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It has been proved that an observer, moving with a source of sound towards a reflecting plane receives a frequency:
where fv is received frequency, f the transmitted frequency, c the speed of sound and v the speed of the source of sound. By measuring fv and knowing and f and c, the speed of a ship with regard to the sea-bed can be determined; this method can be applied not only to the along ships but also to the thwart ships speed. By supplying these speeds to an integrator the distances covered in both directions can be calculated. Starting from a known position can be determined in this way at any moment.
Principle A transmitting transducer below the ship continuously emits a beam of sound vibrations in the water a an angle α (usually 60° to the keel) in the forward direction. A second transducer aboard receives the echo caused by diffuse reflection from the sea-bed.
Capt. Ahmed Youssef
in view of the incidence of the beam Secondly. the echo from a specula reflection would not be received. Thirdly. In the first place.A Doppler log uses a higher frequency than an echo sounder. the shorter wavelength make possible a smaller beamangle and so avoids the dimensions of the radiating face of the transducer becoming too large. Capt. the emitted power of the sound vibrations spreads less and thus the echo is stronger. the resulting shorter wavelength leads to the more diffuse reflection desired. Ahmed Youssef .
how ever because the transducer moves away from the reflecting surface of the bottom instead of approaching. For this beam the vector v cos α is negative. though the distance between the ship and the sea-bed dose not change. the received frequency will differ ( owing to the Doppler effect ) from the transmitted frequency. which equation 2. however on the temperature and ( Capt. The speed of sound waves in the water c depends. Ahmed Youssef . A second transmitting transducer directs a beam in a backward direction ( figure2. 4 fv fv fa cos c Hence : v c ( fv fa ) 4 f cos We may consider f and cos α to be constant. From the Doppler frequency-shift.3.Hence.32 )and a second receiving transducer receives its echoes. The difference f v f a of the two received frequencies can easily be measured electronically by mixing the two frequencies and detecting the resulting beats.
In equation 2.) thanks to the Janus configuration a Capt. how ever. who was represented with two faces in order to show that he looked into the past and into the future. Note that the reading of a Doppler log depends solely on the speed of the sound waves. to produce forward and backward beams is called a Janus configuration. so v can be calculated . the propagation time of the pulse and its echo plays no role. If the beam is propagated from one water layer into a second one of different composition or temperature. and vice versa. f and cos α are known and f v f a is measured. Ahmed Youssef . the reverse frequency change will occur and will cancel out the first change. c. the former measures the propagating time and the latter the difference of the two frequencies f v f a . there will also be a Doppler effect if the second layer moves relative to the first layer and if the beam hits this obliquely. In that case the frequency of the sound vibrations penetrating the second layer is different from that in the first layer ( f c / ) . A Doppler log measures the algebraic sum of all Doppler frequency shifts experienced by the sound on its way to the bottom ( or to a reflecting layer ) and back again.5 therefore. Reflections Both the echo sounder and the Doppler log react to reflections of sound waves from the sea-bed. ( this name refers to the way the transducers look forward and backward like the god Janus of the ancient Romans. To this frequency shift must be added the shift that arises at the transition of the transducer vibrations between the ship and the water. Deviations of the sound speed c from the normal value are passed to the system computer for correction of its calculations. there will be reflection. Janus configuration The placing of the two transmitting transducers.to smaller degree ) on the salinity and the water pressure. For the echo.
A further advantage is that vertical movements of the ship cause equal changes to the Doppler shifts f v and f a in the same. and the receiver is blocked during the transmission. system . Transmitting and receiving transducer are of identical construction. The surface area of each transducer need then be only about 10cm . Ahmed Youssef .w.linear relationship exists between the speed of the speed of the vessel v and the measured frequency shift f v f a . With pulse system this cannot occur.w) system. this is called a continuous-wave(c. Capt. system the reception of the transmitting transducer going directly form transmitting to receiving transducer ( socalled cross-noise or feedback ). Continuous-wave and pluse systems Hitherto it has been taken for granted that the transmitting transducers generate vibrations continuously. since a pulse is transmitted only after the echo of the preceding pulse has been received . thus making it necessary for each beam to have a separate transmitting and receiving transducer. The majority of Doppler logs in use are pulse systems. Further advantages and disadvantages of the two system will not be dealt with here. Vertical movements of the ship do not therefore influence the Doppler shift. With c. Transducers The frequency used is 100 to 600 kHz. Other types are pulse system.w. Therefore a pulse system needs only half as many transducers as a c. In such a system a transducer generates pulses and the same transducer receives the echo between the transmissions.
low-speed cruising. the water at 10 to 30 metres below the keel also causes an echo and Doppler effect by volume-reverberation.Measurement of ships speed relative to bottom or water Owing to absorption by particles in the water at a depth of 200 to 400 metres a Doppler log only functions down to about 200 metres . when sufficiently low frequencies are used echoes may still arrive from a rocky bottom at a depth of 600 metres and more . When reflections are received from this layer the speed of the ship relative to that layer. and not relative to the bottom. Ahmed Youssef . Apart from the effect of the DSL. In general however the beam is absorbed and scattered by the mass of water between 200 and 400 metres the so-called deep scattering layer (DSL). and approaching fixed dock. single-point mooring. A second very important advantage in large tankers is the use of the log for berthing or mooring to jetties. it sometimes does not function correctly during docking if the screws of tugs cause air bubbles ( which reflect sound waves) to pass through the beams. this is called 'water track' ( as opposed to 'bottom track'). Capt. dropping or weighing anchor. These vessel need navigational accuracy in coastal water that cannot be completely guaranteed by shorereferred navigational aids. The size of such vessel has increased so much that the reliability of human judgment concerning speed and distance is considerably reduced. Thus uncertainty and confusion may occur. unfortunately. is obtained. Uses of the Doppler log The Doppler log has received acceptance in the navigation of every large tankers. There have been numerous docking accidents due to incorrect estimates of ship's approach speed.01 knot or 5 mm/s. however. The Doppler log can measure the speed to the nearest 0.
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