# Ameron Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems

INDEX 1. 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 3. 3.1 3.2 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Introduction Pipewall Thickness based on internal pressure Wall thickness Diameter Dimensional pipe properties Trust force due to temperature and variation in length Length Change Thrust Support and guide spacing Pipe bending radius Collapse resistance for liquid Pipe-ring stiffness Waterhammer and surge Headloss or pressure drop for liquid flow Literature Legenda

Fiberglass-Composite Pipe Group division Europe P.O. Box 6 - 4191 CA Geldermalsen - Holland tel. +31 345 587 587 - fax +31 345 587 561 email: info@ameron-fpg.nl

To most products an inferior liner is added. Expension and contraction due to temperature variations and internal pressure will either combined or individual result in thrust forces on the anchoring points The formulas for the calculation of the optimal distance between two supports or guide spacings for single. pressure and variation in length 4.A.. The minimum required wallthickness of the pipe is based on design codes as ASME and ANSI. Pipe wall thickness 3.Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems 1. 2. On many occasions the pipe is fabricated to pressure as well as a varying temperature of the medium. consisting of C-veil and resin.S. Changes in velocity of fluids cause changes in pressure. for oil. Collapse resistance for liquid 7. Trust forces due to temperature. STES (= Specific Tangential End Stiffness) and other values. In that case the allowable bending radius of the glass reinforced epoxy pipe can be calculated When the external pressure on the pipe may exceed the internal pressure one has to take into account the collapse resistance of the pipe. Especially when these velocity changes are sudden. as used in the U. values have to be used like STIS (= Specific Tangential Initial Stiffness). Bending radius 6. Support and Guide spacing 5. e. A slight gradual change in direction or deviation of the pipe may be obtained by using the flexibility of the pipe. Pressure variation will cause a length change if the product is unrestrained and due to the Poisson effect an increase in pressure will shorten the pipe.g. Pipe-ring stiffness 8. which may harm the piping system Head loss or pressure drop can be calculated by using the Hazen-Williams equation for water and the Darcy-Weisbach for laminar flows. partial and continuous spans are given. they can result in high forces. The calculations take into account density of the liquid and the weight of the pipe. Introduction In this Technical Bulletin an overview is given of commonly used formulas in relation with Glassfibre Reinforced Epoxy piping. This is alos mathematically explained. Waterhammer and surge 9. Head loss or pressure drop for liquid flow Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 2 . To make calculations for earth and wheel-loads on buried pipe. Stiffness Factor and Pipe Stiffness. This is ruled by equations which differs from those for internal pressure. Head loss in fittings are calculated by defining a corresponding pipe length.

2): ts = Dp 2sF + p (1) ASTM D-2992 [2] uses the same type of formula to calculate the hoop stress as follows: σ=p (D a .1. used by Ameron to calculate the various aspects related to glass reinforced epoxy (= GRE) pipe. diameter and wallthickness of Ameron products by: The spreadsheet presented by Ameron in its documentation gives these values. Also these equations can be used to make the required calculations.1 Wall Thickness The minimum pipewall thickness is calculated with the formula according to ASME / ANSI B31. This will help the reader to understand the equations which govern certain common engineering cases of GRE pipesystems. 2.2 Diameter Minimum outside diameter of pipe in [m]: (4) D = d + 2t Mean pipe wall diameter in [m]: (5) Dm = d + t (6) Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 3 .t s ) 2t s (2) The above mentioned formula has been rearranged to induce the internal liner and is used by Ameron to calculate the minimum reinforced wall thickness of Bondstrand pipe as follows: Minimum reinforced wall thickness in [m]: ts = p(d + 2t l ) 2σst s ⇔p= 2σs − p d + t s + 2t l (3) Minimum total wall thickness in [m]: t = ts + tl + ta 2.Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems 1. When making these calculations the input data should be based on the physical mechanical properties. PIPEWALL THICKNESS BASED ON INTERNAL PRESSURE 2.3 [1] (Paragraph A304. INTRODUCTION This manual presents the calculations.

the moment of inertia may be multiplied by 0. Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 4 . The stiffness factor IE = Is Es + Ilin El = Is Es + Ilin Es 0.1 Length change Like in other types of pipe material. 5. in unrestrained condition.25.25 so I = Is + Ilin 0.25.3 Dimensional pipe properties Cross section area of minimum pipe wall in [m ] : Aw = π (d + t)t Area of pipe bore in [m ]: 2 (7) A b = 0.Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems 2 2. in other words the coefficient of thermal expansion of Bondstrand pipe is constant [4. Bondstrand fiberglass reinforced pipe changes its length with temperature change. which is the approximate ratio between the modulus of elasticity of the liner and the structural wall. (10) 2 Weight of pipe per unit length in [kg/m ]: w p = A s ρs + A l ρl (11) 1 Weight of fluid per unit pipe length in [kg/m ]: w f = 0. 3. 6].25πd 2 ρ f Linear moment of inertia of the pipe [3] in [m ]: 4 (12) I l = I s + I lin (13) 4 Linear moment of inertia of the structural wall in [m ]: Is = π (d + 2t l + 2t s )4 − (d + 2t l )4 64 ( ) 4 (14) Linear moment of inertia of the inner liner in [m ]: I lin = π (d + 2t l )4 − d 64 ( ) 4 (15) Note! In case of calculating with the moment of inertia of the total wall thickness and the elasticity modulus of structural wall. TRUST FORCE DUE TO TEMPERATURE AND VARIATION IN LENGTH 3. Tests have shown that the amount of expansion varies linearly with temperature.25πd 2 Cross section area of min. structural wall in [m ]: 2 (8) A s = π ( d + 2t l ) + t s t s ( ) (9) Cross section area of inner liner in [m ]: 2 Al = π (d + tl )tl.

Poisson's ratio and the effective moduli of elasticity in both. the Poisson's effect produces considerable tension in the pipe wall. compressive nor tensile loads.49 (at 21°C). This is because in straight.56 x 11000 / 25200 = 0. In a fully restrained and blocked or anchored Bondstrand pipe. In practice. 3. length changes induced by temperature change are resisted by the anchors and converted to thrust [4. the largest compressive thrust is normally developed on the first positive temperature cycle. a free Bondstrand pipeline will expand its length due to thrust force at the ends of the pipeline. Change in length due to pressure in [m]:  pd 2   pd 2 E l  pd 2  ∆Lp = L − µc  = L  (1 − 2 µc )  (17) E c  2tD m E c   4tD m E l  4tD m E l  The total length change is the sum of the change due to temperature and due to pressure. As internal pressure is applied. subject to the value 2µcEl / Ec . The amount of change in the pipeline is a function of pressure.g. compressive and tensile loads as it is subjected to temperature cycles. Neither. The above shown equation for length change due to pressure. The reduction may amount to 50%. Subsequently the pipe develops both. 6].2 Thrust Thrust due to temperature is principally independent of pipe length. restrained pipelines with rigid joints. axial and circumferential direction at the operating temperature. are expected to exceed the thrust on the first cycle. pipe wall thickness. irregardless the range of the temperature changes. e. 5. for Series 2000: 2 x 0. compared to the general equation:  π  2   p 4 d   pd 2   Pbf    (18)  = L ∆L = L   = L  4tD m E l   A w El   πtD m E l      shows that.Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems Change in length due to thermal expansion in [m]: ∆LT = λL∆T (16) Subjected to an internal pressure. the length increase due to the bulkhead force is considerably reduced by the Poisson’s effect. diameter. the pipe expands circumferentially and at the same time tries to contract Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 5 . Thrust due to temperature in [N]: FT = λ∆TA w E l = λ∆T(πD m t ) E l (19) The theory of thrust due to internal pressure in a restrained pipeline is rather complicated.

Thrust due to temperature and pressure in [N]: FTp = FT + Fp (21) Resulting force due to thrust from two pipelines meeting at an elbow or turn in the pipeline in [N]: δ  Fe = 2sin F 2 (22) Force at a reduction in a straight run by the larger diameter in [N]:  E  Fr = λ∆TE l ( A bl − A bs ) + p( A wl − A ws )1 − 2 µ c l  (23) Ec   In a blocked or anchored pipe system the Poisson's effect causes tension in the pipe wall which counteracts the pipe thrust due to temperature. reducers or closed ends. This creates a considerable tensile force in the pipe wall. closed valves. Thrust or tension in pipewall in a restrained blocked or anchored pipeline due to temperature change and pressure in [N]:  πpd 2 E l  Fw = λ∆TA w E l −  µ c  2E c   Fp Fp ∆L σ =ε = = = L E l A w E l πD m E l t Equation 20 is valid. This thrust may be twice the effect of pressure on the pipe wall. The tension in the pipe wall may be positive or negative. Thrust due to pressure in [N]:  E  Fp = pA b 1 − 2 µc l  Ec   (20) The concurrent effects of pressure and temperature must be combined for the design of anchors. Similarly.Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems longitudinally. subject to the direction of the temperature / pressure change. and (24) (25) ∆L pd 2  El  = 1 − 2 µc  L 4tD m E l  Ec  (26) Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 6 . The thrust is independent of the run length or support spacing. on multiple pipe runs. In pipelines with elbows. and acts to reduce the hydrostatic thrust on the anchors. thrusts developed in all runs must be added for the total effect on the anchors. the internal pressure works on the cross sectional area of the ends.

25 (28) (Note! For imperial input resulting in inches this equation can be used if 1.207.486 b l   w  0. moment of inertia and elasticity.Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems As can be seen substituting and re-arranging gives equation 20. 4.25 (30) Note! For imperial input resulting in inches these equations can be used if 1.258).486 is replaced by 0.994 by 0. Distance between supports for partial run [3. for single spans Lp should be decreased by 20%.24 is replaced by 0. The product from equation 20 ( pA )−2 µ b   c El  pd 2  E l  ⇔   ( − µ c ) Ec  2  Ec  (27) gives a negative sign. For continuous span Lp may be increased by 20%. valves vertical runs etc. is normally acceptable for appearance and sufficient for drainage. 7] in [m]: E I  L p = 1. as well as the layout of the system.994 b l   w  0. may also affect the support distances.0127 m.31 and 0. SUPPORT AND GUIDE SPACING The distance between two succeeding supports. as well as changes in horizontal directions. A long term deflection of 0. which is tension in the pipe wall caused by the Poisson’s effect. giving the same results as when using following equations: Distance between supports for continuous run in [m]: E I  L c = 1. Explanation of partial span The general equations to calculate the maximum deflection of a tubular body are for continuous span Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 7 . which counteracts the bulkhead force exercised on the blocking or anchoring.24 b l   w  0.25 (29) Distance between supports for single run in [m]: E I  L s = 0. Local loads. such as heavy fittings heavy flange arrangements. depends on the parameters as load.

If anchors are used at both ends of a pipeline. is determined that closely approximates a "y" of -0. giving the same result as equation 29 if increased by 20% or equation 30 if decreased by 20%. Guides may be required in conjunction with expansion joints or expansion loops. Distance between guides in [m]:     ElIl   Lg = 0. now seen only in the smaller diameters. which is reduced by 25% to develop the original portion of curves. The guide spacing can be calculated by using the rearranged Euler equation multiplied by 75%.Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems fw = 5wL4 384EI (31) and for single span wL4 fw = 384EI (32) Taking 0. a shorter length Lg should be chosen and used in the Roark equation until by trial and error a final length. Lg obtained from the Euler equation is the recommended guide spacing. Bending moments in the pipe due to deflection or buckling (using [4]) in Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 8 .5 (33) The above equation solves for the maximum stable length of a pipe column when fixed ends are assumed.5 (34) If "y" is less than -0.0127 m as deflection “fw”. If "y" is greater than -0. Lg. Vertical deflection in [m]: − wLg   kLg   kLg  y= −   tan 2kPw   4   4   P  where k =  w   E bIl  0. to control excessive deflection. Not only to resist buckling of the pipe as a column or "snaking" but to also adjust guide spacing to prevent excessive vertical deflections due to weight. to restrict axial movements.0127 m.2 µ c   Ec     0. these equations may be rearranged to calculate the span as equation 29 and equation 30.0127m. until a method of controls must be designed in order to prevent excessive lateral deflection or buckling of pipe due to compressive load.75π    El  λ∆TA w E l + pA b 1 .0127 m. and to allow for non-Euler behaviour near the origin of the curve. The partial span equation 28 is the average between the equations 29 and 30. the length calculated by the Euler equation. the guide distance. should be checked by using it in the following equation of [4].

Temperature Cº 2 ElasticityMN/m Ec T 21 66 93 121 25200 25300 22100 22000 Modulus 2400 based pipe 2 ElasticityMN/m Ec Modulus 3400 based pipe 7. PS. STIS and STES according NEN 7037.113 2 (44) Relation between STIS (N/m ) and PS [psi]: PS = 475.ASTM-D2412 [10]).002105PS 8. WATERHAMMER AND SURGE (45) Changes in velocity of fluids cause changes in pressure. SF. in [N/m ]: 2 EI E  t  STIS = c w = c   D m 3 12  D m  STIS = αβ STES 3 (40) 2 Specific Tangential End Stiffness.149rm 3 PS ⇔ E c I w = E c 2 t 12 SF Dm3 3 (43) Relation between STIS [N/m ] and SF [inch. and are calculated using the Joukowski equation [11].lb/inch]: SF = 0. STIS [9]. or even pipe rupture elsewhere in the system. PIPE . ASTM-D2412 test [10]). closure of check valves.RING STIFFNESS Stiffness data are used in calculations of earth. Specific Tangential Initial Stiffness.848D m 3 STIS ⇔ STIS = 0. STES.14STIS ⇔ STIS = 0. Especially when these velocity changes are sudden they can be harmful to the piping system. starting and stopping of pumps. Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 10 . in [psi]: PS = Fpr ∆y 2 (42) Stiffness Factor (acc.and wheelloads on buried pipe [8].Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems The effective circumferential moduli of elasticity for external pressure loading. Velocity changes may be caused by movement of valves. in [N/m ]: (41) Pipe Stiffness (acc.lb]: SF = 8. in [inch . have been determined by a combination of theoretical and empirical data.

i. increase of tw will decrease c and decrease ∆p subsequently. Velocity of pressure wave in a closed pipe conduit in [m/s]: c= 1  1 d   ρf  +    K E t  c s    0. then water hammer should be calculated on the basis of instant valve closure.5 times the maximum system design pressure. Calculating the pressure wave velocity “c” can be done using the Talbot equation.e. added to the highest occurring working pressure in the system should not be higher than 1. pipe dimensions and the elasticity modulus of the pipe wall. Head loss for liquid flow in m of water column / 100 m pipe length (imperial: ft of water/100 ft) using the HAZEN-WILLIAMS equation with a Hazen Williams factor C = 150 for Bondstrand Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 11 . So the longer the wave cycle. Time of one pressure wave in [seconds]: tw = 2Lw c (48) As can be seen. HEADLOSS OR PRESSURE DROP FOR LIQUID FLOW Head loss for liquid flow often can be obtained out of charts and tables. However also there are rather simple ways to calculate the head loss.Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems Pressure change in meter waterhead: ∆p = c ∆v g (46) The pressure wave velocity in a closed pipe system depends on fluid characteristics. the smaller the pressure shock. This method may be used for water in a temperature range of 0°C to 37°C (imperial: 31°F to 100°F). Delayed closure time: The hammer pressure rise pv caused by taken into account a valve closure of Tv seconds can be calculated as follows p v = 2∆p Lw Tv (49) (50) p tot = p v + p 9. A very simple method to calculate the head loss was developed by Hazen and Williams. If a valve is closed within the time of one wave cycle.5 (47) The pressure change ∆H. from the closed valve to the other end and back.

94 653 316 100/212 958.4 59.72 62. using the DARCY-WEISBACH equation: Hl = f Lv 2 2dg (52) Darcy Friction Factor for laminar flow(Re<= 2000) f= 64 . input: H l = 0.7 62.2 62.2 5π d 2 Temperature Density Cº/ºF T 3 kg/m r lb/ft -6 2 Absolute 10 N s/m h -6 2 Viscosity10 pdl s/ft 1205 Kinematic 10 m /s 1011 -9 2 Viscosity10 ft /s 1931 Temperature Density Cº/ºF T 3 kg/m r lb/ft -6 2 Absolute 10 N s/m h -6 2 Viscosity10 pdl s/ft 538 Kinematic 10 m /s 296 -9 2 Viscosity10 ft /s 865 -9 2 -9 2 0/32 999. and Re (53) Darcy Friction Factor for turbulent flow(Re=> 4000): 1    e 10 6  3  1 + 20000 + f = 0. The Darcy Friction Factor is variable.41 1310 678 1568 1088 60/140 983.16 1009 1310 ν=η/ρf 1794 1687 30/86 995.42 1794 1053 4/39.865 (51) Another way of calculating this head loss is using the Darcy-Weisbach equation.865 H l = 0. subject to the Reynolds Figure.I.38 470 191 658 319 20/68 998.1 1000 62.0983 Q1.852 d 4.852 and for Imperial input: d 4.43 1568 880 10/50 999.1007 Q1.0055     d Re     (54) Reynold's number: Re = vd vdρf .83 284 478 ν=η/ρf 803 709 514 Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 12 .2 61. Head loss for liquid flow. in m of water column / 100 m pipe length (imperial: ft of water/100 ft).Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems pipe: For S.2 61. but has the advantage that it can also be used for other temperatures and other liquids. this complicated the use of the method.87 62. This method is more complicated than the Hazen-Williams method. and = ν η (55) Velocity of liquid flow: Q Q v = = Ab 0 .16 800 439 1410 40/104 992.

Real equivalent pipe length of fitting with water as fluid in [m]: (57) L E = K r Le Real equivalent pipe length of fitting with other fluids in [m]: LE = Kr d f (58) Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 13 . Subject to the configuration of the fitting. The equivalent length LE can be obtained using the chart for equivalent length of Bondstrand fittings. the resistance coefficient "K" varies and can be obtained from the table "Resistance Coefficients for fittings".Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems The head loss in joints and fittings can be calculated using the same method as used for pipe after defining the equivalent length. Multiplying Le by K gives the real equivalent pipe length of the fitting. This chart was developed for fittings with a resistance coefficient "K" of 1 and water as fluid.

Kohlhammer. Standard test method for determination of external loading characteristics of plastic pipe by parallel-plate loading.requirements and test methods. [3] Roark R. Eyerer von P..Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems 10. Mechanische Aspekte bei drucklos betriebenen. Standard practice for obtaining hydrostatic or pressure design basis for “fiberglass” (glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting-resin) pipe and fittings.A. [8] Algra E.... Delft. [2] ASTM-D-2992. 1991 [5] Heißler H..R. Lancaster.S. 1972 11. B31. Analysis for Design of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Vessels and Pipings.V. [9] NEN 7037. Glass reinforced thermosetting plastics pipes for drain and sewer. December 1996. an american national standard ASME code for pressure piping.3 / ANSI.. the behaviour of structures composed of composite materials. [7] Mönch E. United States. [10] ASTM-D-2412. 1987. Standard handbook of engineering calculations.und Raumfarhttechniek.H. Formulas for Stress and Strain. 1973. LEGENDA α : creeping factor for pipe material β ε λ : altering factor of pipe material : strain rate 2 3 η : dynamic viscosity Ns/m = 10 centipoise : coefficient of thermal expansion in axial direction in m/m/ºK [in/in/ºF] ∆L : sum of the change in length due to temperature and due to pressure ∆LT: change in length due to thermal expansion [m] ∆Lp : change in length due to pressure ∆p : pressure change µ c : poisson's ratio (contraction in longitudinal direction due to strain in hoop direction) Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 14 .. Verstärkte Kunststoffe in der Luft. Einführungsvorlesung Technische Mechanik.. Hicks P. Singapore.E. LITERATURE . 1993. Hicks D..J. [1] ASME B31. Kunststoffe und Elastomere in der Praxis. Pennsylvania.L. 1976 [4] Hoa S. [6] Vinson J. [11] Tyler G. erdverlegten GFK-Rohren. Wien. Sierakowski R. Stuttgart.

(psi) 2 Ec : circumferential modulus of elasticity in N/m = Pa [psi] 2 El : longitudinal modulus of elasticity in N/m = Pa [psi] 2 EI : stiffness factor per unit length of pipe wall in inch -lbs/inch f fw F Fe : Darcy Friction Factor .dimensionless : deflection of a tubular body : service (design) factor : resulting force due to thrust from two pipelines meeting at an elbow or turn in the pipeline in [N] Fp : thrust due to pressure 3 Fpr : load applied pipe ring inch.) in N/m = Pa [psi] σl : allowable axial tensile stress in N/m 2 2 2 3 3 σp : actual axial stress due to internal pressure in N/m ∆T : change in temperature in ºK or ºC. ASTM D-2925 in N/m =Pa. [ft or inch]. 2 Eb : elastic beam modulus acc.Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems µl : poisson's ratio for (contraction in hoop direction due to strain in longitudinal direction) ν : kinematic viscosity m /s = 10 centistoke 3 3 3 3 2 6 ρf : density of fluid material in kg/m [lb/inch ] ρl : density of the liner material in kg/m [lb/inch ] ρs : density of the structural pipe wall in kg/m [lb/inch ] σ : hydrostatic design bases (H.B.D. ( ºF) A b : cross sectional area of pipe bore m [inch ] 2 2 Abl : cross sectional area of larger pipe bore in m [inch ] 2 2 Abs : cross sectional area of smaller pipe bore in m [inch ] 2 2 Al : cross sectional area of inner liner in m [inch ] 2 2 As : cross sectional area of minimal structural wall m [inch ] : cross sectional area of pipewall in m [inch] Aw 2 2 Awl : cross sectional wall area of larger pipe in m [inch ] 2 2 Aws : cross sectional wall area of smaller pipe in m [inch ] c D d Da Dm : velocity of pressure wave in the pipe conduit in m/s [in/s] : minimum outside diameter of pipe in m : inside diameter of pipe in m : average reinforced outside diameter in m : mean diameter of pipewall in m [inch] 2 2 e : absolute roughness of internal pipe wall in m.(lbf/m ) Fr : force at a reduction in a straight run by the larger diameter in [N] FT : thrust due to temperature FTp : thrust due to temperature and pressure Fw : thrust or tension in pipewall in a restrained blocked or anchored pipeline due to temperature change and pressure g Hl Il : acceleration by gravity in m/s [in/s ] : head loss : linear moment of inertia of pipe in m . [inch ] 4 4 2 2 Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 15 .

obtained from chart in m [ft] : real equivalent pipe length of fitting : distance between guides in m. [ft /s] RB : minimum allowable bending radius in [m] Re : Reynolds number s t ta tl ts tw T Tv : design stress : total wall thickness in m [inch] : allowance for ring stiffness. [inch] : length of the closed section of the pipe conduit in m. external pressure : thickness of internal liner in m [inch] : minimum reinforced wallthicknes in m : time of one pressure wave : temperature : valve closing time [sec. [inch ] 4 4 Is : linear moment of inertia of the structural wall in m . : distance between supports for single run M : bending moments in the pipe due to deflection or buckling using [4] in [Nm] p : internal design gage pressure : minimum ultimate collapse pressure pc Pbf : bulkhead force Ptot : total pressure Pv : hammer pressure caused by valve closure Pw :λ ∆TA in meters (inch) Q : rate of flow or debit in m /s.Calculation Manual for Bondstrand® GRE Pipe Systems 4 4 Ilin : linear moment of inertia of the inner liner in m . (ft/s) ∆v : change in fluid velocity in m/s w : total uniformly distributed load in N/m. [inch ] 3 : inertia moment of pipe wall in inch Iw k : thrust stiffness relation factor . [inch] : distance between supports for partial run in m.dimensionless L Lc Le LE Lg Lp Lw Ls : initial length of pipeline in m [inch] : distance between supports for continuous run : equivalent pipe length. [lb/in] 2 wp : weight of pipe per unit length in [kg/m ] y : vertical deflection ∆y : deflection of inside diameter in inch Technical Bulletin 3 July 1997 16 .dimensionless 2 K : bulk modulus of fluid compressibility in N/m Kr : resistance coefficient of fitting .] 3 3 v : fluid velocity in m/s.