses can generate megatsunami. producing a distinctly visible wave. it slows down and its amplitude (height) increases. While everyday wind waves have a wavelength (from crest to crest) of about 100 metres (330 ft) and a height of roughly 2 metres (6. The wave further slows and amplifies as it hits land. The wave didn't travel far.  Characteristics When the wave enters shallow water.In the 1950s. which had a height of 524 metres (over 1700 feet). as energy from falling debris or expansion transfers to the water at a rate faster than the water can absorb. This makes tsunamis difficult to detect over deep water. Two people fishing in the bay were killed. Their existence was confirmed in 1958. Scientists named these waves megatsunami.
The first wave to reach the shore may not have the highest run up.  Magnitude scales The first scale that genuinely calculated a magnitude for a tsunami. the water along the shoreline recedes dramatically. volcanic explosions. who calculated the Tsunami intensity I according to the formula where Hav is the average wave height along the nearest coast. and bolides.  Intensity scales The first scales used routinely to measure the intensity of tsunami were the Sieberg-Ambraseys scale. but are possible wherever there are large bodies of water. The latter scale was modified by Soloviev. Drawback begins before the wave arrives at an interval equal to half of the wave's period. known as the SolovievImamura tsunami intensity scale. used in the Pacific Ocean. is used in the global tsunami catalogues compiled by the NGDC/NOAA and the Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory as the main parameter for the size of the tsunami. several attempts have been made to set up scales of tsunami intensity or magnitude to allow comparison between different events. with significant time between the wave crests. a. Few survived. They are caused by earthquakes. including lakes. Difficulties in calculating the potential energy of the tsunami mean that this scale is rarely used. rather than an intensity at a particular location was the ML scale proposed by Murty & Loomis based on the potential energy. b & D are constants used to make the Mt scale match as closely as possible with the moment magnitude scale. and people unaware of the danger sometimes remain near the shore to satisfy their curiosity or to collect fish from the exposed seabed. About 80% of tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean. Drawback can exceed hundreds of metres. calculated from.When the tsunami's wave peak reaches the shore. A large tsunami may feature multiple waves arriving over a period of hours. This scale.  Scales of intensity and magnitude As with earthquakes. A drawback occurs because the water propagates outwards with the trough of the wave at its front. During the Indian Ocean tsunami. exposing normally submerged areas. where h is the maximum tsunami-wave amplitude (in m) measured by a tide gauge at a distance R from the epicenter. . landslides. Run up is measured in metres above a reference sea level.  Drawback If the first part of a tsunami to reach land is a trough—called a drawback—rather than a wave crest. Abe introduced the tsunami magnitude scale Mt. the resulting temporary rise in sea level is termed 'run up'. Photos show people walking on the normally submerged areas with the advancing wave in the background. the sea withdrew and many people went onto the exposed sea bed to investigate. used in the Mediterranean Sea and the Imamura-Iida intensity scale.
Geologists. Andrew Kearney. This was because the wave moved downwards on the eastern side of the fault line and upwards on the western side. and seismologists analyse each earthquake and based on many factors may or may not issue a tsunami warning. England. oceanographers. One of the most successful systems uses bottom pressure sensors that are attached to buoys. This is deduced through the calculation: where P = the overlying pressure in newtons per metre square. Thailand with her parents and sister. and having learned about tsunamis recently in school. saving dozens of lives. . The sensors constantly monitor the pressure of the overlying water column. However. was on Maikhao beach in Phuket. Her parents warned others minutes before the wave arrived. and automated systems can provide warnings immediately after an earthquake in time to save lives. ρ = the density of the seawater= 1.1 x 103 kg/m3. ten-year old Tilly Smith of Surrey. there are some warning signs of an impending tsunami. People who observe drawback (many survivors report an accompanying sucking sound). In 2004.8 m/s2 and h = the height of the water column in metres. In the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami drawback was not reported on the African coast or any other eastern coasts it reached. g = the acceleration due to gravity= 9. A tsunami cannot be precisely predicted. Warnings and predictions See also: Tsunami warning system One of the deep water buoys used in the DART tsunami warning system Drawbacks can serve as a brief warning. She credited her geography teacher. can survive only if they immediately run for high ground or seek the upper floors of nearby buildings. told her family that a tsunami might be imminent. even if the magnitude and location of an earthquake is known. The western pulse hit coastal Africa and other western areas.
It monitors Pacific Ocean seismic activity. victims of tsunami at Columbia Japan. The Pacific Tsunami Warning System is based in Honolulu. Tsunami hazard sign at A tsunami warning sign The monument to the Bamfield. not all earthquakes generate tsunami. A sufficiently large earthquake magnitude and other information triggers a tsunami warning. Hawaiʻi. Hawaii Tsunami memorial in Kanyakumari beach . 2004. and along the Japanese shorelines the tsunami warning signs are reminders of the natural hazards together with a network of warning sirens. typically at the top of the cliff of surroundings hills. Regions with a high tsunami risk typically use tsunami warning systems to warn the population before the wave reaches land.000 m depth the overlying pressure is equal to or about 5500 tonnes-force per square metre. On the west coast of the United States. the community is welleducated about earthquakes and tsunamis. which is prone to Pacific Ocean tsunami. warning signs indicate evacuation routes. British on a seawall in Kamakura.Hence for a water column of 5. Computers assist in analysing the tsunami risk of every earthquake that occurs in the Pacific Ocean and the adjoining land masses. Laupahoehoe. While the subduction zones around the Pacific are seismically active. In Japan.
 It is possible that certain animals (e. The port town of Aonae was completely surrounded by a tsunami wall. Based on these pressure readings and other seismic information and the seafloor's shape (bathymetry) and coastal topography. If correct. local authorities. By contrast. usually within minutes of the arrival time. a re-appraisal of the tsunami threat for all coastal areas is being undertaken by national governments and the United Nations Disaster Mitigation Committee. 1993 created waves as much as 30 metres (100 ft) tall—as high as a 10-story building.. All Pacific Rim countries collaborate in the Tsunami Warning System and most regularly practice evacuation and other procedures. in some tsunami-prone countries some earthquake engineering measures have been taken to reduce the damage caused on shore. A tsunami warning system is being installed in the Indian Ocean. elephants) may have heard the sounds of the tsunami as it approached the coast. but the waves washed right over the wall and destroyed all the wood-framed . the models estimate the amplitude and surge height of the approaching tsunami. In Japan.S. their effectiveness has been questioned. tsunami etc. However. Hokkaidō tsunami which struck Okushiri Island of Hokkaidō within two to five minutes of the earthquake on July 12. However. Some zoologists hypothesise that some animal species have an ability to sense subsonic Rayleigh waves from an earthquake or a tsunami. Bottom pressure sensors relay information in real time. However. The elephants' reaction was to move away from the approaching noise. The phenomenon was also noted by media sources in Sri Lanka in the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. emergency services and the population. the Okushiri.5 metres (15 ft) to protect populated coastal areas. in Washington As a direct result of the Indian Ocean tsunami. Computer models can predict tsunami arrival. monitoring their behavior could provide advance warning of earthquakes. Japan built many tsunami walls of up to 4. There are unsubstantiated claims about the Lisbon quake that some animals escaped to higher ground. while many other animals in the same areas drowned. Other localities have built floodgates and channels to redirect the water from incoming tsunami. It is not possible to prevent a tsunami. For instance. Japan Tsunami Evacuation Route signage along U. as tsunami often overtop the barriers. the evidence is controversial and is not widely accepted. such preparation is mandatory for government.g. Route 101. some humans went to the shore to investigate and many drowned as a result.A seawall at Tsu.
structures in the area. .C. Natural factors such as shoreline tree cover can mitigate tsunami effects.244 trees planted along the shoreline in 2002 in a bid to enter the Guinness Book of Records. for example there were 26 that caused 200 or more deaths in the last century alone. the village of Naluvedapathy in India's Tamil Nadu region suffered only minimal damage and few deaths because the wave broke against a forest of 80. and was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. Some locations in the path of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami escaped almost unscathed because trees such as coconut palms and mangroves absorbed the tsunami's energy. Of these. many were recorded in the Asia–Pacific region. but such plantations could offer a much cheaper and longer-lasting means of tsunami mitigation than artificial barriers. In one striking example. Environmentalists have suggested tree planting along tsunami-prone seacoasts. The wall may have succeeded in slowing down and moderating the height of the tsunami. the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami.  Ancient history As early as 426 B.  History The Samoan tsunami of September 2009 A devastated Marina beach in Chennai after the Indian Ocean Tsunami Main article: Historic tsunami Destructive tsunamis have been recorded throughout history. but it did not prevent major destruction and loss of life. Trees require years to grow to a useful size. particularly around Japan and Indonesia.
an attempt which failed. In World War II. tsunami devastated Alexandria. after the 365 A. Professor Costas Synolakis of the Tsunami Research Center at the University of Southern California co-authored a paper in Geophysical Journal International which suggests that a future tsunami in the Indian Ocean basin could affect locations such as Madagascar. 2004 was not the worst that the region could expect.15-19) described the typical sequence of a tsunami. Western Australia. and many others. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back.10.  See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis Disaster preparedness Earthquake Higher Ground Project Historic tsunamis List of natural disasters List of earthquakes Megatsunami Meteotsunami Minoan eruption Rogue wave Seiche Sneaker wave Supervolcano Tidal bore Tsunami hazard in lakes .D.  2004 Indian Ocean tsunami Main article: 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed over 200. including an incipient earthquake. and suddenly recoiling with redoubled force. According to an article in Geographical magazine (April 2008). the army in New Zealand trialled explosives in the area of today's Shakespeare Regional Park to create small tsunamis. Without an earthquake I do not see how such an accident could happen.  As a weapon There have been studies and some attempt to create tsunami waves as a weapon. The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus (Res Gestae 26. causes the inundation. Singapore. Somalia.The cause. the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26. of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake.000 people with many bodies either being lost to the sea or unidentified. the sudden retreat of the sea and a following gigantic wave. in my opinion.
(Apr.nationalgeographic. 1970).1). Retrieved November 11. ^ Earthsci. Løvholt F. Dictionary. ^ "Acehrecoveryforum.marpetgeo. Acehrecoveryforum. 22 October 2008. C.answers. http://walrus. Nelson (28-Jan-2009). Lovholt.— Oxford English Dictionary] 7.org[dead link] 11. C (2005). T. D.10. ^ Margaritondo. Judith Bloom and Dennis Brindell (2008). Witness to Disaster. 100–104. Dictionary. f. S. ^ Voit. 2. Retrieved 2009-09-09. http://www. Retrieved 2010-08-24. F.tulane. Retrieved 2010-07-15.php?action=ARFNews&no=73. United States Geographical Survey. G (2005).).com 8.: National Geographic Society. http://shop.com Unabridged (v 1.org.org. "Tsunami".pmel. Tsunamis 16.html. ^ JTIC. .d. 13.• • • • Tsunami house Tsunami Society Tsunami warning system Tsunamis in the United Kingdom  Footnotes 1. K.010187. Retrieved 2009-09-09. tsu harbour + nami waves. 2007-11-06.1–4 5.html. Witness to Disaster: Tsunamis. tsunami.com". ^ Fradin.gov/tsunami/basics. pp. European Journal of Physics 26 (3). Harbitz.com 9. NOAA. ^ Haugen K. Western Coastal & Marine Geology. ^ "Tidal".1146/annurev. (n. 2008. ^ Prof.reference. Tulane University. University of Washington. 17 (2nd ed. 4.19.1016/j. "Tsunamis".org". Answers. "Fundamental mechanisms for tsunami generation by submarine mass flows in idealised geometries". 3.2004. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 19: 217–236. 6.com/product/977/4389/971. Retrieved 2010-08-24. pp. ^ "Tsunami Terminology".geophys.washington.016.noaa.reference. doi:10.acehrecoveryforum. ^ a b Thucydides: “A History of the Peloponnesian War”. 43.89. tunami. ^ "How do earthquakes generate tsunamis?". ^ [a.com/topic/tsunami. Marine and Petroleum Geology 22: 209–217.wr.org/en/index. 3.com.html. doi:10. ^ a b "Life of a Tsunami". http://nthmp-history.html. Houghton Mifflin Company. ^ a b Smid.Dictionary. ^ -al.gov/terms.S (1987). Stephen A. "Explaining the physics of tsunamis to undergraduate and non-physics students"..C.). 11 November 2008. 42. Jap. The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 14. 15.fl. Harbitz C. 'Tsunamis' in Greek Literature.001245. http://www.edu/tsunami/general/physics/earthquake.usgs. 12.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami. http://www. Washington.htm. http://www. ^ "Answers. 17. 10.
uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4381395. Christine (2004-12-30). Retrieved 2010-08-24. 25.noaa. tsunamis: tsunamis travel fast but not at infinite speed. 28. Jean-Daniel & Jorstad.htm. ^ Thucydides: “A History of the Peloponnesian War”. Vol. (2010).2307/4135013.gov/nndc/struts/results? bt_0=1901&st_0=2000&type_8=EXACT&query_8=None+Selected&op_14=eq&v_14= &st_1=&bt_2=&st_2=&bt_1=&bt_10=&st_10=&ge_9=&le_9=&bt_3=&st_3=&type_19 =EXACT&query_19=None+Selected&op_17=eq&v_17=&bt_20=&st_20=&bt_13=&st_ 13=&bt_16=&st_16=&bt_6=200&st_6=&bt_11=&st_11=&d=7&t=101650&s=70. Egypt: Erosion.slate. 2005.89.usgs. pp. Deformation of Strata and Introduction of Allochthonous Material" 29. ^ Raman. Retrieved 2009-10-18. ^ "Earthquake.google. ISBN 9780792334835.co.com/id/2111608. 1. http://news.  References • • • IOC Tsunami Glossary by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) at the International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC) of UNESCO Tsunami Terminology at NOAA abelard. http://www.5 27. "Tsunami Events where (Year <= 2000 and Year >= 1901) and Deaths >= 200". ^ Kelly. 24. "The 365 A. "Ammianus and the Great Tsunami". Tsunami Warning Signs on the Enshu Coast of Japan.usgs.stm. ^ NOAA. http://books. 52-54. H. http://library. http://www.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2004/usslav/#summary/. Inset to The New Zealand Herald: p.18.ngdc. http://jstor. 20. 30. ^ Lambourne.org/stable/4135013. http://earthquake. Gavin (2004). Sunil (2005-03-27). "Tsunami Quantification: how we measure the overall size of tsunami (Review of tsunami intensity and magnitude scales)". "Tsunami villagers give thanks to trees".jp/19930712_nanseioki. 78.bbc. 21. ^ Abe K. .D. "Surviving the Tsunami: What Sri Lanka's animals knew that humans didn't". http://www.usgs.skr. 3 March 2010.bbc.noaa. doi:10. 9.stm. Earthquake. ^ Kenneally. Retrieved 200910-18. ^ Chanson. Shore & Beach.gov. (2005). BBC.ngdc. ^ "1993 年 7 月 12 日 北海道南西沖地震" (in Japanese). No. http://news.gov/hazard/data/presentations/jtc/gusiakov.pdf. Part 2". 26. ^ a b Gusiakov V. (1995).. Slate Magazine. The Journal of Roman Studies 94 (141): 141–167.co.gov". ^ Stanley. Helen (2005-03-27). Thomas F. 22.org.com/? id=5YjaGdQOJIwC&pg=PA21&dq=abe+magnitude+scale+tsunami+1981&q=abe %20magnitude%20scale%20tsunami%201981. 3. 19. retrieved March 29. ^ "The Hauraki Gulf Marine Park. "Tsunami: Anatomy of a disaster". Retrieved 21 June 2010.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4269847. Estimate of Tsunami Run-up Heights from Earthquake Magnitudes. Tsunami Destruction of Alexandria. BBC. 23.
website Macey. Jakarta Tsunami Information Centre National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Coordinated U. 2004). 4–7. D. "Surviving the Tsunami.co. Geoscientist. 2005).uk • • • • • •  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Tsunami • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Animation of DART tsunami detection system Can HF Radar detect Tsunamis? – University of Hamburg HF-Radar. 2005).• • Dudley. Walter C. EERI Report 2006-06. Pacific Tsunami Museum Science of Tsunami Hazards journal . Girl. 11–8. Envirtech Tsunami Warning System – Based on seabed seismics and sea level gauges. EERI Publication #2006-06. W. plus CD-ROM with complete text and supplementary photographs. Richard (January 1. & Lee. Telegraph. ISBN 1-932884-19-X website Kenneally. seismologist at Geoscience Australia. 11 chapters. website Lambourne. "Tsunami: Anatomy of a disaster.D. 2005: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.S. 100 page summary. used geography lesson to save lives. 10.com The highest tsunami was caused by rockfall IOC Tsunami Glossary by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) at the International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC) of UNESCO How to survive a tsunami – Guide for children and youth International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) ITSU – Coordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami Warning System." BBC News." The Sydney Morning Herald. "The Big Bang that Triggered A Tragedy. Min (1988: 1st edition) Tsunami! ISBN 0-8248-1125-9 website[dead link] Iwan." Slate. Summary report of the Great Sumatra Earthquakes and Indian Ocean tsunamis of December 26. Federal/State effort NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) NOAA Tsunami – General description of tsunamis and the United States agency NOAA's role NOVA: Wave That Shook The World – Site and special report shot within days of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Helen (March 27. 2004 and March 28. 2001. 2006.. Christine (December 30. p 11—quoting Dr Mark Leonard. Geology. The NOAA's page on the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami Tappin. editor. Local tsunamis.
animations and data Tsunami Warning – Tsunami warnings via mobile phone.A moving travelogue full of stunning images along the tsunami ravaged South-Western Coast of India (Unavailable) Animations of tsunami propagation model results for actual tsunami events 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami Youtube video [hide]  Images. 48 4: 355-370 Amateur Camcorder Video Streams of the December 26.Waves and Currents . Social & Economic Costs of Tsunamis in the United States from "NOAA Socioeconomics" website initiative Tsunami Centers – United States National Weather Service. Tsunamis and Earthquakes USGS: Surviving a tsunami (United States) Impact of Tsunami on groundwater resources IGRAC International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre Tsunami Surges on Dry Coastal Plains: Application of Dam Break Wave Equations.animation showing how the shifting of continental plates in the Indian Ocean created the catastrophe of December 26. Thailand and Nicobar island of India. Thailand and Indonesia (search on tsunamis) Animation of 1960 tsunami originating outside coast of Chile Animations of actual and simulated tsunami events from the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research CBC Digital Archives – Canada's Earthquakes and Tsunamis Computer-generated animation of a tsunami Origin of a Tsunami . Tsunami database with detailed statistics Interactive map of recent and historical tsunami events with links to graphics. Photos and Videos of Humanitarian Assistance to Tsunami-hit areas by the Singapore Armed Forces Tsunami Aftermath in Penang and Kuala Muda. video. Satellite Images of Tsunami Affected Areas High resolution satellite images showing the effects of the 2004 tsunami on the affected areas in Indonesia. 2004 tsunami that hit Sri Lanka.• • • • • • • • • • • Tsunami scientific publications list Scientific American Magazine (January 2006 Issue) Tsunami: Wave of Change What we can learn from the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. 2004. Kedah. The Survivors . and animations • • • • • • • • • • • • Physical oceanography . Coastal Engineering Journal.
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