1. INTRODUCTION OF SCIENCE A) DEFINITIONS: Science is a well organized source of knowledge.

There Are 03 Factors which are given as under: 1. EXPLANATION OF PHENOMENA: Science explains different Phenomena which is present around us. E.g., In sociology living standard of families depends upon the standard of education and economic resources. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF PHENOMENA: Different phenomena are classified into groups for understanding E.g., in sociology, social institution etc are different groups. 3. PREDICTION: It is concerted in changes in space and time rainfall may be predicted by scientific methods. B) METHOD OF SCIENCE: 1. DESCRIPTION: Science describes natural Phenomena. It consists of collecting data, accurate observation and confirmation of results. 2. CO-RELATIONS: There could be a clear cut relationship between observation and description. 3. EXPERIMENT: It means observation under slandered conduction so that it produces a particular result. C) TOOLS OF SCIENCE: There are 03 vital tools of science. 1. Observation 2. Discovery. 3. Testing of Result. D) CLASSES OF SCIENCE: There are three classes of science: 1. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: It is the study of properties of lifeless matter and laws which control physical world E.g., Physics. 2. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE: It is the studies of living objects E.g. biology. 3. MENTAL SCIENCE: It is the studies of mind and various function and applications of mind in science, art, politics religion, society etc…This science of mind is known as Psychology. E) POSITIVE AND NORMATIVE SCIENCE: 1. POSITIVE SCIENCE: It is the study of facts as they- are E.g. Psychology is the study of facts of mind as they are. 2. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: It is the study of facts as they should be. Some examples are as under: • Ethics: It deals with goodness and rightness of our action • Logic: It deals with the correctness of our thought • Aesthetics: It deals with beauty of imagination, creation and perception. F) SOCIAL SCIENCE: It is the study of social groups and societies. Important social sciences are as follows: SOCIOLOGY: It is the study of origin, structure & function of human groups and behaviour of individuals of there groups. 1. PSYCHOLOGY: It is the study of mind and behaviour of humans. 2. PSYCHIATRY: It is the study of diagnosis and treatment of mental disorder. 3. ECONOMICS: It is the study of social activities of humans by which they satisfy their needs from mental environment. 4. POLITICAL SCIENCE: It is the study of man and his activity as a member of the state or other political organization. 5. JURISPRUDENCE: It is the study of human activities in terms of law and formal codes of behaviour. 6. GEOGRAPHY:It is the study of natural environments. 7. HISTORY: It is the study of past social activity.

A) DEFINITION OF SOCIOLOGY: Sociology is defined by different ways by different thinkers: 1. According to Parsons, “It is the scientific study of structure and functions of human groups”. 2. According to F.H. Giddings, “It is the science of social phenomena”. 3. According to Simmel, “It is the science studying human relationship”. 4. According to Park, “It is the science of collective behaviour”. 5. According to Allama Ibne Khuldun, “It is one of the social sciences”. 6. According to Summer, “It is the special discipline of people”. 7. According to Weber, “It is the study of social action”. Over all sociology may be defined as,” Scientific study of social groups there origin, structural and function and behaviour of individuals in these groups. B) FIELDS OF SOCIOLOGY: Important fields are as under: 1. Social Work. 2. Community Health. 3. Law. 4. Health Education. 5. Family Planning. 6. Journalism. 7. Religions. 8. Political. C) IMPORTANCE OF SOCIOLOGY IN PAKISTAN: In Pakistan, rapid social changes have produced many social problems like: 1. Illiteracy. 2. Poverty. 3. Un-employment. 4. Housing Problems. 5. Crimes. 6. Public unrest. As we known that the Sociology is a source of knowledge along with its practical applications and also as a profession, therefore it will help by planning and solution of problems by sociological knowledge.

1. It is necessary for a nurse to have knowledge of sociology, so that He/She can learn and


3. 4. 5. 6.

understand the human nature society and social institution. He/She can be a good and successful nurse, when she/he knows Her/him Surrounding and know how to deal with people individually and in groups. The nurse is a first person who deals with the patients in emergency. If a nurse has knowledge of sociology and she/he will help her in dealing her patients in emergencies, who are usually under stress and shock. She/he will take prompt decision, and tackling them. A trained nurse can help patients who are irritated during illness psychologically and help them to get over and recovery from illness. A nurse who has knowledge about rituals and customs of different peoples can handle patients who are superstitious have to take medicines and they believe more in which doctors and quacks. As our country biggest drawbacks is illiteracy. A nurse can educate people about clean less, balance diet and also guide mother and child health and vaccination. The knowledge of sociology can help nurse in a number of ways that also help in improving in society.

A) SOCIAL: 1. It means “relationship between man and man either it may be economical, political, religions and educational”. 2. Social makes particular person no of particular groups or society and form basic of collective behaviour of persons. B) SOCIALIZATION: 1. “It is a process of learning of social norms and ways of life”. 2. “It is a process which continuous throughout the end of life of man”. C) AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION: Important agencies are as follow: a) Informal agencies. b) Formal agencies. a) INFORMAL AGENCIES: In this process of socialization takes place in an indirect manner without deliberate thinking examples are as under: 1. Family. 2. Neighborhood. 3. Play grounds. 4. Recreational institutions. 5. Bazaars. b) FORMAL AGENCIES: In this the process of socialization takes place among the peoples of society direct and deliberate thinking for Examples: 1. Schools. 4. Religions Institutions. 2. Colleges. 5. Technical Institution. 3. Universities. D) SOCIALIZATION IN AN ORGANIZATION: It is a process by which a person adapts himself to the basic values, norm and customs of an organization in order to become a member. If a person does not accept to the society he will became “Rebels” and will he accept out of the society. E) STAGE OF SOCIALIZATION: There are three stages: 1. Pre-arrival Stage. 2. Encounter Stage. 3. Metamorphosis Stage. 1) PRE-ARRIVAL STAGE: In this stage person undergoes training to learn and understands the behaviour and work of an organization in different situations. 2) ENCOUNTER STAGE: In this stage, the person encounters the possible dichotomy between his expectations about the job, co-workers and organizations. 3) METAMORPHOSIS STAGE: In this stage, person completely learns and understands to behave and work in an organization. Successful metamorphoses produce good effect on person’s productivity. F) FUNCTIONS OF SOCIALIZATION: Socializations have two important functions: 1. It is beneficial for an organization as it creates batter communications among individuals, thus reducing conflicts, etc. 2. It reduced uncertainty of person, as he knows the expectations of an organizations expects from him.

A. HABIT: Habit is a repeated behaviour an individual. B. CUSTOMS: Custom is a repeated behaviour by a group of people. C. TRADITION: It is a process of transferring information, opinions, beliefs and customs D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K.

from one generation to another without written instructions. TABOO: It is a cultural or religious custom that stops or prevent people to touch, do, use or talk about certain thing. E.g. Alcohol drinking in our Islam is Taboo. CRIME: It is a violation of law E.g. Robbery, Killing. INDIVIDUAL: It is a characteristic of single person or thing. GROUP: It is a number of people with common interest or purpose. AGGREGATION: It is a collection of individuals at a specific place due to reasons other then intercommunication among themselves. JARGON: It is a special vocabulary or language used by a particular group. NATION: It is a community of people having a defined territory & government. POWER: It is an ability of a person, group or system to modify the behaviour of others in a way one does not want.

Some important sources of power are: 1) COERSIVE POWER: It is the threat of physical pressure on others E.g. Army, Police, etc… 2) LEGITIMATE POWER: It is A right of Society to decisions regarding the action of others E.g. election 3) INFLUENCE POWER: It is the ability to affect decisions and actions of others beyond any authority to do so E.g. a father as influence over his children 4) EXPERT POWER: In this the person or group has its own knowledge, abilities and credibility. 5) INFORMATIONAL POWERS: It is the person or group communication activity. L) ALIENATION: In this an individual is separated from an object or former position, physically and mentally.Some causes are given below: 1) MALADJUSTMENT: If a person can not adjust him self to the society existing culture them he isolate or alienate from society. 2) CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES: If a person is involve in criminal activities like theft, robbery etc… will separate or alienation from his family, friends & society. 3) MENTAL ILLNESSES: If person is mentally ill then he is alienated from the real world and starts to live in his own imaginary world.

A) SOCIETY: It originates from Latin word “Socius” means companion. B) DEFINATION: Society is a community, nation or large grouping of people having common habits, ideas traditions institutions and collective interests and activities. 1. According to Bertrand “A society is any group of people who share a total common life. 2. According to Linton” A society is a group of people who have lived and worked together long enough to get themselves organized and to think of themselves as a social unit with well organized limits”. 3. The membership of a person in a society can be acquired by virtue of his birth. If a person is immigrant then membership is acquired. C) AIM OF SOCIETY: General aim of society is social progress. 1. Society provides lives of persons richer and fuller in every field. 2. Society provides privileges and liberties to the person. 3. Society also gives duties and responsibilities to the individual to be performed in social circle. 4. Society provides food, Protection, Education & comforts to the person. D) BASIS OF SOCIETY: The following are the three major factors of basis of a society: 1. Biological Factor: Peoples associated in society due top biological needs. 2. Geographical Environmental: It has direct and limited influence upon the nature of a society. 3. Socio-Cultural Environment: It has high influence in a human society and also controls the first two factors. E) TYPES OF SOCIETY: 1. Rural Society. 2. Urban Society. 3. Sedentary Society. 4. Nomadic Society. 5. Traditional Society. 6. Modern Society. 7. Close Society. 8. Open Society. 9. Sacred Society. 10. Secular Society. 11. Folk Society. 12. Static Society. 1) RURAL SOCIETY: Pakistan population census defines a rural area which is unincorporated and consists of less then 5,000 population. a) CHARACTERISTICS: 1. This is traditional society of Pakistan which is sparsely populated. 2. Culture is simple with natural environment and informal social life. 3. Rural economy mostly depends upon agriculture. 4. They have slow means of communication. 5. Rural society does not have modern facilities like water supply, electricity, gas, road rail etc. 6. They have few colleges, hospitals hotels industries etc. 7. Slow rate of social change. 8. Homogeneity in profession, dresses, language, customs etc.

9. The popular recreations in a rural society are fairs wrestling kabaddi etc. 10. Endogamy is a popular in a society. 11. Have informal social life. 2) URBAN SOCIETY: Robert Red field suggests that urban society is characterized by large different population having close culture with other societies thought trade commerce and communications. a) CHARACTERISTICS: 1. It is thickly populated modern society. 2. It has complex culture with modern environmental. 3. Have formal social life. 4. Economic depends upon different types of professions and business. 5. Modern facilities like colleges, hospitals, hotels, industries, etc are present. 6. Urban societies have facilities or electricity water gas road tail etc. 7. Different in profession dresses language and customs. 8. Popular recreations are newspapers radio television dish antenna movies etc. 9. Exogamy is popular in urban society. 10. Rate of changes is faster due to new technology. 3) SEDENTARY SOCIETY: They have permanent settlement in rural and urban area. 4) NOMADIC SOCIETY: In this type the people no permanent place of settlement they roam from place to place. They have no hereditary property. The culture is traditionally tribal have a very successful binding upon its member. 5) TRADITIONAL SOCIETY: 1. Have simple culture with old way of life. 2. Have very slow and old communication. 3. Social changes are minimum. 4. Population is not much. 5. There is homogeneous social life. 6) MODERN SOCIETY: 1. It is consist of a complex culture depend upon the progress in field of education and technology. 2. There is heterogeneous social life. 3. Means of communication are fast. 4. There is rapid social change. 7) CLOSE SOCIETY: 1. Close societies based in family states. 2. It has rigid and permanent system of transferring roles and states. 3. The chances for having states are limited in education occupation religion etc. 4. In this there is influence by caste system. 8 ) OPEN SOCIETY: 1. It is leased on personal abilities and achievements. 2. Changes for having status are unlimited. 3. Person can be upgraded on its personal efforts and capabilities. 9) SCARED SOCIETY: 1. It is religious society. 2. There is rigid, eternal, natural and absolute human relation ship and value system. 3. In this seldom questioned by its members e.g. society at Mecca and Vatican states. 10) SECULAR SOCIETY: 1. It is a non-religious society. 11) FOLK SOCIETY: 1. It is a small isolated non illiterate and homogeneous. 2. The behaviour of person is spontaneous, traditional, and personal. 3. The family ship control’s the economic, political, and religious activities.

4. Status dominates its economy. 12) STATIC SOCIETY: There is little and no change from one generation to another such a society is rare nowadays.

THE STATUS OF MAN AND WOMEN IN OUR SOCIETY SR.NO# MEN WOMEN Man is a king master and pivot around Women place is in the home and she is 1 which everything revolves. suppressed. 2 He can do whatever he likes. She can not do what ever she likes. Women when unmarried abide by the rules set 3 Man is the bread-winner of the family. by her father to her husband. She serves the family disregarding her own 4 Family depends upon man. interest and desires. The wife and children are supported by Islam has given women respectable place in 5 man according to law. society.


A) Definitions: 1. It may be defined as a larger group of individual living together from a long time in a locality having common interest goals and way of life. 2. It is an aggregate of mutually related individual in a given location. 3. There are two conditions for a group to be a community. 4. The group of members lives together territory. 5. They fulfill the needs of there life. B) Examples of community: 1. Village. 2. Chak 3. Mohallah. 4. Basti. 5. Tribe. c) Difference Between Community And Society SR. NO# COMMUNITY SOCIETY 1. Smaller group of people. Large group of people 2. People have close interaction. People have no close interaction People have sentiments with onePeople have no sentiments with one 3. another and towards locality. another and towards locality. There is sense of belonging to one 4. There is no feeling of belonging. another. Social life people are influenced. BySocial lives of people are influenced by 5. local culture. general culture 6. The number of institution are limited The numbers of institution are unlimited. Co-operations with one another isCo-operations with one another are less 7. more effective. effective. There are two type of community: 1. Rural. 2. Urban. d) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RURAL & URBAN COMMUNITY SR. NO# RURAL URBAN 1 Number of professions is limited. Number of professions is un-limited. 2 Sparsely populated. Thickly populated. 3 Informal relations. Formal relations. 4 Rate of social mobility is lower. Rate of social mobility is high. 5 Social life is simple. Social life is complex. Economy depends upon different 6 Economy depends upon agriculture. profession and business activities. Means are communications are very 7 Means are communications are very fast. slow. 8 No modern facilities. Modern facilities are present. 9 There is endogamy. Exogamy is present. 10 Culture life is influenced. Culture life is less influenced. 11 Peoples are superstitious. Peoples are less superstitious.

A) Definitions: A person’s position in the group or the position of a group with relation to the other groups of the same society is called social status. B) Factors determining status: 1. Ancestry: E.g. A child from a royal family has high status. 2. Economic Resources: It plays major role of status. 3. Occupation: Type of occupation has its own status. 4. Education: High level education has high status. 5. Caste: E.g. Syed, Rajput, Mughals, etc has higher status. 6. Sex: Males are usually higher position in role of status. C) Types of status: 1. Ascribed Status:It is the status which one receives at birth, sex, age, caste, race, and family, so that for this status he has to do nothing any work. 2. Achieved status:It is the position achieved by a person through competition and efforts e.g. doctor, engineer, nurse etc… D) Social role: 1. Definition:It may be defined as “The standardized behaviour associated with status of an individual” E.g. a staff playing the role of a nurse a wife a mother etc.Social status is a polar position which one makes in the group of his life. E) Role conflict: It means when two or more roles are performed in a certain social situation and a person has two perform one role and reject the other. 1) Effects of role conflict: 1. Decisive power became weak. 2. Thinking habits develops with result in sleeplessness. 3. Individual became short-tempered and became angry or happy without any reason. 4. A person may develop different medical problems a) General weakness. b) Indigestion. c) Neurosis. d) Hypertension and related problem. e) Asthma. 2) Solution for role conflict: 1. By Busy in study or prayer. 2. By Decision of labour among others, an only job takes from himself. 3. By shifting to rural community. 4. By planning the roles according to the situation.

A) DEFINITION: The family is a group of intimate involved and related either by blood, marriage or adoption. According to law any collection of people which the law of the country designates as family, individual, there removal legally and divorce. It is an institution which meets basic needs of the group and as well of the individual. b) Structure of family: It consists of: 1. Husband. 2. Wife. 3. Children. In joint families: 1. Grand parents. 2. Grand children’s. 3. In-laws. 4. Other relations. C) Types of families: 1. Basic family. 2. According to size. 3. According to dominating members. 4. According to line of inheritance. 1) Basic family: a) Family of Orientation: A person is born and brought up in the family b) Family of Procreation:It is established by marriage. 2) According to size: a) Nuclear Family: It is also known as conjugal family. It consist of husband, wife and there un-married children’s. Common in urban area. a) Extended Family: It consists of husband, wife and there two or more un-married children’s among with there spouses and children. Common in rural areas. b) Joint Family: It is also known as consanguine family, it consist of husband, wife, children’s and two or more generations of relatives, related through either the paternal or maternal line. They have common social, economic and religious. c) Stem Family: It consists of parents and only one child live with the parents after marriage. d) Matrifocal Family: It is also known as mother child unit. It consists of mother & children father is dies or divorced. e) Arrested Family: It consists of husband and wife living together for long time. 3) According to dominating member: a) Patriarchal family: Father is a dominating member and wife and children are legally dependent upon him. b) Matriarchal family: Mother is a dominating member and it’s rare in Pakistan. c) Equalitarian: Father and mother are equal dominance. 4) According to line Inheritance: a) Patrilineal Family: It is based on male descent and inheritance. b) Matrilineal Family:

It is based on female descent and inheritance.
c) Bilineal Family:

It is based on both male and female descent and inheritance E.g. Arab societies, where son shows the line of his father and daughter of her mother. 5) ACCORDING to location: a) Patrilocal Family: In this wife shifts to husband home after marriage. b) Matrilocal Family: In this husband shifts to wife’s home. c) Neolocal Family: In this both husband and wife shift to new home away from their families. d) Avunculocal Family: In this husband & wife shift to husband’s maternal uncle home. D) FUNCTIONS OF FAMILY: 1. Family is an institution in which sexual desires are freely allowed without fear, shame or disgrace. 2. Human generation is reproduced in the family. 3. Family is responsible for development of personality through socialization and individual. 4. Family provides economic security to its member E.g. Home, Cloths, Food, etc. 5. Family provides affection to the children. 6. Family provides protection and support to its members at the time of need E.g. old age, illness, un-employment. 7. It provides education to its members including both formal as well as informal education. 8. Family provides guidance to religious and cultural values. 9. It provides recreational activities to its members E.g. T.V, radio, visits to parks etc. 10. It regulates the relation between two sexes, between parents and children’s and between brother and sister. 11. Family provides emotional satisfaction to members. 12. It provides medical facilities to improve and maintain the health of the member. 13. It acts as feeder for all other institution. E) The nurse and family: The nurse is constantly coming in contact with families which are different from each other. In order to give effective nursing services it is necessary for her to have some knowledge of the families to whom He/She is providing her/him services. The nurse provides health education according to the needs of the particular families and its members. The nurse can guide the families regarding the essential of basic diet. The nurse can assist patients in understanding and caring for their children and in helping them to use the community resources.

A) MARRIAGE: 1. Marriage is a contract between husband and wife which is legally, socially and religiously recognized. 2. Marriage is an emotional and mental relationship between the two. 3. Both husband and wife live to gather realizing there responsibilities according to their roles. 4. Marriage is based on faith and trust. The husband and wife must have mental understanding. They must sacrifice for smaller things. They should learn to handle various misunderstandings. B) TYPES OF MARRIAGE: Some important types are following: 1. EXOGAMY: Marriage outside a bradri or of group. 2. ENDOGAMY: Marriage is same group having same religion caste, bradri etc… 3. MONOGAMY: It is the type in which man marries one woman at a time. 4. POLYGAMY: It is type an individual is married to two or more partners at a time. It is of two types: a) Polygyny: In this one man marries two or more women at a time. b) Polyandry: In this one woman in married to two or more man at a time. 1. LEVIRATE: In this type a widow is married to the brother or heir of her deceased husband. 2. SORORATE: In this, man is married to two or more sisters, usually after the first wife found to be sterile or after the death.

A) DEFINITION: Social norms are the codes of ethics which limits behaviour of individuals.In other words, social norms are the standard by which right and wrong are judged by the society.Social norms are the products of society and culture. They lay equal pressure upon the people. B) FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL NORMS: 1. Social norms control our behaviour by providing pattern to bring harmony in the relation of a society. 2. Social norms help to maintain order in the society. 3. Social norms safe guard our social cultural values. 4. Social norms give human beings a shape of society. C) TYPES OF NORMS:There are 03 types of norms: 1. Folk Ways. 2. Mores. 3. Laws 1) FOLK WAYS: Folk ways are the habits or tradition observed among the individuals in a group.They are the basic customs of social life.Folk ways are informal norms.Folk ways define our specific behaviour for specific situations. Folk ways are norms that arise during social interactions and are handed down from one generation to another.The peoples are punished violation of folk ways which is unwritten.Some examples of folk ways are as follows: 1. Shaking hands while meeting. 2. Respect for elders. 3. Having three meals in a day. 4. Wearing national dress. 5. Saying Khuda-Hafiz. 6. Some marriage ceremonies. 2) MORES: • Mores is a Latin word for customs singular is “mos”. • Mores are the folk ways which have vital importance in the society. • Mores are compulsory behaviour. Mores are more compulsory to conform than folk ways. • Mores are more rigid and strict than the folk ways. There are definite moral supports behind mores. • Mores are more serious norms and also informal. • The violation of mores is a serious threat to the society.Some examples of mores are as follows: 1. Respect for parents. 2. Standing for national anthem. 3. Care of sick. 4. Nikah ceremony. 5. Namaz-e-Janaza. 6. Students to attend classes regularly. 3) LAWS: • It may be defined as “Rules of modes of conduct that are recognized as binding by a supreme controlling authority”. • Law is written customs and part of law book. • Law is social or formal social norms. • Law is the guardian of highest value of the society. • Law may be: 1. Civil. 2. Criminal.

The violation of law is called crime. There are specialized agencies to protect and implement the law such as police, courts, jails, etc…

A) VALUES: Values are standards, ideas or things which are given importance by the people living in a society.The thing toward which are attitude is directed is called value.Values depend upon the social structure and the cultural pattern of the society.Values are the conceptions of the goodness which influence our education from available means and modes of action.Some examples of values are as under: 1. Weather. 2. Power. 3. Status. 4. Education. 5. Truth. 6. Affection. 7. Respect for elders. 8. Cleanness. B) TYPES: There are five types of values: 1. Individual. 2. Group. 3. National. 4. Cultural. 5. Social. 1) INDIVIDUAL: There are personal values which are directly related with the interests and objectives. 2) GROUPS: It is determined with a view to focus or group interest or its objectives rather then other values. 3) NATIONAL: It is those values which are shared by the people of a community. 4) CULTURAL: It is hereditary. These values are transmitted from one generation to another and form core of the culture. They provide shape of the culture. Deviation from the cultural values creates serious problems. 5) SOCIAL: They are current values. Social values are adopted by the society in their daily social life values and are direct aim of people. There values lead to the proper of the society.

A) DIVORCE: 1. Divorce is a legal dissolution totally or partially of a marriage by a court or any other competent authority. 2. Separations of husband and wife are called divorce. B) CAUSES OF DIVORCE: The following are the causes of divorce: 1. TRADITIONAL FACTORS ON OUR SOCIETY: a) The Impact of Collective Unconscious: The past history of an individual can lead to the divorce. b) Male Domination: Male are dominate in our society and this negative attitude has broadened gulf between man and woman. c) Control of Marriage Contract: Now in our society a woman can also have right to get divorce on spatial grounds. d) Abrupt Changes in Old Traditions: Any Abrupt changes in tradition can lead to the shaking of calm way of life. 2. INTER-FAMILY FACTORS: a) Marriage without Willingness of the Partners: Any marriage with out willingness of either partner can lead to misunderstanding between husband and wife and end up in divorce. b) Reciprocal Marriage: Marriage arranged on reciprocal women is above the factor of divorce in our society. c) Family Feuds: Family feuds can make dissatisfaction among the two leading to divorce. d) Interference by In-Laws: Too much interference of in-laws leads to frustration among husband and wife. 3. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS: a) Economic Insufficiency: Unsound economic condition of the family can lead to separation or divorce. b) Job Insecurity: Unemployment or irregular employment may result in financial problem and can be a cause of divorce. c) Poor Housing Condition: Failure of the husband to provide responsible home can also lead to divorce. d) Lake of Recreation Facilities: Lake of recreation facilities can also lead to divorce. e) Changed Economic Role of Woman: Now a day’s women are doing profitable jobs and they are no longer dependent on males. This factor can also be a cause of divorce. 4. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS: a) Selfish Partner: If any of the partner is self-centered, and do not think of other may lead to divorce doubts and fears ultimately divorce. b) Short-Tempered & Emotionally Disturbed Partner: May result in frequent quarrels which may result to divorce. c) Narrow-Minded Partner: Any of the partners who are narrow-minded are suspicious which result in breaking of trust and love and result in divorce. d) Insincere Partner: Any type of Insincerity and doubt between the two can dissolve their marriage. e) Habitual Addiction: Any type of drug addiction can result in divorce. 5. PERSONALITY DIFFERENCE: a) Difference in Education: Any lag in education of either partner may result in divorce. b) Emotional in Incompatibility: Temperamental differences or emotional incompatibility may result in divorce. c) Difference in Socio-Economic Status: The greater is the difference of status between the families of husband and wife is also the cause of divorce.

d) Difference in Religious Belief: Any religious deviancies from either side may be result

of divorce. C) EFECTS OF DIVORCE: 1. Divorced parents ignore their children. 2. Divorced parent’s children became selfish and develop psychological problems. 3. The children of divorced parents may develop sense of insecurity and negative thinking leading to disruptive behaviour. 4. Children develop inferiority complex. 5. Children may become destructive in nature.

A) CULTURE: A culture is a sum of total learned behaviour, traits, values, belief, language, laws and technology, characteristics of the member of a particular society.Culture is the cultivated behaviour i.e. the totality of mans learned experience, socially transmitted to one generation to another.Culture is a behaviour acquired through social learning. B) ELEMENTS OF CULTURE: The followings are the elements of culture: 1. Cultural trait. 2. Cultural complex. 3. Cultural pattern. 4. Cultural theme. 5. Cultural configuration. 6. Cultural ethos. 1) CULTURAL TRAIT: It is the simplest unit of the culture and it may be material or non material. Some examples of material culture traits are: 1. A Nail. 2. A Handkerchief. 3. A Safety pin. Some examples of non-material culture traits are: 1. Making bed. 2. Eating with right hand. 3. Milking a cow. 4. Driving to the left. 5. Knowledge of an important drug. 2) CULTURAL COMPLEX: When two or more cultural traits are organized together is called cultural complex E.g. 1. Television. 2. A watch. 3. A political party as a Muslim league. 3) CULTURAL PATTERN: When two or more cultural complexes are combined, they form a cultural pattern .E.g. some kind of behaviour is accepted from a person of particular age, category, sex etc… 4) CULTURAL THEME: The combinations of two or more cultural pattern result in a cultural theme E.g. all human being are equal. 5) CULTURAL CONFIGURATION: When two or more cultural themes are integrated, the product is known as cultural configuration E.g. Marriage system. 6) CULTURAL ETHOS: Cultural ethos is the central point of culture. E.g. Pakistan culture is religious. C) TYPE OF CULTURE: 1. Material. 2. Non-material. 3. Ideal. 4. Real. 5. Simple. 6. Complex. 7. Organic. 8. Inorganic. 9. Super organic.

10. Sub-culture. 11. Organization. 1) MATERIAL: It is the type of culture related to physical objects E.g. Tools, machinery, books etc. 2) NON-MATERIAL: It is type of culture related to those things which are can not observe E.g. tradition, customs, writing, language etc. 3) IDEAL: It is presented as a pattern to the people and it is seen or written in books and speeches. 4) REAL: It is presented by the people in their social life. E.g. cheating and stealing are commonly seen in our society. 5) SIMPLE: It is based on non industrial social life. E.g., culture in our rural areas. 6) COMPLEX: In this type education, technology, and industry are in their progressive stage E.g. Western culture. 7) ORGANIC: It includes the study of biological science E.g. Zoology, Botany. 8 ) INORGANIC: It includes the study of physical science E.g. Physics, Chemistry etc. 9) SUPER ORGANIC: It includes the study of social sciences E.g. Sociology. 10) SUB-CULTURAL: It is a culture of a group of people in society and such people have one or more cultural traits common in their pattern of life. E.g. Sindhi. Punjabi, Blochi, are sub-culture in Pakistan. 11) ORGANIZATION: It is a common conception shared by the member of an organization.Characteristics in the Organization: 1. Individual. 2. Autonomy. 3. Structure. 4. Reward. 5. Consideration. 6. Conflict.

A) DEFINITION: 1. It can be defined as “A belief that ones own group, race, society and culture are superior to other groups, race, society and culture”. 2. Man has a tendency to believe that his own ways are batter then those of the other and judges other cultures and societies by his own standard. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES SR. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES NO# It provides protection to group members by Ethnocentrism peoples are less educated more 1 creating a sense of belonging among them. individual in religion and less social. It promotes patriotism among member of a They appose the introduction of new idea and 2 society. accept little social changes in their behaviour. It blocks the road to growth of human It helps in bringing about progress on 3 knowledge and mutual co-operation of human national bases. beings in social settings. The individual remain loyal to their group 4 Ethnocentrism obstructs intercultural relation. and culture. It helps in preserve the original culture and The unity and integration of different society 5 separate individuality. became difficult. It some times takes from conflicts, wars and The people feels satisfied with their own 6 other types of destructive activities among two culture. or more societies. Peoples are saved from confusion to It brings frustration and restlessness among the 7 understand that what is wrong and right, people of different groups, and castes, and good or bad in different cultures classes. It may lead to social disorganization and higher 8 It brings more solidarity. rate of crime and delinquency.

A) SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: Social institutions are “An institution is an organized way of satisfying human needs permanently”. The sate of habits associated attitudes and ideas which developed as the best way of satisfying any basic need formed the structure of the social institution. B) ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL INSTITUTATION: An institution for a society is like as organ to a human body, it consists of following elements: 1. It is a group of people of common interest. 2. This group has material equipments E.g. building, furniture. 3. It functions according to the customs of life. 4. It fulfils some needs of the social life. C) BASIC SOCIAL INSTITUTION: There are five basic institution of a society: 1. The family. 2. The education. 3. The religion. 4. The economy. 5. The politics. D) TYPES OF SOCIAL INSTITUTION: The following are various types of institution. 1. Basic. 2. Subsidiary. 3. Enacted. 4. Crescive. 5. Sanctioned. 6. Unsanctioned. 7. General. 8. Restricted. 9. Operative. 10. Regulative. a) BASIC: They are essential for maintenance of order in the society E.g. Family, state. b) SUBSIDARY: They are not essential for social order. E.g. recreational institution. c) CRESCIVE: They develop unconsciously without any planning E.g. marriage religion. d) ENACTED: They are continuously organized for definite purpose E.g. educational and business institutions. e) SANCTIONED: They are socially sanctioned E.g. business and trade institution. f) UNSANCTIONED: They are not sanctioned socially E.g. smuggling. g) GENERAL: They are not restricted to certain area E.g. federal Government of Pakistan. h) RESTRICTED: They are restricted to certain area E.g. Government of Pakistan. i) OPERATIVE: They are those which organized patterns for the attainment of objectives E.g. Industries. j) REGULATIVE: They are organized for the control of customs and other behaviours, E.g. Legal institution. E) FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: The following are the important function: 1. Provision of food. 2. Provision of power. 3. Provision of sex.

4. Provision of place for worship. 5. Regulation of morals. 6. Carrying out of educational activities. 7. Provision of social services. 8. Provision or religious instruction and guidance. 9. Transmission of culture. 10. Shaping of personalities of individual. 11. Socialization of individual. 12. Maintenance of law and social order. 13. Production and distribution of goods and services. 14. Provision of recreation. F) SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN PAKISTAN: 1. Illiteracy. 2. Un-employment. 3. Poverty. 4. Mass failure of education. 5. Unrest among students. 6. Drug addiction. 7. Law field for acre. 8. Sectarianism. 9. Divorce. 10. Neurosis. 11. Traffic accident. 12. Urbanization. 13. Communicable disease. 14. Begari. 15. Labour strikes. 16. Abduction and kidnapping. 17. Mall-adjustment in family. 18. Crimes. 19. Housing problems in cities. 20. Suicide. 21. Un-Hygienic condition. 22. Malnutrition. 23. Non-awareness of religion.

A) RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS: Religious institution is a system of belief & practices influencing human events where man is helpless to explain them.Religious institutions are very useful for the moral and spiritual development of a country. B) STRUCTURE OF RELIGIOUS INSTITUTION: 1. BELIEFS: The belief is a sensation of brain and belongs to faith but no reason. E.g. belief in one God. 2. RITUALS: They are the sacred and accepted practices. E.g. offering of prayers. 3. SACRED OBJECTS: They are objects which are regarded as holy. E.g. Holy Quran, Bible Etc… C) FUNCTION OF RELIGIOUS INSTITUTION: 1. Provides place of worship. 2. Control religious activities in the society. 3. Provide education. 4. Provide social services to the masses. 5. Provide recreation. 6. Moves fear and anxiety. 7. Provide relationship between mankind and God. 8. Provide preservation of cultural values. 9. They create physical and social cleanliness. 10. It is a standard of right and wrong in the society.

A) EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: The educational institutions play significant role in the development of a country the moulds the attitude and behaviour of the individual in a certain name in a particular situation. B) TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: 1. Formal Education. 2. Informal Education. 3. General Education. 4. Technical Education. 5. Conventional Education. 6. Person-Centred Education. 7. Progressive Education. 8. Conservative Education. 9. Prejudiced Education. 10. Liberal Education. 11. Religious Education. 12. Secular Education. 13. Moral Education. 14. Scientific Education.
1. Formal Education: In this an individual receives education in class room E.g. Education in

School, College etc… 2. Informal Education: In this an individual receives education from out side the class room. It starts from the time a baby in born and continues as long as he lives. 3. General Education: In this type a person receives education as a routine. It is divided into following categories.1) Primary School. 2) Middle School. 3) High School. 4) College. 4. Technical Education: It is given to an individual to train him in specific field.1. School of Nursing.2. Medical College.3. Technical College. 5. Conventional Education: It is known as traditional education or indoctrination. Indoctrination means forcing a special idea, belief or mode of learning upon individuals and giving them no opportunity to consider any other point of view.It is rigid form of education in which importance is given to indirect way. 6. Person-Centred Education: In this type the whole person is given importance i.e. the feelings, passion and intellect. 7. Progressive Education: It is also known as emulative education. It is a competitive type of education in which an individual have freedom to compete. This education shows rapid progress or reform. It is flexible because it welcomes change. 8. Conservative Education: In this type, values are preserved. 9. Prejudiced Education: In this, educations are very staunch and are not open-minded to accept new ideas. It may be called an extremist group. 10. Liberal Education: It is also called democratic education. It is flexible and more open. It is ready to accept new ideas. 11. Religious Education: It is a belief-oriented education which is compulsory for each and every individual. It stays within the limits of religious beliefs. 12. Secular Education: It is an education with in sight focusing our reality with no consideration for any religion. 13. Moral Education: It is also known as ethical education it safeguards the principles of humanity and produces ideal human being.

Scientific Education: It is based on empiricism. In this type, an individual produces a theory and also prove into application. C) FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: Two types of functions: 1. Manifest Function. 2. Latent Function. 1. MANIFEST FUNCTION: Some of the important Manifest Functions are as follow: a) To provide education b) To provide religious instruction and guidance. c) To teach discipline. d) To regulate morals. e) To provide recreation. f) To regulate social welfare activities. 2. LATENT FUNCTION: They help in bringing social control and orderly life in a society. D) PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN: In Pakistan, the basic problem regarding education is that, people don’t have the sense to get good education. In Pakistan, the most of population about 80% of people live in villages and majority are uneducated. This backwardness creates problems and people find difficult to solve them. The following are the major problems of educational system: 1. Inadequate educational system. 2. Children’s are absent with lots of problems. 3. Un-uniform system of education. 4. Poor standard of education. 5. Un-effective education system. 6. Waste of educational resources.

A) POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS: It may be defined as, a set of norms pertaining to the distribution of power and authority concerning the management and control of society to bring order in life. The political institutions provide stability and progress of country. The Important Aspects of Political Institutions are as follow: 1. Political behaviour. 2. Pressure group. 3. Public opinion. 4. Public relations. 5. Collective behaviour. 6. Orderliness. Examples of Political Institutions: 1. National Assembly. 2. Provincial Assembly. 3. Town Committee. 4. Union Council. 5. Jirga. 6. Bradri. B) POLITICAL PARTY: It is an organization of people interested in and working to control, or influence the power structure of a community or society. C) STATE: It consists of a body politically organized people permanently occupying a definite territory, speaking a common language and having common culture. D) GOVERNMENT: It is a body of people that constitutes the governing authority of a state. It consists of complex of political institutions, laws and customs that maintain law and order in a state. F) FORMS OF GOVERNMENT: 1. DEMOCRACY: It is derived from two Greek words: “Demon” Means people.“Kratos” Means Rule. Democracy means rule by the people. The idea of democracy was given by ARISTOTLE a Greek philosopher.Democracy ma be defined as Government by the people, of the people, for the people “the most important activity of democracy is the exercising the right to vote. Democracy may be of two types: a. Presidential: Supreme power of government in hand of the president. b. Parliamentarian: Supreme powers of government are in hands of prime Minister. 2. ARISTOCRACY: In this type the basic decision are made by small elite group. 3. AUTOCRACY: (Dictatorship)In this type, the government is control by one supreme power and no appeal can be made against them. 4. MONARCHY: (Kingdom)In this type, the lead of state is king. It is of two types. a. Absolute: In this type, the king has absolute authority E.g. king or Saudi Arabia. b. Limited: In this type, the power of king is limited by the fundamental laws of the country E.g. king of United Kingdom. 5. RELIGIOUS: In this type, the religion have dominant role in the country. 6. SECULAR: In this type, the government is totally run on political lines. 7. SOCIALISM: In this type, the state owns and controls all the means of production. No private companies are allowed.

8. COMMUNISM: In this type, the government is the total owner of the major industries. It

control’s the country through single authoritarian party and controls economic social and culture of a society. G) FUNCTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT: There are two type of functions: a) External. b) Internal. a) External Function: To protect people of country from outside dangers or aggression or war from any other country. b) Internal Function: 1. To take care of life, homes and property of peoples. 2. To provide homes to live. 3. To provide education. 4. To provide electricity, water and gas. 5. To provide transport facilities E.g. road rail etc. 6. To provide communication facilities e.g. telephone. 7. To provide health and control disease. 8. To maintain law and order. 9. To control crime. 10. To take care of handicapped, children. 11. To solve un-employment. 12. To control child labour. 13. To regulate trade and commerce. 14. To protect people from anti social elements. 15. To provide recreation facilities E.g. parks, and games like cricket etc. H) RIGHTS OF CITIZENS: The following are the rights of citizens: 1. Right of security of life property and honour. 2. Right of housing. 3. Right of education. 4. Right to move freely. 5. Right to express freely. 6. Right to marry. 7. Right of religion. 8. Right of facilities of transportation from one place to another place. 9. Right of health facilities. 10. Right of defense against foreign enemies.

A) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS: It is a set of norms relating to production & distinction of goods and services. The economy means the dominant form of economic activity present in a society e.g. 1. Collecting and hunting economy. 2. Nomadic –post oral economy. 3. Settled agricultural economy. 4. Modern urban industrial economy. a) CAPITALISM: It is an economic system in which the property of economic institution is owned and controlled by individuals. b) SOCIALISM: It is an economic system in which the property of economics institutions is owned and controlled by the state. B) STRUCTURE OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS: 1. ECONOMIC SYSTEM: An economic system of every society based on ideology by which control and are of capital goods and services is achieved. 2. DIVISION OF LABOR: Division of labour has made the economic activities of the individual most efficient, organized and effective. 3. COMPETITION: The economic structure based on competition provides formal and informal norms for production and distribution of goods and services. 4. ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION: In a society, there are different economic organizations which give different roles and status two its members e.g. trusts partnership etc… 5. ECHNOLOGY: Technology in every field of economy is introduced all over the world. C) FUNCTIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS: 1. To regulate and control the capital goods and services in a society. 2. To satisfy human needs. 3. They play important role in socialization. 4. Its play role in social satisfaction. 5. It provides priority to the individual belonging to a higher economic status. 6. To provide specialization in process of production and distribution. 7. To provide power and authority to their owners. 8. They higher economic status is closely associated with greater political hold in society. D) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN AGRICULTURE: Some Important Economic Institutions in Agriculture are as follows: 1. Agricultural farming. 2. Chemical fertilizer. 3. Irrigation system. 4. Harvesting of crops by labour. 5. Land tenure system. 6. Agricultural department. 7. Agricultural sale depots, flour mills. E) ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN INDUSTRY & TECHNOLOGY: Some Important Economic Institutions in Industry & Technology are as follows: 1. Textile industries. 2. Pharmaceutical industries. 3. Shoes industries. 4. Electronic industries. 5. Mechanical industries.

6. Transport vehicles industries. 7. Big shops markets etc… 8. Banks.

A) RECREATION INSTITUTIONS: The recreation institutions stands for an interrelated set of roles and norms that. Full fill the needs of a society in the field of recreation. Recreation means network of activities in which people are engaged in for pleasure and relaxation. Some common forms of recreation are: 1. Amusement e.g., drama, movies etc… 2. Hobbies. 3. Sports and Games. 4. Play. B) TYPES OF RECREATIONS: 1. Formal. 2. Informal. 3. Games. 4. Play. 5. Active. 6. Passive. 7. Organized. 8. Unorganized. 9. Indoor. 10. Outdoor
1. FORMAL: In this, the winner and loser and defined by rules and regulation e.g.) Cricket

2. INFORMAL: In this type the rules and regulation are defined e.g., radio, TV etc… 3. GAMES: They are controlled by set of rules and regulations and comprises decide the game

according to rules and with in fixed time in ground. 4. PLAY: In place the rules and regulations and umpires do not take seriously. 5. ACTIVE: When a person participate physically in the recreation for pleasure e.g., hunting, Fishing etc… 6. PASSIVE: In this type, individual does not participate physically e.g. watching games, listening to radio etc… 7. ORGANISED: In this type recreation is organized regulate by formal bodies e.g.: Hyderabad City cricket association etc… 8. UNORGANIZED: Here recreation is not organized or regulate by any formal body. 9. INDOOR: It is an activity performed inside place e.g., Chess, Carum, Cards etc… 10. OUTDOOR: It is an activity performed out side in the open field e.g. Cricket, Hockey etc… C) FUNCTION OF RECREATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: 1. They provide good past time. 2. Provide relaxation from hard work. 3. Help to build physique. 4. They build personality. 5. Keeps person in good physical, mental and social health. 6. Provide happiness and Love among society members. 7. Promote s sense of co-operation and spirit. 8. Decreases late of conflict and crimes.

D) RECREATIONAL FOUND IN PAKISTAN: Recreational Found in Rural Areas: 1. Games like kabaddi, Wrestling, Playing Cards etc… 2. Fares. 3. Theatres. 4. Moving talkies. 5. Story telling. 6. Songs. 7. Seasonal Festivals. 8. Circuses. 9. Radio. Recreational Found in Urban Areas: 1. Games like e.g. Cricket, Hockey etc… 2. Radio. 3. Television. 4. Newspapers. 5. Books and Magazines. 6. Theatres. 7. Movies. 8. Singing and Dancing. 9. Visit to historical places and Zoo. 10. Museum. 11. National celebration. 12. Exhibition.

A) LEGAL INSTITUTIONS: They are the binding force on whole social order and controlling agencies for other social institution. They provide legal framework for the proper function of all other institution. Some Examples of Legal Institution are as under: 1. Supreme Court. 2. High Court. 3. Civil Court. 4. Session Courts. 5. Military Summary. 6. Police station. 7. Jails. 8. Jirga. 9. Union Council. 10. Municipal comities. 11. District Council. 12. National Assembly. 13. Provincial Assembly. 14. Senate. 15. Ministry of law. B) LAW: It means formal social norm and a rule for the guidance of human behaviour. C) FUNCTIONS OF LEAGAL INSTITUTION: 1. Maintain control and order in society. 2. Regulates the activities, duties and rights of all within the state. 3. It links between people and different groups. 4. It provides cooperation among people. 5. All business and professional activities are controlled through the law. 6. Provide right to use power.

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