PRODUCTION SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION FOR SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

LIFTED WELLS : A CASE STUDY


A THESIS SUBMITTED TO
THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
OF
THE MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY


BY

NURİ OZAN GÜLER





IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN
THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM AND NATURALGAS ENGINEERING



APRIL 2004


Approval of the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences


Prof . Dr. Canan ÖZGEN
Director


I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of
Master of Science.



Prof. Dr. Birol DEMİRAL
Head of Department


This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.



Prof. Dr. A .Suat Bağcı
Supervisor
Examining Committee Members
Prof. Dr. Birol DEMİRAL (Chair Person)
Prof. Dr. A. Suat BAĞCI
Prof. Dr. Fevzi GÜMRAH
Prof. Dr. Mustafa V. KÖK
Prof. Dr. Nurkan KARAHANOĞLU
iii



ABSTRACT



PRODUCTION SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION FOR SUBMERSIBLE
PUMP LIFTED WELLS : A CASE STUDY


GÜLER, Nuri Ozan
M.S. Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. A. Suat Bağcı
April, 2004, 173 Pages



A computer program has been written to perform production
optimization in submersible pump lifted wells. Production optimization was
achieved by the principles of Nodal Analysis Technique which was applied
between the reservoir and the wellhead ignoring the surface choke and
separator. Computer program has been written according to two lifting
environment, which are: pumping with only liquid and pumping with both
liquid and gas. Program played an important role in the study by overcoming
difficult iterations existing in the pumping liquid and gas case due to
variation of liquid volume between pump intake and discharge pressure.
Hagedorn and Brown vertical multiphase flow correlation was utilized in the
program to determine the pressure at required depth. However, Griffith
Correlation was also used in the program since Hagedorn and Brown
Correlation failed to give accurate results at bubble flow.
iv
A case study was done by evaluating the 10 wells located in
Diyarbakır-GK field which are all submersible pump lifted. Well, reservoir,
fluid and lift-system data was transferred to already written computer
program. Output of the computer program for both cases was used to
calculate accurately the optimum production rates, required horsepower,
number of pump stages and the relation between these parameters with
each other. The sensitivity variable selected is the number of pump stages.
At the end of the study, by comparing the actual operating data and the
computer-based optimized data, it was observed that 3 wells: W-16, W-17,
and W-24 were producing completely within their optimum range, 5 wells:
W-07, W-08, W-25, W-27 and W-28 were not producing at their optimum
range but their production parameters can said to be acceptable , 1 well: W-
22 was producing inefficiently and should be re-designed to reach optimum
conditions. It was realized that W-15 has insufficient data to make
necessary interpretations.

Keywords: Production optimization, nodal system analysis technique,
electrical submersible pump, artificial lift, Hagedorn and Brown correlation,
Griffith correlation.

v



ÖZET



DALGIÇ POMPALARLA ÜRETİMİ YAPILAN KUYULARIN SİSTEM
OPTİMİZASYONU: ÖRNEK SAHA ÇALIŞMASI


GÜLER, Nuri Ozan
M.Sc., Petrol ve Doğal Gaz Mühendisliği Bölümü
Danışman: Prof. Dr. A. Suat Bağcı
Nisan, 2004, 173 Sayfa



Dalgıç pompalarla üretim yapılan kuyuların optimizasyonu için
bilgisayar programı yazılmıştır. Üretim optimizasyonu Nodal Analizi
Tekniğiyle gerçekleştirilmiş ve rezervuar ile kuyubaşı arasında, kuyubaşı
sonrası yüzey donanımı ve separatör dikkate alınmadan uygulanmıştır.
Program iki üretim ortamına göre yazılmıştır, bunlar: sadece sıvı ile hem sıvı
hem gaz üretim ortamlarıdır. Bu bilgisayar programı, sözü edilen sıvı ile gaz
pompalanması sırasındaki pompa emiş ve çıkış basıncı arasında sistemdeki
gaz’dan dolayı oluşan sıvı hacmi değişimlerinin hesaplamasında ortaya
çıkan iterasyonların çözümü açısından önemli bir rol oynamaktadır.
Programda istenilen derinlikteki basınç değerlerini hesaplamak amacıyla
Hagedorn ve Brown korelasyonu kullanılmıştır. Hagedorn ve Brown
Korelasyonunun yetersiz kaldığı akış rejimlerinde Griffith Korelasyonu
kullanılarak sonuca ulaşılmıştır.
vi
Yazılan bu programın pratiğe geçirilmesi açısından Diyarbakır – GK
sahasındaki dalgıç pompalarla üretim yapılan 10 kuyu incelemeye
alınmıştır. Bu kuyuların rezervuar, akışkan ve üretim verileri hazır olan
bilgisayar programına aktarılmıştır. Daha önce belirtilen iki pompalama
ortamını kapsayan bu programın çıktısı optimum üretim debisi, gereken
beygirgücü ve pompa kademe sayısının belirlenmesi için kullanılmıştır. Bu
hesaplamalarda hassas değişken olarak pompa kademe sayısı seçilmiştir.
Çalışmanın sonunda GK sahası verileri ile programdan çıkarılan optimize
değerler karşılaştırılmış ve dalgıç pompalarla üretim yapılan 10 kuyudan
3’ünün: W-16, W-17, ve W-24’ün optimum değer sınırları içerisinde üretim
yaptığı, kuyulardan 5’inin W-07, W-08, W-25, W-27, W-28, optimum
değerler içerisinde olmasa bile kabul edilebilir ve geçerli sayılabilir
sınırlarda üretim yaptığı, 1 kuyunun, W-22, optimum sınırlar dışında ve
verimsiz bir şekilde üretime devam ettirildiği saptanmıştır. W-15’in verileri
herhangi bir yorum yapmak için yetersiz kalmıştır.

Kelimeler: Üretim optimizasyonu, sistem analiz tekniği, dalgıç pompa, yapay
üretim, Hagedorn ve Brown Korelasyonu, Griffith Korelasyonu
vii







To my family,

Çiğdem, Yurdahan and Sanem Güler

















viii



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



The author would like to thank his supervising professor, Dr. Suat
Bağcı, for his precious assistance throughout this study and also N.V.
Turkse Perenco for their cooperation.













ix



TABLE OF CONTENTS



ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………….. iii

ÖZET ………………………………………………………………….…… v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………….. viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………. ix

LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………… xiii

LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………. xv

NOMENCLATURE ……………………………………………………….. xviii


CHAPTER

1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………. 1

2. ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS ……………….. 4

2.1 Introduction ………………………………………... 4
2.2 Pump Performance Curves ……………………… 8
2.3 Pump Intake Curves ……………………………... 13
x
2.3.1 Pumping Liquid Only ……………………… 13

2.3.1.1 Procedure for the Preparation
of Tubing Intake Curves for
Liquid Only ……………………….. 14

2.3.2 Pumping Liquid and Gas ………..………. 16

2.3.2.1 Determination of the Number
of Stages …………………………. 16
2.3.2.2 Determination of Horsepower ….. 19
2.3.2.3 Pump Selection ………………….. 20
2.3.2.4 Procedure for the Preparation
of Intake Curves for Wells
Pumping Gas …………………… 21

3. NODAL ANALYSIS APPROACH ………………………. 23

3.1 Introduction ……………………………………….. 23
3.2 Application of Nodal Analysis to Electrical
Submersible Pumping Wells …………………….. 29
3.3 Description of the Computer
Program …………………………………………… 31

3.3.1 Pumping Liquid …………………………… 31
3.3.2 Pumping Liquid and Gas ………………… 32

4. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 34



xi
5. HAGEDORN AND BROWN VERTICAL
MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATION
SUPPORTED BY GRIFFITH CORRELATION ……….. 36

5.1 Introduction ……………………………………….. 36
5.2 Hagedorn and Brown Method …………………… 38
5.3 Procedure for Calculating a Vertical Pressure
Traverse by the Method of Hagedorn and
Brown ………………………………………………. 39
5.4 Griffith Correlation (Bubble Flow) ………………. 49

6. DESCRIPTION OF THE GK FIELD ……………………. 51

6.1 Introduction ……………………………………….. 51
6.2 Geology …………………………………………… 52
6.3 Reservoir, Fluid, and Lift System
Properties …………………………………………. 53
6.4 Production History ……………………………….. 54

7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION …………….…………… 57

7.1 Introduction ……………………………………….. 57
7.2 Results and Discussion …………….……………. 58

7.2.1 Construction of Vertical Flowing
Pressure Gradient Curves Using
Computer Program Output ………………. 58
7.2.2 Sensitivity Analysis by Using the
Computer Program Output ……………… 64


xii
7.2.3 Construction of Possible Production
Rate versus Stage and Horsepower
Chart for GK Field Wells by Using
the Pumping Liquid and Gas
Computer Algorithm ……………….…….. 67
7.2.4 Comparison of Theorotical and
Actual Production Parameters and
Suggestion for Optimum Pump
Operating Conditions by Inspecting
Possible Production Rate versus
Stage and Hordepower Chart …………… 77

8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ……….… 81

REFERENCES …………………………………………………………… 83

APPENDIX

A Pumping Liquid and Gas Computer Program …….…… 85
B Pumping Only Liquid Computer Program ……………… 101
C Subprograms ……………………………………………… 109
D Sample Calculation of W-08 …………………………….. 128

xiii



LIST OF TABLES



TABLE

6.1 Reservoir and Fluid Properties of GK Field ………….... 53

6.2 Submersible Pump Lifted Wells Operated
in GK Field and Their Efficiency Ranges ………………. 54

6.3 Gross Production Rate of the Wells in GK
Field and Required Pump Stages ……………………….. 56

7.1 Comparison of Computer-Based Vertical
Flowing Pressures with Beggs&Brill
Correlation at Selected Depths ……..………..………… 63

7.2 Effect of Oil Density on Flowing Bottomhole
Pressures at Selected Depths ……………..…………… 64

7.3 Effect of GLR on Flowing Bottomhole
Pressures …………………………………………….…… 65

7.4 Effect of WOR on Flowing Bottomhole
Pressures at Selected Depths…………………..….…… 65


xiv
7.5 Results Obtained After The Comparison
of Actual and Computer-Based Data
for GK Field ……………………………………………..… 79

D1 Well, Fluid, Reservoir and Lift-System
Data Used In Calculations for W-08 ……………………. 129

D2 Production History of W-08 ……………………………… 130

D3 Intake Pressures at Assumed Rates for W-08 ………… 161

D4 Horsepower Requirements for Possible
Rates from W-08 …………………………………………. 171

D5 Relation of Production Parameters
With Each Other …………………..……………………… 173

xv



LIST OF FIGURES



FIGURES

2.1 A Typical Submersible Pump Installation ……………… 6

2.2 Submersible Pump Schematic ………………………….. 7

2.3 Pressure Traverses for Pump on Bottom ……………… 7

2.4 A Typical Pump Performance Curve (GN 3200) ……… 9

3.1 Pressure Losses In a Production System ……………… 25

3.2 Tubing Intake Curves for Artificial Lift Systems ………. 26


5.1 Schematic Diagram of Possible Flow
Patterns in Two-Phase Pipelines ……………………….. 37

6.1 Generalized IPR Curve ………………………………….. 55

7.1 Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 0) ……………………. 59

7.2 Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 0.5) ………………….. 60

xvi
7.3 Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 1.0)…………………… 61

7.4 Graphical Analysis of Effect of GLR on
Flowing Bottomhole Pressures for W-08 ………………. 66

7.5 Graphical Analysis of Effect of WOR on
Flowing Bottomhole Pressures for W-08 ………………. 66

7.6 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and
Horsepower for W-07 ……………………………………. 68

7.7 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and
Horsepower for W-08 ……………………………………. 69

7.8 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and
Horsepower for W-16 ……………………………………. 70

7.9 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and
Horsepower for W-17 ……………………………………. 71

7.10 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and
Horsepower for W-22 ………………………………….… 72

7.11 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and
Horsepower for W-24 ……………………………………. 73

7.12 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and
Horsepower for W-25 ……………………………………. 74

7.13 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and
Horsepower for W-27 ……………………………………. 75
xvii
7.14 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and
Horsepower for W-28 ……………………………………. 76

D1 IPR Curve for W-08 ……………………………………… 131

D2 Intake Curves for W-08 ………………………………….. 162

D3 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and
Horsepower for W-08 ……………………………………. 172
xviii



NOMENCLATURE



Symbol Description Unit

A area of tubing ft
2
B formation volume factor rbbl/stb
CN
L
viscosity number coefficient
d tubing inner diameter in
E
s
fraction of free gas
f friction factor
f
o
fraction of oil flowing
G
f
gradient of the pumped fluid psi/ft
GLR gas liquid ratio scf/stb
GOR gas oil ratio scf/stb
h head per stage ft/stage
H
L
liquid hold-up
h
p
horsepower per stage hp/stage
HP horsepower hp
J productivity index stb/d/psi
m mass associated with one bbl
of stock tank liquid lb
m
/stbl
N
d
pipe diameter number
N
GV
gas velocity number
N
L
liquid viscosity number
N
LV
liquid velocity number
(N
RE
)
TP
two-phase Reynolds number
xix
Symbol Description Unit

P pressure psi
q flow rate stb/d
R
s
solution gas oil ratio scf/stb
St pump stage
T average flowing temperature °F
V capacity stb/d
VF volume factor
w mass flow rate lb
m
day
W weight of the capacity lb/day
WC water cut
z gas compressibility


∆ increment
u viscosity cp
ν velocity ft/sec
ρ density lb/cuft
φ hold-up correlating function
ψ secondary correction factor
σ liquid surface tension dyne/cm
γ specific gravity


Subscription Description

b bubble point
dn pump discharge (downstream)
f fluid
g gas
xx
Subscription Description

l liquid
m mixture
o oil
pc pseudo critical
pr pseudo reduced
R reservoir
sc standard condition
sg superficial gas
sl superficial liquid
sep separator
up pump intake (upstream)
w water
wf flowing well
wh wellhead
2 discharge
3 intake



1
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The electrical submersible pumping system can said to be an
attractive artificial lift technique in reservoirs having high water-cut and low
gas-oil ratio. Currently, it is considered as an effective and economical
means of lifting large volumes of fluid from great depths under a variety of
well conditions. Pumping equipment is capable of producing as high as
60,000 b/d and as low as 200 b/d. The oil cut may also vary within very wide
limits, from negligible amounts to 100 %. The pump performs at highest
efficiency when pumping liquid only; it can handle free gas with the liquid
but high volumes of free gas causes inefficient operation and gas lock
problems. The first submersible pumping unit was installed in an oil well in
1928 and since that time the concept has proven itself throughout the oil-
producing world
1
. A submersible pumping unit consists of an electric motor,
a seal section, an intake section, a multistage centrifugal pump, an electric
cable, a surface installed switchboard, a junction box and transformers.
Additional miscellaneous components also present in order to secure the
cable alongside the tubing and wellhead supports. Pressure sentry for
sensing bottom-hole pressure, check and bleeder valves are the optional
equipment that can be taken into consideration. Under normal operating
conditions, submersible pumping unit can be expected to give from 1 to 3
years of good operating life with some units operating over 10 years.
Despite this advantage, many submersible pump lifted oil and gas wells
produce at rates different than optimum. This fact makes necessary to apply
production optimization techniques to wells having low production rates.
Nodal Analysis has been applied to artificial lift method for many years to
2
analyze the performance of the systems composed of interacting
components. It is a process of determining the effect of each component in
the production system on the total system performance. The analysis can
improve the completion design, well productivity and producing efficiency,
all of which lead to increased profitability from oil and gas investments. The
Nodal analysis technique is essentially a simulator of the producing well
system. The system includes all flow between the reservoir and the
separator. As the entire system is simulated, each of the components is
modelled using various correlations or equations to determine the pressure
loss through that component as a function of flow rate. The summation of
these individual losses make up the total pressure loss through the entire
system for a given flow rate. The production rate or deliverability of a well
can be severely restricted by the poor performance of just one component in
the system. If the effect of each component on the performance of the total
system can be isolated, the efficiency of the system can be optimized in the
most economical way. When performing a Nodal analysis, we divide the
production system into its components, i.e., reservoir, perforations, tubing,
surface choke, flowline and separator. Then we pick a problem area in this
production system as a node. This node acts as the intersection point
between the inflow and outflow performances. Different inflow and outflow
performance curves intersect on the same plot and give the design
considerations for different arrangements
2
. Optimization and design of
submersible pump lifted wells pumping only liquid are generally straight-
forward however pumping gas with the liquid is complicated because of the
high compressibility of gas. In this case, volume of the produced fluid rate
shows a significant variation between the pump intake and discharge
pressures, consequently considerable amount of iterations should be
performed to determine the volume factor at any pressure between the
intake and discharge pressures. Thus, computer program should be written
to overcome these iterations. Optimization of wells with Nodal Analysis
requires pressure gradient correlation in order to reach a solution so it is
3
necessary to use a vertical multiphase flow correlation method in the
computer program. In this study, Hagedorn and Brown vertical multiphase
flow correlation
3
has been used to determine the pressure and pressure
losses at required depth. However, during the study it was observed that
Hagedorn and Brown Correlation failed to give accurate output at bubble
flow. Thus, Griffith Correlation
4
was constructed at bubble flow to obtain
accurate results.
The purpose of this study was to write a general computer program
that gives simultaneously the possible production rates for submersible
pump lifted wells and also the optimum required horsepower and number of
pump stages at these possible rates both considering pumping liquid and
pumping gas with liquid. In addition to that objective, comparison made by
using the production data of wells located in the GK field will assist us in
suggesting optimum pump operating conditions.
4



CHAPTER II

ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS

2.1 Introduction

Many high volume wells are equipped with electric submersible pumps
(ESP) to lift the liquid and decrease the flowing bottom hole pressure. A
submersible pump is a multistage centrifugal pump that is driven by an
electric motor located in the well below the pump. Electrical power is
supplied by means of a cable from the surface.
The pump and motor are suspended on the tubing at a certain depth in
the well. The annulus is either vented or tied into the well’s flowline, so that
as much gas as possible is separated from the liquid before it enters the
pump. In some cases, a centrifugal separator will be placed between the
pump and motor for obtaining maximum gas-liquid separation. A typical
submersible pump installation is given in Figure 2.1. A schematic of a well
equipped with a submersible pump is given in Figure 2.2, along with the
pressure traverse in the well. From the figure it can be seen that, initially,
flowing pressure of submersible pump lifted well is not sufficient to lift the
fluid (depleted well). This insufficient pressure (P
up
) which we define as
intake pressure starts to increase at pump setting depth by required pump
stages and finally reaches to discharge pressure (P
dn
) generated by the
pump which will assist fluid to flow throughout the surface. Figure 2.3 is a
typical pressure traverses for pump on bottom. Discharge pressure of the
pump will be defined as P
2
, and also intake pressure will be defined as P
3

throughout the study. From figure, the effective lift point is that depth at
5
which the flowing bottomhole pressure is capable of supporting the fluids in
the tubing string.
The pump performs highest efficiency when pumping liquid only. It can
and does handle free gas along with the liquid. The manner in which the
pump handle gas is not completely understood; however high volumes of
free gas are known to cause inefficient operation.

6



Figure 2.1 A Typical Submersible Pump Installation
7

Figure 2.2 Submersible Pump Schematic



Figure 2.3 Pressure Traverses for Pump on Bottom

8
2.2 Pump Performance Curves

Pumps are divided into groups according to the minimum casing size
into which the pump can be run. But even within the same group, each
pump performs differently. A typical pump performance curve
5
is given in
Figure 2.4.
The performance curves of a submersible electrical pump represent the
variation of head, horsepower, and efficiency with capacity. Capacity refers
to the volume of the produced flow rate, which may include free and/or
dissolved gas. These curves are for a fixed power cycle – normally 50 or 60
cycle – and can be changed with variable frequency controllers
6
.



k
j
k
j
k
j
k
j
k
j

9




k
j
k
j
k
j
k
j
k
j

F
i
g
u
r
e

2
.
3

A

T
y
p
i
c
a
l

P
u
m
p

P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
u
r
v
e

(
G
N
3
2
0
0
)

F
i
g
u
r
e

2
.
4

A

T
y
p
i
c
a
l

P
u
m
p

P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
u
r
v
e

(
G
N
3
2
0
0
)
5

10
The head (in feet per stage) developed by a centrifugal pump is the
same regardless of the type or specific gravity of the fluid pumped. But
when converting this head to pressure, it must be multiplied by the gradient
of the fluid in question. Therefore, the following can be stated:

Pressure developed by pump = head per stage × gradient of fluid ×
number of stages

When pumping gas with the liquid, the capacity and, consequently, the
head per stage as well as the gradient vary as the pressure of the liquid
elevated from the intake value P
3
to the discharge value P
2.
Thus, the above
equation can be written as follows
6
:

) ( ) ( ) ( St d V G V h dP
f
× × = (1)

where:
dP = the differential pressure developed by the pump, psi
h = the head per stage, ft/stage
G
f
= the gradient of the pumped fluid, psi/ft
d(St) = the differential number of stages
Note that parentheses are included to indicate that h and G
f
are functions
of the capacity V, which is:

VF q V
sc
= (2)

The gradient of fluid at any pressure and temperature is given by:

) ( 433 . 0 ) ( V V G
f f
γ = (3)

but:

11
V
W
V
f
350
) ( = γ (4)
where W is the weight of the capacity V at any pressure and temperature,
which is equal to the weight at standard conditions. Hence:

V
q
V
fsc sc
f
350
) (
ρ
γ = (5)

Substituting equation 5 into 3 gives:

V
q
V G
fsc sc
f
ρ
)
350
433 . 0
( ) ( = (6)

ρ
fsc
is the weight of 1 bbl of liquid plus pumped gas (per 1bbl of liquid) at
standard conditions, or:

gsc osc wsc fsc
GLR GIP wc wc ρ γ γ ρ ) )( ( ) 1 ( 350 350 + − + = (7)

where ρ
gsc
is the density of gas (in lb/scf) at standard conditions.
Substituting Equation 6 into Equation 1 gives:

dP
V h
V
q
St d
fsc sc
) (
)
433 . 0
350
( ) (
ρ
= (8)

The total number of stages is obtained by integrating the above equation
between the intake and discharge pressures:

∫ ∫
=
2
3
) (
)
433 . 0
350
( ) (
0
P
P fsc sc
St
dP
V h
V
q
St d
ρ
(9)

or:
12

=
2
3
) (
)
3141 . 808
(
P
P fsc sc
dP
V h
V
q
St
ρ
(10)

The pump performance curves give the horsepower per stage based on
a fluid specific gravity equal to 1.0. This horsepower must be multiplied by
the specific gravity of the fluid under consideration. Thus the following can
be stated:

(horsepower requirements) = (horsepower per stage) × (specific gravity of
fluid) × (number of stages)

Since the horsepower per stage, the specific gravity of fluid, and the
number of stages depend on the capacity V, which varies between the
intake and the discharge pressures, the above equation can be written as
follows:

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( St d V V h HP d
f p
× × = γ (11)

Substituting Equations 5 and 8 into the above equation gives:

= ) (HP d ( dP
V h
V h
p
) (
) (
)
433 . 0
1
(12)

The total horsepower requirement is obtained by integrating the above
equation between the intake and the discharge pressures:

∫ ∫
=
2
) (
) (
)
433 . 0
1
( ) (
0
P
P
p
HP
dP
V h
V h
HP d (13)

or:

13

=
2
3
) (
) (
)
433 . 0
1
(
P
P
p
dP
V h
V h
HP (14)

For each pump, there is a capacity range within which the pump
performs at or near its peak efficency. The volume range of the selected
rate between the intake and the discharge pressures should, therefore,
remain within the efficiency range of the pump. This range, of course, can
be changed by using a variable frequency controller.

2.3 Pump Intake Curves

Predicting intake curves for submersible pumps is considered for two
cases: (1) pumping only liquid, and (2) pumping liquid and gas. For both
cases, it is assumed that the pump is set at the bottom of well and the
wellhead pressure and tubing size are fixed. For case 2, it is assumed that
all associated gas is pumped with the liquid. The sensitivity variable
selected is the number of stages
6
.

2.3.1 Pumping Liquid Only

Since the liquids are only slightly compressible, the volume of the
production rate can be considered constant and equal to the surface rate
q
sc
. Hence, the head per stage will also be constant, and Equation 10 can
be integrated to give
6
:

) )(
3141 . 808
(
3 2
P P
h
St
fsc
− =
ρ
(15)

Solving Equation 15 for
3
P gives:

14
St
h
P P
fsc
)
3141 . 808
(
2 3
ρ
− = (16)

Equation 14 also can be integrated to give:

) ( )
433 . 0
1
(
3 2
P P
h
h
HP
p
− = (17)

Substituting Equation 15 into the above equation yields:

St h HP
fsc p
γ = (18)

Pump selection is limited by the casing size. Another constraint is the
desired production rate. If the objective is to maximize the production rate,
the proper procedure is to select a pump whose efficiency range includes
rates that are close to the maximum rate of the well.

2.3.1.1 Procedure For The Preparation of Tubing Intake
Curves for Liquid Only

A step-wise procedure for predicting intake curves for the case
when only liquid is pumped follows
6
:

(1) Select a suitable pump as dictated by the casing size and the flow
capacity of the well
(2) Calculate
fsc
ρ from Equation 7 (GLR=0) and
fsc
γ from Equation 5.
(3) Assume various production rates and, for each of these rates, do the
following:
(a) Read the head per stage from the pump performance curves and
calculate the quantity (ρ
fsc
h/808.3141).
15
(b) Determine the required discharge pressure from a pressure gradient
correlation.
(c) Assume various numbers of stages and, for each of these numbers,
calculate the intake pressure from Equation 16.
(4) Plot the intake pressures vs rate for each assumed number of stages on
the same graph as the IPR curve and to the same scale.
(5) Read the rates at the intersection of the pump intake curves with the IPR
curve.
(6) For each rate, read the horsepower per stage from the pump
performance curves; then calculate the total horsepower requirement
from Equation 18.
(7) Plot the rates vs the number of stages and horsepower requirements.
Impose the efficiency range of the pump on the same graph.
(8) Select a suitable rate.

Whether pumping only liquid or pumping gas with the liquid, the selected
rate must satisfy the following criteria:

(a) Its volume range between the intake and the discharge pressures
must remain within the efficiency range of the pump.
(b) It must be economically feasible.

As the number of stages and, consequently, the production rate
increase, the effect of friction in the tubing string becomes significant,
causing the discharge pressure to increase. As a result, the gain in the
production rate per one stage continues to diminish until it becomes
insignificant.




16
2.3.2 Pumping Liquid and Gas

Because of the high compressibility of gas, the volume of the
produced flow rate V may undergo a significant variation as the pressure of
the fluid changes from the intake value to the discharge value. At any
pressure point between the intake and discharge, if all gas is pumped with
the liquid, the volume factor is determined from
6
:

| |
g s o
B R wc GLR B wc wc VF ) 1 ( ) 1 ( − − + − + = (19)

if a certain percentage of the gas is vented:

| |
g s o
B R wc GLR GIP B wc wc VF ) 1 ( ) 1 ( − − + − + = (20)

In either case, the volume of the flow rate is given by:

VF q V
sc
= (21)

2.3.2.1 Determination Of The Number of Stages

Because V and, consequently, h vary as the fluid passes through
the pump, direct integration of Equation 10 is possible only if the integrand
V/h(V) can be reduced to a simple function of pressure. But this is difficult
because VF is a very complicated function of pressure. For this reason,
numerical integration methods are recommended.
The existence of gas at the intake section of the pump implies that
the intake pressure is below the bubble point of the crude (saturated crude).
If that is the case and if the required discharge pressure is above the bubble
point, Equation 10 should be broken down into two integrals as follows
6
:

17
∫ ∫
+ =
2
3
) ( ) (
P
P sc
P
P sc
b
b
dP
V h
V
q
A
dP
V h
V
q
A
St (22)

where A = 808.3141/ρ
fsc
= constant (23)

For performing numerical integration, Equation 22 can be written in a
more convenient form as follows:

∑ ∑
= =
∆ + ∆ =
m
i
n
m j
j
j
j
sc
i
i
i
sc
P
h
V
q
A
P
h
V
q
A
St
1
, 3 , 3
(24)
where:

P
3,i
= any intake pressure above the bubble point
P
3,j
= any intake pressure below the bubble point
P
3,o
= discharge pressure (P
2
)
P
3,m
= bubble point pressure (P
b
)
∆P
3,i
= P
3,i
=P
3,i-1
-P
3,i

∆P
3,j
= P
3,j
=P
3,j-1
-P
3,j

i i
h V / and
j j
h V / = average quantities evaluated at the average pressures
i
P
, 3
and
j
P
, 3
, respectively.
where:
2 / ) (
, 3 1 , 3 , 3 i i i
P P P + =


and
2 / ) (
, 3 1 , 3 , 3 j j j
P P P + =



The main reason for breaking down the number of stages into two
summations is the fact that V and, consequently, h undergo only slight
change above the bubble point; hence, ∆P
3,i
can be taken much larger than
18
∆P
3,j.
In fact, satisfactory results are obtained even if ∆P
3
is taken as the
difference between P
b
and P
2
and the quantity h V / is evaluated at the
midpoint.
When using a computer solution, it is easier to divide the interval
between the intake and the discharge pressure into equal increments by
taking ∆P
3
constant. For this case, Equation 24 can be written as:


=

=
n
i
i
i
sc
i
h
V
q
P A
St
1
3
) ( (25)

where:
P
3,0
= discharge pressure (P
2
)
P
3,n
= intake pressure (P
3
)
n = (P
2
-P
3
)/∆P
3
P
3,i
= P
3,i-1

- ∆P
3

The quantity
i i
h V / is evaluated at the average pressure given by:

2 / ) (
, 3 1 , 3
, 3
i i
i P P P + =

(26)

In reality, any pressure P
3,I
can be considered an intake pressure. To
illustrate this point, Equation 25 can be written in the following form:


=
∆ =
n
i
i i
St St
1
) ( (27)

where:

i
i
sc
i
h
V
q
P A
St ) ( ) (
3

= ∆ (28)
19
Therefore, inorder to obtain an intake pressure P
3,i ,
we have:

i
i
sc
h
V
q
P A
St St ) ( ) (
3
1 1

= ∆ =
(29)

In order to obtain P
3,2
, we have:

) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
1
1 3
2 1 2
h
V
h
V
q
P A
St St St
sc
+

= ∆ + ∆ = (30)

And in order to obtain P
3,n
, we have:

=
n
St
n
St St St ) ( ... ) ( ) (
2 1
∆ + + ∆ + ∆ (31)

= )( (
3
sc
q
P A∆
) ...
2
2
1
1
n
n
h
V
h
V
h
V
+ + + (32)

2.3.2.2 Determination of Horsepower

The horsepower requirement is obtained by integrating Equation
14 between the intake and the discharge pressures. Since the integrand
h
p
(V)/h(V) can not be reduced to a simple function of pressure, direct
integration is not possible, and numerical methods must be used.
If the interval between the intake and the discharge pressure is divided
into equal increments by taking ∆P
3
constant, Equation 14 can be written as
follows
6
:


=

=
n
i
i
i
i
h
hp P
HP
1
3
)
433 . 0
( (33)

20
If ∆(HP)
I
is defined as:


=

= ∆
n
i
i
i
i
h
hp P
HP
1
3
)
433 . 0
( ) ( (34)

then Equation 33 can be written as:


=
∆ =
n
i
i i
HP HP
1
) ( (35)

2.3.2.3 Pump Selection

As mentioned previously, pump selection is limited by the casing
size and flow capacity of the well. Another constraint that must be taken into
account when pumping gas with the liquid is the volume range of the flow
rate. Because of the high compressibility of the gas, the difference between
the intake and discharge volumes may be too great to be contained within
the efficiency range of one pump. For this reason, the following procedure
for pump selection is suggested
6
:

(1) Prepare IPR curves in stbl/d and b/d to the same scale on the same
graph.
(2) Enter the b/d IPR curve at the upper limit of the efficiency range of
several pumps that are suitable from a casing-size standpoint. Move
horizontally to the stbl/d IPR curve and read the intake rate in stbl/d.
(3) For each intake rate determined in step 2, do the following:
(a) Determine the required discharge pressure from a two-phase flow
correlation.
(b) Calculate VF at the discharge pressure, then calculate the discharge
volume.
21
(4) Select the pump for which the discharge volume is greater than or equal
to the lower limit of its efficency range.
If more than one pump is found to be suitable, choose the one with the
highest capacity.

2.3.2.4 Procedure for the Preparation of Intake Curves for
Wells Pumping Gas

A step-wise procedure for predicting tubing intake curves for the
case in which gas is with the liquid is given as follows
6
:

(1) Select a suitable pump as outlined previously.
(2) Calculate ρ
fsc
from Equation 7 and calculate the constant A from
Equation 23.
(3) Assume several production rates in stbl/d and, for each of these rates,
do the following:
(a) Determine the required discharge pressure (P
3,0
) from a two-phase
flow correlation.
(b) Choose ∆P
3
and calculate the quantity (A∆P
3
/q
sc
)
(c) Calculate
1 , 3
P and 1 , 3 P .
(d) Determine 1 VF at 1 , 3 P , then calculate
1
V .
(e) Read
1
h at
1
V from the pump performance curves.
(f) Calculate the required number of stages to obtain the intake pressure
P
3,1
from Equation 25.
(g) Repeat steps c-f for P
3,2
, P
3,3
through P
3,i
until a convenient intake
pressure is reached. Tabulate the intake pressure versus the number
of stages.
(4) By interpolating or plotting, obtain intake pressure for assumes rates for
an identical number of stages.
22
(5) Plot the intake pressure (obtained in step 4) versus the assumed
production rates for the various number of stages. Plot the stbl/d IPR
curve to the same scale on the same graph.
(6) Read the rates at the intersection of the pump intake curves with the IPR
curve.
(7) For each rate, calculate the horsepower requirement from Equation 33.
Calculation of horsepower requirements is similar to the calculation of
the number of stages.
(8) Plot the rate versus the number of stages and horsepower requirements.
Impose the efficiency range of the pump on the same graph.
(9) Select a suitable rate.
23
CHAPTER III

NODAL ANALYSIS APPROACH

3.1 Introduction

The systems analysis approach, often called NODAL
TM
Analysis, has
been applied for many years to analyze the performance of systems
composed of interacting components. Electrical circuits, complex pipeline
networks and centrifugal pumping systems are all analyzed using this
method. Its application to well producing systems was first proposed by
Gilbert
7
in 1954 and discussed by Nind
8
in 1964 and Brown
9
in 1978.
The production system can be relatively simple or can include many
components in which energy or pressure losses occur. Figure 3.1 illustrates
a number of the components in which pressure losses occur.
The procedure consists of selecting a division point or node in the well
and dividing the system at this point. All of the components upstream of the
node comprise the inflow section, while the outflow section consists of all of
the components downstream of the node. A relationship between flow rate
and pressure drop must be available for each component in the system. The
flow rate through the system can be determined once the following
requirements are satisfied
2
:

1 Flow into the node equals flow out of the node
2 Only one pressure can exist at a node.

At a particular time in the life of the well, there are always two pressures
that remain fixed and are not functions of flow rate. One of these pressures
24
is the average reservoir pressure,
R
p , and the other is the system
outlet pressure. The outlet pressure is usually the seperator pressure, p
sep
,
but if the well is controlled by a surface choke the fixed outlet pressure may
be the wellhead pressure p
wh
.

Once the node is selected, the node pressure is calculated from both
directions starting at the fixed pressures.

Inflow to the node:

p p
R
∆ − (upstream components) =
node
p (36)

Outflow from the node:

p p
sep
∆ + (downstream component) =
node
p (37)

The pressure drop, p ∆ , in any component varies with flow rate, q .
Therefore, a plot of node pressure versus flow rate will produce two curves,
the intersection of which will give the conditions satisfying requirements 1
and 2, given previously.
The effect of a change in any of the components can be analyzed by
recalculating the node pressure versus flow rate using the new
characteristics of the component that was changed. If a change was made
in an upstream component, the outflow curve will remain unchanged.
However, if either curve is changed, the intersection will be shifted, and a
new flow capacity and node pressure will exist. The curves will also be
shifted if either of the fixed pressures is changed, which may occur with
depletion or a change in separation conditions.
Figure 3.2 illustrates the comparison of intake curves for artificial lift
methods. It can be observed from the figure that electrical submersible
25
pump keeps the bottomhole pressure low, thus, creates large amount of
pressure drawdown to reach high production rates.





Figure 3.1 Pressure Losses In a Production System
2
26



Figure 3.2 Tubing Intake Curves for Artificial Lift Systems
6


Inflow to node:

wh tubing res R
p p p p = ∆ − ∆ − (38)

Outflow from node:

wh flowline sep
p p p = ∆ + (39)

The effect of increasing the tubing size, as long as the tubing is not too
large, is to give a higher node or wellhead pressure for a given flow rate,
because the pressure drop in the tubing will be decreased. This shifts the
inflow curve upward and the intersection to the right.
A larger flowline will reduce the pressure drop in the flowline, shifting the
outflow down and the intersection to the right. The effect of a change in any
27
component in the system can be isolated in this manner. Also, the effect of
declining reservoir pressure or changing separator can be determined.
A more frequently used analysis procedure is to select the node
between the reservoir and piping system. The inflow and outflow
expressions for the simple system will then be:

Inflow to node:

wf res R
p p p = ∆ − (40)

Outflow from node:

wf tubing flowline sep
p p p p = ∆ + ∆ + (41)

A producing system may be optimized by selecting the combination of
component characteristics that will give the maximum production rate for the
lower cost. Although the overall pressure drop available for a system,
sep R
p p − , might be fixed at a particular time, the producing capacity of the
system depends on where the pressure drop occurs. If too much pressure
drop occurs in one component or module, there may be insufficient pressure
drop remaining for efficient performance of the other modules.
Even though the reservoir may be capable of producing a large amount
of fluid, if too much pressure drop occurs in the tubing, the well performance
suffers. For this type of well completion, it is obvious that increasing
reservoir performance by stimulation would be a waste of effort unless
larger tubing were installed.
If tubing is too large, the velocity of the fluid moving up the tubing may
be too low to effectively lift the liquids to the surface. This could be caused
by either large tubing or low production rates.The fluid velocity is the
production rate divided by the area of the tubing.
28
As tubing size is increased, the friction losses decrease, which results in
a lower
wf
p and, therefore, a larger inflow. However, as the tubing size is
further increased, the well begins loading with liquid and the flow becomes
intermittent or unstable. As the liquid level in the well builds the well will
eventually die.
Once a well that is producing liquids along with the gas reaches the
stage in which it will no longer flow naturally, it will usually be placed on
artificial lift.
The nodal systems analysis approach may used to analyze many
producing oil and gas well problems. The procedure can be applied to both
flowing and artificial lift wells, if the effect of artificial lift method on the
pressure can be expressed as a function of flow rate. The procedure can
also be applied to the analysis of injection well performance by appropriate
modification of the inflow and outflow expressions. A partial list of possible
applications is given as follows
2
:

1. Selecting tubing size
2. Selecting flowline size
3. Gravel pack design
4. Surface choke sizing
5. Subsurface safety valve sizing
6. Analyzing an existing system for abnormal flow restrictions
7. Artificial lift design
8. Well stimulation evaluation
9. Determinig the effect of compression on gas well performance
10. Analyzing the effects of perforating density
11. Predicting the effect of depletion on producing capacity
12. Allocating injection gas among gas lift wells
13. Analyzing a multiwell producing system
14. Relating field performance to time

29
3.2 Application of Nodal Analysis to Electrical Submersible Pumping
Wells

To perform a nodal analysis on a submersible pumping well, the node is
selected at the pump. The pump can be handled as an independent
component in the system in a manner similar to that used in gravel-packed
completions. The node pressure is either the pump intake pressure
up
p or
the pump discharge pressure
dn
p . The pressure gain that the pump must
generate for a particular producing rate is
up dn
p p p − = ∆ . The pressure
traverse below the pump will be calculated based on the formation
gas/liquid ratio and the casing size. The traverse in the tubing above the
pump will be based on the gas/liquid ratio entering the pump and the tubing
size. The inflow and outflow expressions are
2
:
Inflow:
up csg res R
p belowpump p p p = ∆ − ∆ − ) (
Outflow:
(
tub flowline sep
p p p ∆ + ∆ +
dn
p abovepump = )

The following procedure may be used to estimate the pressure gain and
power required to achieve a particular producing capacity.

Inflow:
1. Select a value for liquid producing rate
L
q .
2. Determine the required
wf
p for this
L
q .using the reservoir performance
procedures.
3. Determine the pump suction pressure
up
p using the casing diameter and
the total producing GLR to calculate the pressure drop below the pump.
4. Repeat for a range of liquid producing rates and plot
up
p versus.
L
q .

30
Outflow:
1. Select a value for
L
q .
2. Determine the appropriate GLR for tubing and flowline pressure drop
calculations.
a. Determine
up
p and fluid temperature at the pump at this
L
q value from
inflow calculations.
b. Determine dissolved gas
s
R at this pressure and temperature.
c. Estimate fraction of free gas
s
E , separated at the pump. This will be
dependent whether or not a downhole separator is to be used. If not use
5 . 0 =
s
E .
d. Calculate the GLR downstream of the pump from

) )( 1 (
s o total s dn
R f R E GLR
− =
− = (42)

where:

=
total
R total producing gas/liquid ratio,
s
R = solution gas/oil ratio at suction conditions, and
=
o
f fraction of oil flowing

3. Determine
dn
p using GLR
dn
to calculate the pressure drop in the tubing
and the flowline if the casing gas is vented. If the casing tied into the
flowline, the total GLR will be used to determine the pressure drop in the
flowline.
4. Repeat for a range of
L
q and plot
dn
p vs
L
q on the same graph.
5. Select various producing rates and determine the pressure gain ∆p
required to achieve an intersection of the inflow and outflow curves at
these rates. The suction and discharge pressures can also be
determined for each rate.
31
6. Calculate the power requirement, pump size, number of stages, etc., at
each producing rate.

The required horsepower can be calculated from:

) ( 10 72 . 1
5
w w o o
B q B q p HP + ∆ × =

(43)

where:
HP = horsepower required
∆p = pressure gain, psi
q
o
= oil rate, STB/day
q
w
= water rate, STB/day
B
o
= oil formation volume factor at suction conditions, bbl/STB, and
B
w
= water formation volume factor at suction conditions

The pressure gain can be converted to head gain if necessary for pump
selection. This is accomplished by dividing the pressure gain by the density
of fluid being pumped. The actual plotting of the data is not required if the
pump is to be selected for specific rates, as all the necessary information is
calculated before plotting.

3.3 Description of the Computer Program

3.3.1 Pumping Only Liquid

A two-stage computer program in Fortran Code has been written and
also EXCEL Worksheet was used to support the program.
At the first stage, program input consists of well, fluid, reservoir, and lift-
system data. Once these conditions were satisfied, program initially gives
the pressure at pump setting depth (discharge pressure) by applying
Hagedorn and Brown
3
vertical multiphase correlation. In addition to
32
Hagedorn and Brown Correlation, Griffith
4
Correlation was also used at
bubble flow to obtain accurate results. Steps followed in the correlation can
be observed in details at Chapter 4. During this process, program takes P
wh

as initial pressure and calculates depth increment at every 10 psi pressure
increase (pressure interval was taken low to reach an accurate solution) and
finally stores the pressure (discharge pressure) when depth reaches to total
pump setting depth. After recording discharge value program simply
calculates intake pressures at assumed flow rates and number of pump
stages. Head per stage data was required during these calculations and this
was achieved by constructing equation of each pump performance curve
and transferring it to program. These intake pressures are necessary to
construct intake curves on the same graph as the IPR curve. At the second
stage of the program, user should enter possible production rates to
programs, which are obtained manually by intersecting intake curve and IPR
curve. This procedure cannot be achieved by program since curve trendline
equation changes at every different input value and there is no chance of
data transfer between EXCEL Worksheet and the program. At the last step,
program calculates HP requirement at every possible rate, which will help
us to construct Possible Production Rate versus Stages and Horsepower
Figure. It should be kept in mind that pump selection is achieved manually
by entering to input, in other words program does not comprise an algorithm
that automatically selects a suitable pump for that well.

3.3.2 Pumping Liquid and Gas

Pumping gas with the liquid causes produced fluid rate V to undergo a
significant variation between the intake and discharge pressures. This is
due to high compressibility of gas. At any pressure point between the intake
and discharge, the volume factor should be determined. This process can
only be achieved by making huge amounts of iteration, which leads to
necessity of a computer program. A two-stage computer program in Fortran
33
Code has been written and also EXCEL Worksheet was used to support the
program. Input parameters of the program are same with pumping only
liquid program, however, GOR value should be entered since free gas
exists. At first stage, program calculates VF at pressure interval between
200 – 5000 psi. Afterwards, by following same steps with pumping only
liquid program, discharge pressure is calculated by Hagedorn and Brown
3

Vertical Multiphase Flow Correlation (existing as a subprogram in the
algorithm) and program starts to make iterations by decreasing pressure 50
psi at every iteration in order to calculate volume (h), h (head per stage) and
number of stage (St) values at desired production rate. As explained
previously, program computes Griffith
4
Correlation when bubble flow
conditions were formed. Program then calculates the intake pressure at
various numbers of stages to let us construct tubing intake curve on the
same graph as the IPR curve. At the second stage of the program, user
should again enter possible production rates to programs, which are
obtained manually by intersecting intake curve and IPR curve. This
procedure cannot be achieved by program as explained before. At this
point, program starts to make iterations to calculate horsepower per stage
and total horsepower requirement at every 50 psi pressure drop until it
reaches to intake pressure. This data will help us to construct Possible
Production Rate versus Stages and Horsepower Figure in order us to make
necessary evaluation. It should be kept in mind that pump selection is
achieved manually by entering to input, in other words program does not
include an algorithm that automatically selects a suitable pump for that well.
34



CHAPTER IV

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


The objective of this study is to perform a production engineering
study at GK oil field in Southeastern Turkey. The main goal of the study is to
achieve production optimization of 10 electrical submersible pump lifted
wells currently operating in this field. Desired conclusion will be reached
after determining the optimum pump stages and horsepower requirement
for a possible production rate by a theorotical study and compare it with
actual field submersible pump operating data. The study will let us to
suggest optimum submersible pump running conditions for each well to
continue production in a more economical and cost saving approach.


Following steps were considered during the study to reach the aim:

• writing computer program that applies vertical multiphase flow
correlation and computes the parameters that were required for the
optimization
• collecting and evaluating the actual reservoir, well, fluid and lifting
data that the case study was performed
• entering field data to computer program and taking the output for
two pumping conditions
35
• preparing necessary figures and charts concerning pump stages,
production rate and horsepower requirement using the computer
output
• comparison of actual field values and theorotical values and
making necessary suggestions

36



CHAPTER V

HAGEDORN AND BROWN VERTICAL MULTIPHASE FLOW
CORRELATION SUPPORTED BY GRIFFITH CORRELATION

5.1 Introduction

The use of multiphase flow pipeline pressure drop correlations is very
important in applying nodal analysis.
The correlations that are most widely used at the present time for
vertical multiphase flow are as follows:

1. Hagedorn and Brown
3

2. Duns and Ros
10

3. Ros and Gray
11

4. Orkiszewski
12

5. Beggs and Brill
13

6. Aziz
14


These are found to calculate pressure drop very well in certain wells
and certain fields. However, one may be much better than the other under
certain conditions and field pressure surveys are the only way to find out.
Without any knowledge in a particular field, it would be recommended
beginning initial work with the correlations as listed in the above order.
In the literature it is recommended to from a hybrid by using the most
dependable parts of the four models. As an example, the commercial
vertical multiphase flow model (MTRAN) that was developed by Scientific
Software Incorporation uses the following sections:


37
1. Duns and Ros
10
flow map
2. Use Orkiszewski
12
for bubble flow
3. Use Hagedorn and Brown
3
for slug flow
4. Use Duns and Ros
10
for transitional and mist flow

Figure 5.1 illustrates the schematic diagram of possible flow patterns in
two-phase pipelines to visualize the flow systems that above correlations
used for.





Figure 5.1 Schematic Diagram of Possible Flow Patterns in Two-Phase
Pipelines
6

38
5.2 Hagedorn and Brown Method

The Hagedorn and Brown
3
method was developed by obtaining
experimental pressure drop and flow rate data from a 1500 ft deep
instrumented well. Pressures were measured for flow in tubing sizes ranging
from 1 ¼ to 2 7/8 in O.D. A wide range of liquid rates and gas/liquid ratios
was included, and the effects of liquid viscosity were studied by using water
and oil as the liquid phase. The oils used had viscosities at stock tank
conditions of 10, 35 and 110 cp. Later two adjustments were made to
improve this correlation. When bubble flow existed, the Griffith
4
Correlation
was used and when the no slip holdup was greater than the holdup value,
the no slip holdup was used
2
.
Neither liquid holdup nor flow pattern was measured during the
Hagedorn and Brown study, although a correlation for the calculated liquid
holdup is presented. The correlations were developed by assuming that the
two-phase friction factor could be obtained from the Moody diagram based
on a two-phase Reynolds number. This Reynolds Number requires a value
for
L
H in the viscosity term.
The Hagedorn and Brown method has been found to give good
results over a wide range of well conditions and is one of the most widely
used well flow correlations in the industry
2
. However, the original Hagedorn
and Brown correlation has several weaknesses: At first, it is not very
accurate in bubble flow. Moreover, calculated slip holdup is sometimes
below no-slip holdup and also the acceleration term is too dominant.
Thompson added that, the modified Hagedorn and Brown Correlation
tended to overpredict pressure loss in bubble flow (Griffith), while it tended
to underpredict slug flow. The Hagedorn and Brown Correlation gives best
results for wellbores with low to moderate liquid volume fractions (high gas-
liquid ratios) and relatively high mixture velocities (annular-mist or froth
flow).
The selection of appropriate correlation for a given production system
is important to reach to an accurate solution. In this study, Hagedorn and
39
Brown correlation was selected to calculate pressure drop for flow in the
vertical tubing. However, during the execution of the correlation in this
study, Griffith modification was also used when bubble flow conditions were
satisfied since Hagedorn and Brown method shows weaknesses at bubble
flow.

5.3 PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING A VERTICAL PRESSURE
TRAVERSE BY THE METHOD OF HAGEDORN AND BROWN

The general equation of Hagedorn and Brown correlation is
15
:

144
h
g
V
d
fw
h
p
c
m
m
m
m


+
×
+ =


)
2
(
10 9652 . 2
2
5 11
2
ρ
ρ
ρ (44)

Solving for the depth increment, h ∆

h ∆ =
m
m
c
m
m
d
fw
g
V
p
ρ
ρ
ρ
× × ×
+
∆ − ∆
5 11
2
2
10 9652 . 2
)
2
( 144
(45)

Start with a known pressure p
1
,

assume a value for p
2
and calculate the
depth increment.

1. Calculate the average pressure between the two pressure points,psia

p 7 . 14
2
2 1
+
+
=
p p
(46)

Depending upon the requirements of the problem,i.e., whether or not a
flowing bottom-hole pressure is to be determined from surface information,
or whether the calculations are to start from total depth and come up the
pipe, the starting pressure must be known. Pressure increments or
decrements must then be assumed from which the distance between
pressure points (1) and (2) will be calculated.
As a word of precaution, if starting from the surface with a pressure
lower than 100 psi, increments of 25 psi should be taken until reaching 400
40
psi. This type of calculation is practically forbidden by long hand but lends
itself readily to machine computation. If starting from bottom with pressures
in excess of 1,000 psi, the pressure decrements may be as great as 200
psi.

2. Calculate the specific gravity of the oil, γ
o
:

γ
o
=
API ° + 5 . 131
5 . 141
(47)

3. Find total mass associated with one bbl of stock tank liquid:

m = γ
o
(350) (
WOR + 1
1
) + γ
w
(350) (
WOR
WOR
+ 1
) + (0.0764) (GLR) γ
g
(48)


4. Calculate the mass flow rate:

w = q m (49)

5. Obtain R
s
at P and T by Standing’s
16
Correlation :

R
s
= γ
g
(
) ( 00091 . 0
) ( 0125 . 0
10
10
18
T
API
P
× )
1/0.83
(50)

where R
s
= scf/bbl

Lasater’s
17
equation can also be used and it is more accurate than
Standing’s correlation especially at higher °API. The equation of Lasater’s
correlation is as follows:

41
R
s
= C
Y
Y
M
g
g
o
o
)
1
)(
) )( 350 )( 3 . 379 (
(

γ
(51)

where:

M
o
= molecular weight
T = °R
The value of C is 1.0 unless a correction factor is necessary to make the
equation check with actual field cases.

6. Obtain B
o
according to calculated R
s
value:

a) If
b
P P〈 :

T R F
o
g
s
25 . 1 ) (
5 . 0
+ =
γ
γ
(52)

175 . 1
000147 . 0 972 . 0 F B
ob
+ = (53)

b) If
b
P P〉

)) ( ( P P c
ob o
b o
e B B

= (54)


7. Calculate the density of liquid phase:

ρ
L
= | | | | )
1
)( 4 . 62 ( )
1
1
(
614 . 5 / ) 0764 . 0 ( ) 4 . 62 (
WOR
WOR
WOR B
R
w
o
g s o
+
+
+
+
γ
γ γ
(55)

42
8. Assuming T = constant, find a value of Z for a constant T , p and γ
g
. If
T is to be a variable, then a single trial and error solution develops.
Although the temperature gradient may be known, the depth at which
the pressure increment occurs is not known and, therefore, the
temperature at the next pressure point is not known.

4 . 688 852 . 17 292 . 17
2
+ − − =
g g pc
P γ γ (56)

94 . 172 93 . 308 8324 . 1
2
+ + =
g g pc
T γ γ (57)

pc
pr
P
P
P = (58)

pc
pr
T
T
T = (59)

101 . 0 36 . 0 ) 92 . 0 ( 39 . 1
5 . 0
− − − =
pr pr
T T A (60)


6
)) 1 ( 9 (
2
)
10
32 . 0
( ) 037 . 0
) 86 . 0 (
066 . 0
( ) 023 62 . 0 (
pr
T
pr
pr
pr pr
P P
T
P T B
pr

+ −

+ − = (61)

) log( 32 . 0 132 . 0
pr
T C − = (62)

) 1824 . 0 49 . 0 3106 . 0 (
2
10
pr pr
T T
D
+ −
= (63)

a) If 100 〈 B

43
D
pr
B
CP
e
A
A z +

+ =
1
(64)

b) If 100 〉 B

D
pr
CP A z + = (65)

9. Calculate the average density of the gas phase

g
ρ = )
1
)(
520
)(
7 . 14
)( 0764 . 0 (
Z T
p
g
γ (66)

10. Calculate the average viscosity of the oil from appropriate correlations.
As noted, a knowledge of fluid properties of the oil, p , and / or T is
required.

a) If
b
P P ≤

) 04658 . 0 9824 . 6 ( 163 . 1 API
e T X
− −
= (67)
1 10 − =
X
oD
u (68)
515 . 0
) 100 ( 715 . 10

+ =
s
R A (69)
338 . 0
) 150 ( 44 . 5

+ =
s
R B (70)

B
oD o
Au u = (71)

b) If
b
P P ≥

) (
1
4 3
2
P C C
C
e P C B
+
= (72)

44
where:
C
1
= 2.6
C
2
= 1.187
C
3
= -11.513
C
4
= -8.98×10
-5
B
oD b
Au u =

B
b
b o
P
P
) ( u u = (73)

where:
u
b
= viscosity of the reservoir liquid at the bubble point, cp
u
oD
= dead oil viscosity, cp

11. Determine the average water viscosity from correlation below:

) 10 982 . 1 10 479 . 1 003 . 1 (
2 5 2
T T
W
e
− −
× + × −
= u (74)

12. Calculate the liquid mixture viscosity:

u
L
= u
o
+ |
.
|

\
|
+WOR 1
1
u
w |
.
|

\
|
+WOR
WOR
1
(75)

This can only be an approximation since the viscosity of two immiscible
liquids is quite complex.

12. Assuming constant surface tensions at each pressure point, calculate
the liquid mixture surface tension.

45
σ
L
= σ
o
(
WOR + 1
1
) + σ
w
(
WOR
WOR
+ 1
) (76)

Again, this represents only an approximation of the surface tension of
the liquid phase.

13. Calculate the liquid viscosity number:

N
L
= 0.15726u
L
(
3
1
L L
σ ρ
)
1/4
(77)

14. Determine CN
L
from the previously formed equation of CN
L
versus N
L

graph.

002 . 0 02 . 0 8612 . 0 069 . 10 22 . 48 04 . 106 222 . 87
2 3 4 5 6
+ + + − + − =
L L L L L L L
N N N N N N CN (78)

15. Calculate the area of tubing, A
p
.

A
p
=
4
2
d π
(79)

16. Obtain B
o
at T p,

17. Assuming B
w
= 1.0, calculate the superficial liquid velocity
sL
ν , ft/sec:

sL
ν =

+
+
+
)
1
( )
1
1
(
86400
61 . 5
WOR
WOR
B
WOR
B
A
q
w o
p
L
(80)

18. Calculate the liquid velocity number, N
LV
:

46
N
LV
= 1.938
4 / 1
) (
L
L
sL
σ
ρ
ν (81)

19. Calculate the superficial gas velocity,
sg
ν :

sg
ν =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

1 520
7 . 14
86400
1
1
Z T
p
A
WOR
R GLR q
p
s L
(82)

20. Determine the gas velocity number, N
GV
:

N
GV
=1.938
sg
ν
4 / 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
L
L
σ
ρ
(83)

21. Find the pipe diameter number, N
d
:

N
d
= 120.872d
L
L
σ
ρ
(84)

22. Calculate the holdup correlating function φ :

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
L
gV
LV
N
CN p
N
N
10 . 0
575 . 0
7 . 14
φ (85)

23. Obtain
ψ
L
H
from the correlation determined before:

ψ
L
H
= 11 . 0 2 . 1823 10 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 2
2 6 3 9 4 11 5 13 6 15
+ + × − + × − × + × − φ φ φ φ φ φ (86)

47
24. Determine the secondary correction factor correlating parameter, φ:

φ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
14 . 2
380 . 0
d
L gv
N
N N
(87)

25. Obtain ψ from the previously formed equation of ψ versus φ graph.

ψ = 7611 . 1 12 . 157 10765 300129 10 4 10 3 10 8
2 3 4 6 5 7 6 7
+ − + − × + × − × φ φ φ φ φ φ (88)

26. Calculate a value for H
L
:

H
L
= | | ψ
ψ

L
H
(89)

For low viscosities there will be no correction and ψ = 1.00.

27. In order to obtain a friction factor, determine a value for the two-phase
Reynolds number, (N
Re
)
TP
:

) )( )( (
10 2 . 2
) (
) 1 (
2
Re
L L
H
g
H
L
TP
d
w
N


×
=
u u
(90)

28. Determine a value for ε/d. If the value of ε is not known, a good value to
use is 0.00015 ft which is an average value given for commercial steel.

29. Obtain the friction factor from the Jain
18
Equation:

)
25 . 21
log( 2 14 . 1
1
9 . 0
Re
N d f
+ − =
ε
(91)

48
30. Calculate the average two-phase density of the mixtures
m
ρ by two
methods.

(a) Using the value of H
L
, calculate
m
ρ as follows:

m
ρ = ) 1 (
L g L L
H H − + ρ ρ (92)

(b) Calculate a value of
m
ρ assuming no slippage.

31. Calculate the two-phase mixture velocity at both p
1
and p
2
.

ν
m1

sL1

sg1
(93)
ν
m2

sL2

sg2
(94)

32. Determine a value for ∆ (ν
m
2
)

∆ (ν
m
2
) = | |
2
2
2
1 m m
ν ν − (95)

33. Calculate ∆h corresponding to ∆p = p
1
– p
2

∆h =
m
m
c
m
m
d
fw
g
p
ρ
ρ
ν
ρ
5 11
2
2
10 9652 . 2
)
2
( 144
×
+
∆ − ∆
(96)

34. Starting with p
2
and the known depth at p
2
, assume another pressure
point and repeat the procedures until reaching total depth, or until reaching
the surface depending upon whether you are starting from the bottom or top
of tube.

49
5.4 GRIFFITH CORRELATION (BUBBLE FLOW)

The void fraction of gas (H
g
) in bubble flow can be expressed as:

H
g
=

− + − +
p s
g
p s
t
p s
t
A v
q
A v
q
A v
q
4
) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
(97)

where :
v
s
= slip velocity (bubble rise velocity), ft/sec

Griffith suggested that a good approximation of an average v
s
is 0.8
ft/sec. The average flowing density can be computed as:

ρ =
g g g L
H H ρ ρ + − ) 1 ( (98)

The friction gradient is:

h c L L f
d g v f 2 /
2
ρ τ = (99)

where:

| | ) 1 (
g p
L
L
H A
q

= ν (100)

The Reynolds number is calculated as:

L
L
h L
v
d N
u
ρ 1488
Re
= (101)

where:
50
d
h
= hydraulic pipe diameter, ft
u
L
= liquid viscosity, cp

Vertical pressure gradient curves (for three different reservoir
conditions) obtained from the computer program by following the above
steps were given at Chapter 7.

51



CHAPTER VI

DESCRIPTION OF THE GK FIELD

6.1 Introduction

The selected field is located on South East Anatolian. The field was
discovered in 1961 and has been on production since then. Currently, there
are a total of 29 wells with 12 producers, 13 closed-in, 2 dumpflooders and
2 injection wells. The main drive mechanism of the field is rock and fluid
expansion, there also exists a weak aquifer at the system but not sufficient
to create a producing force.
The field started its production life as a dry and natural flowing field. A
steep pressure decline in wells was observed during late 1961 and early
1962. It was decided that the field pressure should be maintained by water
injection through peripheral wells –3 and –5 on the Eastern and Western
flanks of the field to keep the production wells on natural flow. In 1966,
water cut increased and killed natural flow. In 1967, as a result of high field
offtake, pressure in producers began to decline rapidly. Thus, in August
1967, water injection was stopped to observe production declines in the field
and artificial lift system was installed. After realising that recovery is
constrained by pressure decline rather than the watercut development in
1986 dumpflooding started. In June 1997 from two wells re-injection
started
19
.




52
6.2 Geology

The field is an elongated structure in an approximate East–West
direction. Up to date 29 wells have been drilled and two wells are located
outside the field (Well-9 and Well-10). The field is a frontal thrust structure
consisting of an anticline on the leading edge of the thrust block. The
reservoir rock has been divided into Mardin Units, I, II, III and IV. These
units are further subdivided based on lithology (limestone and dolomite) and
porosity classes.
There is a main continues East-West trending normal fault. This main
fault separates two blocks as Main Block and Northern Block and there is an
another block called Western Block. The unique pressure response of the
W-14 with respect to the rest of the field (pressure measured in W-14
showed slight depletion of only a few hundred psi, when the average
reservoir pressure in the rest of the field was more than 1000 psi) may show
the existence of a barrier between W-14 and W-11 due to either a fault or
reservoir rock quality deterioration (a permeability barrier) between those
wells. The reservoir deterioration between the wells on the other hand, can
not be confirmed due to shallow completion of the W-11 which prevents the
correlation of two wells because of the long distance between these two
wells, the deterioration of the reservoir quality is still quite possible.
The units having the highest porosities are the dolomite in Unit I and the
high porosity limestone close to the bottom of the Unit II. The average
porosities of this dolomite unit varies between 15% and 20% and the
average permeabilities between 6 mD-50mD based on core measurements.
Intercrystalline and vuggy porosities, and some solution channels and
fractures were also observed on the core samples.
Unit II is described as limestone-dolomitic limestone. Cores indicated
that it has vuggy porosity and solution channels, and some sub-vertical/sub-
horizontal fractures also exist. The average porosity is 10%-15% with air
permeabilities between 0.3 mD-1.5 mD based on core measurements.
53
All of the producing wells produce from Unit I and II, the dumpflooders
W-3, W-5, W-19 inject the water into Unit I and injectors W-11 and W-18
inject to Unit I and II.

6.3 Reservoir,Fluid and Lift-System Properties

In the absence of PVT sampling, reservoir fluid properties have been, to
large extent, derived from correlations. Estimated values for key parameters
are listed in Table 6.1.


TABLE 6.1 RESERVOIR AND FLUID PROPERTIES OF
GK FIELD


° API 38
GOR, scf/STB 15
γ
gsc
0.7
γ
wsc
1.02
γ
osc
0.83
P
b
, psi 160
P
R
(initial), psi 2400
T
av
, °F 170


10 of 12 producer wells were lifted with electrical submersible pumps.
These wells and the series of pumps operated are given in Table 6.2.
54
TABLE 6.2 SUBMERSIBLE PUMP LIFTED WELLS OPERATED IN
GK FIELD AND THEIR EFFICIENCY RANGES



WELL

PUMP USED
EFFICIENCY
RANGE (bbl/d)
W-07 DN440 83 - 458
W-08 DN675 267 - 692
W-15 GN2000 1300 - 2650
W-16 GN1600 833 - 1792
W-17 GN1600 833 -1792
W-22 DN440 83 - 458
W-24 DN1100 500 - 1125
W-25 GN3200 1834 - 3417
W-27 DN675 267 - 692
W-28 DN675 267 - 692


6.4 Production History

Production rates and bottomhole pressures recorded for the producer
wells between the years 1961 and 1999 gives the generalized IPR curve
showed in Figure 6.1. This figure is the combination of 66 well test data from
12 different producer wells and by inspecting the figure, it can be observed
that the (q
o
)
max
is 1378 bbl/d or 1385 stb/d and flow rate at bubble point
pressure, (q
o
)
b
, is 1340 bbl/d or 1347 stb/d.





55

0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
q (BBL/D or STB/D)
P
w
f

(
p
s
i
)
BBL/D
STB/D


Figure 6.1 Generalized IPR Curve

The gross rate of each submersible pump lifted producer well during
the production period and required pump stages used in the field are given
in Table 6.3.
56
TABLE 6.3 GROSS PRODUCTION RATE OF THE WELLS IN GK FIELD
AND REQUIRED PUMP STAGES


Well Gross Rate (bbl/d) Pump Stages
W-07 180 356
W-08 740 238
W-15 1180 216
W-16 1350 180
W-17 1270 181
W-22 70 320
W-24 1000 332
W-25 1620 239
W-27 400 338
W-28 530 338





57



CHAPTER VII

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

7.1 INTRODUCTION

Calculations are based on the steps that are summarized in Chapter 2
at sections 2.3.1.1 for pumping liquid and 2.3.2.4 for pumping liquid and
gas. These calculations were done for the 10 submersible pump lifted wells
indicated in Table 6.2 and by using the pumps that were actually operated in
the GK field. Detailed sample calculation for W-08 and the output of
computer program can be observed in Appendix B.

Results of the study can be categorized into five different parts:

a. Construction of vertical flowing pressure gradient (pressure traverse)
curves according to computer program output and comparing the
results with Beggs&Brill
13
Correlation
b. Performing Sensitivity Analysis based on effect of of oil density, GLR
and WOR on flowing bottomhole pressure by using the computer
program output
c. Construction of possible production rate versus stage and
horsepower chart for each well (GLR = 15 scf / STB) by using the
pumping liquid and gas computer algorithm
d. Comparison of theoretical and actual production parameters and
suggestion for optimum pump operating conditions by inspecting
possible production rate versus stage and horsepower chart

58
7.2 RESULTS and DISCUSSION

7.2.1 Construction of Vertical Flowing Pressure Gradient Curves
Using Computer Program Output

Hagedorn and Brown
3
subprogram supported with Griffith
4

Correlation gives program user a chance to construct the vertical flowing
pressure gradient curves at any flow rate and at the desired reservoir, fluid
and well conditions. Pressure traverse curves for a flow rate of 100 stb/d
and with a water-cut of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 were constructed respectively
according to GK field data and by the help of computer program output.
These curves can be observed at Figure 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3.



59
100
400 300
500
0 200
G
A
S
-
L
I
Q
U
I
D

R
A
T
I
O
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000
Pressure (psi)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)
Tubing Size, in : 2.441
Liquid Rate, STBL/D : 100
Water Fraction : 0
Gas Gravity : 0.70
Oil API Gravity : 38
Water Specific Gravity : 1.02
Average Flowing Temp., F : 170
Correlation : Hagedorn&Brown
Griffith Correlation (bubble flow)


Figure 7.1 Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 0)
60
100
200
0
500
300
400
G
A
S
-
L
I
Q
U
I
D

R
A
T
I
O
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400
Pressure (psi)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)
Tubing Size, in : 2.441
Liquid Rate, STBL/D : 100
Water Fraction : 0.5
Gas Gravity : 0.70
Oil API Gravity : 38
Water Specific Gravity : 1.02
Average Flowing Temp., F : 170
Correlation : Hagedorn&Brown
Griffith Correlation (bubble flow)


Figure 7.2 Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 0.5)
61
500
400 300
200 100 0
G
A
S
-
L
I
Q
U
I
D

R
A
T
I
O
,

S
C
F
/
S
T
B
L
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800
Pressure (psi)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)
Tubing Size, in : 2.441
Liquid Rate, STBL/D : 100
Water Fraction : 1.0
Gas Gravity : 0.70
Oil API Gravity : 38
Water Specific Gravity : 1.02
Average Flowing Temp., F : 170
Correlation : Hagedorn&Brown
Griffith Correlation (bubble flow)


Figure 7.3 Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 1.0)

62
A comparison was made between pressure traverse curves prepared
by Beggs&Brill
13
and curves constructed with computer output in order to
test the accuracy of correlation used in the program algorithm. Table 7.1
briefly indicates the pressures at selected depths with respect to two
conditions. Inspecting Table 7.1, we can understand that computer-based
pressures and the Beggs&Brill correlation values are very close to each
other. This means that vertical multiphase flow correlation within the
program is giving reliable output and encurages us about the accuracy of
rest of the study. It should be kept in mind that values determined from
Beggs&Brill correlation are recorded at slightly different reservoir and fluid
conditions than GK field parameters, that is, gas gravity is 0.65, oil API
gravity is 35 and average flowing temperature is 150 °F. Another point that
should be taken into account during the comparison is that when GLR
increases, difference between pressure values of computer output and
Beggs&Brill values are also increases. This behaviour can be interpreted as
reliability of Hagedorn and Brown flow correlation supported by Griffith
Correlation should be re-tested at high GLR reservoirs.




63
TABLE 7.1 COMPARISON of COMPUTER-BASED VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURES with
BEGGS&BRILL CORRELATION AT SELECTED DEPTHS


Water Fraction
0 0.5 1.0
GLR (scf/STB) GLR (scf/STB) GLR (scf/STB)
0 100 0 100 0 100
Pressure (psi) Pressure (psi) Pressure (psi)
Depth (ft)
Output Beggs&Brill Output Beggs&Brill Output Beggs&Brill Output Beggs&Brill Output Beggs&Brill Output Beggs&Brill
4000 1440 1400 1050 1040 1590 1600 1220 1140 1680 1800 1400 1280
6000 2160 2090 1770 1750 2380 2400 2040 1960 2560 2720 2280 2180
8000 2870 2800 2480 2440 3190 3190 2820 2750 3440 3610 3180 3080
10000 3580 3500 3190 3130 3985 4000 3610 3560 4320 4540 4080 3090
64
7.2.2 Sensitivity Analysis by Using the Computer Program Output

Having a chance of changing all variables related to Hagedorn and
Brown vertical multiphase flow correlation within the program, sensitivity
analysis was performed by observing the effect of oil density, GLR and
WOR on flowing bottomhole pressure. Results were summarized in Table
7.2, 7.3 and 7.4. Reservoir and fluid data of W-08 was used during the
study. After making necessary observations for the output, it can be
observed that the increase in oil density and GLR creates a slight decrease
in bottomhole pressure, and an increase in WOR causes an increase in
flowing bottomhole pressure.

TABLE 7.2 EFFECT of OIL DENSITY on FLOWING BOTTOMHOLE
PRESSURES AT SELECTED DEPTHS


Well Depth (ft)
API
4000 6000 8000 10000
10 2000 2880 3760 4620
15 2000 2880 3760 4620
20 1990 2870 3760 4610
25 1990 2870 3750 4610
30 1990 2870 3750 4610
35 1990 2870 3750 4600
40 1990 2870 3740 4600
65
TABLE 7.3 EFFECT of GLR on FLOWING BOTTOMHOLE PRESSURES


Q = 100 STB/D
GLR Wellhead Pressure (psi) Flowing Bottomhole Pressure (psi)
0 250 2480
100 250 2190
200 250 1960
300 250 1860
400 250 1800
500 250 1720

TABLE 7.4 EFFECT of WOR on FLOWING BOTTOMHOLE
PRESSURES AT SELECTED DEPTHS


Flowing Bottomhole Pressure (psi)
Well Depth (ft)
WOR 0% WOR 50% WOR 100%
4000 1640 1820 2000
6000 2350 2620 2880
8000 3070 3420 3770

Figure 7.4 and 7.5 indicate a graphical analysis for the effect of GLR
and WOR on flowing botomhole pressure respectively. It can be observed
that flow rates that were selected show no or negligible effect on flowing
bottomhole pressures.
66
GLR=0 scf/stbl
GLR=100
GLR=200
GLR=300
GLR=400
GLR=500
IPR
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
q (BBL/D or STB/D)
P
w
f

(
p
s
i
)
BBL/D
STB/D


Figure 7.4 Graphical Analysis of Effect of GLR on Flowing
Bottomhole Pressure for W-08

WOR=0.5
IPR
WOR =0
WOR=1.0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
q (BBL/D or STB/D)
P
w
f

(
p
s
i
)
BBL/D
STB/D

Figure 7.5 Graphical Analysis of Effect of WOR on Flowing
Bottomhole Pressure for W-08
67
7.2.3 Construction of Possible Production Rate versus Stage
and Horsepower Chart for GK Field Wells by Using
the Pumping Liquid and Gas Computer Algorithm

Possible production rate versus stage and horsepower chart was
prepared for each electrical submersible pump lifted wells in GK field by
considering the intake pressures obtained from computer program at
selected flow rates. These charts can said to be the final step of the study
and helped us to make necessary suggestions for optimum pump operating
conditions. In below figures, actual value point is the real production rate of
the well in GK field and the number of pump stages used for that well. It
should be noted that actual horsepower requirement data for these wells
are not available. On Figures 7.6 to 7.14, the efficiency range of the pumps
used and also suggested flow rate and corresponding horsepower
requirement and number of pump stages can be observed.



68
HP
Stages
Efficiency Range
Actual Value (St)
Suggested HP
Suggested Stage
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Stages or Horsepower
P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

R
a
t
e

(
S
T
B
/
D
)


FIGURE 7.6 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-07
69
HP
Efficiency Range
Stages
Actual Value (St)
Suggested HP
Suggested Stage
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Stages or Horsepower
P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

R
a
t
e

(
S
T
B
/
D
)


FIGURE 7.7 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-08

70
HP
Efficiency Range
Stages
Actual Value(St)
Suggested Stage
Suggested HP
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Stages or Horsepower
P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

R
a
t
e

(
S
T
B
/
D
)



FIGURE 7.8 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-16
71
HP
Stages
Efficiency Range
Actual Value (St)
Suggested HP Suggested Stage
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Stages or Horsepower
P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

R
a
t
e

(
S
T
B
/
D
)


FIGURE 7.9 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-17
72
HP
Efficiency Range
Stages
Actual Value (St)
Suggested HP Suggested Stage
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Stages or Horsepower
P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

R
a
t
e

(
S
T
B
/
D
)



FIGURE 7.10 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-22
73
HP
Efficiency Range
Stages
Actual Value (St)
Suggested HP
Suggested Stage
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Stages or Horsepower
P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

R
a
t
e

(
S
T
B
/
D
)


FIGURE 7.11 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-24
74
HP
Stages
Efficiency Range
Actual Value(St)
Suggested HP
Suggested Stage
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Stages or Horsepower
P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

R
a
t
e

(
S
T
B
/
D
)



FIGURE 7.12 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-25
75
HP
Efficiency Range
Stages
Actual Value (St)
Suggested Stage
Suggested HP
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Stages or Horsepower
P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

R
a
t
e

(
S
T
B
/
D
)


FIGURE 7.13 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-27
76
HP
Stages
Efficiency Range
Actual Value (St)
Suggested HP
Suggested Stage
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Stages or Horsepower
P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

R
a
t
e

(
S
T
B
/
D
)


FIGURE 7.14 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-28
77
7.2.4 Comparison of Theoretical and Actual Production Parameters
and Suggestion for Optimum Pump Operating Conditions by
Inspecting Possible Production Rate versus Stage and
Horsepower Chart

Inspection of Possible Production Rate versus Stage and
Horsepower charts for GK field wells let us to make following interpretations:
Actual operating rate of W-07 is 180 stb/d with 356 stages. This
operating rate is within the efficiency range (83-458 bpd) of the pump used
(DN 440), however from the Figure 7.6 it can be observed that beyond 100
stb/d, the horsepower requirement and the number of pump stages increase
very fast without a significant gain in the production rate. A production rate
of 90 stb/d with a horsepower requirement of 40 HP, and a pump stages of
450 can said to be ideal considering the chart.
W-08 is operated with 740 stb/d with 238 stages. This production rate
is higher than the upper limit of pump efficiency range (267-692 bpd). On
the other hand, by examining Figure 7.7, 740 stb/d rate at 238 stages seem
to be a good choice, since HP and pump stage curve slope increases
significantly with an increase in production rate. A production rate of 680
stb/d and a corresponding horsepower requirement of 35 HP and 230 pump
stages can be suggested which are close to actual operating values. 680
stb/d production rate is useful since it is within the upper limit of efficiency
range and providing maximum production rate from W-08.
W-15 cannot be interpreted due to lack of required data.
W-16 is operated with 1350 stb/d with a pump stage of 180. The rate
is within the efficiency range of the pump (833-1792 bpd) and the
corresponding pump stages and HP requirement can said to be economical
by observing Figure 7.8. A production rate of 1200 stb/d with a 70 HP and
160 pump stages can be a perfect design and it should be noted that the
actual production rate and pump stage values are nearly equal to theoretical
values.
78
W-17 is operated with 1270 stb/d with 181 stages. This rate indicates
that the pump is used efficiently (833-1792 bpd). Besides, observing Figure
7.9, operating production rate and pump stage values are said to be at
optimum range, and the actual and theoretical values are close to each
other. Thus, a production rate of 1400 stb/d and a corresponding HP
requirement of 100 HP and 220 pump stages can be offered in theorotical
circumstances.
W-22 produces with a low rate, 70 stb/d, with 320 stages. Figure 7.10
shows that the rate is below pump efficiency range (83-458 bpd) and also
320 stages is useless since HP requirement increases significantly,
however production rate increases slightly. This well can said to be
operated inefficiently. 390 stb/d production rate can be selected with a 18
HP requirement and a pump stages of 212.
W-24 produces 1000 stb/d within upper limit of pump efficiency range
(500-1125 bpd). Pump stage value is 332, and entire actual operating data,
is acceptable. Suggested values can be given as 1050 stb/d production rate
with a 32 HP and 270 pump stages.
W-25 is operated with 1620 stb/d with 239 stages. Figure 7.12 shows
that the actual operating production rate can be selected higher, especially
within efficiency range (1834-3417 bpd) of the pump. 1900 stb/d production
rate with a 310 HP and a pump stage of 400 can be suggested for this well
but it should be noted that horsepower requirement is too high to be
operated in field conditions.
W-27 has a production rate of 400 stb/d and a pump stage of 338.
Examining Figure 7.13, it can be concluded that the pump is operating at its
optimum range (267-692 bpd). Operating with 650 stb/d with a 25 HP and
170 pump stages can be economical.
W-28 operates with 530 stb/d within its pump efficiency range (267-
692 bpd) with 338 stages 680 stb/d production rate with a 28 HP and 192
pump stages can be a good selection.

79
TABLE 7.5. RESULTS OBTAINED AFTER the COMPARISON of ACTUAL
and COMPUTER-BASED DATA for GK FIELD


WELL
Actual
Flow
Rate
(stb/d)
Actual
Pump
Stages
Actual HP
Suggested
Flow Rate
(stb/d)
Suggested
Pump
Stages
Suggested HP RESULT
W-07 180 356 N/A 90 450 40
not completely optimum but can be
acceptable
W-08 740 238 N/A 680 230 35
not completely optimum but can be
acceptable
W-15 1180 216 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
W-16 1350 180 N/A 1200 160 70 completely optimum
W-17 1270 181 N/A 1400 220 100 completely optimum
W-22 70 320 N/A 390 212 18 inefficient production
W-24 1000 332 N/A 1050 270 32 completely optimum
W-25 1620 239 N/A 1900 400 310
not completely optimum but can be
acceptable
W-27 400 338 N/A 650 170 25
not completely optimum but can be
acceptable
W-28 530 338 N/A 680 192 28
not completely optimum but can be
acceptable
80
where:

NA = not applicable due to lack of required data

81



CHAPTER VIII

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

System Nodal Analysis is an useful method in designing and optimizing
a production system having interacting components. Application of Nodal
Analysis technique to electrical submersible pumps lets production
engineers to run the pump more efficiently by selecting optimum flow rate
and corresponding number of pump stages and horsepower requirement.
System optimization is especially important when dealing with gas with
liquid rather than producing and pumping only liquid. In these cases, system
analysis should be supported by a computer program to overcome large
iterations due to production volume change between pump discharge and
intake pressures. It should be noted that GK field has a low GOR (15
scf/STB) which allows straight-forward pump designs without a need of
detailed optimization procedures. This study is useful especially for high
GOR submersible pump lifted wells. A computer program is also necessary
to predict pressure at required depth simultaneously by using vertical
multiphase flow correlation. It can be observed from the results that
Hagedorn and Brown correlation generally gave acceptable program output
when compared with Beggs&Brill Correlation, however failed to give
accurate values at bubble flow. During the study, Griffith Correlation was
used when bubble flow conditions were met. Results indicated that when
dealing with high GLR wells by the help of the computer program, Hagedorn
and Brown Correlation showed tendency to give less accurate output. In this
study, sensitivity analysis was also performed based on the effect of oil
gravity, WOR and GLR on flowing bottomhole pressure which was
evaluated with graphical analysis.
Evaluation of possible production rate versus stage and horsepower
chart showed that within 10 submersible pump lifted wells, 3 wells, W-16,
82
W-17, and W-24 were operated at their optimum range. 5 wells, W-07, W-
08, W-25, W-27, and W-28, were not operated completely at optimum
operating conditions but can said to be acceptable. 1 well, W-22, was
operated inefficiently which should be re-designed to reach optimum
parameters. W–15 could not be interpreted due to lack of required
production data. The study gave the writer a chance to suggest optimum
operating parameters for each well. Finally, it should be kept in mind that
actual production rates for the wells in GK field can be different from the
optimized values because of the commercial production needs of the oil
companies.
83



REFERENCES


1. Brown, K.E., “The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods”, Vol. 2b,
PennWell Publishing Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1980.

2. Beggs, H.D., “Production Optmization Using Nodal Analysis”, OGCI
Publications, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1991.

3. Hagedorn, Alton R., Brown, K.E., “Experimental Study of Pressure
Gradients Occuring During Continuous Two-phase Flow in Small
Diameter Vertical Conduits”, Journal of Petroleum Technology, April
1965, p.475

4. Griffith, P., ‘’Two-Phase Flow In Pipes’’, Summer Program, M.I.T., 1962.

5. Reda Pump Company Pte. Ltd., 1992

6. Brown, K.E., “The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods”, Vol. 4, PennWell
Publishing Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1984.

7. Gilbert, W.E., ‘’Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Performance’’, API
Drill.Prod.Practice,1954.

8. Nind, T.E.W., ‘’Principles of Oil Well Production’’, McGraw-Hill, 1964.

9. Brown, K.E., Beggs, H.D., ‘’ The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods”,
Vol. 1, Petroleum Publishing Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1978
84
10. Duns, H.Jr., Ros, N.C.J., ‘’Vertical Flow of Gas and Liquid Mixtures in
Wells’’, 6
th
World Petroleum Congress, Frankfurt, Germany.

11. Gray, H.E., ‘’Vertical Flow Correlations in Gas Wells’’, User Manual for
API 14B Subsurface Control Safety Valve Sizing Computer Program
App.B., June 1974

12. Orkizewski, J. “Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops in Vertical Pipe”,
Journal of Petroleum Technology, June 1967

13. Beggs, H.D., Brill, J.P. “A Study of Two Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes”,
Journal of Petroleum Technology, May 1973

14. Aziz, K., Govier, G.W., and Fogarasi, M., “Pressure Drop in Wells
Producing Oil and Gas”, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology,
July-September 1972

15. Brown, K.E., “The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods”, Vol. 1,
Petroleum Publishing Company, Tulsa, 1977

16. Standing, M.B., ‘’Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oilfield Hydrocarbon
Systems’’, NewYork, Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1952

17. Lasater, J.A., ‘’Bubble Point Pressure Correlation’’, Transactions of the
AIME, 1958, pg379

18. Jain, A.K., “Accurate Explicit Equation for Friction Factor”,
J.Hydl.Div.ASCE, NoHY5, May, 1976

19. Private Communication with N.V. Turkse Perenco, 2003
85



APPENDIX A


PUMPING LIQUID AND GAS COMPUTER PROGRAM


1. Nomenclature

2. Flow Chart

3. Main Program
86



PUMPING LIQUID AND GAS

A1 Nomenclature:

A1.1 Simple Variables Used In The Program

A,B,C,D terms used in z factor calculation
API API value of the oil
AREA area of the tubing, ft
2

AVALUE constant used in determination of the number of pump stages
BHT bottomhole temperature, °F
BO formation volume factor of oil, rbbl/STB
BOB formation volume factor of oil at bubble point pressure,
rbbl/STB
CNL viscosity number coefficient
CO coefficient of isothermal compressibility
DELP pressure increment, psi
DENAV average density of the gas phase, lb/ft
3

DENF weight of 1 bbl liquid plus pumped gas at standard conditions,
lb/stbl
DENGAS gas density at standard conditions, lb/scf
DENLIQ density of the liquid phase, lb/ft
3

DENMIX average two phase density of the mixture, lb/ft
3

DIA inner diameter of tubing, in.
DIANUM pipe diameter number
DIST distance used in Hagedorn and Brown correlation, ft
DOV dead oil viscosity, cp
ED pipe roughness
87
F term used in calculating formation volume factor of oil
FF friction factor
GLR gas liquid ratio, scf/STB
GOR gas oil ratio, scf/STB
HEADCAP head per stage, ft/stage
HOLDCOF holdup correlating function
HOLDUP liquid holdup
HOLOSEC liquid holdup over secondary correction factor
HPLOAD horsepower per stage, HP/stage
PAV average pressure between P
1
and P
2

PBUB bubble point pressure, psi
PPC pseudo critical pressure
PPR pseudo reduced pressure
P1 initial pressure (wellhead pressure in this case), psi
P2 final pressure, psi
Q flow rate term used in pump head capacity subprogram,
STB/D
QOIL oil flow rate, STB/D
QOPTM flow rate term used in pump horsepower subprogram, STB/D
QWATER water flow rate, STB/D
RS solution gas oil ratio, scf/STB
RS1 solution gas oil ratio at initial condition, scf/STB
RS2 solution gas oil ratio at final condition, scf/STB
SCF secondary correction factor
SECORF secondary correction factor correlating parameter
SGGAS specific gravity of gas
SGOIL specific gravity of oil
SGWATER specific gravity of water
T average flowing temperature, °F
TD total depth of the well, ft
TENLIQ liquid mixture surface tension, dynes/cm
88
TPC pseudo critical temperature
TPR pseudo reduced temperature
VELNGAS gas velocity number
VELNLIQ liquid velocity number
VISAV average viscosity between initial and final condition, cp
VISGAS gas viscosity (assumed constant), cp
VISNLIQ liquid viscosity number
VISO1 oil viscosity at initial condition, cp
VISO2 oil viscosity at final condition, cp
VISWAT average water viscosity, cp
VSG superficial gas velocity, ft/sec
VSL superficial liquid velocity, ft/sec
W mass flow rate, lb/day
WM mass associated with one barrel of stock tank liquid, lb/STBL
WC water cut
WOR water oil ratio

A1.2. Arrays Used In The Program

BE array showing factor ‘B’ used in z factor calculation
HP array showing the calculation of required pump horsepower
P array showing VF data at various pressures
PR array showing the calculation of number of pump stages
ST array showing the intake pressures at various pump stages
ZE array showing z factor
89
A2 Flow Chart

MAIN PROGRAM


START
Input: Well, fluid,
reservoir, and lift-
system data
Calculate: R
s
, B
o
, B
g

and VF at various
pressures
(200 – 5000 psi)
CALL HAGBROWN
(pressure gradient correlation)
Store discharge pressure at pump
depth. Apply Griffith Correlation if
bubble flow exists
Begin with first iteration. At
every iteration decrease the
pressure 50 psi (∆P) starting
from the discharge pressure
A
Calculate: Average
pressure
P
av
=
2
final initial
P P +

Output: file name
is Table1
volume factor
data at various
pressures
90































Calculate: volume factor
at the average pressure
by making interpolation
and volume of fluid
according to volume
factor value
According to input lift data:
CALL DN440H for pump DN440
CALL DN675H for pump DN675
CALL DN1100H for pump DN1100
CALL GN1600H for pump GN1600
CALL GN2000H for pump GN2000
CALL GN3200H for pump GN3200
Store head per stage at volume of
fluid
Calculate: stage
increment and
total number of
stages
If average
pressure
is less
than 200
psi
A
F
Output: file name
is Table2
iterations to
calculate total
number of pump
stages at various
pressures
T
91































Input: number of pump
stages (7 values) at
which intake pressure
will be calculated
Calculate: intake
pressures at selected
pump stages by
interpolation
Output: file name
is Table3
intake pressure
values at
selected pump
stages
Input: possible (optimized)
production rate and
corresponding intake
pressure determined from
EXCEL Worksheet
CALL HAGBROWN
Store discharge pressure at
possible (optimum) flow rate.
Apply Griffith Correlation if
bubble flow exists
Begin with first iteration. At
every iteration decrease the
pressure 50 psi (∆P)
starting from the discharge
pressure
B
92































Calculate: Average
pressure
P
av
=
2
final initial
P P +

Calculate: volume factor at
the average pressure by
making interpolation and
volume of fluid according to
volume factor value
According to input lift data:
CALL DN440HP for pump DN440
CALL DN675HP for pump DN675
CALL DN1100HP for pump DN1100
CALL GN1600HP for pump GN1600
CALL GN2000HP for pump GN2000
CALL GN3200HP for pump GN3200
Store horsepower per stage at volume
of fluid
According to input lift data:
CALL DN440H for pump DN440
CALL DN675H for pump DN675
CALL DN1100H for pump DN1100
CALL GN1600H for pump GN1600
CALL GN2000H for pump GN2000
CALL GN3200H for pump GN3200
Store head per stage at volume of fluid
Calculate: horsepower
increment and total
required horsepower
93




















If average
pressure is
less than
intake
pressure
F
B
Output: file name is Table4
iterations to calculate total
horsepower requirement
between intake and
discharge pressures
STOP
T
94
A3 Main Program

C **********LIQUID AND GAS CASE MAIN PROGRAM**********
DIMENSION P(25,5),BE(25),ZE(25),PR(100,8),ST(10,10),HP(100,9)
REAL HEAD,XY,YX,HPPERST
C **********OPEN FILE**********
OPEN (15,FILE='TABLE1.FOR')
OPEN (35,FILE='TABLE2.FOR')
OPEN (41,FILE='TABLE3.FOR')
OPEN (31,FILE='TABLE4.FOR')
C **********INPUT DATA**********
PRINT *,'SELECT YOUR PUMP'
PRINT *,'TYPE 1 FOR DN440'
PRINT *,'TYPE 2 FOR DN675'
PRINT *,'TYPE 3 FOR DN1100'
PRINT *,'TYPE 4 FOR GN1600'
PRINT *,'TYPE 5 FOR GN2000'
PRINT *,'TYPE 6 FOR GN3200'
READ *,SELECT
IF (SELECT.EQ.1) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE DN440'
IF (SELECT.EQ.2) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE DN675'
IF (SELECT.EQ.3) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE DN1100'
IF (SELECT.EQ.4) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE GN1600'
IF (SELECT.EQ.5) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE GN2000'
IF (SELECT.EQ.6) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE GN3200'
PRINT *,'ENTER WATERCUT'
READ *,WC
PRINT *,'ENTER SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATER'
READ *,SGWAT
PRINT *,'ENTER SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF OIL'
READ *,SGOIL
95
PRINT *,'ENTER GOR'
READ *,GOR
PRINT *,'ENTER SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF GAS'
READ *,SGGAS
PRINT *,'ENTER VISCOSITY OF GAS'
READ *,VISGAS
PRINT *,'ENTER WELLHEAD PRESSURE'
READ *,P1
PRINT *,'ENTER PRESSURE INTERVAL'
READ *,DELP
PRINT *,'ENTER BOTTOMHOLE TEMPERATURE'
READ *,BHT
PRINT *,'ENTER BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE'
READ *,PBUB
PRINT *,'ASSUME A LIQUID FLOW RATE'
READ *,QLIQ
PRINT *,'ENTER INNER DIAMETER OF TUBING'
READ *,DIA
PRINT *,'ENTER TOTAL DEPTH'
READ *,TD
**********CALCULATION OF VF DATA ATVARIOUS PRESSURES*****
T=BHT
QWATER=QLIQ*WC
QOIL=QLIQ-QWATER
GLR=GOR/(1/(1-WC))
DENGAS=SGGAS*0.0763
DENF=350*WC*SGWAT+350*(1-WC)*SGOIL+GLR*DENGAS
PRINT *,'FLUID DENSITY IS',DENF
AVALUE=808.3141/DENF
API=(141.5/SGOIL-131.5)
P2=P1+DELP
96
PAV=(P1+P2)/2+14.7
PPC=-17.292*SGGAS**2-17.852*SGGAS+688.4
TPC=1.8324*SGGAS**2+308.93*SGGAS+172.94
TPR=(T+460)/TPC
PPR=PAV/PPC
A=1.39*(TPR-0.92)**0.5-0.36*TPR-0.101
B=(0.62-0.23*TPR)*PPR+(0.066/(TPR-0.86)-0.037)*PPR**2
+ +(0.32/10**(9*(TPR-1)))*PPR**6
C=(0.132-0.32*ALOG10(TPR))
D=10**(0.3106-0.49*TPR+0.1824*TPR**2)
DO 10 I=2,26
P(I-1,1)=200+200*(I-2)
P(I-1,2)=SGGAS*((P(I-1,1)/18)*(10**(0.0125*API)/10**(0.00091*T)))
+ **(1/0.83)
IF (P(I-1,1).GE.PBUB) P(I-1,2)=GOR
IF (P(I-1,1).LT.PBUB) THEN
P(I-1,3)=0.972+0.000147*(P(I-1,2)
+ *(SGGAS/SGOIL)**0.5+1.25*T)**1.175
ELSE
P(I-1,3)=(0.972+0.000147*(P(I-1,2)*(SGGAS/SGOIL)**0.5+1.25*T)
+ **1.175)*EXP(((-1433+5*P(I-1,2)+17.2*T-1180*SGGAS+12.61*API)
+ /(10**5*P(I-1,1))*(PBUB-P(I-1,1))))
END IF
BE(I-1)=(0.62-0.23*TPR)*(P(I-1,1)/(-17.292*SGGAS**2-17.852*SGGAS
+ +688.4))+(0.066/(TPR-0.86)-0.037)*(P(I-1,1)/(-17.292*SGGAS
+ **2-17.852*SGGAS+688.4))**2+(0.32/10**(9*(TPR-1)))*(P(I-1,1)
+ /(-17.292*SGGAS**2-17.852*SGGAS+688.4))**6
IF (BE(I-1).LT.100) ZE(I-1)=A+(1-A)/EXP(BE(I-1))+C
+ *(P(I-1,1)/(-17.292*SGGAS**2-17.852*SGGAS+688.4))**D
IF (BE(I-1).GT.100) ZE(I-1)=A+C*(P(I-1,1)/(-17.292*SGGAS
+ **2-17.852*SGGAS+688.4))**D
97
P(I-1,4)=0.00504*(T+460)*ZE(I-1)/P(I-1,1)
IF (P(I-1,2).EQ.GOR) P(I-1,4)=0
P(I-1,5)=WC+(1-WC)*P(I-1,3)+(GLR-(1-WC)*P(I-1,2))*P(I-1,4)
20 FORMAT (25(2X,F9.4))
WRITE (15,20) (P(I-1,J),J=1,5)
10 CONTINUE
C ******************CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES********
SUMST=0
PR(1,1)=0
CALL HAGBROWN (QOIL,QWATER,WC,GLR,GOR,WOR,WM,W,API,
+ RS,BO,DENLIQ,SGGAS,SGWAT,SGOIL,DELP,P1,P2,PBUB,VISO1,
+VISO2,DIA,VISGAS,TD)
PR(1,2)=P2
SS=((PR(1,2)-200)/50)+1
NL=AINT(SS)
DO 21 I=2,NL
PR(I,1)=I-1.0
PR(I,2)=PR(I-1,2)-50
IF (PR(I,2).LT.200) GO TO 70
PR(I,3)=(PR(I,2)+PR(I-1,2))/2
DO 25 J=1,25
IF (PR(I,3).EQ.P(J,1)) PR(I,4)=P(J,5)
X=PR(I,3)-P(J,1)
IF (X.LT.200.AND.X.GT.0) PR(I,4)=P(J,5)+(P(J+1,5)-P(J,5))
+ *((PR(I,3)-P(J,1))/(P(J+1,1)-P(J,1)))
25 CONTINUE
PR(I,5)=PR(I,4)*(QWATER+QOIL)
XY=PR(I,5)
IF (SELECT.EQ.1) CALL DN440H(XY,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.2) CALL DN675H(XY,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.3) CALL DN1100H(XY,HEAD)
98
IF (SELECT.EQ.4) CALL GN1600H(XY,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.5) CALL GN2000H(XY,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.6) CALL GN3200H(XY,HEAD)
PR(I,6)=HEAD
PR(I,7)=50*AVALUE*(PR(I,4)/PR(I,6))
SUMST=SUMST+PR(I,7)
PR(I,8)=SUMST
36 FORMAT (25(1X,F7.2))
WRITE (35,36) (PR(I,J),J=1,8)
21 CONTINUE
C ******************INTAKE PRESSURE DATA*******************
70 PRINT *,'ENTER THE NUMBER OF STAGE VALUES'
READ *,(ST(K,1),K=1,7)
M=1
48 N=2
49 IF (PR(N,8).GT.ST(M,1)) GO TO 52
N=N+1
IF (N.GT.NL) GO TO 53
GO TO 49
52 ST(M,2)=PR(N-1,2)+(ST(M,1)-PR(N-1,8))/(PR(N,8)-PR(N-1,8))
+ *(PR(N,2)-PR(N-1,2))
53 M=M+1
IF (M.EQ.8) GO TO 51
GO TO 48
51 DO 100 NS=1,7
37 FORMAT (7(1X,F7.2))
WRITE (41,37) (ST(NS,LN),LN=1,2)
100 CONTINUE
C **********CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER REQUIREMENT*******
PRINT *,'ENTER THE INTAKE PRESSURE AT OPTIMUM FLOW RATE'
READ *,PINT
99
PRINT *,'ENTER THE OPTIMUM FLOW RATE AT ASSUMED STAGE'
READ *,QOPT
QWATER=QOPT*WC
QOIL=QOPT-QWATER
SUMHP=0
HP(1,1)=0
CALL HAGBROWN (QOIL,QWATER,WC,GLR,GOR,WOR,WM,W,API,
+ RS,BO,DENLIQ,SGGAS,SGWAT,SGOIL,DELP,P1, P2, T, PBUB,
+VISO1, VISO2,DIA,VISGAS,TD)
HP(1,2)=P2
PRINT *,P2
TT=((P2-PINT)/50)+2
NT=AINT(TT)
DO 38 I=2,NT
HP(I,1)=I-1
HP(I,2)=HP(I-1,2)-50
IF (HP(I,2).LE.PINT) HP(I,2)=PINT
HP(I,3)=(HP(I,2)+HP(I-1,2))/2
DO 39 J=1,25
IF (HP(I,3).EQ.P(J,1)) HP(I,4)=P(J,5)
XX=HP(I,3)-P(J,1)
IF (XX.LT.200.AND.XX.GT.0) HP(I,4)=P(J,5)+(P(J+1,5)-P(J,5))
+ *((HP(I,3)-P(J,1))/(P(J+1,1)-P(J,1)))
39 CONTINUE
HP(I,5)=HP(I,4)*QOPT
YX=HP(I,5)
IF (SELECT.EQ.1) CALL DN440HP(YX,HPPERST)
IF (SELECT.EQ.2) CALL DN675HP(YX,HPPERST)
IF (SELECT.EQ.3) CALL DN1100HP(YX,HPPERST)
IF (SELECT.EQ.4) CALL GN1600HP(YX,HPPERST)
IF (SELECT.EQ.5) CALL GN2000HP(YX,HPPERST)
100
IF (SELECT.EQ.6) CALL GN3200HP(YX,HPPERST)
HP(I,6)=HPPERST
IF (SELECT.EQ.1) CALL DN440H(YX,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.2) CALL DN675H(YX,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.3) CALL DN1100H(YX,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.4) CALL GN1600H(YX,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.5) CALL GN2000H(YX,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.6) CALL GN3200H(YX,HEAD)
HP(I,7)=HEAD
HP(I,8)=115.47*HP(I,6)/HP(I,7)
SUMHP=SUMHP+HP(I,8)
HP(I,9)=SUMHP
32 FORMAT (25(1X,F7.2))
WRITE (31,32) (HP(I,J),J=1,9)
38 CONTINUE
STOP
END

101



APPENDIX B


PUMPING ONLY LIQUID COMPUTER PROGRAM


1. Nomenclature

2. Flow Chart

3. Main Program







102



PUMPING ONLY LIQUID

B1 Nomenclature:

B1.1 Simple Variables Used In The program

Simple variables used in this program are included in the nomenclature
of pumping liquid and gas case.

B1.2 Arrays Used In The Program

HP array showing the calculation of required pump horsepower
LIQT array showing the intake pressures at various pump stages
QOPT array showing the optimum (possible) production rates
STL array showing the selected pump stages
103
B2 Flow Chart

MAIN PROGRAM



























START
Input: Well, fluid,
reservoir, and lift-
system data
Calculate: gas density at
standard conditions, weight
of 1 bbl liquid plus pumped
gas at standard conditions
and specific gravity of fluid
CALL HAGBROWN
(pressure gradient correlation)
Store discharge pressure at
pump depth. Apply Griffith
Correlation if bubble flow exist
According to input lift data:
CALL DN440H for pump DN440
CALL DN675H for pump DN675
CALL DN1100H for pump DN1100
CALL GN1600H for pump GN1600
CALL GN2000H for pump GN2000
CALL GN3200H for pump GN3200
Store head per stage at assumed
production rate
Output: file name
is Table5
intake pressures
at selected pump
stages
104
























According to input lift data:
CALL DN440HP for pump DN440
CALL DN675HP for pump DN675
CALL DN1100HP for pump DN1100
CALL GN1600HP for pump GN1600
CALL GN2000HP for pump GN2000
CALL GN3200HP for pump GN3200
Store horsepower per stage at possible
(optimized) production rate that is
calculated from EXCEL Worksheet
Calculate: HP and
∆q
p
/∆St values
Output: file name is
Table6
Horsepower requirement
for possible (optimized)
rates
STOP
105
B3 Main Program

C **********ONLY LIQUID CASE MAIN PROGRAM**********
REAL LIQT(10,10),STL(10),HP(10,10),QOPT(10)
C **********OPEN FILE**********
OPEN (11,FILE='TABLE5.FOR')
OPEN (15,FILE='TABLE6.FOR')
C **********INPUT DATA**********
PRINT *,'SELECT YOUR PUMP'
PRINT *,'TYPE 1 FOR DN440'
PRINT *,'TYPE 2 FOR DN675'
PRINT *,'TYPE 3 FOR DN1100'
PRINT *,'TYPE 4 FOR GN1600'
PRINT *,'TYPE 5 FOR GN2000'
PRINT *,'TYPE 6 FOR GN3200'
READ *,SELECT
IF (SELECT.EQ.1) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE DN440'
IF (SELECT.EQ.2) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE DN675'
IF (SELECT.EQ.3) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE DN1100'
IF (SELECT.EQ.4) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE GN1600'
IF (SELECT.EQ.5) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE GN2000'
IF (SELECT.EQ.6) PRINT *,'YOU CHOOSE GN3200'
PRINT *,'ENTER WATERCUT'
READ *,WC
PRINT *,'ENTER SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATER'
READ *,SGWAT
PRINT *,'ENTER SGOIL'
READ *,SGOIL
PRINT *,'ENTER GOR'
READ *,GLR
PRINT *,'ENTER SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF GAS'
106
READ *,SGGAS
PRINT *,'ENTER VISCOSITY OF GAS'
READ *,VISGAS
PRINT *,'ENTER WELLHEAD PRESSURE'
READ *,P1
PRINT *,'ENTER PRESSURE INTERVAL'
READ *,DELP
PRINT *,'ENTER BOTTOMHOLE TEMPERATURE'
READ *,T
PRINT *,'ENTER BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE'
READ *,PBUB
PRINT *,'ENTER A LIQUID FLOW RATE'
READ *,QLIQ
PRINT *,'ENTER INNER DIAMETER OF TUBING'
READ *,DIA
PRINT *,'ENTER TOTAL DEPTH'
READ *,TD
PRINT *,'ASSUME NUMBER OF STAGES (7 VALUES)'
READ *,(STL(I),I=1,7)
DATA WC/0/ ,SGWAT/1.02/ ,SGOIL/0.83/ ,SGGAS/0.7/
DATA P1/1/ ,DELP/10/ ,BHT/170/ ,PBUB/160/ ,QLIQ/100/
DATA GLR/100/ ,VISGAS/0.018/ ,TD/1000/ ,DIA/2.441/
C **********CALCULATION OF INTAKE PRESSURE**********
T=BHT
QWATER=QLIQ*WC
QOIL=QLIQ-QWATER
DENGAS=SGGAS*0.0763
DENF=350*WC*SGWAT+350*(1-WC)*SGOIL+GLR*DENGAS
SGFLUID=DENF/350
DO 13 I=1,7
QASS=QWATER+QOIL
107
LIQT(I,1)=QASS
IF (SELECT.EQ.1) CALL DN440H(QASS,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.2) CALL DN675H(QASS,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.3) CALL DN1100H(QASS,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.4) CALL GN1600H(QASS,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.5) CALL GN2000H(QASS,HEAD)
IF (SELECT.EQ.6) CALL GN3200H(QASS,HEAD)
LIQT(I,2)=HEAD
IF (I.GT.1) GO TO 14
CALL HAGBROWN(QOIL,QWATER,WC,GLR,GOR,WOR,WM,W,API,
+ RS,BO,DENLIQ,SGGAS,SGWAT,SGOIL,DELP,P1,P2,T,PBUB,
+ VISO1,VISO2,DIA,VISGAS,TD)
14 LIQT(I,3)=P2
LIQT(I,4)=STL(I)
LIQT(I,5)=LIQT(I,3)-((DENF*LIQT(I,2))/808.3141)*LIQT(I,4)
12 FORMAT (7(1X,F9.3))
WRITE (11,12) (LIQT(I,J),J=1,5)
13 CONTINUE
C **********HORSEPOWER REQUIREMENT**********
PRINT *,'ENTER OPTIMUM FLOW RATES AT EACH
+ ASSUMED STAGES RESPECTIVELY'
DO 16 I=1,7
READ *,QOPT(I)
HP(I,1)=STL(I)
HP(I,2)=QOPT(I)
ZX=QOPT(I)
IF (SELECT.EQ.1) CALL DN440HP(ZX,HPMOTOR)
IF (SELECT.EQ.2) CALL DN675HP(ZX,HPMOTOR)
IF (SELECT.EQ.3) CALL DN1100HP(ZX,HPMOTOR)
IF (SELECT.EQ.4) CALL GN1600HP(ZX,HPMOTOR)
IF (SELECT.EQ.5) CALL GN2000HP(ZX,HPMOTOR)
108
IF (SELECT.EQ.6) CALL GN3200HP(ZX,HPMOTOR)
HP(I,3)=HPMOTOR
HP(I,4)=SGFLUID*HP(I,3)*HP(I,1)
HP(I,5)=(HP(I,2)-HP(I-1,2))/(HP(I,1)-HP(I-1,1))
17 FORMAT (7(1X,F9.3))
WRITE (15,17) (HP(I,J),J=1,5)
16 CONTINUE
STOP
END

109



APPENDIX C


SUBPROGRAMS


1. Nomenclature

2. Flow Chart

3. Program Listing
110



SUBPROGRAMS

C1 Nomenclature:

C1.1 Simple Variables Used In The program

Simple variables used in subprograms are included in the nomenclature
of pumping liquid and gas case.

C1.2 Arrays Used In The Program

Arrays used in subprograms are included in the nomenclature of
pumping liquid and gas case.
Subprograms written for entire program are:

1. HAGBROWN SUBPROGRAM
2. DN440HP, DN675HP, DN1100HP, GN1600HP, GN2000HP,
GN3200HP SUBPROGRAMS
3. RSOL, FVF, ZF, VISCOS, WATVIS, VSOL, VSOG, FFACTOR
SUBPROGRAMS
where:

RSOL = solution-gas oil ratio (Standings correlation)
FVF = formation volume factor of oil (Standings correlation)
ZF = compressibility of gas (Standings Modification to the Beggs
& Brill correlation)
VISCOS = viscosity of oil (Beggs & Robinson correlation)
WATVIS = water viscosity (Brill & Beggs correlation)
111
VSOL = superficial liquid velocity (Hagedorn & Brown correlation)
VSOG = superficial gas velocity (Hagedorn & Brown correlation)
FF = friction factor (Jain Equation)
112

C2 Flow Chart

HAGBROWN SUBPROGRAM



























START
Calculate: Mass associated
with one bbl of stock tank
liquid,mass flow rate, density
of the liquid phase, water-oil
ratio, gas oil ratio
Beginning with wellhead
pressure (correlation from top
of the well to bottom),
incrementation of pressure 10
psi in every iteration
Calculate: Average
pressure
P
av
=
2
final initial
P P +

Total Depth = 0
C
113






























Calculate: z factor, average density
of the gas phase, solution gas-oil
ratio, average viscosity of oil,
average water viscosity, liquid
mixture viscosity, liquid mixture
surface tension, liquid viscosity
number, viscosity number
coefficient
Calculate: average
mixture density, average
mixture velocity,
Calculate: area of tubing, superficial
liquid velocity, liquid velocity
number, superficial gas velocity, gas
velocity number, pipe diameter
number, holdup correlating function,
H
L
/ψ, two-phase Reynolds number,
pipe roughness, friction factor
If
Bubble
flow
exists
Calculate: void
fraction of gas,
average flowing
density, friction
gradient, Reynolds
Number
T
F
Calculate depth increment
(∆h) by Griffith Approach
D
114





























If

Well Depth = Total Depth

(or 50 ± ft)
Calculate depth increment (∆h) and Total Depth
Total Depth = Depth increment (∆h) + Total Depth
T
Output: pressure at required
depth (discharge pressure)
C
F
RETURN
D
115
C3 Program Listing


HAGBROWN SUBPROGRAM

C **********HAGBROWN SUBPROGRAM**********
SUBROUTINE HAGBROWN (QOIL, QWATER,WC, GLR,GOR, WOR,
+WM, W,API, RS, BO, DENLIQ,SGGAS, SGWAT,SGOIL, DELP,P1,P2,
+T, PBUB, VISO1,VISO2, DIA,VISGAS,TD)
GOR=GLR*1/(1-WC)
QLIQ=QOIL+QWATER
WOR=QWATER/QOIL
WM=SGOIL*350*(1/(1+WOR))+SGWAT*350*(WOR/(1+WOR))+
+0.0764*GLR*SGGAS
W=WM*(QWATER+QOIL)
BHT=T
SUM=0
3 P2=P1+DELP
PRINT*,'P2 (psi) =',P2
PAV=(P1+P2)/2+14.7
API=(141.5/SGOIL-131.5)
CALL RSOL(SGGAS,PAV,API,T,RS)
IF (PAV.GT.PBUB) RS=GOR
CALL FVF(PAV,PBUB,RS,T,SGGAS,SGOIL,API,BO)
DENLIQ=((SGOIL*62.4+(RS*SGGAS*0.0764)/5.614)/(BO))*(1/
(1+WOR))+ (SGWAT*62.4*(WOR/(1+WOR)))
PRINT *,'THE DENSITY OF THE LIQUID PHASE (lb/cuft) = ',DENLIQ
CALL ZF(SGGAS,T,PAV,Z)
PRINT *,Z
DENAV=SGGAS*0.0764*(PAV/14.7)*(520/(T+460))*(1/Z)
PRINT*,DENAV
CALL RSOL(SGGAS,P1,API,T,RS1)
116
CALL RSOL(SGGAS,P2,API,T,RS2)
IF (RS.EQ.0) RS1=0
IF (RS.EQ.0) RS2=0
IF (PAV.GT.PBUB) RS1=GOR
IF (PAV.GT.PBUB) RS2=GOR
CALL FVF(P1,PBUB,RS1,T,SGGAS,SGOIL,API,BO1)
CALL FVF(P2,PBUB,RS2,T,SGGAS,SGOIL,API,BO2)
PRINT*,BO1,BO2,RS1,RS2,T
CALL VISCOS(P1,PBUB,T,API,RS1,VISO1)
CALL VISCOS(P2,PBUB,T,API,RS2,VISO2)
VISAV=(VISO1+VISO2)/2
PRINT *,'AVERAGE VISCOSITY (cp) = ',VISAV
C ONE VALUE (NO AVERAGE) FOR VISCOSITY OF WATER-NO
SALINITY
CALL WATVIS(T,VISWAT)
VISLIQ=VISAV*(1/(1+WOR))+VISWAT*(WOR/(1+WOR))
PRINT *,'LIQUID MIXTURE VISCOSITY (cp) = ',VISLIQ
C ASSUME CONSTANT SURFACE TENSION OF OIL AND
WATER(30&70 DYNES/CM)
TENLIQ=30*(1/(1+WOR))+70*(WOR/(1+WOR))
PRINT *,'LIQUID MIXTURE SURFACE TENSION (dynes/cm) = '
TENLIQ
VISNLIQ=0.15726*VISLIQ*(1/(DENLIQ*TENLIQ**3))**(0.25)
PRINT *,'LIQUID VISCOSITY NUMBER = ',VISNLIQ
CNL=87.222*VISNLIQ**6-106.04*VISNLIQ**5+48.22*VISNLIQ**4-
+10.069
+*VISNLIQ**3+0.8612*VISNLIQ**2+0.02*VISNLIQ+0.002
PRINT*,'CNL = ',CNL
AREA=((3.14159*DIA**2)/4)/144
PRINT *,'AREA OF TUBING (sq ft) = ',AREA
117
C FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR OF WATER IS TAKEN AS 1.0
(Bw=1.0)
CALL VSOL(QLIQ,AREA,BO,WOR,VSL)
CALL VSOL(QLIQ,AREA,BO1,WOR,VSL1)
CALL VSOL(QLIQ,AREA,BO2,WOR,VSL2)
PRINT *,'SUPERFICIAL LIQUID VELOCITY (ft/sec) = ',VSL
VELNLIQ=1.938*VSL*(DENLIQ/TENLIQ)**(1/4)
PRINT *,'LIQUID VELOCITY NUMBER = ',VELNLIQ
CALL VSOG(QLIQ,GLR,RS,WOR,AREA,PAV,T,Z,VSG)
CALL VSOG(QLIQ,GLR,RS1,WOR,AREA,P1,T,Z,VSG1)
CALL VSOG(QLIQ,GLR,RS2,WOR,AREA,P2,T,Z,VSG2)
PRINT *,'SUPERFICIAL GAS VELOCITY (ft/sec) = ',VSG
VELNGAS=1.938*VSG*(DENLIQ/TENLIQ)**(1/4)
PRINT *,'GAS VELOCITY NUMBER = ',VELNGAS
AZ=1.071-(0.2218*(VSL+VSG)**2)/DIA
IF (AZ.GE.0.13) AZ=AZ
IF (AZ.LT.0.13) AZ=0.13
PRINT *,AZ
BZ=VSG/(VSL+VSG)
S=BZ-AZ
IF (S.GE.0) GO TO 22
IF (S.LT.0) PRINT *,'CONTINUE WITH GRIFFITH CORRELATION'
C *********GRIFFITH CORRELATION FOR BUBBLE FLOW************
VS=0.8
HOLDUP=1-0.5*(1+(VSL+VSG)/VS-SQRT((1+(VSL+VSG)/VS)**2-
+4*VSG/VS))
HLNS=VSL/(VSL+VSG)
IF (HOLDUP.LT.HLNS) HOLDUP=HLNS
DENMIX=DENLIQ*HOLDUP+DENAV*(1-HOLDUP)
REY=1488*DENLIQ*(VSL/HOLDUP)*DIA/VISLIQ
CALL FFACTOR(REY,DIA,FF)
118
FGR=FF*DENLIQ*(VSL/HOLDUP)**2/(2*32.2*DIA*144)
GO TO 23
C *****************************************************
22 PRINT *,'CONTINUE WITH HAGEDORN&BROWN CORRELATION'
DIANUM=120.872*DIA/12*SQRT(DENLIQ/TENLIQ)
PRINT *,'PIPE DIAMETER NUMBER = ',DIANUM
IF (PAV.GE.PBUB) GO TO 50
HOLDCOF=(VELNLIQ/VELNGAS**0.575)*((((P1+P2)/2)/14.7)**0.10)
+ *(CNL/DIANUM)
PRINT *,HOLDCOF
HOLOSEC=-2*10**15*HOLDCOF**6+4*10**13*HOLDCOF**5-3*10**11
+ *HOLDCOF**4+10**9*HOLDCOF**3-2*10**6*HOLDCOF**2+1823.2
+ *HOLDCOF+0.1078
IF (HOLOSEC.GT.1) HOLOSEC=1
PRINT *,HOLOSEC
SECORF=(VELNGAS*VISNLIQ**0.380)/(DIANUM**2.14)
PRINT *,SECORF
SCF=8*10**7*SECORF**6-3*10**7*SECORF**5+4*10**6*SECORF**4
+ -300129*SECORF**3+10765**SECORF**2-157.12*SECORF+1.7611
IF (SECORF.LE.0.01) SCF=1
PRINT *,SCF
HOLDUP=HOLOSEC*SCF
GO TO 60
50 HOLDUP=1
60 PRINT *,'LIQUID HOLD-UP = ',HOLDUP
REY=(2.2E-2*W)/((DIA/12)*(VISLIQ**HOLDUP)
+ *(VISGAS**(1-HOLDUP)))
PRINT *,'TWO-PHASE REYNOLDS NUMBER = ',REY
CALL FFACTOR(REY,DIA,FF)
PRINT *,'FRICTION FACTOR = ',FF
DENMIX=DENLIQ*HOLDUP+DENAV*(1-HOLDUP)
119
VMIX1=VSL1+VSG1
VMIX2=VSL2+VSG2
VDIF=VMIX1**2-VMIX2**2
PRINT *,'TWO-PHASE DENSITY OF THE MIXTURE (lb/cuft) =
+',DENMIX
DIST=(144*ABS(P2-P1)-DENMIX*(VDIF/64.4))/
+ (DENMIX+(FF*W**2)/2.9652E11*(DIA/12)**5*DENMIX)
GO TO 24
23 DIST=144*(ABS(P2-P1)*(1-((W/86400)*VSG *AREA)/ (4637* AREA**2
+ *PAV)))/(DENMIX+FGR)
24 PRINT*,'DISTANCE (ft)= ',DIST
SUM=SUM+DIST
C ****TEMPERATURE GRADIENT IS TAKEN AS 1.5F/100 FT******
T=BHT-SUM/100*1.5
PRINT *,'TOTAL DEPTH CALCULATED = ',SUM
PRINT*,VISO1,VISO2,P1,P2
IF (ABS(SUM-TD).LT.50) GO TO 2
P1=P2
GO TO 3
2 DISPR=P2
PRINT *,'DISCHARGE PRESSURE (psi) =',PDISPR

120
DN440HP, DN675HP, DN1100HP, GN1600HP, GN2000HP,
GN3200HP

SUBPROGRAMS

C ********PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES SUBPROGRAM********
C **********DN440*********
SUBROUTINE DN440HP(QOPTM,HPLOAD)
REAL QOPTM,HPLOAD
HPLOAD=-1E-07*QOPTM**2+6E-5*QOPTM+0.0661
RETURN
END
C **********DN675*********
SUBROUTINE DN675HP(QOPTM,HPLOAD)
REAL QOPTM,HPLOAD
HPLOAD=-1E-07*QOPTM**2+0.0002*QOPTM+0.0561
RETURN
END
C **********DN1100***************
SUBROUTINE DN1100HP(QOPTM,HPLOAD)
REAL QOPTM,HPLOAD
HPLOAD=-7E-08*QOPTM**2+0.0001*QOPTM+0.11
RETURN
END
C ***********GN1600***************
SUBROUTINE GN1600HP(QOPTM,HPLOAD)
REAL QOPTM,HPLOAD
HPLOAD=-4E-08*QOPTM**2+0.0002*QOPTM+0.281
RETURN
END
C ***********GN2000***************
SUBROUTINE GN2000HP(QOPTM,HPLOAD)
121
REAL QOPTM,HPLOAD
HPLOAD=6E-08*Q**2+0.0003*Q+0.5697
RETURN
END
C ************GN3200***************
SUBROUTINE GN3200HP(QOPTM,HPLOAD)
REAL QOPTM,HPLOAD
HPLOAD=-6E-09*QOPTM**2+9E-05*QOPTM+0.625
RETURN
END





















122
DN440H, DN675H, DN1100H, GN1600H, GN2000H, GN3200H

SUBPROGRAMS


C ********PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES SUBPROGRAM********
C **********DN440*********
SUBROUTINE DN440H(Q,HEADCAP)
REAL Q,HEADCAP
HEADCAP=-2E-16*Q**6+4E-13*Q**5-3E-10*Q**4+5E-08*
+ Q**3-6E-05*Q**2+0.0047*Q+19.751
RETURN
END
C **********DN675*********
SUBROUTINE DN675H(Q,HEADCAP)
HEADCAP=-3E-5*Q**2+0.0027*Q+23.11
RETURN
END
C **********DN1100***************
SUBROUTINE DN1100H(Q,HEADCAP)
HEADCAP=-1E-05*Q**2+0.0077*Q+19.464
RETURN
END
C ***********GN1600***************
SUBROUTINE GN1600H(Q,HEADCAP)
HEADCAP=-9E-06*Q**2+0.0065*Q+38.134
RETURN
END
C ***********GN2000***************
SUBROUTINE GN2000H(Q,HEADCAP)
HEADCAP=-5E-06*Q**2+0.0035*Q+50.676
RETURN
END
123
C ************GN3200***************
SUBROUTINE GN3200H(Q,HEADCAP)
HEADCAP=-1E-06*Q**2-0.0015*Q+38.79
RETURN
END
124
RSOL, FVF, ZF, VISCOS, WATVIS, VSOL, VSOG, FFACTOR

SUBPROGRAMS

C *****FLUID PROPERTIES CORRELATION SUBPROGRAMS****

C ***********SOLUTION-GAS OIL RATIO**************
C ***********STANDINGS CORRELATION****************
SUBROUTINE RSOL(SGAS,P,APIO,TEMP,RSO)
RSO=SGAS*((P/18)*(10**(0.0125*APIO)/10
+ **(0.00091*TEMP)))**(1/0.83)
RETURN
END

C *********FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR OF OIL*********
C ***********STANDINGS CORRELATION****************
SUBROUTINE FVF(P,PBUBB,RSO,TEMP,SGAS,SOIL,APIO,FVFO)
CO=(-1433+5*RSO+17.2*TEMP-1180*SGAS+12.61*APIO)/(10**5*P)
IF (P.LT.PBUBB) THEN
F=RSO*(SGAS/SOIL)**0.5+1.25*TEMP
FVFO=0.972+0.000147*F**1.175
ELSE
F=RSO*(SGAS/SOIL)**0.5+1.25*TEMP
BOB=0.972+0.000147*F**1.175
FVFO=BOB*EXP(CO*(PBUBB-P))
END IF
RETURN
END



125
C *********COMPRESSIBILITY OF GAS*****************
C ****STANDINGS MODIFICATION TO THE BEGS&BRILL
CORRELATION*****
SUBROUTINE ZF(SGAS,TEMP,P,ZFAC)
PPC=-17.292*SGAS**2-17.852*SGAS+688.4
TPC=1.8324*SGAS**2+308.93*SGAS+172.94
TPR=(TEMP+460)/TPC
PPR=P/PPC
A=1.39*(TPR-0.92)**0.5-0.36*TPR-0.101
B=(0.62-0.23*TPR)*PPR+(0.066/(TPR-0.86)-0.037)*PPR**2
+ +(0.32/10**(9*(TPR-1)))*PPR**6
C=(0.132-0.32*ALOG10(TPR))
D=10**(0.3106-0.49*TPR+0.1824*TPR**2)
IF (B.LT.100) ZFAC=A+(1-A)/EXP(B)+C*PPR**D
IF (B.GT.100) ZFAC=A+C*PPR**D
RETURN
END

C ********VISCOSITY OF OIL*********************
C ********BEGGS&ROBINSON CORRELATION***************
SUBROUTINE VISCOS(P,PBUBB,TEMP,APIO,RSO,VISOIL)
IF (P.LE.PBUBB) THEN
X=(TEMP**(-1.163))*EXP(6.9824-0.04658*APIO)
DOV=10**X-1
AA=10.715*(RSO+100)**(-0.515)
BB=5.44*(RSO+150)**(-0.338)
VISOIL=AA*DOV**BB
ELSE
BBB=2.6*P**1.187*EXP(-11.513+(-8.98E-5*P))
X=(TEMP**(-1.163))*EXP(6.9824-0.04658*APIO)
DOV=10**X-1
126
AA=10.715*(RSO+100)**(-0.515)
BB=5.44*(RSO+150)**(-0.338)
VISBUB=AA*DOV**BB
VISOIL=VISBUB*(P/PBUBB)**BBB
ENDIF
RETURN
END

C *************WATER VISCOSITY*************
C *************BRILL&BEGGS CORRELATION*******
SUBROUTINE WATVIS(TEMP,VISW)
VISW=EXP(1.003-1.479E-2*TEMP+1.982E-5*TEMP**2)
RETURN
END

C *************SUPERFICIAL LIQUID VELOCITY******
C *************HAGEDORN&BROWN CORRELATION**********
SUBROUTINE VSOL(QLIQD,TAREA,FVF,WORAT,VSLIQ)
VSLIQ=((5.61*QLIQD)/(86400*TAREA))*(FVF*(1/(1+WORAT))+1.0
+ *(WORAT/(1+WORAT)))
RETURN
END

C *************SUPERFICIAL GAS VELOCITY******
C *************HAGEDORN&BROWN CORRELATION**********
SUBROUTINE VSOG(QLIQD,GLRAT,RSO,WORAT,TAREA,
P,TEMP,ZFAC, VSGAS)
VSGAS=((QLIQD*(GLRAT-RSO*(1/(1+WORAT))))/ (86400*TAREA))
+*(14.7/P)
+ *((TEMP+460)/520)*(ZFAC/1)
RETURN
127
END

C *****************FRICTION FACTOR*********************************
C *****************JAIN EQUATION******************
SUBROUTINE FFACTOR(REYN,DIAM,FFR)
EDP=0.00015*12/DIAM
IF (REYN.GT.2000) GO TO 5
FFR=64/REYN
5 FGI=0.0056+0.5/REYN**0.32
I=1
6 DEN=1.14-2*ALOG10(EDP+9.34/(REYN*SQRT(FGI)))
FFR=(1/DEN)**2
DIFF=ABS(FGI-FFR)
IF (DIFF.LE.0.0001) GO TO 7
FGI=(FGI+FFR)/2
I=I+1
IF (I.LT.10) GO TO 6
7 FFR=FGI
RETURN
END

128




APPENDIX D


SAMPLE CALCULATION

W-08


Pumping Liquid and Gas (GOR = 15 scf /STB)


129
TABLE D1 WELL, FLUID, RESERVOIR AND LIFT-SYSTEM DATA
USED IN CALCULATIONS FOR W-08


W-08
Depth, ft 5800
Casing size, in. 7
Tubing size, in. 2.441
Wellhead pressure, psi 250
Wellhead temperature, °F 110
API 38
γ
osc
0.83
γ
gsc
0.7
Water Cut 96.5%
γ
wsc
1.02
GOR, scf/stbo 15
P
b
, psi 160
P
r
, psi 2400
J (above P
b
), stbl/d/psi -
q
max
, bbl/d 1132
Average flowing temperature, °F 170

130
TABLE D2 PRODUCTION HISTORY OF W-08



DATE

P
r
(psi)

DAYS ON PRODUCTION
(bbls)
VOLUME
PRODUCED
(bbls)

q (bbl/day)
2400 0
Dec.62 2224 12 4984 415
May63 2052 26 12606 485
Aug.63 2055 31 14745 476
Dec.63 2071 18 9096 505
April64 2220 24 11990 500
Nov.64 2074 30 15457 515
March65 2247 2 821 411
Jan.66 2222 2 1075 538
March66 2243 25 3373 135
Sept.67 2090 10 5630 563
March68 1970 7 2839 406
April70 1340 25 18811 752
Dec.73 742 30 20573 686
Nov.84 304 27 2535 94
July91 614 29 1753 60
Sept.93 742
April98 1903 29 1008 35
Oct.99 1716

131


FIGURE D1 IPR Curve for W-08
0
250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
2750
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
q (BBL/D or STB/D)
P
w
f

(
p
s
i
)
BBL/D
STB/
D
132
The units of the computer program production parameter output are
given below:

Flow Rate (Q) : stb/d
Formation Volume Factor of Oil (B
o
): rbbl/stb
Formation Volume Factor of Gas (B
g
):rbbl/scf
Head per stage (h) : ft/stage
Horsepower per stage (h
p
) : HP/stage
Horsepower Requirement (HP) : HP
Intake Pressure (P
3
) : psi
Pressure (P): psi
Solution Gas-Oil Ratio (R
s
): scf/bbl
Volume of the Produced Fluid (V) : bbl/d
Volume Factor (VF) : bbl/stbl

133
VF DATA AT VARIOUS PRESSURES FOR THE FLUID OF W-08


P R
s
B
o
B
g
VF
200.0000 15.0000 1.0553 0.0000 1.0019
400.0000 15.0000 1.0501 0.0000 1.0018
600.0000 15.0000 1.0484 0.0000 1.0017
800.0000 15.0000 1.0475 0.0000 1.0017
1000.0000 15.0000 1.0470 0.0000 1.0016
1200.0000 15.0000 1.0467 0.0000 1.0016
1400.0000 15.0000 1.0464 0.0000 1.0016
1600.0000 15.0000 1.0462 0.0000 1.0016
1800.0000 15.0000 1.0461 0.0000 1.0016
2000.0000 15.0000 1.0460 0.0000 1.0016
2200.0000 15.0000 1.0459 0.0000 1.0016
2400.0000 15.0000 1.0458 0.0000 1.0016
2600.0000 15.0000 1.0457 0.0000 1.0016
2800.0000 15.0000 1.0457 0.0000 1.0016
3000.0000 15.0000 1.0456 0.0000 1.0016
3200.0000 15.0000 1.0456 0.0000 1.0016
3400.0000 15.0000 1.0456 0.0000 1.0016
3600.0000 15.0000 1.0455 0.0000 1.0016
3800.0000 15.0000 1.0455 0.0000 1.0016
4000.0000 15.0000 1.0455 0.0000 1.0016
4200.0000 15.0000 1.0454 0.0000 1.0016
4400.0000 15.0000 1.0454 0.0000 1.0016
4600.0000 15.0000 1.0454 0.0000 1.0016
4800.0000 15.0000 1.0454 0.0000 1.0016
5000.0000 15.0000 1.0454 0.0000 1.0016
134
CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 100 STB/D)

i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
h
i


∆St
i
St
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 4.94
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 9.89
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 14.83
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 19.78
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 24.72
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 29.67
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 34.61
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 39.56
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 44.50
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 49.45
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 54.39
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 59.34
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 64.28
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 69.23
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 74.17
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 79.12
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 84.06
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 89.01
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 93.95
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 98.90
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 103.84
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 108.79
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 113.73
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 118.68
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 123.62
26.00 1480.00 1505.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.94 128.57
27.00 1430.00 1455.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 133.51
28.00 1380.00 1405.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 138.46
135
29.00 1330.00 1355.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 143.40
30.00 1280.00 1305.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 148.35
31.00 1230.00 1255.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 153.29
32.00 1180.00 1205.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 158.24
33.00 1130.00 1155.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 163.18
34.00 1080.00 1105.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 168.13
35.00 1030.00 1055.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 173.07
36.00 980.00 1005.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 178.02
37.00 930.00 955.00 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 182.96
38.00 880.00 905.00 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 187.91
39.00 830.00 855.00 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 192.85
40.00 780.00 805.00 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 197.80
41.00 730.00 755.00 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 202.74
42.00 680.00 705.00 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 207.69
43.00 630.00 655.00 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 212.64
44.00 580.00 605.00 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 217.58
45.00 530.00 555.00 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 222.53
46.00 480.00 505.00 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 227.47
47.00 430.00 455.00 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 232.42
48.00 380.00 405.00 1.00 100.18 23.08 4.95 237.36
49.00 330.00 355.00 1.00 100.18 23.08 4.95 242.31
50.00 280.00 305.00 1.00 100.18 23.08 4.95 247.25
51.00 230.00 255.00 1.00 100.19 23.08 4.95 252.20








136
INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES
FOR W-08 (Q = 100 STB/D)


St P
3

150.00 1263.30
175.00 1010.52
200.00 757.75
250.00 252.25
300.00 -
350.00 -
400.00 -



















137
CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 150 STB/D)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
h
i


∆St
i
St
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 5.00
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 9.99
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 14.99
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 19.99
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 24.99
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 29.98
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 34.98
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 39.98
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 44.97
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 49.97
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 54.97
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 59.96
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 64.96
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 69.96
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 74.96
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 79.95
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 84.95
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 89.95
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 94.94
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 99.94
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 104.94
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 109.94
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 114.93
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 119.93
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 124.93
26.00 1480.00 1505.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 129.92
27.00 1430.00 1455.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 134.92
138
28.00 1380.00 1405.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 139.92
29.00 1330.00 1355.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 144.92
30.00 1280.00 1305.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 149.91
31.00 1230.00 1255.00 1.00 150.24 22.84 5.00 154.91
32.00 1180.00 1205.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 159.91
33.00 1130.00 1155.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 164.91
34.00 1080.00 1105.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 169.90
35.00 1030.00 1055.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 174.90
36.00 980.00 1005.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 179.90
37.00 930.00 955.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 184.89
38.00 880.00 905.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 189.89
39.00 830.00 855.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 194.89
40.00 780.00 805.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 199.89
41.00 730.00 755.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 204.88
42.00 680.00 705.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 209.88
43.00 630.00 655.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 214.88
44.00 580.00 605.00 1.00 150.25 22.84 5.00 219.88
45.00 530.00 555.00 1.00 150.26 22.84 5.00 224.87
46.00 480.00 505.00 1.00 150.26 22.84 5.00 229.87
47.00 430.00 455.00 1.00 150.26 22.84 5.00 234.87
48.00 380.00 405.00 1.00 150.26 22.84 5.00 239.87
49.00 330.00 355.00 1.00 150.27 22.84 5.00 244.87
50.00 280.00 305.00 1.00 150.28 22.84 5.00 249.86
51.00 230.00 255.00 1.00 150.28 22.84 5.00 254.86







139
INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES
FOR W-08 (Q = 150 STB/D)


St P
3

150.00 1279.14
175.00 1029.00
200.00 778.87
250.00 278.64
300.00 -
350.00 -
400.00 -

















140
CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 200 STB/D)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
h
i


∆St
i
St
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 5.08
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 10.17
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 15.25
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 20.33
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 25.42
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 30.50
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 35.58
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 40.67
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 45.75
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 50.83
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 55.92
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 61.00
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 66.08
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 71.17
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 76.25
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 81.33
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 86.42
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 91.50
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 96.58
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 101.67
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 106.75
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 111.83
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 116.92
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 122.00
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 200.32 22.45 5.08 127.09
26.00 1480.00 1505.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 132.17
27.00 1430.00 1455.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 137.25
141
28.00 1380.00 1405.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 142.34
29.00 1330.00 1355.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 147.42
30.00 1280.00 1305.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 152.50
31.00 1230.00 1255.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 157.59
32.00 1180.00 1205.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 162.67
33.00 1130.00 1155.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 167.75
34.00 1080.00 1105.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 172.84
35.00 1030.00 1055.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 177.92
36.00 980.00 1005.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 183.00
37.00 930.00 955.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 188.09
38.00 880.00 905.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 193.17
39.00 830.00 855.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 198.25
40.00 780.00 805.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 203.34
41.00 730.00 755.00 1.00 200.33 22.45 5.08 208.42
42.00 680.00 705.00 1.00 200.34 22.45 5.08 213.51
43.00 630.00 655.00 1.00 200.34 22.45 5.08 218.59
44.00 580.00 605.00 1.00 200.34 22.45 5.08 223.67
45.00 530.00 555.00 1.00 200.34 22.45 5.08 228.76
46.00 480.00 505.00 1.00 200.35 22.45 5.08 233.84
47.00 430.00 455.00 1.00 200.35 22.45 5.08 238.93
48.00 380.00 405.00 1.00 200.35 22.45 5.08 244.01
49.00 330.00 355.00 1.00 200.36 22.45 5.08 249.09
50.00 280.00 305.00 1.00 200.37 22.45 5.08 254.18
51.00 230.00 255.00 1.00 200.38 22.45 5.08 259.26







142
INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES
FOR W-08 (Q = 200 STB/D)


St P
3

150.00 1305.12
175.00 1059.00
200.00 813.47
250.00 322.89
300.00 -
350.00 -
400.00 -



















143
CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08
(Q = 300 STB/D)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
h
i


∆St
i
St
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 5.38
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 10.76
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 16.14
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 21.52
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 26.90
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 32.28
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 37.65
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 43.03
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 48.41
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 53.79
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 59.17
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 64.55
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 69.93
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 75.31
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 80.69
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 86.07
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 91.45
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 96.83
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 300.48 21.21 5.38 102.20
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 107.58
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 112.96
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 118.34
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 123.72
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 129.10
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 134.48
26.00 1480.00 1505.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 139.86
144
27.00 1430.00 1455.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 145.24
28.00 1380.00 1405.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 150.62
29.00 1330.00 1355.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 156.00
30.00 1280.00 1305.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 161.38
31.00 1230.00 1255.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 166.76
32.00 1180.00 1205.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 172.14
33.00 1130.00 1155.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 177.52
34.00 1080.00 1105.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 182.89
35.00 1030.00 1055.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 188.27
36.00 980.00 1005.00 1.00 300.49 21.21 5.38 193.65
37.00 930.00 955.00 1.00 300.50 21.21 5.38 199.03
38.00 880.00 905.00 1.00 300.50 21.21 5.38 204.41
39.00 830.00 855.00 1.00 300.50 21.21 5.38 209.79
40.00 780.00 805.00 1.00 300.50 21.21 5.38 215.17
41.00 730.00 755.00 1.00 300.50 21.21 5.38 220.55
42.00 680.00 705.00 1.00 300.50 21.21 5.38 225.93
43.00 630.00 655.00 1.00 300.51 21.21 5.38 231.31
44.00 580.00 605.00 1.00 300.51 21.21 5.38 236.69
45.00 530.00 555.00 1.00 300.51 21.21 5.38 242.07
46.00 480.00 505.00 1.00 300.52 21.21 5.38 247.45
47.00 430.00 455.00 1.00 300.52 21.21 5.38 252.83
48.00 380.00 405.00 1.00 300.53 21.21 5.38 258.21
49.00 330.00 355.00 1.00 300.54 21.21 5.38 263.59
50.00 280.00 305.00 1.00 300.55 21.21 5.38 268.97
51.00 230.00 255.00 1.00 300.57 21.21 5.38 274.35






145

INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES
FOR W-08 (Q = 300 STB/D)


St P
3

150.00 1386.12
175.00 1154.00
200.00 921.74
250.00 457.98
300.00 -
350.00 -
400.00 -
















146

CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 400 STB/D)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
h
i


∆St
i
St
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 5.89
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 11.78
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 17.67
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 23.56
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 29.44
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 35.33
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 41.22
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 47.11
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 53.00
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 58.89
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 64.78
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 70.67
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 76.56
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 82.45
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 400.64 19.38 5.89 88.33
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 94.22
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 100.11
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 106.00
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 111.89
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 117.78
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 123.67
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 129.56
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 135.45
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 141.34
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 147.23
26.00 1480.00 1505.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 153.11
147
27.00 1430.00 1455.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 159.00
28.00 1380.00 1405.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 164.89
29.00 1330.00 1355.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 170.78
30.00 1280.00 1305.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 176.67
31.00 1230.00 1255.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 182.56
32.00 1180.00 1205.00 1.00 400.65 19.38 5.89 188.45
33.00 1130.00 1155.00 1.00 400.66 19.38 5.89 194.34
34.00 1080.00 1105.00 1.00 400.66 19.38 5.89 200.23
35.00 1030.00 1055.00 1.00 400.66 19.38 5.89 206.12
36.00 980.00 1005.00 1.00 400.66 19.38 5.89 212.01
37.00 930.00 955.00 1.00 400.66 19.38 5.89 217.90
38.00 880.00 905.00 1.00 400.66 19.38 5.89 223.79
39.00 830.00 855.00 1.00 400.66 19.38 5.89 229.68
40.00 780.00 805.00 1.00 400.67 19.38 5.89 235.56
41.00 730.00 755.00 1.00 400.67 19.38 5.89 241.45
42.00 680.00 705.00 1.00 400.67 19.38 5.89 247.34
43.00 630.00 655.00 1.00 400.68 19.38 5.89 253.23
44.00 580.00 605.00 1.00 400.68 19.38 5.89 259.12
45.00 530.00 555.00 1.00 400.68 19.38 5.89 265.01
46.00 480.00 505.00 1.00 400.69 19.38 5.89 270.90
47.00 430.00 455.00 1.00 400.70 19.38 5.89 276.79
48.00 380.00 405.00 1.00 400.70 19.38 5.89 282.68
49.00 330.00 355.00 1.00 400.72 19.37 5.89 288.57
50.00 280.00 305.00 1.00 400.74 19.37 5.89 294.46
51.00 230.00 255.00 1.00 400.75 19.37 5.89 300.36






148

INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES
FOR W-08 (Q = 400 STB/D)


St P
3

150.00 1507.32
175.00 1294.00
200.00 1082.47
250.00 658.18
300.00 233.78
350.00 -
400.00 -


















149


CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 500 STB/D)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
h
i


∆St
i
St
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 6.74
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 13.47
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 20.21
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 26.95
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 33.68
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 40.42
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 47.16
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 53.89
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 60.63
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 67.37
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 500.80 16.94 6.74 74.10
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 80.84
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 87.58
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 94.31
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 101.05
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 107.79
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 114.52
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 121.26
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 128.00
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 134.73
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 141.47
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 148.21
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 154.95
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 161.68
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 168.42
150
26.00 1480.00 1505.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 175.16
27.00 1430.00 1455.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 181.89
28.00 1380.00 1405.00 1.00 500.81 16.94 6.74 188.63
29.00 1330.00 1355.00 1.00 500.82 16.94 6.74 195.37
30.00 1280.00 1305.00 1.00 500.82 16.94 6.74 202.10
31.00 1230.00 1255.00 1.00 500.82 16.94 6.74 208.84
32.00 1180.00 1205.00 1.00 500.82 16.94 6.74 215.58
33.00 1130.00 1155.00 1.00 500.82 16.94 6.74 222.32
34.00 1080.00 1105.00 1.00 500.82 16.94 6.74 229.05
35.00 1030.00 1055.00 1.00 500.82 16.94 6.74 235.79
36.00 980.00 1005.00 1.00 500.82 16.94 6.74 242.53
37.00 930.00 955.00 1.00 500.83 16.94 6.74 249.26
38.00 880.00 905.00 1.00 500.83 16.94 6.74 256.00
39.00 830.00 855.00 1.00 500.83 16.94 6.74 262.74
40.00 780.00 805.00 1.00 500.83 16.94 6.74 269.48
41.00 730.00 755.00 1.00 500.84 16.94 6.74 276.21
42.00 680.00 705.00 1.00 500.84 16.94 6.74 282.95
43.00 630.00 655.00 1.00 500.84 16.94 6.74 289.69
44.00 580.00 605.00 1.00 500.85 16.94 6.74 296.43
45.00 530.00 555.00 1.00 500.86 16.94 6.74 303.16
46.00 480.00 505.00 1.00 500.86 16.94 6.74 309.90
47.00 430.00 455.00 1.00 500.87 16.94 6.74 316.64
48.00 380.00 405.00 1.00 500.88 16.94 6.74 323.38
49.00 330.00 355.00 1.00 500.90 16.94 6.74 330.12
50.00 280.00 305.00 1.00 500.92 16.93 6.74 336.86
51.00 230.00 255.00 1.00 500.94 16.93 6.74 343.60





151

INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES
FOR W-08 (Q = 500 STB/D)


St P
3

150.00 1667.22
175.00 1481.00
200.00 1296.97
250.00 925.48
300.00 554.18
350.00 -
400.00 -


















152



CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 600 STB/D)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
h
i


∆St
i
St
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 600.96 13.90 8.21 8.21
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 600.96 13.90 8.21 16.42
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 600.96 13.90 8.21 24.63
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 600.96 13.90 8.21 32.84
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 600.96 13.90 8.21 41.05
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 600.96 13.90 8.21 49.26
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 600.96 13.90 8.21 57.47
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 600.96 13.90 8.21 65.68
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 600.96 13.90 8.21 73.89
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 82.10
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 90.31
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 98.52
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 106.73
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 114.95
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 123.16
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 131.37
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 139.58
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 147.79
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 156.00
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 164.21
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 172.42
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 180.63
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 188.84
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 197.05
153
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 600.97 13.90 8.21 205.26
26.00 1480.00 1505.00 1.00 600.98 13.90 8.21 213.47
27.00 1430.00 1455.00 1.00 600.98 13.90 8.21 221.68
28.00 1380.00 1405.00 1.00 600.98 13.90 8.21 229.89
29.00 1330.00 1355.00 1.00 600.98 13.90 8.21 238.10
30.00 1280.00 1305.00 1.00 600.98 13.90 8.21 246.32
31.00 1230.00 1255.00 1.00 600.98 13.90 8.21 254.53
32.00 1180.00 1205.00 1.00 600.98 13.90 8.21 262.74
33.00 1130.00 1155.00 1.00 600.98 13.90 8.21 270.95
34.00 1080.00 1105.00 1.00 600.99 13.90 8.21 279.16
35.00 1030.00 1055.00 1.00 600.99 13.90 8.21 287.37
36.00 980.00 1005.00 1.00 600.99 13.90 8.21 295.58
37.00 930.00 955.00 1.00 600.99 13.90 8.21 303.79
38.00 880.00 905.00 1.00 600.99 13.90 8.21 312.00
39.00 830.00 855.00 1.00 601.00 13.90 8.21 320.22
40.00 780.00 805.00 1.00 601.00 13.90 8.21 328.43
41.00 730.00 755.00 1.00 601.00 13.90 8.21 336.64
42.00 680.00 705.00 1.00 601.01 13.90 8.21 344.85
43.00 630.00 655.00 1.00 601.01 13.90 8.21 353.06
44.00 580.00 605.00 1.00 601.02 13.90 8.21 361.28
45.00 530.00 555.00 1.00 601.03 13.90 8.21 369.49
46.00 480.00 505.00 1.00 601.04 13.90 8.21 377.70
47.00 430.00 455.00 1.00 601.04 13.90 8.21 385.91
48.00 380.00 405.00 1.00 601.05 13.89 8.21 394.13
49.00 330.00 355.00 1.00 601.08 13.89 8.21 402.34
50.00 280.00 305.00 1.00 601.10 13.89 8.22 410.56
51.00 230.00 255.00 1.00 601.13 13.89 8.22 418.77




154



INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES
FOR W-08 (Q = 600 STB/D)


St P
3

150.00 1867.12
175.00 1714.30
200.00 1562.56
250.00 1258.12
300.00 953.28
350.00 649.45
400.00 345.74
















155



CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 700 STB/D)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
h
i


∆St
i
St
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 701.12 10.26 11.13 11.13
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 701.12 10.26 11.13 22.25
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 701.12 10.26 11.13 33.38
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 701.12 10.26 11.13 44.50
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 701.12 10.26 11.13 55.63
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 701.12 10.26 11.13 66.76
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 701.12 10.26 11.13 77.88
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 89.01
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 100.13
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 111.26
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 122.39
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 133.51
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 144.64
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 155.77
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 166.89
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 178.02
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 189.14
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 200.27
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 211.40
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 222.52
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 233.65
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 244.78
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 701.13 10.26 11.13 255.90
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 701.14 10.26 11.13 267.03
156
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 701.14 10.26 11.13 278.16
26.00 1480.00 1505.00 1.00 701.14 10.26 11.13 289.28
27.00 1430.00 1455.00 1.00 701.14 10.26 11.13 300.41
28.00 1380.00 1405.00 1.00 701.14 10.26 11.13 311.54
29.00 1330.00 1355.00 1.00 701.14 10.26 11.13 322.67
30.00 1280.00 1305.00 1.00 701.14 10.26 11.13 333.79
31.00 1230.00 1255.00 1.00 701.14 10.25 11.13 344.92
32.00 1180.00 1205.00 1.00 701.15 10.25 11.13 356.05
33.00 1130.00 1155.00 1.00 701.15 10.25 11.13 367.17
34.00 1080.00 1105.00 1.00 701.15 10.25 11.13 378.30
35.00 1030.00 1055.00 1.00 701.15 10.25 11.13 389.43
36.00 980.00 1005.00 1.00 701.15 10.25 11.13 400.56
37.00 930.00 955.00 1.00 701.16 10.25 11.13 411.69
38.00 880.00 905.00 1.00 701.16 10.25 11.13 422.81
39.00 830.00 855.00 1.00 701.16 10.25 11.13 433.94
40.00 780.00 805.00 1.00 701.17 10.25 11.13 445.07
41.00 730.00 755.00 1.00 701.17 10.25 11.13 456.20
42.00 680.00 705.00 1.00 701.18 10.25 11.13 467.33
43.00 630.00 655.00 1.00 701.18 10.25 11.13 478.46
44.00 580.00 605.00 1.00 701.19 10.25 11.13 489.59
45.00 530.00 555.00 1.00 701.20 10.25 11.13 500.72
46.00 480.00 505.00 1.00 701.21 10.25 11.13 511.85
47.00 430.00 455.00 1.00 701.22 10.25 11.13 522.98
48.00 380.00 405.00 1.00 701.23 10.25 11.13 534.11
49.00 330.00 355.00 1.00 701.26 10.25 11.13 545.25
50.00 280.00 305.00 1.00 701.29 10.25 11.14 556.38
51.00 230.00 255.00 1.00 701.32 10.25 11.14 567.52




157



INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES
FOR W-08 (Q = 700 STB/D)


St P
3

150.00 2106.22
175.00 1994.70
200.00 1881.12
250.00 1657.83
300.00 1432.16
350.00 1207.67
400.00 983.24
















158



CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 800 STB/D)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
h
i


∆St
i
St
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 801.28 6.01 18.98 18.98
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 801.28 6.01 18.98 37.96
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 801.28 6.01 18.98 56.94
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 801.28 6.01 18.98 75.92
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 801.28 6.01 18.98 94.90
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 801.28 6.01 18.98 113.88
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 132.86
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 151.84
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 170.82
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 189.81
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 208.79
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 227.77
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 246.75
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 265.73
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 284.71
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 303.69
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 322.67
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 341.66
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 360.64
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 379.62
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 801.29 6.01 18.98 398.60
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 801.30 6.01 18.98 417.59
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 801.30 6.01 18.98 436.57
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 801.30 6.01 18.98 455.55
159
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 801.30 6.01 18.98 474.53
26.00 1480.00 1505.00 1.00 801.30 6.01 18.98 493.52
27.00 1430.00 1455.00 1.00 801.30 6.01 18.98 512.50
28.00 1380.00 1405.00 1.00 801.30 6.01 18.98 531.48
29.00 1330.00 1355.00 1.00 801.30 6.01 18.98 550.47
30.00 1280.00 1305.00 1.00 801.31 6.01 18.98 569.45
31.00 1230.00 1255.00 1.00 801.31 6.01 18.98 588.44
32.00 1180.00 1205.00 1.00 801.31 6.01 18.98 607.42
33.00 1130.00 1155.00 1.00 801.31 6.01 18.99 626.41
34.00 1080.00 1105.00 1.00 801.31 6.01 18.99 645.39
35.00 1030.00 1055.00 1.00 801.32 6.01 18.99 664.38
36.00 980.00 1005.00 1.00 801.32 6.01 18.99 683.36
37.00 930.00 955.00 1.00 801.32 6.01 18.99 702.35
38.00 880.00 905.00 1.00 801.33 6.01 18.99 721.34
39.00 830.00 855.00 1.00 801.33 6.01 18.99 740.33
40.00 780.00 805.00 1.00 801.33 6.01 18.99 759.31
41.00 730.00 755.00 1.00 801.34 6.01 18.99 778.30
42.00 680.00 705.00 1.00 801.34 6.01 18.99 797.29
43.00 630.00 655.00 1.00 801.35 6.01 18.99 816.29
44.00 580.00 605.00 1.00 801.36 6.01 18.99 835.28
45.00 530.00 555.00 1.00 801.37 6.01 18.99 854.27
46.00 480.00 505.00 1.00 801.38 6.01 19.00 873.27
47.00 430.00 455.00 1.00 801.39 6.01 19.00 892.27
48.00 380.00 405.00 1.00 801.40 6.01 19.00 911.27
49.00 330.00 355.00 1.00 801.44 6.00 19.01 930.28
50.00 280.00 305.00 1.00 801.47 6.00 19.01 949.29
51.00 230.00 255.00 1.00 801.51 6.00 19.02 968.31




160
INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES
FOR W-08 (Q = 800 STB/D)


St P
3

150.00 2385.22
175.00 2319.70
200.00 2253.12
250.00 2122.83
300.00 1990.16
350.00 1858.67
400.00 1726.24
















161
TABLED3 INTAKE PRESSURES AT ASSUMED RATES FOR W-08



P
3
for Assumed Number of Stages
Assumed Flow Rate, qL ,
STB/D
150 175 200 250 300 350 400

100 1263 1011 758 252 - - -

150 1279 1029 779 279 - - -

200 1305 1059 813 322 - - -

300 1386 1154 921 457 - - -

400 1507 1294 1082 658 233 - -

500 1667 1481 1296 925 554 - -

600 1867 1714 1562 1258 953 649 345

700 2106 1994 1881 1657 1432 1207 983

800 2385 2319 2253 2122 1990 1858 1726
162


Figure D2 Intake Curves for W-08
IPR
Stage=150
200
175
250
300
400 350
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
q (BBL/D or STB/D)
P
w
f

(
p
s
i
)
163
CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08
(Q
p
= 598 stb/d, Stage = 150)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
hp
i


h
i
∆HP
i
HP
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 1.16
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 2.32
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 3.47
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 4.63
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 5.79
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 6.95
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 8.10
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 9.26
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 10.42
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 11.58
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 12.74
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 13.89
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 15.05
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 16.21
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 17.37
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 598.96 0.14 13.96 1.16 18.52
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 598.97 0.14 13.96 1.16 19.68
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 598.97 0.14 13.96 1.16 20.84
19.00 1870.00 1875.00 1.00 598.97 0.14 13.96 1.16 22.00






164
CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08
(Q
p
= 631 stb/d, Stage = 175)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
hp
i


h
i
∆HP
i
HP
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 632.01 0.14 12.83 1.28 1.28
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 632.01 0.14 12.83 1.28 2.57
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 632.01 0.14 12.83 1.28 3.85
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 632.01 0.14 12.83 1.28 5.13
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 632.01 0.14 12.83 1.28 6.41
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 632.01 0.14 12.83 1.28 7.70
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 632.01 0.14 12.83 1.28 8.98
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 632.01 0.14 12.83 1.28 10.26
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 632.01 0.14 12.83 1.28 11.54
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 12.83
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 14.11
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 15.39
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 16.68
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 17.96
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 19.24
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 20.52
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 21.81
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 23.09
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 24.37
20.00 1792.00 1811.00 1.00 632.02 0.14 12.83 1.28 25.65






165
CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08
(Q
p
= 658 stb/d, Stage = 200)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
hp
i


h
i
∆HP
i
HP
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 1.41
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 2.81
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 4.22
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 5.63
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 7.03
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 8.44
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 9.85
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 11.25
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 12.66
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 14.07
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 15.47
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 16.88
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 18.29
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 19.69
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 21.10
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 22.51
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 23.92
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 25.32
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 26.73
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 28.14
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 659.06 0.14 11.86 1.41 29.54
22.00 1725.00 1727.50 1.00 659.07 0.14 11.86 1.41 30.95


166
CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08
(Q
p
= 694 stb/d, Stage = 250)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
hp
i


h
i
∆HP
i
HP
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 695.11 0.15 10.49 1.62 1.62
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 695.11 0.15 10.49 1.62 3.23
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 695.11 0.15 10.49 1.62 4.85
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 695.11 0.15 10.49 1.62 6.46
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 695.11 0.15 10.49 1.62 8.08
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 695.11 0.15 10.49 1.62 9.69
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 11.31
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 12.93
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 14.54
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 16.16
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 17.77
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 19.39
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 21.01
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 22.62
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 24.24
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 25.85
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 27.47
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 29.08
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 30.70
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 32.32
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 33.93
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 35.55
23.00 1632.00 1656.00 1.00 695.12 0.15 10.49 1.62 37.16


167
CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08
(Q
p
= 720 stb/d, Stage = 300)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
hp
i


h
i
∆HP
i
HP
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 721.15 0.15 9.46 1.81 1.81
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 721.15 0.15 9.46 1.81 3.62
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.46 1.81 5.43
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.46 1.81 7.25
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.46 1.81 9.06
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.46 1.81 10.87
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.46 1.81 12.68
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.46 1.81 14.49
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.46 1.81 16.30
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.46 1.81 18.11
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.46 1.81 19.93
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.46 1.81 21.74
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.45 1.81 23.55
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.45 1.81 25.36
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.45 1.81 27.17
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.45 1.81 28.98
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.45 1.81 30.79
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.45 1.81 32.61
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.45 1.81 34.42
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 721.16 0.15 9.45 1.81 36.23
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 721.17 0.15 9.45 1.81 38.04
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 721.17 0.15 9.45 1.81 39.85
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 721.17 0.15 9.45 1.81 41.66
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 721.17 0.15 9.45 1.81 43.47
25.00 1559.00 1569.50 1.00 721.17 0.15 9.45 1.81 45.29

168
CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08
(Q
p
= 742 stb/d, Stage = 350)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
hp
i


h
i
∆HP
i
HP
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 2.02
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 4.04
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 6.06
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 8.08
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 10.10
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 12.12
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 14.14
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 16.16
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 18.18
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 20.20
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 22.22
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 743.19 0.15 8.55 2.02 24.24
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 26.26
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 28.28
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 30.30
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 32.32
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 34.34
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 36.36
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 38.38
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 40.40
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 42.42
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 44.44
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 46.46
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 48.48
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 743.20 0.15 8.55 2.02 50.50
26.00 1496.00 1513.00 1.00 743.21 0.15 8.55 2.02 52.52
169

CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08
(Q
p
= 760 stb/d, Stage = 400)


i P
3,I
P
3,I
VF
i
V
i
hp
i


h
i
∆HP
i
HP
i

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 2.23
2.00 2680.00 2705.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 4.46
3.00 2630.00 2655.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 6.70
4.00 2580.00 2605.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 8.93
5.00 2530.00 2555.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 11.16
6.00 2480.00 2505.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 13.39
7.00 2430.00 2455.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 15.62
8.00 2380.00 2405.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 17.85
9.00 2330.00 2355.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 20.09
10.00 2280.00 2305.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 22.32
11.00 2230.00 2255.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 24.55
12.00 2180.00 2205.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 26.78
13.00 2130.00 2155.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 29.01
14.00 2080.00 2105.00 1.00 761.22 0.15 7.78 2.23 31.24
15.00 2030.00 2055.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 33.48
16.00 1980.00 2005.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 35.71
17.00 1930.00 1955.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 37.94
18.00 1880.00 1905.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 40.17
19.00 1830.00 1855.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 42.40
20.00 1780.00 1805.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 44.64
21.00 1730.00 1755.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 46.87
22.00 1680.00 1705.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 49.10
23.00 1630.00 1655.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 51.33
24.00 1580.00 1605.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 53.56
25.00 1530.00 1555.00 1.00 761.23 0.15 7.78 2.23 55.79
170
26.00 1480.00 1505.00 1.00 761.24 0.15 7.78 2.23 58.03
27.00 1443.00 1461.50 1.00 761.24 0.15 7.78 2.23 60.26
171
TABLE D4 HORSEPOWER REQUIREMENTS FOR POSSIBLE
RATES FROM W-08


St
q
p

(STB/D)
P
3
(psi) P
2
(psi) HP ∆q
p
/∆St
150 598 1870 2780 23 1,32
175 631 1792 2780 27 1,08
200 658 1725 2780 32 0,72
250 694 1632 2780 39 0,52
300 720 1559 2780 49 0,44
350 742 1496 2780 57 0,36
400 760 1443 2780 66 -

172
HP
Efficiency Range
Stages
Actual Value (St) Suggested HP
Suggested Stage
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Stages or Horsepower
P
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

R
a
t
e

(
S
T
B
/
D
)


FIGURE D3 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-08

173
TABLE D5 Relation of Production Parameters With Each Other




Comments


Wellhead Pressure, P
wh

A high wellhead pressure means a high pump
discharge pressure. More the pump increases
the pressure from intake to discharge value,
more the pressure will be in the wellhead


Intake Pressure, P
intake
Assuming a constant discharge pressure ,
intake pressure increases with an increase in
production rate and decreases with an increase
in number of pump stages


Discharge Pressure,
P
discharge
Discharge pressure is a function of production
rate, and pressure in the wellhead. These
parameters are directly proportional with
discharge pressure


Pressure gain, ∆P
gain
Pressure gained by pump (P
discharge
-

P
intake
)
increases with an increase in number of pump
stage however in this case pump requires more
horsepower


Pressure loss ∆P
loss

Pressure loss in the tubing is directly related to
production rate. High production rates results in
high-pressure losses.



Production Rate, q
An increase in production rate results in
increase in pressure loss due to friction and
related to that increase in discharge pressure
Also an increase in production rate decreases
the pump head (per stage) which causes a
decrease in intake pressure and thus a
decrease in pressure gain by pump


Number of Stages
If number of pump stages will be increased
then intake pressure will decrease, that means
pump will gain more pressure but at the same
time pump will require more horsepower


HP Required
High horsepower requirement means number
of pump stages will be more and pressure gain
will be high, i.e, pump will increase the intake
pressure to higher discharge pressure for lifting
the fluid

Approval of the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences

Prof . Dr. Canan ÖZGEN Director

I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.

Prof. Dr. Birol DEMİRAL Head of Department

This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.

Prof. Dr. A .Suat Bağcı Supervisor Examining Committee Members Prof. Dr. Birol DEMİRAL (Chair Person) Prof. Dr. A. Suat BAĞCI Prof. Dr. Fevzi GÜMRAH Prof. Dr. Mustafa V. KÖK Prof. Dr. Nurkan KARAHANOĞLU

ABSTRACT

PRODUCTION SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION FOR SUBMERSIBLE PUMP LIFTED WELLS : A CASE STUDY

GÜLER, Nuri Ozan M.S. Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Supervisor: Prof. Dr. A. Suat Bağcı April, 2004, 173 Pages

A computer program has been written to perform production optimization in submersible pump lifted wells. Production optimization was achieved by the principles of Nodal Analysis Technique which was applied between the reservoir and the wellhead ignoring the surface choke and separator. Computer program has been written according to two lifting environment, which are: pumping with only liquid and pumping with both liquid and gas. Program played an important role in the study by overcoming difficult iterations existing in the pumping liquid and gas case due to variation of liquid volume between pump intake and discharge pressure. Hagedorn and Brown vertical multiphase flow correlation was utilized in the program to determine the pressure at required depth. However, Griffith Correlation was also used in the program since Hagedorn and Brown Correlation failed to give accurate results at bubble flow.

iii

nodal system analysis technique. electrical submersible pump. and W-24 were producing completely within their optimum range. W-08. W-27 and W-28 were not producing at their optimum range but their production parameters can said to be acceptable . by comparing the actual operating data and the computer-based optimized data. W-17. number of pump stages and the relation between these parameters with each other. required horsepower. it was observed that 3 wells: W-16. Griffith correlation. The sensitivity variable selected is the number of pump stages. iv . It was realized that W-15 has insufficient data to make necessary interpretations. fluid and lift-system data was transferred to already written computer program. Well. W-25. artificial lift. At the end of the study.A case study was done by evaluating the 10 wells located in Diyarbakır-GK field which are all submersible pump lifted. 5 wells: W-07. 1 well: W22 was producing inefficiently and should be re-designed to reach optimum conditions. Hagedorn and Brown correlation. Output of the computer program for both cases was used to calculate accurately the optimum production rates. Keywords: Production optimization. reservoir.

ÖZET DALGIÇ POMPALARLA ÜRETİMİ YAPILAN KUYULARIN SİSTEM OPTİMİZASYONU: ÖRNEK SAHA ÇALIŞMASI GÜLER. Dr. Petrol ve Doğal Gaz Mühendisliği Bölümü Danışman: Prof. Programda istenilen derinlikteki basınç değerlerini hesaplamak amacıyla Hagedorn ve Brown korelasyonu kullanılmıştır. 173 Sayfa Dalgıç pompalarla üretim yapılan kuyuların optimizasyonu için bilgisayar programı yazılmıştır. A. Hagedorn ve Brown Korelasyonunun yetersiz kaldığı akış rejimlerinde Griffith Korelasyonu kullanılarak sonuca ulaşılmıştır.Sc. Nuri Ozan M. Suat Bağcı Nisan. sözü edilen sıvı ile gaz pompalanması sırasındaki pompa emiş ve çıkış basıncı arasında sistemdeki gaz’dan dolayı oluşan sıvı hacmi değişimlerinin hesaplamasında ortaya çıkan iterasyonların çözümü açısından önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Program iki üretim ortamına göre yazılmıştır. Bu bilgisayar programı. bunlar: sadece sıvı ile hem sıvı hem gaz üretim ortamlarıdır. kuyubaşı sonrası yüzey donanımı ve separatör dikkate alınmadan uygulanmıştır. 2004. Üretim optimizasyonu Nodal Analizi Tekniğiyle gerçekleştirilmiş ve rezervuar ile kuyubaşı arasında.. v .

W-22. Griffith Korelasyonu vi . W-15’in verileri herhangi bir yorum yapmak için yetersiz kalmıştır. gereken beygirgücü ve pompa kademe sayısının belirlenmesi için kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonunda GK sahası verileri ile programdan çıkarılan optimize değerler karşılaştırılmış ve dalgıç pompalarla üretim yapılan 10 kuyudan 3’ünün: W-16. ve W-24’ün optimum değer sınırları içerisinde üretim yaptığı.Yazılan bu programın pratiğe geçirilmesi açısından Diyarbakır – GK sahasındaki dalgıç pompalarla üretim yapılan 10 kuyu incelemeye alınmıştır. sistem analiz tekniği. W-28. dalgıç pompa. W-27. Bu hesaplamalarda hassas değişken olarak pompa kademe sayısı seçilmiştir. Daha önce belirtilen iki pompalama ortamını kapsayan bu programın çıktısı optimum üretim debisi. Bu kuyuların rezervuar. W-08. W-17. akışkan ve üretim verileri hazır olan bilgisayar programına aktarılmıştır. optimum sınırlar dışında ve verimsiz bir şekilde üretime devam ettirildiği saptanmıştır. kuyulardan 5’inin W-07. W-25. optimum değerler içerisinde olmasa bile kabul edilebilir ve geçerli sayılabilir sınırlarda üretim yaptığı. Kelimeler: Üretim optimizasyonu. Hagedorn ve Brown Korelasyonu. yapay üretim. 1 kuyunun.

To my family. Yurdahan and Sanem Güler vii . Çiğdem.

for his precious assistance throughout this study and also N. Dr. Suat Bağcı.V. Turkse Perenco for their cooperation.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank his supervising professor. viii .

.2 2.. 1 4 4 8 13 ix ... TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………….. 2.TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………. NOMENCLATURE ………………………………………………………. ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS ……………….3 Introduction ………………………………………. LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………… LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………….…… ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………. 2..1 2. Pump Performance Curves ……………………… Pump Intake Curves ……………………………. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………... ÖZET …………………………………………………………………. iii v viii ix xiii xv xviii CHAPTER 1.

2..1 Pumping Liquid Only ……………………… 13 2..4 Procedure for the Preparation of Intake Curves for Wells Pumping Gas …………………… 3...2 3. 2.3. Description of the Computer Program …………………………………………… 3.2.1 Pumping Liquid …………………………… 3.3.2. Application of Nodal Analysis to Electrical Submersible Pumping Wells ……………………. 2..2.……….2 Pumping Liquid and Gas ……….2.3.3 Pump Selection ………………….3 Introduction ………………………………………. 2.1 Determination of the Number of Stages ………………………….1.2 Pumping Liquid and Gas ………………… 4.1 Procedure for the Preparation of Tubing Intake Curves for Liquid Only ……………………….3. 3.3. NODAL ANALYSIS APPROACH ……………………….3. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 31 31 32 34 29 21 23 23 16 19 20 14 16 x .3.1 3.3.3.2 Determination of Horsepower ….. 2.2.

6.2.4 Introduction ……………………………………….1 7. 5. DESCRIPTION OF THE GK FIELD …………………….2 6. HAGEDORN AND BROWN VERTICAL MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATION SUPPORTED BY GRIFFITH CORRELATION ……….. 7. 7. 39 49 51 51 52 53 54 57 57 58 36 36 38 6.1 6.……………. and Lift System Properties ………………………………………….5. Results and Discussion …………….2 Introduction ……………………………………….2 Sensitivity Analysis by Using the Computer Program Output ……………… 58 64 xi . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ……………. 7.…………… 7. Hagedorn and Brown Method …………………… Procedure for Calculating a Vertical Pressure Traverse by the Method of Hagedorn and Brown ……………………………………………….1 5.1 Construction of Vertical Flowing Pressure Gradient Curves Using Computer Program Output ……………….2. Fluid.. Geology …………………………………………… Reservoir.... 5.4 Griffith Correlation (Bubble Flow) ……………….2 5.3 Introduction ……………………………………….3 6. Production History ……………………………….

7.…….. 85 101 109 128 xii .3 Construction of Possible Production Rate versus Stage and Horsepower Chart for GK Field Wells by Using the Pumping Liquid and Gas Computer Algorithm ……………….…… Pumping Only Liquid Computer Program ……………… Subprograms ……………………………………………… Sample Calculation of W-08 ……………………………. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ……….4 Comparison of Theorotical and Actual Production Parameters and Suggestion for Optimum Pump Operating Conditions by Inspecting Possible Production Rate versus Stage and Hordepower Chart …………… 8.7.2..2.… 77 81 83 67 REFERENCES …………………………………………………………… APPENDIX A B C D Pumping Liquid and Gas Computer Program …….

.………… 7.3 Gross Production Rate of the Wells in GK Field and Required Pump Stages ………………………..2 Effect of Oil Density on Flowing Bottomhole Pressures at Selected Depths ……………..…… 65 65 64 63 54 53 xiii ..LIST OF TABLES TABLE 6.3 Effect of GLR on Flowing Bottomhole Pressures …………………………………………….………..2 Reservoir and Fluid Properties of GK Field ………….4 Effect of WOR on Flowing Bottomhole Pressures at Selected Depths………………….…………… 7. 6. 56 7..1 Comparison of Computer-Based Vertical Flowing Pressures with Beggs&Brill Correlation at Selected Depths …….….…… 7. Submersible Pump Lifted Wells Operated in GK Field and Their Efficiency Ranges ………………...1 6.

129 130 161 D2 D3 D4 Production History of W-08 ……………………………… Intake Pressures at Assumed Rates for W-08 ………… Horsepower Requirements for Possible Rates from W-08 …………………………………………..7.… 79 D1 Well.……………………… 173 xiv .5 Results Obtained After The Comparison of Actual and Computer-Based Data for GK Field ……………………………………………. Fluid. 171 D5 Relation of Production Parameters With Each Other ………………….. Reservoir and Lift-System Data Used In Calculations for W-08 …………………….

Pressure Traverses for Pump on Bottom ……………… A Typical Pump Performance Curve (GN 3200) ……… Pressure Losses In a Production System ……………… Tubing Intake Curves for Artificial Lift Systems ………..2 Generalized IPR Curve ………………………………….5) …………………..1 7. 6 7 7 9 25 26 5. Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 0..1 3.3 2. xv . 37 55 59 60 6.4 3..1 Schematic Diagram of Possible Flow Patterns in Two-Phase Pipelines ……………………….1 7.LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES 2. Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 0) …………………….2 2.1 2.2 A Typical Submersible Pump Installation ……………… Submersible Pump Schematic ………………………….

66 7.4 Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 1.6 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-07 …………………………………….8 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-16 ……………………………………. 70 7. 69 7. 71 7.9 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-17 ……………………………………. 74 7.0)…………………… Graphical Analysis of Effect of GLR on Flowing Bottomhole Pressures for W-08 ……………….7 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-08 …………………………………….11 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-24 ……………………………………. 68 7.3 7.… 72 7.10 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-22 ………………………………….7. 61 66 7. 73 7. 75 xvi .12 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-25 …………………………………….13 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-27 …………………………………….5 Graphical Analysis of Effect of WOR on Flowing Bottomhole Pressures for W-08 ……………….

172 xvii . 76 131 162 D1 D2 D3 IPR Curve for W-08 ……………………………………… Intake Curves for W-08 ………………………………….7.14 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-28 …………………………………….. Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-08 …………………………………….

NOMENCLATURE Symbol A B CNL d Es f fo Gf GLR GOR h HL hp HP J m Nd NGV NL NLV (NRE)TP Description area of tubing formation volume factor viscosity number coefficient tubing inner diameter fraction of free gas friction factor fraction of oil flowing gradient of the pumped fluid gas liquid ratio gas oil ratio head per stage liquid hold-up horsepower per stage horsepower productivity index mass associated with one bbl of stock tank liquid pipe diameter number gas velocity number liquid viscosity number liquid velocity number two-phase Reynolds number Unit ft2 rbbl/stb in psi/ft scf/stb scf/stb ft/stage hp/stage hp stb/d/psi lbm/stbl xviii .

Symbol P q Rs St T V VF w W WC z Description pressure flow rate solution gas oil ratio pump stage average flowing temperature capacity volume factor mass flow rate weight of the capacity water cut gas compressibility Unit psi stb/d scf/stb °F stb/d lbmday lb/day ∆ µ ν ρ φ ψ σ γ increment viscosity velocity density hold-up correlating function secondary correction factor liquid surface tension specific gravity dyne/cm cp ft/sec lb/cuft Subscription b dn f g Description bubble point pump discharge (downstream) fluid gas xix .

Subscription l m o pc pr R sc sg sl sep up w wf wh 2 3 Description liquid mixture oil pseudo critical pseudo reduced reservoir standard condition superficial gas superficial liquid separator pump intake (upstream) water flowing well wellhead discharge intake xx .

from negligible amounts to 100 %. Nodal Analysis has been applied to artificial lift method for many years to 1 . The pump performs at highest efficiency when pumping liquid only. many submersible pump lifted oil and gas wells produce at rates different than optimum. Currently. a multistage centrifugal pump. Despite this advantage. Additional miscellaneous components also present in order to secure the cable alongside the tubing and wellhead supports.000 b/d and as low as 200 b/d. it can handle free gas with the liquid but high volumes of free gas causes inefficient operation and gas lock problems. an electric cable. A submersible pumping unit consists of an electric motor. submersible pumping unit can be expected to give from 1 to 3 years of good operating life with some units operating over 10 years. The oil cut may also vary within very wide limits. Pressure sentry for sensing bottom-hole pressure. check and bleeder valves are the optional equipment that can be taken into consideration. it is considered as an effective and economical means of lifting large volumes of fluid from great depths under a variety of well conditions. a junction box and transformers. a surface installed switchboard. an intake section. a seal section. This fact makes necessary to apply production optimization techniques to wells having low production rates. Pumping equipment is capable of producing as high as 60. Under normal operating conditions. The first submersible pumping unit was installed in an oil well in 1928 and since that time the concept has proven itself throughout the oilproducing world1.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The electrical submersible pumping system can said to be an attractive artificial lift technique in reservoirs having high water-cut and low gas-oil ratio.

all of which lead to increased profitability from oil and gas investments. The system includes all flow between the reservoir and the separator. As the entire system is simulated. tubing. i. The production rate or deliverability of a well can be severely restricted by the poor performance of just one component in the system. perforations. Optimization and design of submersible pump lifted wells pumping only liquid are generally straightforward however pumping gas with the liquid is complicated because of the high compressibility of gas.analyze the performance of the systems composed of interacting components. If the effect of each component on the performance of the total system can be isolated. reservoir. In this case.. When performing a Nodal analysis. flowline and separator. This node acts as the intersection point between the inflow and outflow performances. the efficiency of the system can be optimized in the most economical way.e. well productivity and producing efficiency. surface choke. each of the components is modelled using various correlations or equations to determine the pressure loss through that component as a function of flow rate. computer program should be written to overcome these iterations. The Nodal analysis technique is essentially a simulator of the producing well system. The analysis can improve the completion design. consequently considerable amount of iterations should be performed to determine the volume factor at any pressure between the intake and discharge pressures. volume of the produced fluid rate shows a significant variation between the pump intake and discharge pressures. Optimization of wells with Nodal Analysis requires pressure gradient correlation in order to reach a solution so it is 2 . we divide the production system into its components. The summation of these individual losses make up the total pressure loss through the entire system for a given flow rate. Different inflow and outflow performance curves intersect on the same plot and give the design considerations for different arrangements2. Then we pick a problem area in this production system as a node. It is a process of determining the effect of each component in the production system on the total system performance. Thus.

necessary to use a vertical multiphase flow correlation method in the computer program. comparison made by using the production data of wells located in the GK field will assist us in suggesting optimum pump operating conditions. Thus. 3 . during the study it was observed that Hagedorn and Brown Correlation failed to give accurate output at bubble flow. However. In this study. Griffith Correlation4 was constructed at bubble flow to obtain accurate results. The purpose of this study was to write a general computer program that gives simultaneously the possible production rates for submersible pump lifted wells and also the optimum required horsepower and number of pump stages at these possible rates both considering pumping liquid and pumping gas with liquid. Hagedorn and Brown vertical multiphase flow correlation3 has been used to determine the pressure and pressure losses at required depth. In addition to that objective.

From figure.1 Introduction Many high volume wells are equipped with electric submersible pumps (ESP) to lift the liquid and decrease the flowing bottom hole pressure. Discharge pressure of the pump will be defined as P2.CHAPTER II ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS 2. along with the pressure traverse in the well. Figure 2. and also intake pressure will be defined as P3 throughout the study. initially. A typical submersible pump installation is given in Figure 2.2. a centrifugal separator will be placed between the pump and motor for obtaining maximum gas-liquid separation. This insufficient pressure (Pup) which we define as intake pressure starts to increase at pump setting depth by required pump stages and finally reaches to discharge pressure (Pdn) generated by the pump which will assist fluid to flow throughout the surface. Electrical power is supplied by means of a cable from the surface. The pump and motor are suspended on the tubing at a certain depth in the well. The annulus is either vented or tied into the well’s flowline.3 is a typical pressure traverses for pump on bottom.1. the effective lift point is that depth at 4 . In some cases. From the figure it can be seen that. A submersible pump is a multistage centrifugal pump that is driven by an electric motor located in the well below the pump. so that as much gas as possible is separated from the liquid before it enters the pump. flowing pressure of submersible pump lifted well is not sufficient to lift the fluid (depleted well). A schematic of a well equipped with a submersible pump is given in Figure 2.

The pump performs highest efficiency when pumping liquid only. The manner in which the pump handle gas is not completely understood. 5 . however high volumes of free gas are known to cause inefficient operation.which the flowing bottomhole pressure is capable of supporting the fluids in the tubing string. It can and does handle free gas along with the liquid.

Figure 2.1 A Typical Submersible Pump Installation 6 .

2 Submersible Pump Schematic Figure 2.Figure 2.3 Pressure Traverses for Pump on Bottom 7 .

These curves are for a fixed power cycle – normally 50 or 60 cycle – and can be changed with variable frequency controllers6. But even within the same group.2 Pump Performance Curves Pumps are divided into groups according to the minimum casing size into which the pump can be run.4. which may include free and/or dissolved gas. and efficiency with capacity. k j k j k j k j k j 8 . The performance curves of a submersible electrical pump represent the variation of head. A typical pump performance curve5 is given in Figure 2.2. Capacity refers to the volume of the produced flow rate. each pump performs differently. horsepower.

3 Figure 2.4 A A Typical Pump Performance Curve (GN3200)5 Typical Pump Performance Curve (GN3200) k j k j k j k j k j .9 Figure 2.

the capacity and. psi/ft d(St) = the differential number of stages Note that parentheses are included to indicate that h and Gf are functions of the capacity V. the above equation can be written as follows6: dP = h(V ) × G f (V ) × d ( St ) (1) where: dP = the differential pressure developed by the pump.The head (in feet per stage) developed by a centrifugal pump is the same regardless of the type or specific gravity of the fluid pumped. But when converting this head to pressure. which is: V = q scVF The gradient of fluid at any pressure and temperature is given by: (2) G f (V ) = 0. consequently. psi h = the head per stage. the following can be stated: Pressure developed by pump = head per stage × gradient of fluid × number of stages When pumping gas with the liquid. ft/stage Gf = the gradient of the pumped fluid.433γ f (V ) (3) but: 10 . it must be multiplied by the gradient of the fluid in question. Therefore. Thus. the head per stage as well as the gradient vary as the pressure of the liquid elevated from the intake value P3 to the discharge value P2.

433q sc ρ fsc h(V ) (7) d ( St ) = ( (8) The total number of stages is obtained by integrating the above equation between the intake and discharge pressures: St P 2 V 350 d ( St ) = ( dP )∫ ∫ 0.γ f (V ) = W 350V (4) where W is the weight of the capacity V at any pressure and temperature.433 q sc ρ fsc ) 350 V G f (V ) = ( (6) ρfsc is the weight of 1 bbl of liquid plus pumped gas (per 1bbl of liquid) at standard conditions. Hence: q sc ρ fsc 350V γ f (V ) = (5) Substituting equation 5 into 3 gives: 0. which is equal to the weight at standard conditions. or: ρ fsc = 350 wcγ wsc + 350(1 − wc)γ osc + (GIP)(GLR) ρ gsc where ρgsc is the density of gas (in lb/scf) at standard conditions. Substituting Equation 6 into Equation 1 gives: 350 V ) dP 0.433q sc ρ fsc P3 h(V ) 0 (9) or: 11 .

433 P h(V ) ∫ d ( HP) = ( 0 (13) or: 12 .St = ( 808. This horsepower must be multiplied by the specific gravity of the fluid under consideration. the above equation can be written as follows: d ( HP) = h p (V ) × γ f (V ) × d ( St ) (11) Substituting Equations 5 and 8 into the above equation gives: d (HP) = ( h p (V ) 1 dP ) 0.0. and the number of stages depend on the capacity V. which varies between the intake and the discharge pressures.3141 2 V )∫ dP q sc ρ fsc P3 h(V ) P (10) The pump performance curves give the horsepower per stage based on a fluid specific gravity equal to 1. Thus the following can be stated: (horsepower requirements) = (horsepower per stage) × (specific gravity of fluid) × (number of stages) Since the horsepower per stage.433 h(V ) (12) The total horsepower requirement is obtained by integrating the above equation between the intake and the discharge pressures: HP P2 h p (V ) 1 )∫ dP 0. the specific gravity of fluid.

and (2) pumping liquid and gas. there is a capacity range within which the pump performs at or near its peak efficency. and Equation 10 can be integrated to give6: 808. remain within the efficiency range of the pump. therefore.433 P3 h(V ) P (14) For each pump. 2. Hence.3 Pump Intake Curves Predicting intake curves for submersible pumps is considered for two cases: (1) pumping only liquid. 2. it is assumed that the pump is set at the bottom of well and the wellhead pressure and tubing size are fixed. This range. The volume range of the selected rate between the intake and the discharge pressures should. of course. it is assumed that all associated gas is pumped with the liquid. For both cases.3141 )( P2 − P3 ) ρ fsc h St = ( (15) Solving Equation 15 for P3 gives: 13 .1 Pumping Liquid Only Since the liquids are only slightly compressible. the volume of the production rate can be considered constant and equal to the surface rate qsc. can be changed by using a variable frequency controller.3. the head per stage will also be constant. The sensitivity variable selected is the number of stages6. For case 2.HP = ( 2 h p (V ) 1 )∫ dP 0.

2. for each of these rates.P3 = P2 − ( ρ fsc h 808. (3) Assume various production rates and.1 Procedure For The Preparation of Tubing Intake Curves for Liquid Only A step-wise procedure for predicting intake curves for the case when only liquid is pumped follows6: (1) Select a suitable pump as dictated by the casing size and the flow capacity of the well (2) Calculate ρ fsc from Equation 7 (GLR=0) and γ fsc from Equation 5.1.433 h (17) Substituting Equation 15 into the above equation yields: HP = h p γ fsc St (18) Pump selection is limited by the casing size. If the objective is to maximize the production rate. the proper procedure is to select a pump whose efficiency range includes rates that are close to the maximum rate of the well.3141).3141 ) St (16) Equation 14 also can be integrated to give: HP = ( hp 1 ) ( P2 − P3 ) 0. Another constraint is the desired production rate. 14 .3. do the following: (a) Read the head per stage from the pump performance curves and calculate the quantity (ρfsch/808.

Whether pumping only liquid or pumping gas with the liquid. As a result. the production rate increase. for each of these numbers. the effect of friction in the tubing string becomes significant. (6) For each rate. As the number of stages and. (b) It must be economically feasible. consequently. (8) Select a suitable rate. 15 . (5) Read the rates at the intersection of the pump intake curves with the IPR curve. the selected rate must satisfy the following criteria: (a) Its volume range between the intake and the discharge pressures must remain within the efficiency range of the pump. calculate the intake pressure from Equation 16. the gain in the production rate per one stage continues to diminish until it becomes insignificant. Impose the efficiency range of the pump on the same graph. (c) Assume various numbers of stages and. then calculate the total horsepower requirement from Equation 18. read the horsepower per stage from the pump performance curves. (7) Plot the rates vs the number of stages and horsepower requirements. (4) Plot the intake pressures vs rate for each assumed number of stages on the same graph as the IPR curve and to the same scale.(b) Determine the required discharge pressure from a pressure gradient correlation. causing the discharge pressure to increase.

But this is difficult because VF is a very complicated function of pressure.3. At any pressure point between the intake and discharge. consequently. For this reason. if all gas is pumped with the liquid.2. Equation 10 should be broken down into two integrals as follows6: 16 . The existence of gas at the intake section of the pump implies that the intake pressure is below the bubble point of the crude (saturated crude). the volume of the produced flow rate V may undergo a significant variation as the pressure of the fluid changes from the intake value to the discharge value. numerical integration methods are recommended. h vary as the fluid passes through the pump. direct integration of Equation 10 is possible only if the integrand V/h(V) can be reduced to a simple function of pressure.1 Determination Of The Number of Stages (21) Because V and.2 Pumping Liquid and Gas Because of the high compressibility of gas.3. If that is the case and if the required discharge pressure is above the bubble point. the volume of the flow rate is given by: V = q scVF 2.2. the volume factor is determined from6: VF = wc + (1 − wc) Bo + [GLR − (1 − wc) R s ]B g (19) if a certain percentage of the gas is vented: VF = wc + (1 − wc) Bo + GIP[GLR − (1 − wc ) R s ]B g (20) In either case.

j Vi / hi and V j / h j = average quantities evaluated at the average pressures P3. Equation 22 can be written in a more convenient form as follows: St = where: A A m Vi ∑ h ∆P3.j-1-P3.i −1 + P3.i can be taken much larger than 17 . j .i = P3.i + q qsc i =1 i sc ∑h j =m n Vj j ∆P3. j = ( P3.i = ( P3. hence.o = discharge pressure (P2) P3. j −1 + P3. h undergo only slight change above the bubble point. j (24) P3. j ) / 2 The main reason for breaking down the number of stages into two summations is the fact that V and. respectively. where: P3.m = bubble point pressure (Pb) ∆P3.3141/ρfsc = constant (23) For performing numerical integration.j = any intake pressure below the bubble point P3.St = A q sc Pb V A ∫ h(V )dP + q sc P3 P2 Pb ∫ h(V ) dP V (22) where A = 808.i and P3. ∆P3.j=P3.i-1-P3.i ) / 2 and P3.i ∆P3. consequently.i = any intake pressure above the bubble point P3.j = P3.i=P3.

i = P3. To illustrate this point. When using a computer solution.∆P3. Equation 24 can be written as: St i = ∑ ( i =1 n A∆P3 Vi ) q sc hi (25) where: P3.i −1 + P3.i = ( P3.∆P3 The quantity Vi / hi is evaluated at the average pressure given by: P 3.j.n = intake pressure (P3) n = (P2-P3)/∆P3 P3. satisfactory results are obtained even if ∆P3 is taken as the difference between Pb and P2 and the quantity V / h is evaluated at the midpoint. For this case. it is easier to divide the interval between the intake and the discharge pressure into equal increments by taking ∆P3 constant. In fact.0 = discharge pressure (P2) P3.i-1 .I can be considered an intake pressure.i ) / 2 (26) In reality. Equation 25 can be written in the following form: n St i = ∑ ∆( St ) i i =1 (27) where: A∆P3 Vi ) q sc hi ∆ ( St ) i = ( (28) 18 . any pressure P3.

.2 Determination of Horsepower The horsepower requirement is obtained by integrating Equation 14 between the intake and the discharge pressures. and numerical methods must be used. inorder to obtain an intake pressure P3.. Equation 14 can be written as follows6: HPi = ∑ ( i =1 n ∆P3 hp i ) 0. + ∆( St ) n (31) =( A∆P3 V1 V2 V )( + + .i .3.2.. Since the integrand hp(V)/h(V) can not be reduced to a simple function of pressure.2. direct integration is not possible..Therefore. we have: A∆P3 V1 V 2 ( + ) q sc h1 h2 St 2 = ∆ ( St ) 1 + ∆( St ) 2 = (30) And in order to obtain P3.433 hi (33) 19 . + n ) q sc h1 h2 hn (32) 2. If the interval between the intake and the discharge pressure is divided into equal increments by taking ∆P3 constant. we have: St n = ∆( St ) 1 + ∆( St ) 2 + . we have: St1 = ∆ ( St )1 = ( A∆P3 Vi ) q sc hi (29) In order to obtain P3.n.

For this reason. do the following: (a) Determine the required discharge pressure from a two-phase flow correlation. (b) Calculate VF at the discharge pressure. then calculate the discharge volume.3. Another constraint that must be taken into account when pumping gas with the liquid is the volume range of the flow rate. 20 .If ∆(HP)I is defined as: ∆ ( HP) i = ∑ ( i =1 n ∆P3 hp i ) 0. Move horizontally to the stbl/d IPR curve and read the intake rate in stbl/d. Because of the high compressibility of the gas.3 Pump Selection As mentioned previously. the difference between the intake and discharge volumes may be too great to be contained within the efficiency range of one pump.433 hi (34) then Equation 33 can be written as: n HPi = ∑ ∆ ( HP) i i =1 (35) 2.2. (3) For each intake rate determined in step 2. (2) Enter the b/d IPR curve at the upper limit of the efficiency range of several pumps that are suitable from a casing-size standpoint. the following procedure for pump selection is suggested6: (1) Prepare IPR curves in stbl/d and b/d to the same scale on the same graph. pump selection is limited by the casing size and flow capacity of the well.

(g) Repeat steps c-f for P3. P3. (f) Calculate the required number of stages to obtain the intake pressure P3.0) from a two-phase flow correlation. 21 . (2) Calculate ρfsc from Equation 7 and calculate the constant A from Equation 23. 2. choose the one with the highest capacity.3. (e) Read h1 at V1 from the pump performance curves. do the following: (a) Determine the required discharge pressure (P3.(4) Select the pump for which the discharge volume is greater than or equal to the lower limit of its efficency range.4 Procedure for the Preparation of Intake Curves for Wells Pumping Gas A step-wise procedure for predicting tubing intake curves for the case in which gas is with the liquid is given as follows6: (1) Select a suitable pump as outlined previously.3 through P3.1 . (3) Assume several production rates in stbl/d and. (4) By interpolating or plotting. for each of these rates.i until a convenient intake pressure is reached. If more than one pump is found to be suitable.1 . obtain intake pressure for assumes rates for an identical number of stages.2. (b) Choose ∆P3 and calculate the quantity (A∆P3/qsc) (c) Calculate P3.2.1 and P 3. (d) Determine VF 1 at P 3. then calculate V1 . Tabulate the intake pressure versus the number of stages.1 from Equation 25.

(5) Plot the intake pressure (obtained in step 4) versus the assumed production rates for the various number of stages. (6) Read the rates at the intersection of the pump intake curves with the IPR curve. (8) Plot the rate versus the number of stages and horsepower requirements. (7) For each rate. calculate the horsepower requirement from Equation 33. Impose the efficiency range of the pump on the same graph. (9) Select a suitable rate. 22 . Plot the stbl/d IPR curve to the same scale on the same graph. Calculation of horsepower requirements is similar to the calculation of the number of stages.

Electrical circuits. while the outflow section consists of all of the components downstream of the node. All of the components upstream of the node comprise the inflow section. Figure 3.1 Introduction The systems analysis approach.1 illustrates a number of the components in which pressure losses occur. At a particular time in the life of the well. often called NODALTM Analysis. One of these pressures 23 . The production system can be relatively simple or can include many components in which energy or pressure losses occur. The flow rate through the system can be determined once the following requirements are satisfied2: 1 Flow into the node equals flow out of the node 2 Only one pressure can exist at a node. A relationship between flow rate and pressure drop must be available for each component in the system. complex pipeline networks and centrifugal pumping systems are all analyzed using this method.CHAPTER III NODAL ANALYSIS APPROACH 3. has been applied for many years to analyze the performance of systems composed of interacting components. The procedure consists of selecting a division point or node in the well and dividing the system at this point. there are always two pressures that remain fixed and are not functions of flow rate. Its application to well producing systems was first proposed by Gilbert7 in 1954 and discussed by Nind8 in 1964 and Brown9 in 1978.

a plot of node pressure versus flow rate will produce two curves. the intersection of which will give the conditions satisfying requirements 1 and 2. the intersection will be shifted. However. Therefore. The curves will also be shifted if either of the fixed pressures is changed. If a change was made in an upstream component. the node pressure is calculated from both directions starting at the fixed pressures. The effect of a change in any of the components can be analyzed by recalculating the node pressure versus flow rate using the new characteristics of the component that was changed. given previously. in any component varies with flow rate. and the other is the system outlet pressure. if either curve is changed. p R . Figure 3. Inflow to the node: p R − ∆p (upstream components) = p node (36) Outflow from the node: p sep + ∆p (downstream component) = p node (37) The pressure drop. ∆p .is the average reservoir pressure. The outlet pressure is usually the seperator pressure. but if the well is controlled by a surface choke the fixed outlet pressure may be the wellhead pressure pwh.2 illustrates the comparison of intake curves for artificial lift methods. psep. It can be observed from the figure that electrical submersible 24 . Once the node is selected. q . the outflow curve will remain unchanged. and a new flow capacity and node pressure will exist. which may occur with depletion or a change in separation conditions.

thus. Figure 3.pump keeps the bottomhole pressure low. creates large amount of pressure drawdown to reach high production rates.1 Pressure Losses In a Production System2 25 .

2 Inflow to node: Tubing Intake Curves for Artificial Lift Systems6 p R − ∆p res − ∆p tubing = p wh (38) Outflow from node: p sep + ∆p flowline = p wh (39) The effect of increasing the tubing size. because the pressure drop in the tubing will be decreased. This shifts the inflow curve upward and the intersection to the right. shifting the outflow down and the intersection to the right. The effect of a change in any 26 . as long as the tubing is not too large. A larger flowline will reduce the pressure drop in the flowline. is to give a higher node or wellhead pressure for a given flow rate.Figure 3.

p R − p sep . This could be caused by either large tubing or low production rates. the effect of declining reservoir pressure or changing separator can be determined. the velocity of the fluid moving up the tubing may be too low to effectively lift the liquids to the surface. the producing capacity of the system depends on where the pressure drop occurs. The inflow and outflow expressions for the simple system will then be: Inflow to node: p R − ∆p res = p wf (40) Outflow from node: p sep + ∆p flowline + ∆p tubing = p wf (41) A producing system may be optimized by selecting the combination of component characteristics that will give the maximum production rate for the lower cost. might be fixed at a particular time. the well performance suffers. A more frequently used analysis procedure is to select the node between the reservoir and piping system. if too much pressure drop occurs in the tubing. If too much pressure drop occurs in one component or module. Although the overall pressure drop available for a system. 27 . there may be insufficient pressure drop remaining for efficient performance of the other modules. For this type of well completion. Also. it is obvious that increasing reservoir performance by stimulation would be a waste of effort unless larger tubing were installed. Even though the reservoir may be capable of producing a large amount of fluid. If tubing is too large.component in the system can be isolated in this manner.The fluid velocity is the production rate divided by the area of the tubing.

which results in a lower p wf and. As the liquid level in the well builds the well will eventually die. if the effect of artificial lift method on the pressure can be expressed as a function of flow rate. a larger inflow. The procedure can be applied to both flowing and artificial lift wells. Once a well that is producing liquids along with the gas reaches the stage in which it will no longer flow naturally. The nodal systems analysis approach may used to analyze many producing oil and gas well problems. Analyzing the effects of perforating density 11. therefore.As tubing size is increased. Surface choke sizing 5. Subsurface safety valve sizing 6. The procedure can also be applied to the analysis of injection well performance by appropriate modification of the inflow and outflow expressions. Relating field performance to time 28 . Gravel pack design 4. the friction losses decrease. the well begins loading with liquid and the flow becomes intermittent or unstable. Selecting tubing size 2. Analyzing an existing system for abnormal flow restrictions 7. However. A partial list of possible applications is given as follows2: 1. Selecting flowline size 3. Allocating injection gas among gas lift wells 13. Analyzing a multiwell producing system 14. Predicting the effect of depletion on producing capacity 12. it will usually be placed on artificial lift. Artificial lift design 8. as the tubing size is further increased. Well stimulation evaluation 9. Determinig the effect of compression on gas well performance 10.

3. 2. qL . The inflow and outflow expressions are2: Inflow: p R − ∆p res − ∆p csg (belowpump) = p up Outflow: p sep + ∆p flowline + ∆p tub ( abovepump) = p dn The following procedure may be used to estimate the pressure gain and power required to achieve a particular producing capacity. Determine the required p wf for this q L . Determine the pump suction pressure p up using the casing diameter and the total producing GLR to calculate the pressure drop below the pump. Inflow: 1. The pump can be handled as an independent component in the system in a manner similar to that used in gravel-packed completions. The pressure gain that the pump must generate for a particular producing rate is ∆p = p dn − p up .using the reservoir performance procedures. The pressure traverse below the pump will be calculated based on the formation gas/liquid ratio and the casing size. The node pressure is either the pump intake pressure p up or the pump discharge pressure p dn . Select a value for liquid producing rate q L .3. Repeat for a range of liquid producing rates and plot p up versus. 29 . the node is selected at the pump. 4. The traverse in the tubing above the pump will be based on the gas/liquid ratio entering the pump and the tubing size.2 Application of Nodal Analysis to Electrical Submersible Pumping Wells To perform a nodal analysis on a submersible pumping well.

b. The suction and discharge pressures can also be determined for each rate. Determine dissolved gas R s at this pressure and temperature. If the casing tied into the flowline. separated at the pump.Outflow: 1.5 . R s = solution gas/oil ratio at suction conditions. and f o = fraction of oil flowing 3. Select a value for q L . Calculate the GLR downstream of the pump from GLRdn = = (1 − E s )( Rtotal − f o R s ) where: (42) Rtotal = total producing gas/liquid ratio. 4. 30 . Repeat for a range of q L and plot p dn vs q L on the same graph. d. If not use E s = 0. Determine the appropriate GLR for tubing and flowline pressure drop calculations. Determine p dn using GLRdn to calculate the pressure drop in the tubing and the flowline if the casing gas is vented. 2. Determine p up and fluid temperature at the pump at this q L value from inflow calculations. 5. This will be dependent whether or not a downhole separator is to be used. a. Select various producing rates and determine the pressure gain ∆p required to achieve an intersection of the inflow and outflow curves at these rates. Estimate fraction of free gas E s . c. the total GLR will be used to determine the pressure drop in the flowline.

bbl/STB. pump size.6. program input consists of well. This is accomplished by dividing the pressure gain by the density of fluid being pumped. program initially gives the pressure at pump setting depth (discharge pressure) by applying Hagedorn and Brown3 vertical multiphase correlation. at each producing rate.1 Pumping Only Liquid A two-stage computer program in Fortran Code has been written and also EXCEL Worksheet was used to support the program. and liftsystem data. STB/day qw = water rate. psi qo = oil rate. The actual plotting of the data is not required if the pump is to be selected for specific rates. Calculate the power requirement. In addition to 31 . and Bw = water formation volume factor at suction conditions The pressure gain can be converted to head gain if necessary for pump selection.3. number of stages. etc. Once these conditions were satisfied. At the first stage. as all the necessary information is calculated before plotting. The required horsepower can be calculated from: HP = 1. STB/day Bo = oil formation volume factor at suction conditions. reservoir.. 3. fluid.72 × 10 −5 ∆p (q o Bo + q w B w ) where: HP = horsepower required (43) ∆p = pressure gain.3 Description of the Computer Program 3.

This procedure cannot be achieved by program since curve trendline equation changes at every different input value and there is no chance of data transfer between EXCEL Worksheet and the program. which will help us to construct Possible Production Rate versus Stages and Horsepower Figure. At the second stage of the program. which leads to necessity of a computer program. which are obtained manually by intersecting intake curve and IPR curve. the volume factor should be determined. program calculates HP requirement at every possible rate. Griffith4 Correlation was also used at bubble flow to obtain accurate results.Hagedorn and Brown Correlation. A two-stage computer program in Fortran 32 . This is due to high compressibility of gas. 3. During this process.2 Pumping Liquid and Gas Pumping gas with the liquid causes produced fluid rate V to undergo a significant variation between the intake and discharge pressures. It should be kept in mind that pump selection is achieved manually by entering to input. At any pressure point between the intake and discharge. These intake pressures are necessary to construct intake curves on the same graph as the IPR curve. user should enter possible production rates to programs. program takes Pwh as initial pressure and calculates depth increment at every 10 psi pressure increase (pressure interval was taken low to reach an accurate solution) and finally stores the pressure (discharge pressure) when depth reaches to total pump setting depth. Steps followed in the correlation can be observed in details at Chapter 4. At the last step.3. in other words program does not comprise an algorithm that automatically selects a suitable pump for that well. This process can only be achieved by making huge amounts of iteration. Head per stage data was required during these calculations and this was achieved by constructing equation of each pump performance curve and transferring it to program. After recording discharge value program simply calculates intake pressures at assumed flow rates and number of pump stages.

As explained previously. in other words program does not include an algorithm that automatically selects a suitable pump for that well. however. user should again enter possible production rates to programs. It should be kept in mind that pump selection is achieved manually by entering to input. h (head per stage) and number of stage (St) values at desired production rate. At this point. Afterwards. This procedure cannot be achieved by program as explained before. 33 . program computes Griffith4 Correlation when bubble flow conditions were formed. This data will help us to construct Possible Production Rate versus Stages and Horsepower Figure in order us to make necessary evaluation. At the second stage of the program.Code has been written and also EXCEL Worksheet was used to support the program. Input parameters of the program are same with pumping only liquid program. At first stage. Program then calculates the intake pressure at various numbers of stages to let us construct tubing intake curve on the same graph as the IPR curve. which are obtained manually by intersecting intake curve and IPR curve. program starts to make iterations to calculate horsepower per stage and total horsepower requirement at every 50 psi pressure drop until it reaches to intake pressure. program calculates VF at pressure interval between 200 – 5000 psi. by following same steps with pumping only liquid program. GOR value should be entered since free gas exists. discharge pressure is calculated by Hagedorn and Brown3 Vertical Multiphase Flow Correlation (existing as a subprogram in the algorithm) and program starts to make iterations by decreasing pressure 50 psi at every iteration in order to calculate volume (h).

Desired conclusion will be reached after determining the optimum pump stages and horsepower requirement for a possible production rate by a theorotical study and compare it with actual field submersible pump operating data. The study will let us to suggest optimum submersible pump running conditions for each well to continue production in a more economical and cost saving approach. well.CHAPTER IV STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The objective of this study is to perform a production engineering study at GK oil field in Southeastern Turkey. Following steps were considered during the study to reach the aim: • writing computer program that applies vertical multiphase flow correlation and computes the parameters that were required for the optimization • • collecting and evaluating the actual reservoir. The main goal of the study is to achieve production optimization of 10 electrical submersible pump lifted wells currently operating in this field. fluid and lifting entering field data to computer program and taking the output for data that the case study was performed two pumping conditions 34 .

horsepower requirement using the computer production rate and output • comparison of actual field values and theorotical values and making necessary suggestions 35 .• preparing necessary figures and charts concerning pump stages.

As an example. one may be much better than the other under certain conditions and field pressure surveys are the only way to find out. The correlations that are most widely used at the present time for vertical multiphase flow are as follows: 1. Duns and Ros10 3. Orkiszewski12 5.1 Introduction The use of multiphase flow pipeline pressure drop correlations is very important in applying nodal analysis. Aziz14 These are found to calculate pressure drop very well in certain wells and certain fields. it would be recommended beginning initial work with the correlations as listed in the above order. Hagedorn and Brown3 2.CHAPTER V HAGEDORN AND BROWN VERTICAL MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATION SUPPORTED BY GRIFFITH CORRELATION 5. Without any knowledge in a particular field. Ros and Gray11 4. However. Beggs and Brill13 6. the commercial vertical multiphase flow model (MTRAN) that was developed by Scientific Software Incorporation uses the following sections: 36 . In the literature it is recommended to from a hybrid by using the most dependable parts of the four models.

Figure 5. Duns and Ros10 flow map 2. Use Orkiszewski12 for bubble flow 3. Use Duns and Ros10 for transitional and mist flow Figure 5.1. Use Hagedorn and Brown3 for slug flow 4.1 Schematic Diagram of Possible Flow Patterns in Two-Phase Pipelines6 37 .1 illustrates the schematic diagram of possible flow patterns in two-phase pipelines to visualize the flow systems that above correlations used for.

This Reynolds Number requires a value for H L in the viscosity term. the no slip holdup was used2. the Griffith4 Correlation was used and when the no slip holdup was greater than the holdup value. However.2 Hagedorn and Brown Method The Hagedorn and Brown3 method was developed by obtaining experimental pressure drop and flow rate data from a 1500 ft deep instrumented well. Pressures were measured for flow in tubing sizes ranging from 1 ¼ to 2 7/8 in O. Thompson added that. A wide range of liquid rates and gas/liquid ratios was included. The Hagedorn and Brown Correlation gives best results for wellbores with low to moderate liquid volume fractions (high gasliquid ratios) and relatively high mixture velocities (annular-mist or froth flow). When bubble flow existed. although a correlation for the calculated liquid holdup is presented. Hagedorn and 38 . it is not very accurate in bubble flow. In this study. Moreover. The correlations were developed by assuming that the two-phase friction factor could be obtained from the Moody diagram based on a two-phase Reynolds number. calculated slip holdup is sometimes below no-slip holdup and also the acceleration term is too dominant. Neither liquid holdup nor flow pattern was measured during the Hagedorn and Brown study. The Hagedorn and Brown method has been found to give good results over a wide range of well conditions and is one of the most widely used well flow correlations in the industry2. the modified Hagedorn and Brown Correlation tended to overpredict pressure loss in bubble flow (Griffith). The selection of appropriate correlation for a given production system is important to reach to an accurate solution. and the effects of liquid viscosity were studied by using water and oil as the liquid phase. 35 and 110 cp. Later two adjustments were made to improve this correlation. the original Hagedorn and Brown correlation has several weaknesses: At first. The oils used had viscosities at stock tank conditions of 10.D. while it tended to underpredict slug flow.5.

i.7 2 (46) Depending upon the requirements of the problem. or whether the calculations are to start from total depth and come up the pipe. whether or not a flowing bottom-hole pressure is to be determined from surface information..Brown correlation was selected to calculate pressure drop for flow in the vertical tubing. increments of 25 psi should be taken until reaching 400 39 . However. during the execution of the correlation in this study. the starting pressure must be known. assume a value for p2 and calculate the depth increment. Pressure increments or decrements must then be assumed from which the distance between pressure points (1) and (2) will be calculated. Calculate the average pressure between the two pressure points. if starting from the surface with a pressure lower than 100 psi. 5. As a word of precaution.3 PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING A VERTICAL PRESSURE TRAVERSE BY THE METHOD OF HAGEDORN AND BROWN The general equation of Hagedorn and Brown correlation is15: 2 Vm ) ∆( 2g c ∆p fw 2 = ρm + + ρm 144 ∆h ∆h 2. 1. Griffith modification was also used when bubble flow conditions were satisfied since Hagedorn and Brown method shows weaknesses at bubble flow.psia p= p1 + p 2 + 14.e.9652 × 1011 × d 5 × ρ m (45) Start with a known pressure p1. ∆h 144∆p − ρ m ∆ ( ∆h = 2 Vm ) 2g c ρm + fw 2 2.9652 × 1011 d 5 ρ m (44) Solving for the depth increment.

The equation of Lasater’s correlation is as follows: 40 .000 psi.0125( API ) 1/0.0764) (GLR) γg 1 + WOR 1 + WOR m = γo (350) ( (48) 4. Calculate the specific gravity of the oil.5 131. This type of calculation is practically forbidden by long hand but lends itself readily to machine computation.00091(T ) (49) Rs = γg ( (50) where Rs = scf/bbl Lasater’s17 equation can also be used and it is more accurate than Standing’s correlation especially at higher °API.psi. Calculate the mass flow rate: w=qm 5. Obtain Rs at P and T by Standing’s16 Correlation : P 10 0. 2. Find total mass associated with one bbl of stock tank liquid: 1 WOR ) + γw (350) ( ) + (0. the pressure decrements may be as great as 200 psi. If starting from bottom with pressures in excess of 1.83 × ) 18 10 0. γo: 141.5 + ° API γo= (47) 3.

175 (53) b) If P〉 Pb Bo = Bob e ( co ( Pb − P )) (54) 7.0 unless a correction factor is necessary to make the equation check with actual field cases.4)( ) ] (55) 1 + WOR 1 + WOR 41 .5 + 1.3)(350)(γ o ) Yg )( )C Mo 1 − Yg (51) where: Mo = molecular weight T = °R The value of C is 1. Obtain Bo according to calculated Rs value: a) If P〈 Pb : F = Rs ( γg γo ) 0.25T (52) Bob = 0. Calculate the density of liquid phase: ρL = [ γ o (62.972 + 0.0764) / 5. 6.Rs = ( (379.000147 F 1.614 Bo ]( 1 WOR ) + [ γ w (62.4) + R s γ g (0.

39(T pr − 0. If T is to be a variable.5 − 0.037) Ppr + ( (9 (T −1)) ) Ppr (T pr − 0.93γ g + 172.32 2 6 − 0. Assuming T = constant.49T pr + 0.94 (57) Ppr = P Ppc (58) T pr = T T pc (59) A = 1.86) 10 pr (61) C = 0. Although the temperature gradient may be known. therefore.32 log(T pr ) (62) D = 10 2 ( 0.1824T pr ) (63) a) If B 〈100 42 . the depth at which the pressure increment occurs is not known and.62 − 023T pr ) Ppr + ( 0. the temperature at the next pressure point is not known.8324γ g + 308. then a single trial and error solution develops. 2 Ppc = −17. p and γg.066 0.292γ g − 17.92) 0.8.101 (60) B = (0.36T pr − 0.4 (56) 2 T pc = 1.852γ g + 688.3106 − 0. find a value of Z for a constant T .132 − 0.

515 B = 5. Calculate the average density of the gas phase ρ g = γ g (0. Calculate the average viscosity of the oil from appropriate correlations.163 e ( 6.715( R s + 100) −0.9824−0.44( R s + 150) −0. a) If P ≤ Pb X = T −1. a knowledge of fluid properties of the oil. p .04658 API ) (67) (68) (69) (70) µ oD = 10 X − 1 A = 10. and / or T is required. As noted.0764)( p 520 1 )( )( ) 14.7 T Z (66) 10.z = A+ 1− A D + CPpr B e (64) b) If B〉100 D z = A + CPpr (65) 9.338 B µ o = Aµ oD (71) b) If P ≥ Pb B = C1 P e ( C 3 + C 4 P ) C2 (72) 43 .

Determine the average water viscosity from correlation below: µ W = e (1. cp 11. Assuming constant surface tensions at each pressure point. cp µoD = dead oil viscosity.187 C3 = -11. Calculate the liquid mixture viscosity: 1  WOR    µL = µo    + µw   1 + WOR   1 + WOR  (75) This can only be an approximation since the viscosity of two immiscible liquids is quite complex. 44 . calculate the liquid mixture surface tension.where: C1 = 2.98 × 10-5 B µ b = Aµ oD µo = µb ( P B ) Pb (73) where: µb = viscosity of the reservoir liquid at the bubble point. 12.513 C4 = -8.479×10 −2 T +1.982×10 −5 T 2 ) (74) 12.003−1.6 C2 = 1.

222NL −10604NL + 48. this represents only an approximation of the surface tension of the liquid phase. Calculate the area of tubing. Determine CNL from the previously formed equation of CNL versus NL graph.069NL + 0.61q L 86400 A p WOR  1   Bo (1 + WOR ) + B w (1 + WOR )   (80) 18.15726µL( 1 ρ Lσ 3 L )1/4 (77) 14.002 . NLV: 45 . 6 5 4 3 CNL = 87. N2 (78) 15. Calculate the liquid viscosity number: NL = 0.02NL + 0. Assuming Bw = 1. 13.8612 L + 0.22NL −10. Ap. T 17.σL = σo ( WOR 1 ) + σw ( ) 1 + WOR 1 + WOR (76) Again.0. ft/sec: ν sL = 5. calculate the superficial liquid velocity ν sL . Obtain Bo at p. Ap = πd 2 4 (79) 16. Calculate the liquid velocity number.

938ν sL ( ρ L 1/ 4 ) σL (81) 19.NLV = 1. Determine the gas velocity number. Calculate the superficial gas velocity.7     0. Obtain ψ from the correlation determined before: HL ψ .10  CN L   N  d     (85) 23. = − 2 ×1015φ 6 + 4 ×1013φ 5 − 3 ×1011φ 4 + 109φ 3 − 2 ×106φ 2 + 18232φ + 0.872d ρL σL (84) 22. Calculate the holdup correlating function φ :  N φ =  0LV  N .11 (86) 46 .938ν sg  L σ  L     (83) 21. NGV: 1/ 4 ρ NGV =1.7  T  Z       =  p  520  1  86400 A p     (82) 20. ν sg : ν sg  1   q L  GLR − R s      1 + WOR    14.575  gV HL  p     14. Find the pipe diameter number. Nd: Nd = 120.

In order to obtain a friction factor.12φ +1. 29. (89) 27. If the value of ε is not known. determine a value for the two-phase Reynolds number.25 = 1.00015 ft which is an average value given for commercial steel.2 × 10 −2 w = H ( (d )( µ L L )( µ g1− H L ) ) (90) 28.9 ) d N Re f (91) 47 .380  φ=  N 2. a good value to use is 0. Calculate a value for HL: (88) H  HL =  L [ψ ] ψ  For low viscosities there will be no correction and ψ = 1. φ φ ψ = 8×107φ 6 − 3×107φ 5 + 4 ×106φ 4 − 300129 3 +10765 2 −157.24.00. Obtain ψ from the previously formed equation of ψ versus φ graph.14 − 2 log( + 0. Determine the secondary correction factor correlating parameter. Obtain the friction factor from the Jain18 Equation: 1 ε 21. (NRe)TP: ( N Re ) TP 2. Determine a value for ε/d.7611 26. φ: 0  N gv N L.14 d      (87) 25.

or until reaching the surface depending upon whether you are starting from the bottom or top of tube. (a) Using the value of HL. assume another pressure point and repeat the procedures until reaching total depth. Calculate the two-phase mixture velocity at both p1 and p2. Determine a value for ∆ (νm2) 2 2 ∆ (νm2) = ν m1 − ν m 2 (93) (94) [ ] (95) 33. calculate ρ m as follows: ρ m = ρ L H L + ρ g (1 − H L ) (b) Calculate a value of ρ m assuming no slippage. 31. Calculate ∆h corresponding to ∆p = p1 – p2 2 νm 144∆p − ρ m ∆( ∆h = 2g c ) (96) ρm + fw 2 2. Starting with p2 and the known depth at p2.30.9652 × 1011 d 5 ρ m 34. Calculate the average two-phase density of the mixtures ρ m by two methods. 48 . (92) νm1=νsL1+νsg1 νm2=νsL2+νsg2 32.

4 GRIFFITH CORRELATION (BUBBLE FLOW) The void fraction of gas (Hg) in bubble flow can be expressed as: 4q  1 q q Hg= 1 + t − (1 + t ) 2 − g  2  vs Ap vs Ap vs Ap    (97) where : vs = slip velocity (bubble rise velocity). ft/sec Griffith suggested that a good approximation of an average vs is 0. The average flowing density can be computed as: ρ = ρ L (1 − H g ) + ρ g H g The friction gradient is: (98) τ f = fρ L v L 2 / 2 g c d h where: (99) νL = [ qL Ap (1 − H g ) ] (100) The Reynolds number is calculated as: N Re = 1488ρ L d h µL vL (101) where: 49 .5.8 ft/sec.

50 .dh = hydraulic pipe diameter. cp Vertical pressure gradient curves (for three different reservoir conditions) obtained from the computer program by following the above steps were given at Chapter 7. ft µL = liquid viscosity.

The field was discovered in 1961 and has been on production since then. in August 1967. pressure in producers began to decline rapidly. there are a total of 29 wells with 12 producers. The main drive mechanism of the field is rock and fluid expansion. 51 . water injection was stopped to observe production declines in the field and artificial lift system was installed. Thus.1 Introduction The selected field is located on South East Anatolian. In 1967. The field started its production life as a dry and natural flowing field. 13 closed-in. It was decided that the field pressure should be maintained by water injection through peripheral wells –3 and –5 on the Eastern and Western flanks of the field to keep the production wells on natural flow. In 1966. A steep pressure decline in wells was observed during late 1961 and early 1962. as a result of high field offtake. In June 1997 from two wells re-injection started19. Currently. After realising that recovery is constrained by pressure decline rather than the watercut development in 1986 dumpflooding started. water cut increased and killed natural flow. 2 dumpflooders and 2 injection wells.CHAPTER VI DESCRIPTION OF THE GK FIELD 6. there also exists a weak aquifer at the system but not sufficient to create a producing force.

when the average reservoir pressure in the rest of the field was more than 1000 psi) may show the existence of a barrier between W-14 and W-11 due to either a fault or reservoir rock quality deterioration (a permeability barrier) between those wells. The reservoir deterioration between the wells on the other hand. 52 .3 mD-1. This main fault separates two blocks as Main Block and Northern Block and there is an another block called Western Block. The field is a frontal thrust structure consisting of an anticline on the leading edge of the thrust block. There is a main continues East-West trending normal fault. The unique pressure response of the W-14 with respect to the rest of the field (pressure measured in W-14 showed slight depletion of only a few hundred psi. Unit II is described as limestone-dolomitic limestone. The average porosity is 10%-15% with air permeabilities between 0.6. can not be confirmed due to shallow completion of the W-11 which prevents the correlation of two wells because of the long distance between these two wells. II. Cores indicated that it has vuggy porosity and solution channels. and some solution channels and fractures were also observed on the core samples. Intercrystalline and vuggy porosities. I. The reservoir rock has been divided into Mardin Units. The units having the highest porosities are the dolomite in Unit I and the high porosity limestone close to the bottom of the Unit II. and some sub-vertical/subhorizontal fractures also exist. Up to date 29 wells have been drilled and two wells are located outside the field (Well-9 and Well-10). The average porosities of this dolomite unit varies between 15% and 20% and the average permeabilities between 6 mD-50mD based on core measurements. These units are further subdivided based on lithology (limestone and dolomite) and porosity classes.5 mD based on core measurements. the deterioration of the reservoir quality is still quite possible. III and IV.2 Geology The field is an elongated structure in an approximate East–West direction.

1 RESERVOIR AND FLUID PROPERTIES OF GK FIELD ° API GOR. Estimated values for key parameters are listed in Table 6.02 0.83 160 2400 170 γgsc γwsc γosc Pb. TABLE 6. °F 10 of 12 producer wells were lifted with electrical submersible pumps. These wells and the series of pumps operated are given in Table 6. the dumpflooders W-3. W-19 inject the water into Unit I and injectors W-11 and W-18 inject to Unit I and II.2. psi PR (initial). 53 .3 Reservoir. 6.7 1. scf/STB 38 15 0. W-5. to large extent. psi Tav. reservoir fluid properties have been.Fluid and Lift-System Properties In the absence of PVT sampling. derived from correlations.All of the producing wells produce from Unit I and II.1.

TABLE 6. This figure is the combination of 66 well test data from 12 different producer wells and by inspecting the figure.1125 1834 . 54 . it can be observed that the (qo)max is 1378 bbl/d or 1385 stb/d and flow rate at bubble point pressure. (qo)b.458 267 .3417 267 .2 SUBMERSIBLE PUMP LIFTED WELLS OPERATED IN GK FIELD AND THEIR EFFICIENCY RANGES WELL W-07 W-08 W-15 W-16 W-17 W-22 W-24 W-25 W-27 W-28 PUMP USED DN440 DN675 GN2000 GN1600 GN1600 DN440 DN1100 GN3200 DN675 DN675 EFFICIENCY RANGE (bbl/d) 83 .1792 833 -1792 83 .692 267 .692 6.2650 833 .692 1300 .458 500 .1. is 1340 bbl/d or 1347 stb/d.4 Production History Production rates and bottomhole pressures recorded for the producer wells between the years 1961 and 1999 gives the generalized IPR curve showed in Figure 6.

55 .3000 2500 2000 Pwf (psi) 1500 BBL/D STB/D 1000 500 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 q (BBL/D or STB/D) Figure 6.3.1 Generalized IPR Curve The gross rate of each submersible pump lifted producer well during the production period and required pump stages used in the field are given in Table 6.

TABLE 6.3 GROSS PRODUCTION RATE OF THE WELLS IN GK FIELD AND REQUIRED PUMP STAGES Well W-07 W-08 W-15 W-16 W-17 W-22 W-24 W-25 W-27 W-28 Gross Rate (bbl/d) 180 740 1180 1350 1270 70 1000 1620 400 530 Pump Stages 356 238 216 180 181 320 332 239 338 338 56 .

2. Construction of possible production rate versus stage and horsepower chart for each well (GLR = 15 scf / STB) by using the pumping liquid and gas computer algorithm d. These calculations were done for the 10 submersible pump lifted wells indicated in Table 6. Results of the study can be categorized into five different parts: a.3. Performing Sensitivity Analysis based on effect of of oil density. Construction of vertical flowing pressure gradient (pressure traverse) curves according to computer program output and comparing the results with Beggs&Brill13 Correlation b.1. GLR and WOR on flowing bottomhole pressure by using the computer program output c. Detailed sample calculation for W-08 and the output of computer program can be observed in Appendix B. Comparison of theoretical and actual production parameters and suggestion for optimum pump operating conditions by inspecting possible production rate versus stage and horsepower chart 57 .4 for pumping liquid and gas.3.1 for pumping liquid and 2.CHAPTER VII RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 7.2 and by using the pumps that were actually operated in the GK field.1 INTRODUCTION Calculations are based on the steps that are summarized in Chapter 2 at sections 2.

0. Pressure traverse curves for a flow rate of 100 stb/d and with a water-cut of 0.2.0 were constructed respectively according to GK field data and by the help of computer program output. These curves can be observed at Figure 7.3.5 and 1.1.7. fluid and well conditions.1 Construction of Vertical Flowing Pressure Gradient Curves Using Computer Program Output Hagedorn and Brown3 subprogram supported with Griffith4 Correlation gives program user a chance to construct the vertical flowing pressure gradient curves at any flow rate and at the desired reservoir. 58 . 7.2 and 7.2 RESULTS and DISCUSSION 7.

TI 7000 8000 9000 10000 500 400 300 200 100 0 11000 Figure 7. F : 170 Correlation : Hagedorn&Brown Griffith Correlation (bubble flow) 4000 Depth (ft) 5000 ID QU LI SGA 6000 RA TB f/S sc O.70 Oil API Gravity : 38 Water Specific Gravity : 1.441 Liquid Rate..Pressure (psi) 0 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 1000 2000 3000 Tubing Size.02 Average Flowing Temp.1 Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 0) 59 . in : 2. STBL/D : 100 Water Fraction : 0 Gas Gravity : 0.

. in : 2. TI RA 7000 8000 9000 200 100 400300 0 500 10000 11000 Figure 7.441 Liquid Rate.Pressure (psi) 0 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 1000 2000 3000 Tubing Size.70 Oil API Gravity : 38 Water Specific Gravity : 1. STBL/D : 100 Water Fraction : 0.02 Average Flowing Temp. F : 170 Correlation : Hagedorn&Brown Griffith Correlation (bubble flow) 4000 Depth (ft) 5000 ID QU LI SGA 6000 TB f/S sc O.2 Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 0.5) 60 .5 Gas Gravity : 0.

STBL/D : 100 Water Fraction : 1..441 Liquid Rate.Pressure (psi) 0 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 1000 2000 3000 Tubing Size.0) 61 .70 Oil API Gravity : 38 Water Specific Gravity : 1.02 Average Flowing Temp. F : 170 Correlation : Hagedorn&Brown Griffith Correlation (bubble flow) 4000 Depth (ft) 5000 S GA 6000 U IQ -L ID RA O. in : 2.3 Pressure Traverse Curve (WC = 1. TI 7000 B ST F/ SC L 8000 500 9000 200 100 0 10000 400 300 11000 Figure 7.0 Gas Gravity : 0.

1 briefly indicates the pressures at selected depths with respect to two conditions. Another point that should be taken into account during the comparison is that when GLR increases. difference between pressure values of computer output and Beggs&Brill values are also increases. Table 7. It should be kept in mind that values determined from Beggs&Brill correlation are recorded at slightly different reservoir and fluid conditions than GK field parameters. 62 .65.A comparison was made between pressure traverse curves prepared by Beggs&Brill13 and curves constructed with computer output in order to test the accuracy of correlation used in the program algorithm. that is.1. oil API gravity is 35 and average flowing temperature is 150 °F. gas gravity is 0. This behaviour can be interpreted as reliability of Hagedorn and Brown flow correlation supported by Griffith Correlation should be re-tested at high GLR reservoirs. Inspecting Table 7. we can understand that computer-based pressures and the Beggs&Brill correlation values are very close to each other. This means that vertical multiphase flow correlation within the program is giving reliable output and encurages us about the accuracy of rest of the study.

0 GLR (scf/STB) 0 100 Pressure (psi) Beggs&Brill Output Beggs&Brill 1440 2160 2870 3580 1400 2090 2800 3500 1050 1770 2480 3190 1040 1750 2440 3130 1590 2380 3190 3985 1600 2400 3190 4000 1220 2040 2820 3610 1140 1960 2750 3560 1680 2560 3440 4320 1800 2720 3610 4540 1400 2280 3180 4080 1280 2180 3080 3090 63 .TABLE 7.1 COMPARISON of COMPUTER-BASED VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURES with BEGGS&BRILL CORRELATION AT SELECTED DEPTHS Water Fraction 0 GLR (scf/STB) 0 100 Pressure (psi) Depth (ft) 4000 6000 8000 10000 Output Beggs&Brill Output Beggs&Brill Output 0.5 GLR (scf/STB) 0 100 Pressure (psi) Beggs&Brill Output Beggs&Brill Output 1.

TABLE 7.3 and 7. sensitivity analysis was performed by observing the effect of oil density.2. Results were summarized in Table 7. and an increase in WOR causes an increase in flowing bottomhole pressure. 7.2 EFFECT of OIL DENSITY on FLOWING BOTTOMHOLE PRESSURES AT SELECTED DEPTHS Well Depth (ft) API 4000 10 2000 6000 2880 8000 3760 10000 4620 15 2000 2880 3760 4620 20 1990 2870 3760 4610 25 1990 2870 3750 4610 30 1990 2870 3750 4610 35 1990 2870 3750 4600 40 1990 2870 3740 4600 64 . GLR and WOR on flowing bottomhole pressure. it can be observed that the increase in oil density and GLR creates a slight decrease in bottomhole pressure.4.2 Sensitivity Analysis by Using the Computer Program Output Having a chance of changing all variables related to Hagedorn and Brown vertical multiphase flow correlation within the program. Reservoir and fluid data of W-08 was used during the study.7.2. After making necessary observations for the output.

3 EFFECT of GLR on FLOWING BOTTOMHOLE PRESSURES Q = 100 STB/D GLR 0 100 200 300 400 500 Wellhead Pressure (psi) 250 250 250 250 250 250 Flowing Bottomhole Pressure (psi) 2480 2190 1960 1860 1800 1720 TABLE 7. It can be observed that flow rates that were selected show no or negligible effect on flowing bottomhole pressures.4 and 7. 65 .4 EFFECT of WOR on FLOWING BOTTOMHOLE PRESSURES AT SELECTED DEPTHS Flowing Bottomhole Pressure (psi) Well Depth (ft) WOR 0% 4000 1640 WOR 50% 1820 WOR 100% 2000 6000 2350 2620 2880 8000 3070 3420 3770 Figure 7.TABLE 7.5 indicate a graphical analysis for the effect of GLR and WOR on flowing botomhole pressure respectively.

4 Graphical Analysis of Effect of GLR on Flowing Bottomhole Pressure for W-08 3000 2500 WOR=1.0 WOR=0.3000 2500 GLR=0 scf/stbl GLR=100 GLR=200 GLR=300 GLR=400 GLR=500 2000 Pwf (psi) BBL/D STB/D 1500 1000 IPR 500 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 q (BBL/D or STB/D) Figure 7.5 Pwf (psi) 2000 1500 WOR =0 BBL/D STB/D 1000 500 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 IPR q (BBL/D or STB/D) Figure 7.5 Graphical Analysis of Effect of WOR on Flowing Bottomhole Pressure for W-08 66 .

actual value point is the real production rate of the well in GK field and the number of pump stages used for that well. It should be noted that actual horsepower requirement data for these wells are not available.14.3 Construction of Possible Production Rate versus Stage and Horsepower Chart for GK Field Wells by Using the Pumping Liquid and Gas Computer Algorithm Possible production rate versus stage and horsepower chart was prepared for each electrical submersible pump lifted wells in GK field by considering the intake pressures obtained from computer program at selected flow rates.2.6 to 7. On Figures 7.7. These charts can said to be the final step of the study and helped us to make necessary suggestions for optimum pump operating conditions. the efficiency range of the pumps used and also suggested flow rate and corresponding horsepower requirement and number of pump stages can be observed. In below figures. 67 .

6 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-07 68 .600 550 500 Possible Rate (STB/D) 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Stages Suggested HP HP Suggested Stage Efficiency Range Actual Value (St) Stages or Horsepower FIGURE 7.

1400 1300 1200 1100 Possible Rate (STB/D) 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 Stages Suggested HP HP Actual Value (St) Suggested Stage Efficiency Range 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Stages or Horsepower FIGURE 7.7 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-08 69 .

2400 2200 2000 HP Stages Possible Rate (STB/D) 1800 1600 1400 Suggested HP 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Suggested Stage Actual Value(St) Efficiency Range Stages or Horsepower FIGURE 7.8 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-16 70 .

9 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-17 71 .2000 1800 1600 HP Stages Possible Rate (STB/D) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 Suggested HP Suggested Stage Actual Value (St) Efficiency Range 100 200 300 400 500 600 Stages or Horsepower FIGURE 7.

1800 1600 1400 Possible Rate (STB/D) 1200 1000 HP 800 600 400 Suggested HP 200 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Suggested Stage Actual Value (St) Efficiency Range Stages Stages or Horsepower FIGURE 7.10 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-22 72 .

11 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-24 73 .1800 1600 HP 1400 Possible Rate (STB/D) Stages 1200 1000 800 Efficiency Range 600 400 200 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Suggested HP Suggested Stage Actual Value (St) Stages or Horsepower FIGURE 7.

12 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-25 74 .3500 3000 Efficiency Range Possible Rate (STB/D) 2500 Suggested HP 2000 Actual Value(St) 1500 Suggested Stage HP 1000 Stages 500 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Stages or Horsepower FIGURE 7.

1400 1300 1200 1100 HP Possible Rate (STB/D) 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Suggested HP Suggested Stage Stages Efficiency Range Actual Value (St) Stages or Horsepower FIGURE 7.13 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-27 75 .

14 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-28 76 .1400 1300 1200 1100 HP Possible Rate (STB/D) 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Efficiency Range Suggested HP Stages Suggested Stage Actual Value (St) Stages or Horsepower FIGURE 7.

2. W-16 is operated with 1350 stb/d with a pump stage of 180.4 Comparison of Theoretical and Actual Production Parameters and Suggestion for Optimum Pump Operating Conditions by Inspecting Possible Production Rate versus Stage and Horsepower Chart Inspection of Possible Production Rate versus Stage and Horsepower charts for GK field wells let us to make following interpretations: Actual operating rate of W-07 is 180 stb/d with 356 stages.6 it can be observed that beyond 100 stb/d.7. A production rate of 1200 stb/d with a 70 HP and 160 pump stages can be a perfect design and it should be noted that the actual production rate and pump stage values are nearly equal to theoretical values. On the other hand.7. The rate is within the efficiency range of the pump (833-1792 bpd) and the corresponding pump stages and HP requirement can said to be economical by observing Figure 7. This operating rate is within the efficiency range (83-458 bpd) of the pump used (DN 440). since HP and pump stage curve slope increases significantly with an increase in production rate. 740 stb/d rate at 238 stages seem to be a good choice. A production rate of 90 stb/d with a horsepower requirement of 40 HP. W-15 cannot be interpreted due to lack of required data.8. by examining Figure 7. 680 stb/d production rate is useful since it is within the upper limit of efficiency range and providing maximum production rate from W-08. W-08 is operated with 740 stb/d with 238 stages. the horsepower requirement and the number of pump stages increase very fast without a significant gain in the production rate. 77 . however from the Figure 7. A production rate of 680 stb/d and a corresponding horsepower requirement of 35 HP and 230 pump stages can be suggested which are close to actual operating values. This production rate is higher than the upper limit of pump efficiency range (267-692 bpd). and a pump stages of 450 can said to be ideal considering the chart.

390 stb/d production rate can be selected with a 18 HP requirement and a pump stages of 212. operating production rate and pump stage values are said to be at optimum range. W-22 produces with a low rate.9. and entire actual operating data. Operating with 650 stb/d with a 25 HP and 170 pump stages can be economical. it can be concluded that the pump is operating at its optimum range (267-692 bpd).W-17 is operated with 1270 stb/d with 181 stages. Suggested values can be given as 1050 stb/d production rate with a 32 HP and 270 pump stages. W-24 produces 1000 stb/d within upper limit of pump efficiency range (500-1125 bpd). Figure 7. is acceptable. however production rate increases slightly. W-28 operates with 530 stb/d within its pump efficiency range (267692 bpd) with 338 stages 680 stb/d production rate with a 28 HP and 192 pump stages can be a good selection. Thus. 78 . observing Figure 7. W-25 is operated with 1620 stb/d with 239 stages. 70 stb/d. This well can said to be operated inefficiently. Besides. 1900 stb/d production rate with a 310 HP and a pump stage of 400 can be suggested for this well but it should be noted that horsepower requirement is too high to be operated in field conditions.12 shows that the actual operating production rate can be selected higher.10 shows that the rate is below pump efficiency range (83-458 bpd) and also 320 stages is useless since HP requirement increases significantly. with 320 stages. Figure 7. and the actual and theoretical values are close to each other. This rate indicates that the pump is used efficiently (833-1792 bpd).13. Pump stage value is 332. Examining Figure 7. W-27 has a production rate of 400 stb/d and a pump stage of 338. especially within efficiency range (1834-3417 bpd) of the pump. a production rate of 1400 stb/d and a corresponding HP requirement of 100 HP and 220 pump stages can be offered in theorotical circumstances.

5.TABLE 7. RESULTS OBTAINED AFTER the COMPARISON of ACTUAL and COMPUTER-BASED DATA for GK FIELD WELL Actual Flow Rate (stb/d) Actual Pump Stages Actual HP Suggested Flow Rate (stb/d) Suggested Pump Stages Suggested HP RESULT W-07 W-08 W-15 W-16 W-17 W-22 W-24 W-25 W-27 W-28 180 740 1180 1350 1270 70 1000 1620 400 530 356 238 216 180 181 320 332 239 338 338 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 90 680 N/A 1200 1400 390 1050 1900 650 680 450 230 N/A 160 220 212 270 400 170 192 79 40 35 N/A 70 100 18 32 310 25 28 not completely optimum but can be acceptable not completely optimum but can be acceptable N/A completely optimum completely optimum inefficient production completely optimum not completely optimum but can be acceptable not completely optimum but can be acceptable not completely optimum but can be acceptable .

where: NA = not applicable due to lack of required data 80 .

During the study. It can be observed from the results that Hagedorn and Brown correlation generally gave acceptable program output when compared with Beggs&Brill Correlation. however failed to give accurate values at bubble flow. 81 . In this study. It should be noted that GK field has a low GOR (15 scf/STB) which allows straight-forward pump designs without a need of detailed optimization procedures. Griffith Correlation was used when bubble flow conditions were met. 3 wells. system analysis should be supported by a computer program to overcome large iterations due to production volume change between pump discharge and intake pressures. sensitivity analysis was also performed based on the effect of oil gravity. Evaluation of possible production rate versus stage and horsepower chart showed that within 10 submersible pump lifted wells. System optimization is especially important when dealing with gas with liquid rather than producing and pumping only liquid. WOR and GLR on flowing bottomhole pressure which was evaluated with graphical analysis. Results indicated that when dealing with high GLR wells by the help of the computer program. Application of Nodal Analysis technique to electrical submersible pumps lets production engineers to run the pump more efficiently by selecting optimum flow rate and corresponding number of pump stages and horsepower requirement.CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS System Nodal Analysis is an useful method in designing and optimizing a production system having interacting components. A computer program is also necessary to predict pressure at required depth simultaneously by using vertical multiphase flow correlation. W-16. This study is useful especially for high GOR submersible pump lifted wells. Hagedorn and Brown Correlation showed tendency to give less accurate output. In these cases.

W-07. W-22. W08. W–15 could not be interpreted due to lack of required production data. The study gave the writer a chance to suggest optimum operating parameters for each well. 5 wells. W-25. were not operated completely at optimum operating conditions but can said to be acceptable. 82 . was operated inefficiently which should be re-designed to reach optimum parameters.W-17. Finally. 1 well. W-27. it should be kept in mind that actual production rates for the wells in GK field can be different from the optimized values because of the commercial production needs of the oil companies. and W-28. and W-24 were operated at their optimum range.

. Journal of Petroleum Technology. ‘’Principles of Oil Well Production’’.T. 1964.475 4. Griffith. W. K. ‘’ The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods”.E.. Vol.. API Drill. 2b.E.W. Oklahoma. “Production Optmization Using Nodal Analysis”. 1978 83 .E. Tulsa. Oklahoma. Beggs. 2.. Ltd.E. Tulsa. 1. Brown. Vol. Tulsa. 9.E. OGCI Publications.. p.E.. Summer Program. Tulsa. 5. Nind. “Experimental Study of Pressure Gradients Occuring During Continuous Two-phase Flow in Small Diameter Vertical Conduits”.D..REFERENCES 1. “The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods”.. PennWell Publishing Company.. Brown. K. Alton R. McGraw-Hill. H.Practice. Petroleum Publishing Company. Beggs. “The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods”.. Hagedorn.D. Reda Pump Company Pte. Oklahoma. 8. K. 7. 4. April 1965. K. ‘’Two-Phase Flow In Pipes’’. Vol. Oklahoma. Brown. M. 1992 6. Brown. PennWell Publishing Company. 1991. 1962. 1980. Gilbert. H.. P.I.Prod.1954.. T. 1984. ‘’Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Performance’’. 3.

1952 17.W.E. M. “Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops in Vertical Pipe”. Lasater.V. K.10. J. Turkse Perenco. and Fogarasi. Frankfurt. H.. Ros.P. “Pressure Drop in Wells Producing Oil and Gas”. Germany.. NewYork.C. May. Tulsa. “A Study of Two Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes”. 1977 16. A. User Manual for API 14B Subsurface Control Safety Valve Sizing Computer Program App. ‘’Vertical Flow Correlations in Gas Wells’’.Jr. May 1973 14. Standing. Petroleum Publishing Company. Beggs. ‘’Vertical Flow of Gas and Liquid Mixtures in Wells’’. H. G. J...D... Aziz. Reinhold Publishing Corp.Hydl. N. Transactions of the AIME. M. Private Communication with N.E. “The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods”.. Brown. 1958. June 1967 13..ASCE. ‘’Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oilfield Hydrocarbon Systems’’. NoHY5. pg379 18.J. Duns. H. July-September 1972 15. Orkizewski. J. 1976 19. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology.K.. Journal of Petroleum Technology. J.Div. ‘’Bubble Point Pressure Correlation’’.. 11. 6th World Petroleum Congress.B..A.B. Jain. Journal of Petroleum Technology. K. Gray. “Accurate Explicit Equation for Friction Factor”. June 1974 12. Vol... Brill. Govier. 2003 84 . 1.

APPENDIX A PUMPING LIQUID AND GAS COMPUTER PROGRAM 1. Nomenclature 2. Flow Chart 3. Main Program 85 .

lb/ft3 inner diameter of tubing. rbbl/STB formation volume factor of oil at bubble point pressure.D API AREA AVALUE BHT BO BOB CNL CO DELP DENAV DENF DENGAS DENLIQ DENMIX DIA DIANUM DIST DOV ED terms used in z factor calculation API value of the oil area of the tubing. °F formation volume factor of oil. cp pipe roughness 86 .PUMPING LIQUID AND GAS A1 Nomenclature: A1.C.1 Simple Variables Used In The Program A. rbbl/STB viscosity number coefficient coefficient of isothermal compressibility pressure increment. lb/scf density of the liquid phase. ft2 constant used in determination of the number of pump stages bottomhole temperature. pipe diameter number distance used in Hagedorn and Brown correlation. psi average density of the gas phase. lb/ft3 weight of 1 bbl liquid plus pumped gas at standard conditions.B. lb/ft3 average two phase density of the mixture. in. ft dead oil viscosity. lb/stbl gas density at standard conditions.

scf/STB solution gas oil ratio at initial condition. STB/D oil flow rate. dynes/cm SGWATER specific gravity of water 87 . scf/STB secondary correction factor secondary correction factor correlating parameter specific gravity of gas specific gravity of oil average flowing temperature. STB/D flow rate term used in pump horsepower subprogram. STB/D water flow rate. psi flow rate term used in pump head capacity subprogram. HP/stage average pressure between P1 and P2 bubble point pressure. ft liquid mixture surface tension.F FF GLR GOR HEADCAP HOLDCOF HOLDUP HOLOSEC HPLOAD PAV PBUB PPC PPR P1 P2 Q QOIL QOPTM QWATER RS RS1 RS2 SCF SECORF SGGAS SGOIL T TD TENLIQ term used in calculating formation volume factor of oil friction factor gas liquid ratio. °F total depth of the well. psi final pressure. ft/stage holdup correlating function liquid holdup liquid holdup over secondary correction factor horsepower per stage. scf/STB solution gas oil ratio at final condition. psi pseudo critical pressure pseudo reduced pressure initial pressure (wellhead pressure in this case). scf/STB head per stage. scf/STB gas oil ratio. STB/D solution gas oil ratio.

cp liquid viscosity number oil viscosity at initial condition. ft/sec mass flow rate.TPC TPR VELNGAS VELNLIQ VISAV VISGAS VISNLIQ VISO1 VISO2 VISWAT VSG VSL W WM WC WOR pseudo critical temperature pseudo reduced temperature gas velocity number liquid velocity number average viscosity between initial and final condition. cp oil viscosity at final condition.2. cp gas viscosity (assumed constant). lb/STBL water cut water oil ratio A1. lb/day mass associated with one barrel of stock tank liquid. cp average water viscosity. cp superficial gas velocity. ft/sec superficial liquid velocity. Arrays Used In The Program BE HP P PR ST ZE array showing factor ‘B’ used in z factor calculation array showing the calculation of required pump horsepower array showing VF data at various pressures array showing the calculation of number of pump stages array showing the intake pressures at various pump stages array showing z factor 88 .

A2 Flow Chart MAIN PROGRAM START Input: Well. Apply Griffith Correlation if bubble flow exists A Begin with first iteration. fluid. At every iteration decrease the pressure 50 psi (∆P) starting from the discharge pressure Calculate: Average pressure Pinitial + Pfinal Pav = 2 89 . reservoir. Bo. Bg and VF at various pressures (200 – 5000 psi) Output: file name is Table1 volume factor data at various pressures CALL HAGBROWN (pressure gradient correlation) Store discharge pressure at pump depth. and liftsystem data Calculate: Rs.

Calculate: volume factor at the average pressure by making interpolation and volume of fluid according to volume factor value According to input lift data: CALL DN440H for pump DN440 CALL DN675H for pump DN675 CALL DN1100H for pump DN1100 CALL GN1600H for pump GN1600 CALL GN2000H for pump GN2000 CALL GN3200H for pump GN3200 Store head per stage at volume of fluid Output: file name is Table2 iterations to calculate total number of pump stages at various pressures Calculate: stage increment and total number of stages If average pressure is less than 200 psi F A T 90 .

Apply Griffith Correlation if bubble flow exists B Begin with first iteration.Input: number of pump stages (7 values) at which intake pressure will be calculated Calculate: intake pressures at selected pump stages by interpolation Output: file name is Table3 intake pressure values at selected pump stages Input: possible (optimized) production rate and corresponding intake pressure determined from EXCEL Worksheet CALL HAGBROWN Store discharge pressure at possible (optimum) flow rate. At every iteration decrease the pressure 50 psi (∆P) starting from the discharge pressure 91 .

Calculate: Average pressure Pinitial + Pfinal Pav = 2 Calculate: volume factor at the average pressure by making interpolation and volume of fluid according to volume factor value According to input lift data: CALL DN440HP for pump DN440 CALL DN675HP for pump DN675 CALL DN1100HP for pump DN1100 CALL GN1600HP for pump GN1600 CALL GN2000HP for pump GN2000 CALL GN3200HP for pump GN3200 Store horsepower per stage at volume of fluid According to input lift data: CALL DN440H for pump DN440 CALL DN675H for pump DN675 CALL DN1100H for pump DN1100 CALL GN1600H for pump GN1600 CALL GN2000H for pump GN2000 CALL GN3200H for pump GN3200 Store head per stage at volume of fluid Calculate: horsepower increment and total required horsepower 92 .

If average pressure is less than intake pressure F B T Output: file name is Table4 iterations to calculate total horsepower requirement between intake and discharge pressures STOP 93 .

ST(10.WC PRINT *.SELECT IF (SELECT.FOR') C **********INPUT DATA********** PRINT *.'YOU CHOOSE GN2000' IF (SELECT.8).'TYPE 2 FOR DN675' PRINT *.FOR') OPEN (41.'TYPE 1 FOR DN440' PRINT *.6) PRINT *.A3 Main Program C **********LIQUID AND GAS CASE MAIN PROGRAM********** DIMENSION P(25.FILE='TABLE3.'YOU CHOOSE DN1100' IF (SELECT.1) PRINT *.4) PRINT *.FILE='TABLE1.XY.FILE='TABLE2.2) PRINT *.'TYPE 4 FOR GN1600' PRINT *.9) REAL HEAD.'YOU CHOOSE DN440' IF (SELECT.'ENTER SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATER' READ *.EQ.'SELECT YOUR PUMP' PRINT *.HP(100.'ENTER WATERCUT' READ *.EQ.'TYPE 6 FOR GN3200' READ *.3) PRINT *.EQ.'YOU CHOOSE DN675' IF (SELECT.ZE(25).FOR') OPEN (35.'TYPE 5 FOR GN2000' PRINT *.SGOIL 94 .5) PRINT *.FILE='TABLE4.SGWAT PRINT *.EQ.EQ.YX.PR(100.'YOU CHOOSE GN3200' PRINT *.'ENTER SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF OIL' READ *.'TYPE 3 FOR DN1100' PRINT *.5).EQ.BE(25).FOR') OPEN (31.'YOU CHOOSE GN1600' IF (SELECT.HPPERST C **********OPEN FILE********** OPEN (15.10).

'FLUID DENSITY IS'.'ENTER WELLHEAD PRESSURE' READ *.'ENTER VISCOSITY OF GAS' READ *.'ENTER BOTTOMHOLE TEMPERATURE' READ *.'ENTER INNER DIAMETER OF TUBING' READ *.0763 DENF=350*WC*SGWAT+350*(1-WC)*SGOIL+GLR*DENGAS PRINT *.P1 PRINT *.'ENTER TOTAL DEPTH' READ *.SGGAS PRINT *.'ENTER BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE' READ *.'ASSUME A LIQUID FLOW RATE' READ *.DIA PRINT *.GOR PRINT *.BHT PRINT *.PRINT *.VISGAS PRINT *.PBUB PRINT *.'ENTER PRESSURE INTERVAL' READ *.QLIQ PRINT *.5/SGOIL-131.DELP PRINT *.TD **********CALCULATION OF VF DATA ATVARIOUS PRESSURES***** T=BHT QWATER=QLIQ*WC QOIL=QLIQ-QWATER GLR=GOR/(1/(1-WC)) DENGAS=SGGAS*0.'ENTER GOR' READ *.DENF AVALUE=808.'ENTER SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF GAS' READ *.5) P2=P1+DELP 95 .3141/DENF API=(141.

852*SGGAS+688.92)**0.2)=GOR IF (P(I-1.2)*(SGGAS/SGOIL)**0.1)/(-17.852*SGGAS + +688.292*SGGAS**2-17.3)=(0.2)=SGGAS*((P(I-1.3106-0.4))**D IF (BE(I-1).175 ELSE P(I-1.292*SGGAS + **2-17.1)/18)*(10**(0.5-0.5+1.1)=200+200*(I-2) P(I-1.86)-0.292*SGGAS**2-17.32/10**(9*(TPR-1)))*(P(I-1.292*SGGAS**2-17.101 B=(0.25*T)**1.037)*PPR**2 + +(0.GT.100) ZE(I-1)=A+(1-A)/EXP(BE(I-1))+C + *(P(I-1.0125*API)/10**(0.1).066/(TPR-0.00091*T))) + **(1/0.066/(TPR-0.1) + /(-17.PAV=(P1+P2)/2+14.32/10**(9*(TPR-1)))*PPR**6 C=(0.972+0.LT.2*T-1180*SGGAS+12.61*API) + /(10**5*P(I-1.4 TPC=1.23*TPR)*PPR+(0.1)/(-17.132-0.4))**D 96 .1).49*TPR+0.PBUB) P(I-1.100) ZE(I-1)=A+C*(P(I-1.26 P(I-1.1))*(PBUB-P(I-1.852*SGGAS+688.1824*TPR**2) DO 10 I=2.175)*EXP(((-1433+5*P(I-1.GE.LT.000147*(P(I-1.39*(TPR-0.32*ALOG10(TPR)) D=10**(0.7 PPC=-17.25*T) + **1.1)/(-17.8324*SGGAS**2+308.2)+17.83) IF (P(I-1.23*TPR)*(P(I-1.852*SGGAS+688.4))+(0.037)*(P(I-1.94 TPR=(T+460)/TPC PPR=PAV/PPC A=1.PBUB) THEN P(I-1.1)))) END IF BE(I-1)=(0.62-0.93*SGGAS+172.36*TPR-0.86)-0.1)/(-17.292*SGGAS + **2-17.4))**6 IF (BE(I-1).000147*(P(I-1.4))**2+(0.5+1.852*SGGAS+688.3)=0.972+0.2) + *(SGGAS/SGOIL)**0.852*SGGAS+688.62-0.292*SGGAS**2-17.

PBUB.2)-200)/50)+1 NL=AINT(SS) DO 21 I=2.HEAD) IF (SELECT.J).4)*(QWATER+QOIL) XY=PR(I.VISO1.NL PR(I.00504*(T+460)*ZE(I-1)/P(I-1.WOR.2)+PR(I-1.200) GO TO 70 PR(I.1) CALL DN440H(XY.J=1.4)=P(J.2).2) CALL DN675H(XY.SGWAT.WC.1) IF (P(I-1.4)=0 P(I-1.LT.SGOIL.F9.3)-P(J.0) PR(I.1))/(P(J+1.EQ.DIA.5) IF (SELECT.0 PR(I.HEAD) 97 .DENLIQ.3)-P(J.GLR.P(I-1.25 IF (PR(I.TD) PR(1.WM.200. +VISO2.4)) WRITE (15.API.P1.2)=P2 SS=((PR(1.EQ.5)) + *((PR(I.GOR) P(I-1.W.5)=PR(I.1) IF (X.EQ.3).EQ.LT.SGGAS.HEAD) IF (SELECT.GT.EQ.1)) PR(I.3)+(GLR-(1-WC)*P(I-1.2))/2 DO 25 J=1.3) CALL DN1100H(XY.20) (P(I-1.4)=0.GOR.2)=PR(I-1.4) 20 FORMAT (25(2X.VISGAS.5) X=PR(I.2)-50 IF (PR(I.4)=P(J.1)-P(J.DELP.3)=(PR(I.2))*P(I-1.5) 10 CONTINUE C ******************CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES******** SUMST=0 PR(1.AND.5)+(P(J+1.1)=0 CALL HAGBROWN (QOIL.P(J.5)-P(J.5)=WC+(1-WC)*P(I-1. + RS.1))) 25 CONTINUE PR(I.X.BO.QWATER.2).P2.1)=I-1.

IF (SELECT.1).8))/(PR(N.HEAD) PR(I.HEAD) IF (SELECT.6)=HEAD PR(I.1)) GO TO 52 N=N+1 IF (N.F7.37) (ST(NS.6)) SUMST=SUMST+PR(I.'ENTER THE INTAKE PRESSURE AT OPTIMUM FLOW RATE' READ *.J).EQ.NL) GO TO 53 GO TO 49 52 ST(M.7) PR(I.2)) 53 M=M+1 IF (M.LN).EQ.1)-PR(N-1.4)/PR(I.8)) + *(PR(N.HEAD) IF (SELECT.8).4) CALL GN1600H(XY.(ST(K.8) 21 CONTINUE C ******************INTAKE PRESSURE DATA******************* 70 PRINT *.K=1.PINT 98 .F7.GT.GT.7) M=1 48 N=2 49 IF (PR(N.2)+(ST(M.EQ.2) 100 CONTINUE C **********CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER REQUIREMENT******* PRINT *.EQ.2)) WRITE (41.7)=50*AVALUE*(PR(I.2)) WRITE (35.ST(M.2)-PR(N-1.6) CALL GN3200H(XY.8)-PR(N-1.'ENTER THE NUMBER OF STAGE VALUES' READ *.5) CALL GN2000H(XY.J=1.8) GO TO 51 GO TO 48 51 DO 100 NS=1.LN=1.2)=PR(N-1.7 37 FORMAT (7(1X.36) (PR(I.8)=SUMST 36 FORMAT (25(1X.

LE.EQ. P2.HPPERST) IF (SELECT.5)-P(J.HPPERST) IF (SELECT.200. PBUB.SGOIL.2) CALL DN675HP(YX.EQ.'ENTER THE OPTIMUM FLOW RATE AT ASSUMED STAGE' READ *.QWATER.1) CALL DN440HP(YX.2)=P2 PRINT *.EQ.VISGAS.2)+HP(I-1.2))/2 DO 39 J=1.HPPERST) IF (SELECT.5)+(P(J+1.4) CALL GN1600HP(YX.4)*QOPT YX=HP(I.WM.3) CALL DN1100HP(YX.GT.PINT) HP(I.HPPERST) 99 .P1.DIA.3)-P(J.1)=0 CALL HAGBROWN (QOIL.1))) 39 CONTINUE HP(I.LT.5)=HP(I. VISO2.WC.BO.2)=HP(I-1.TD) HP(1.GOR. +VISO1.0) HP(I.EQ.1))/(P(J+1.P2 TT=((P2-PINT)/50)+2 NT=AINT(TT) DO 38 I=2.HPPERST) IF (SELECT.1) IF (XX.2).4)=P(J. T.25 IF (HP(I.PRINT *.3)-P(J.5) IF (SELECT.WOR.SGGAS.GLR.AND.5) XX=HP(I.2)=PINT HP(I.P(J.EQ.3)=(HP(I.3).EQ.DENLIQ.4)=P(J.DELP.1)-P(J.2)-50 IF (HP(I.XX.QOPT QWATER=QOPT*WC QOIL=QOPT-QWATER SUMHP=0 HP(1.W.1)=I-1 HP(I.5)) + *((HP(I.NT HP(I.SGWAT.5) CALL GN2000HP(YX.API.1)) HP(I. + RS.

8)=115.7) SUMHP=SUMHP+HP(I.HEAD) IF (SELECT.6)/HP(I.3) CALL DN1100H(YX.HEAD) IF (SELECT.HEAD) HP(I.5) CALL GN2000H(YX.F7.8) HP(I.1) CALL DN440H(YX.EQ.J=1.EQ.47*HP(I.9) 38 CONTINUE STOP END 100 .6)=HPPERST IF (SELECT.HEAD) IF (SELECT.32) (HP(I.7)=HEAD HP(I.EQ.HEAD) IF (SELECT.6) CALL GN3200H(YX.IF (SELECT.2)) WRITE (31.9)=SUMHP 32 FORMAT (25(1X.6) CALL GN3200HP(YX.4) CALL GN1600H(YX.EQ.2) CALL DN675H(YX.HPPERST) HP(I.J).EQ.EQ.EQ.HEAD) IF (SELECT.

Nomenclature 2. Main Program 101 .APPENDIX B PUMPING ONLY LIQUID COMPUTER PROGRAM 1. Flow Chart 3.

2 Arrays Used In The Program HP array showing the calculation of required pump horsepower LIQT array showing the intake pressures at various pump stages QOPT array showing the optimum (possible) production rates STL array showing the selected pump stages 102 . B1.PUMPING ONLY LIQUID B1 Nomenclature: B1.1 Simple Variables Used In The program Simple variables used in this program are included in the nomenclature of pumping liquid and gas case.

reservoir. and liftsystem data Calculate: gas density at standard conditions.B2 Flow Chart MAIN PROGRAM START Input: Well. Apply Griffith Correlation if bubble flow exist Output: file name is Table5 intake pressures at selected pump stages 103 . weight of 1 bbl liquid plus pumped gas at standard conditions and specific gravity of fluid According to input lift data: CALL DN440H for pump DN440 CALL DN675H for pump DN675 CALL DN1100H for pump DN1100 CALL GN1600H for pump GN1600 CALL GN2000H for pump GN2000 CALL GN3200H for pump GN3200 Store head per stage at assumed production rate CALL HAGBROWN (pressure gradient correlation) Store discharge pressure at pump depth. fluid.

According to input lift data: CALL DN440HP for pump DN440 CALL DN675HP for pump DN675 CALL DN1100HP for pump DN1100 CALL GN1600HP for pump GN1600 CALL GN2000HP for pump GN2000 CALL GN3200HP for pump GN3200 Store horsepower per stage at possible (optimized) production rate that is calculated from EXCEL Worksheet Calculate: HP and ∆qp/∆St values Output: file name is Table6 Horsepower requirement for possible (optimized) rates STOP 104 .

FILE='TABLE5.'ENTER SGOIL' READ *.EQ.EQ.EQ.'ENTER GOR' READ *.'YOU CHOOSE GN2000' IF (SELECT.3) PRINT *.SELECT IF (SELECT.FOR') C **********INPUT DATA********** PRINT *.'TYPE 1 FOR DN440' PRINT *.6) PRINT *.'YOU CHOOSE DN675' IF (SELECT.FOR') OPEN (15.GLR PRINT *.'YOU CHOOSE DN1100' IF (SELECT.10).SGWAT PRINT *.'TYPE 3 FOR DN1100' PRINT *.'TYPE 4 FOR GN1600' PRINT *.EQ.'YOU CHOOSE DN440' IF (SELECT.10).'ENTER WATERCUT' READ *.EQ.5) PRINT *.1) PRINT *.FILE='TABLE6.'TYPE 5 FOR GN2000' PRINT *.'YOU CHOOSE GN3200' PRINT *.HP(10.WC PRINT *.QOPT(10) **********OPEN FILE********** OPEN (11.STL(10).2) PRINT *.'SELECT YOUR PUMP' PRINT *.SGOIL PRINT *.4) PRINT *.EQ.'TYPE 2 FOR DN675' PRINT *.'YOU CHOOSE GN1600' IF (SELECT.'ENTER SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATER' READ *.'TYPE 6 FOR GN3200' READ *.'ENTER SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF GAS' 105 .B3 Main Program C C **********ONLY LIQUID CASE MAIN PROGRAM********** REAL LIQT(10.

TD PRINT *.'ENTER PRESSURE INTERVAL' READ *.DIA PRINT *.SGGAS/0.PBUB/160/ .02/ .I=1.'ENTER BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE' READ *.SGGAS PRINT *.0763 DENF=350*WC*SGWAT+350*(1-WC)*SGOIL+GLR*DENGAS SGFLUID=DENF/350 DO 13 I=1.018/ .DIA/2.SGWAT/1.441/ C **********CALCULATION OF INTAKE PRESSURE********** T=BHT QWATER=QLIQ*WC QOIL=QLIQ-QWATER DENGAS=SGGAS*0.VISGAS/0.DELP PRINT *.'ENTER INNER DIAMETER OF TUBING' READ *.READ *.P1 PRINT *.TD/1000/ .83/ .PBUB PRINT *.(STL(I).BHT/170/ .7) DATA WC/0/ .QLIQ PRINT *.'ASSUME NUMBER OF STAGES (7 VALUES)' READ *.QLIQ/100/ DATA GLR/100/ .VISGAS PRINT *.'ENTER A LIQUID FLOW RATE' READ *.SGOIL/0.'ENTER BOTTOMHOLE TEMPERATURE' READ *.'ENTER WELLHEAD PRESSURE' READ *.'ENTER VISCOSITY OF GAS' READ *.7 QASS=QWATER+QOIL 106 .T PRINT *.7/ DATA P1/1/ .DELP/10/ .'ENTER TOTAL DEPTH' READ *.

DENLIQ.WM.HPMOTOR) IF (SELECT.HEAD) IF (SELECT.J=1.HEAD) LIQT(I.EQ.HPMOTOR) IF (SELECT.'ENTER OPTIMUM FLOW RATES AT EACH + ASSUMED STAGES RESPECTIVELY' DO 16 I=1.EQ.2))/808.SGOIL.5) CALL GN2000HP(ZX.API.HPMOTOR) IF (SELECT.EQ.6) CALL GN3200H(QASS.GLR.3) CALL DN1100HP(ZX.HPMOTOR) IF (SELECT.4)=STL(I) LIQT(I.2)=HEAD IF (I.4) CALL GN1600H(QASS.P2.P1.W.LIQT(I.F9.HEAD) IF (SELECT.SGGAS.5) CONTINUE **********HORSEPOWER REQUIREMENT********** PRINT *.HEAD) IF (SELECT.EQ.GT.EQ.HEAD) IF (SELECT.12) (LIQT(I.DIA.J).4) 12 13 C FORMAT (7(1X.5)=LIQT(I.DELP.BO.2) CALL DN675HP(ZX.1) CALL DN440HP(ZX.1)=QASS IF (SELECT.3)=P2 LIQT(I.EQ.GOR.WOR.7 READ *.2)=QOPT(I) ZX=QOPT(I) IF (SELECT.EQ.1) CALL DN440H(QASS.EQ.3) CALL DN1100H(QASS.T.3)) WRITE (11.VISGAS.VISO2.3141)*LIQT(I.5) CALL GN2000H(QASS.4) CALL GN1600HP(ZX.TD) 14 LIQT(I.EQ.QOPT(I) HP(I.1) GO TO 14 CALL HAGBROWN(QOIL.QWATER.SGWAT.EQ.1)=STL(I) HP(I. + RS.WC.HEAD) IF (SELECT.3)-((DENF*LIQT(I.PBUB.2) CALL DN675H(QASS.HPMOTOR) 107 . + VISO1.EQ.

17) (HP(I.3)) WRITE (15.4)=SGFLUID*HP(I.J).1) HP(I.3)=HPMOTOR HP(I.3)*HP(I.HPMOTOR) HP(I.1)) 17 FORMAT (7(1X.2))/(HP(I.5)=(HP(I.2)-HP(I-1.6) CALL GN3200HP(ZX.1)-HP(I-1.IF (SELECT.F9.EQ.J=1.5) 16 CONTINUE STOP END 108 .

Program Listing 109 .APPENDIX C SUBPROGRAMS 1. Flow Chart 3. Nomenclature 2.

SUBPROGRAMS
C1 Nomenclature: C1.1 Simple Variables Used In The program
Simple variables used in subprograms are included in the nomenclature of pumping liquid and gas case.

C1.2 Arrays Used In The Program
Arrays used in subprograms are included in the nomenclature of pumping liquid and gas case. Subprograms written for entire program are: 1. HAGBROWN SUBPROGRAM 2. DN440HP, DN675HP, DN1100HP, GN1600HP, GN2000HP, GN3200HP SUBPROGRAMS 3. RSOL, FVF, ZF, VISCOS, WATVIS, VSOL, VSOG, FFACTOR SUBPROGRAMS where: RSOL FVF ZF VISCOS WATVIS = solution-gas oil ratio (Standings correlation) = formation volume factor of oil (Standings correlation) = compressibility of gas (Standings Modification to the Beggs & Brill correlation) = viscosity of oil (Beggs & Robinson correlation) = water viscosity (Brill & Beggs correlation)

110

VSOL VSOG FF

= superficial liquid velocity (Hagedorn & Brown correlation) = superficial gas velocity (Hagedorn & Brown correlation) = friction factor (Jain Equation)

111

C2 Flow Chart HAGBROWN SUBPROGRAM

START

Calculate: Mass associated with one bbl of stock tank liquid,mass flow rate, density of the liquid phase, water-oil ratio, gas oil ratio

Total Depth = 0

C Beginning with wellhead pressure (correlation from top of the well to bottom), incrementation of pressure 10 psi in every iteration

Calculate: Average pressure Pinitial + Pfinal Pav = 2

112

D 113 . solution gas-oil ratio. liquid viscosity number. superficial gas velocity. HL/ψ. gas velocity number. friction gradient. pipe roughness. average density of the gas phase. superficial liquid velocity. viscosity number coefficient Calculate: area of tubing. liquid mixture surface tension.Calculate: z factor. average flowing density. holdup correlating function. liquid mixture viscosity. average mixture velocity. liquid velocity number. Reynolds Number F Calculate depth increment (∆h) by Griffith Approach Calculate: average mixture density. two-phase Reynolds number. friction factor If Bubble flow exists T Calculate: void fraction of gas. pipe diameter number. average water viscosity. average viscosity of oil.

Calculate depth increment (∆h) and Total Depth Total Depth = Depth increment (∆h) + Total Depth D If F Well Depth = Total Depth (or ± 50 ft) C T Output: pressure at required depth (discharge pressure) RETURN 114 .

SGWAT. +T.Z DENAV=SGGAS*0.0764*(PAV/14.DENLIQ CALL ZF(SGGAS.'THE DENSITY OF THE LIQUID PHASE (lb/cuft) = '.PBUB.P2.5) CALL RSOL(SGGAS.PBUB) RS=GOR CALL FVF(PAV.'P2 (psi) ='.614)/(BO))*(1/ (1+WOR))+ (SGWAT*62. DENLIQ.T.RS.T. QWATER. +WM.4+(RS*SGGAS*0.VISO2. WOR.C3 Program Listing HAGBROWN SUBPROGRAM C **********HAGBROWN SUBPROGRAM********** SUBROUTINE HAGBROWN (QOIL.RS1) 115 .5/SGOIL-131.0764*GLR*SGGAS W=WM*(QWATER+QOIL) BHT=T SUM=0 3 P2=P1+DELP PRINT*.API.GT.WC.API. PBUB.Z) PRINT *.SGGAS.4*(WOR/(1+WOR))) PRINT *.TD) GOR=GLR*1/(1-WC) QLIQ=QOIL+QWATER WOR=QWATER/QOIL WM=SGOIL*350*(1/(1+WOR))+SGWAT*350*(WOR/(1+WOR))+ +0.VISGAS.P1.RS) IF (PAV. DELP.P1. GLR. VISO1.SGOIL. W.SGOIL.PAV.SGGAS.0764)/5.API.BO) DENLIQ=((SGOIL*62. DIA.7 API=(141.T. RS.GOR.PAV.DENAV CALL RSOL(SGGAS. BO.T.API.7)*(520/(T+460))*(1/Z) PRINT*.P2 PAV=(P1+P2)/2+14.

VISO1) CALL VISCOS(P2.15726*VISLIQ*(1/(DENLIQ*TENLIQ**3))**(0.0) RS2=0 IF (PAV.T.SGGAS.'AVERAGE VISCOSITY (cp) = '.PBUB.02*VISNLIQ+0.T.25) PRINT *.069 +*VISNLIQ**3+0.BO2.SGOIL.VISNLIQ CNL=87.002 PRINT*.SGGAS.RS2.T CALL VISCOS(P1.RS2.VISWAT) VISLIQ=VISAV*(1/(1+WOR))+VISWAT*(WOR/(1+WOR)) PRINT *.EQ.'LIQUID MIXTURE SURFACE TENSION (dynes/cm) = ' TENLIQ VISNLIQ=0.API.'AREA OF TUBING (sq ft) = '.PBUB.P2.API.CNL AREA=((3.CALL RSOL(SGGAS.AREA 116 .8612*VISNLIQ**2+0.0) RS1=0 IF (RS.VISAV C ONE VALUE (NO AVERAGE) FOR VISCOSITY OF WATER-NO SALINITY CALL WATVIS(T.14159*DIA**2)/4)/144 PRINT *.'CNL = '.GT.RS1.API.T.BO1.SGOIL.RS1.API.VISO2) VISAV=(VISO1+VISO2)/2 PRINT *.RS2.PBUB) RS1=GOR IF (PAV.API.04*VISNLIQ**5+48.'LIQUID VISCOSITY NUMBER = '.'LIQUID MIXTURE VISCOSITY (cp) = '.BO2) PRINT*.T.PBUB.EQ.GT.VISLIQ C ASSUME CONSTANT SURFACE TENSION OF OIL AND WATER(30&70 DYNES/CM) TENLIQ=30*(1/(1+WOR))+70*(WOR/(1+WOR)) PRINT *.PBUB.T.PBUB) RS2=GOR CALL FVF(P1.RS2) IF (RS.BO1) CALL FVF(P2.222*VISNLIQ**6-106.RS1.22*VISNLIQ**4+10.

WOR.VSG) CALL VSOG(QLIQ.'CONTINUE WITH GRIFFITH CORRELATION' C *********GRIFFITH CORRELATION FOR BUBBLE FLOW************ VS=0.0) PRINT *.'LIQUID VELOCITY NUMBER = '.VSL2) PRINT *.GLR.0.'SUPERFICIAL LIQUID VELOCITY (ft/sec) = '.GLR.WOR.LT.GE.Z.RS.DIA.VELNGAS AZ=1.938*VSL*(DENLIQ/TENLIQ)**(1/4) PRINT *.Z.P2.VSG VELNGAS=1.VSL) CALL VSOL(QLIQ.13) AZ=AZ IF (AZ.8 HOLDUP=1-0.WOR.'SUPERFICIAL GAS VELOCITY (ft/sec) = '.071-(0.AREA.AREA.WOR.AREA.VSL VELNLIQ=1.C FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR OF WATER IS TAKEN AS 1.RS2.LT.LT.PAV.AREA.0 (Bw=1.BO1.VSG2) PRINT *.938*VSG*(DENLIQ/TENLIQ)**(1/4) PRINT *.VELNLIQ CALL VSOG(QLIQ.WOR.0) GO TO 22 IF (S.GLR.13 PRINT *.'GAS VELOCITY NUMBER = '.BO.T.GE.FF) 117 .RS1.AREA.13) AZ=0.Z.T.T.5*(1+(VSL+VSG)/VS-SQRT((1+(VSL+VSG)/VS)**2+4*VSG/VS)) HLNS=VSL/(VSL+VSG) IF (HOLDUP.VSG1) CALL VSOG(QLIQ.HLNS) HOLDUP=HLNS DENMIX=DENLIQ*HOLDUP+DENAV*(1-HOLDUP) REY=1488*DENLIQ*(VSL/HOLDUP)*DIA/VISLIQ CALL FFACTOR(REY.P1.BO2.WOR.0) CALL VSOL(QLIQ.0.2218*(VSL+VSG)**2)/DIA IF (AZ.VSL1) CALL VSOL(QLIQ.AZ BZ=VSG/(VSL+VSG) S=BZ-AZ IF (S.AREA.

0.1) HOLOSEC=1 PRINT *.SECORF SCF=8*10**7*SECORF**6-3*10**7*SECORF**5+4*10**6*SECORF**4 + -300129*SECORF**3+10765**SECORF**2-157.'TWO-PHASE REYNOLDS NUMBER = '.FGR=FF*DENLIQ*(VSL/HOLDUP)**2/(2*32.SCF HOLDUP=HOLOSEC*SCF GO TO 60 50 60 HOLDUP=1 PRINT *.FF DENMIX=DENLIQ*HOLDUP+DENAV*(1-HOLDUP) 22 PRINT *.10) + *(CNL/DIANUM) PRINT *.'FRICTION FACTOR = '.GE.7)**0.LE.FF) PRINT *.DIA.575)*((((P1+P2)/2)/14.PBUB) GO TO 50 HOLDCOF=(VELNLIQ/VELNGAS**0.1078 IF (HOLOSEC.GT.HOLDCOF HOLOSEC=-2*10**15*HOLDCOF**6+4*10**13*HOLDCOF**5-3*10**11 + *HOLDCOF**4+10**9*HOLDCOF**3-2*10**6*HOLDCOF**2+1823.872*DIA/12*SQRT(DENLIQ/TENLIQ) PRINT *.2 + *HOLDCOF+0.DIANUM IF (PAV.'CONTINUE WITH HAGEDORN&BROWN CORRELATION' 118 .7611 IF (SECORF.'LIQUID HOLD-UP = '.14) PRINT *.380)/(DIANUM**2.2*DIA*144) GO TO 23 C ***************************************************** DIANUM=120.01) SCF=1 PRINT *.12*SECORF+1.2E-2*W)/((DIA/12)*(VISLIQ**HOLDUP) + *(VISGAS**(1-HOLDUP))) PRINT *.'PIPE DIAMETER NUMBER = '.HOLOSEC SECORF=(VELNGAS*VISNLIQ**0.HOLDUP REY=(2.REY CALL FFACTOR(REY.

VISO1.'TWO-PHASE DENSITY OF THE MIXTURE (lb/cuft) = +'.9652E11*(DIA/12)**5*DENMIX) GO TO 24 23 DIST=144*(ABS(P2-P1)*(1-((W/86400)*VSG *AREA)/ (4637* AREA**2 + *PAV)))/(DENMIX+FGR) 24 C PRINT*.50) GO TO 2 P1=P2 GO TO 3 2 DISPR=P2 PRINT *.DIST SUM=SUM+DIST ****TEMPERATURE GRADIENT IS TAKEN AS 1.'DISTANCE (ft)= '.'TOTAL DEPTH CALCULATED = '.5 PRINT *.DENMIX DIST=(144*ABS(P2-P1)-DENMIX*(VDIF/64.VISO2.4))/ + (DENMIX+(FF*W**2)/2.VMIX1=VSL1+VSG1 VMIX2=VSL2+VSG2 VDIF=VMIX1**2-VMIX2**2 PRINT *.P2 IF (ABS(SUM-TD).'DISCHARGE PRESSURE (psi) ='.5F/100 FT****** T=BHT-SUM/100*1.PDISPR 119 .LT.P1.SUM PRINT*.

HPLOAD) REAL QOPTM.HPLOAD HPLOAD=-1E-07*QOPTM**2+6E-5*QOPTM+0.HPLOAD) REAL QOPTM.281 RETURN END C ***********GN2000*************** SUBROUTINE GN2000HP(QOPTM.HPLOAD HPLOAD=-7E-08*QOPTM**2+0. DN675HP.0002*QOPTM+0. GN2000HP.HPLOAD) 120 . GN3200HP SUBPROGRAMS C C ********PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES SUBPROGRAM******** **********DN440********* SUBROUTINE DN440HP(QOPTM.HPLOAD HPLOAD=-4E-08*QOPTM**2+0.0561 RETURN END C **********DN1100*************** SUBROUTINE DN1100HP(QOPTM.11 RETURN END C ***********GN1600*************** SUBROUTINE GN1600HP(QOPTM.DN440HP. DN1100HP.0001*QOPTM+0.0002*QOPTM+0. GN1600HP.HPLOAD HPLOAD=-1E-07*QOPTM**2+0.0661 RETURN END C **********DN675********* SUBROUTINE DN675HP(QOPTM.HPLOAD) REAL QOPTM.HPLOAD) REAL QOPTM.

625 RETURN END 121 .0003*Q+0.5697 RETURN END C ************GN3200*************** SUBROUTINE GN3200HP(QOPTM.HPLOAD) REAL QOPTM.HPLOAD HPLOAD=6E-08*Q**2+0.HPLOAD HPLOAD=-6E-09*QOPTM**2+9E-05*QOPTM+0.REAL QOPTM.

GN2000H.464 RETURN END C ***********GN1600*************** SUBROUTINE GN1600H(Q.HEADCAP) HEADCAP=-3E-5*Q**2+0.0027*Q+23.0077*Q+19. GN1600H.HEADCAP) HEADCAP=-1E-05*Q**2+0.751 RETURN END C **********DN675********* SUBROUTINE DN675H(Q.HEADCAP) REAL Q.HEADCAP HEADCAP=-2E-16*Q**6+4E-13*Q**5-3E-10*Q**4+5E-08* + Q**3-6E-05*Q**2+0.0035*Q+50.11 RETURN END C **********DN1100*************** SUBROUTINE DN1100H(Q.134 RETURN END C ***********GN2000*************** SUBROUTINE GN2000H(Q.676 RETURN END 122 . GN3200H SUBPROGRAMS C C ********PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES SUBPROGRAM******** **********DN440********* SUBROUTINE DN440H(Q. DN1100H.HEADCAP) HEADCAP=-5E-06*Q**2+0.DN440H. DN675H.0047*Q+19.0065*Q+38.HEADCAP) HEADCAP=-9E-06*Q**2+0.

79 RETURN END 123 .HEADCAP) HEADCAP=-1E-06*Q**2-0.0015*Q+38.C ************GN3200*************** SUBROUTINE GN3200H(Q.

APIO.25*TEMP FVFO=0.RSOL.PBUBB) THEN F=RSO*(SGAS/SOIL)**0. FVF.FVFO) CO=(-1433+5*RSO+17.972+0. ZF. VSOG.5+1.83) RETURN END C C *********FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR OF OIL********* ***********STANDINGS CORRELATION**************** SUBROUTINE FVF(P.SGAS.61*APIO)/(10**5*P) IF (P.175 ELSE F=RSO*(SGAS/SOIL)**0.5+1.PBUBB.LT.175 FVFO=BOB*EXP(CO*(PBUBB-P)) END IF RETURN END 124 .00091*TEMP)))**(1/0.25*TEMP BOB=0. FFACTOR SUBPROGRAMS C C C *****FLUID PROPERTIES CORRELATION SUBPROGRAMS**** ***********SOLUTION-GAS OIL RATIO************** ***********STANDINGS CORRELATION**************** SUBROUTINE RSOL(SGAS.000147*F**1. VISCOS.0125*APIO)/10 + **(0.APIO.000147*F**1.RSO.TEMP. WATVIS.SOIL.2*TEMP-1180*SGAS+12.P.972+0. VSOL.RSO) RSO=SGAS*((P/18)*(10**(0.TEMP.

TEMP.ZFAC) PPC=-17.32/10**(9*(TPR-1)))*PPR**6 C=(0.44*(RSO+150)**(-0.715*(RSO+100)**(-0.5-0.LT.6*P**1.132-0.1824*TPR**2) IF (B.94 TPR=(TEMP+460)/TPC PPR=P/PPC A=1.037)*PPR**2 + +(0.GT.32*ALOG10(TPR)) D=10**(0.100) ZFAC=A+C*PPR**D RETURN END C C ********VISCOSITY OF OIL********************* ********BEGGS&ROBINSON CORRELATION*************** SUBROUTINE VISCOS(P.86)-0.9824-0.292*SGAS**2-17.513+(-8.PBUBB.TEMP.93*SGAS+172.163))*EXP(6.8324*SGAS**2+308.4 TPC=1.P.98E-5*P)) X=(TEMP**(-1.187*EXP(-11.23*TPR)*PPR+(0.9824-0.LE.92)**0.3106-0.62-0.101 B=(0.100) ZFAC=A+(1-A)/EXP(B)+C*PPR**D IF (B.515) BB=5.49*TPR+0.066/(TPR-0.APIO.163))*EXP(6.C C *********COMPRESSIBILITY OF GAS***************** ****STANDINGS MODIFICATION TO THE BEGS&BRILL CORRELATION***** SUBROUTINE ZF(SGAS.852*SGAS+688.RSO.04658*APIO) DOV=10**X-1 AA=10.PBUBB) THEN X=(TEMP**(-1.36*TPR-0.VISOIL) IF (P.04658*APIO) DOV=10**X-1 125 .39*(TPR-0.338) VISOIL=AA*DOV**BB ELSE BBB=2.

RSO. P.0 + *(WORAT/(1+WORAT))) RETURN END C C *************SUPERFICIAL GAS VELOCITY****** *************HAGEDORN&BROWN CORRELATION********** SUBROUTINE VSOG(QLIQD.TAREA. VSGAS) VSGAS=((QLIQD*(GLRAT-RSO*(1/(1+WORAT))))/ (86400*TAREA)) +*(14.WORAT.WORAT.TAREA.003-1.AA=10.715*(RSO+100)**(-0.515) BB=5.479E-2*TEMP+1.VSLIQ) VSLIQ=((5.FVF.338) VISBUB=AA*DOV**BB VISOIL=VISBUB*(P/PBUBB)**BBB ENDIF RETURN END C C *************WATER VISCOSITY************* *************BRILL&BEGGS CORRELATION******* SUBROUTINE WATVIS(TEMP.982E-5*TEMP**2) RETURN END C C *************SUPERFICIAL LIQUID VELOCITY****** *************HAGEDORN&BROWN CORRELATION********** SUBROUTINE VSOL(QLIQD.TEMP.ZFAC.GLRAT.61*QLIQD)/(86400*TAREA))*(FVF*(1/(1+WORAT))+1.44*(RSO+150)**(-0.7/P) + *((TEMP+460)/520)*(ZFAC/1) RETURN 126 .VISW) VISW=EXP(1.

32 I=1 DEN=1.DIAM.END C C *****************FRICTION FACTOR********************************* *****************JAIN EQUATION****************** SUBROUTINE FFACTOR(REYN.GT.10) GO TO 6 7 FFR=FGI RETURN END 127 .0.LE.0001) GO TO 7 FGI=(FGI+FFR)/2 I=I+1 IF (I.0056+0.FFR) EDP=0.00015*12/DIAM IF (REYN.2000) GO TO 5 FFR=64/REYN 5 6 FGI=0.LT.34/(REYN*SQRT(FGI))) FFR=(1/DEN)**2 DIFF=ABS(FGI-FFR) IF (DIFF.14-2*ALOG10(EDP+9.5/REYN**0.

APPENDIX D SAMPLE CALCULATION W-08 Pumping Liquid and Gas (GOR = 15 scf /STB) 128 .

bbl/d Average flowing temperature. in. scf/stbo Pb.5% 1.83 0.02 15 160 2400 1132 170 γosc γgsc Water Cut γwsc GOR. °F 129 .7 96. psi J (above Pb). RESERVOIR AND LIFT-SYSTEM DATA USED IN CALCULATIONS FOR W-08 W-08 Depth.TABLE D1 WELL. ft Casing size. FLUID. Wellhead pressure. °F API 5800 7 2. stbl/d/psi qmax. in. psi Wellhead temperature.441 250 110 38 0. Tubing size. psi Pr.

66 March66 Sept.84 July91 Sept.64 March65 Jan.99 2224 2052 2055 2071 2220 2074 2247 2222 2243 2090 1970 1340 742 304 614 742 1903 1716 29 1008 12 26 31 18 24 30 2 2 25 10 7 25 30 27 29 4984 12606 14745 9096 11990 15457 821 1075 3373 5630 2839 18811 20573 2535 1753 0 415 485 476 505 500 515 411 538 135 563 406 752 686 94 60 35 130 .TABLE D2 PRODUCTION HISTORY OF W-08 VOLUME DATE Pr (psi) DAYS ON PRODUCTION (bbls) PRODUCED (bbls) q (bbl/day) 2400 Dec.93 April98 Oct.63 Dec.63 April64 Nov.62 May63 Aug.73 Nov.67 March68 April70 Dec.

2750 2500 2250 2000 Pwf (psi) 1750 1500 1250 1000 750 500 250 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 B B L/D S T B/ D q (B B L /D o r S T B /D ) FIGURE D1 IPR Curve for W-08 131 .

The units of the computer program production parameter output are given below: Flow Rate (Q) : stb/d Formation Volume Factor of Oil (Bo): rbbl/stb Formation Volume Factor of Gas (Bg):rbbl/scf Head per stage (h) : ft/stage Horsepower per stage (hp) : HP/stage Horsepower Requirement (HP) : HP Intake Pressure (P3) : psi Pressure (P): psi Solution Gas-Oil Ratio (Rs): scf/bbl Volume of the Produced Fluid (V) : bbl/d Volume Factor (VF) : bbl/stbl 132 .

0454 1.0000 0.0455 1.0000 0.0000 4800.0000 15.0000 4400.0000 0.0017 1.0016 1.0467 1.0016 1.0000 0.0000 15.0016 1.0000 3600.0000 0.0016 1.0455 1.0000 800.0458 1.0000 15.0000 0.0016 1.0016 1.0016 1.0000 Bo 1.0000 3800.0000 15.0000 15.0000 0.0000 4600.0000 5000.VF DATA AT VARIOUS PRESSURES FOR THE FLUID OF W-08 P 200.0454 1.0016 1.0454 1.0000 15.0000 4200.0016 1.0000 15.0000 3000.0000 15.0000 15.0456 1.0016 1.0000 2800.0016 1.0000 600.0000 15.0553 1.0000 3200.0000 0.0000 2400.0470 1.0000 1200.0000 0.0000 4000.0000 0.0475 1.0457 1.0464 1.0000 15.0462 1.0000 Rs 15.0000 15.0000 15.0459 1.0454 1.0501 1.0000 0.0000 2000.0016 1.0000 1800.0016 1.0000 15.0000 15.0000 0.0000 1600.0016 1.0000 0.0000 15.0016 1.0019 1.0000 15.0454 Bg 0.0000 0.0000 0.0484 1.0016 133 .0000 2600.0000 VF 1.0000 2200.0460 1.0000 0.0000 1000.0000 15.0016 1.0456 1.0016 1.0461 1.0016 1.0000 3400.0455 1.0000 1400.0000 0.0000 0.0000 15.0018 1.0000 400.0000 15.0016 1.0000 0.0000 15.0000 0.0016 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0017 1.0000 0.0456 1.0457 1.0000 15.0000 15.0000 15.

CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 100 STB/D) i P3,I

P3,I

VFi

Vi

hi

∆Sti
4.94 4.94

Sti
4.94 9.89

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 2.00 2680.00 2705.00 3.00 2630.00 2655.00 4.00 2580.00 2605.00 5.00 2530.00 2555.00 6.00 2480.00 2505.00 7.00 2430.00 2455.00 8.00 2380.00 2405.00 9.00 2330.00 2355.00 10.00 2280.00 2305.00 11.00 2230.00 2255.00 12.00 2180.00 2205.00 13.00 2130.00 2155.00 14.00 2080.00 2105.00 15.00 2030.00 2055.00 16.00 1980.00 2005.00 17.00 1930.00 1955.00 18.00 1880.00 1905.00 19.00 1830.00 1855.00 20.00 1780.00 1805.00 21.00 1730.00 1755.00 22.00 1680.00 1705.00 23.00 1630.00 1655.00 24.00 1580.00 1605.00 25.00 1530.00 1555.00 26.00 1480.00 1505.00 27.00 1430.00 1455.00 28.00 1380.00 1405.00

1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08 1.00 100.16 23.08

4.94 14.83 4.94 19.78 4.94 24.72 4.94 29.67 4.94 34.61 4.94 39.56 4.94 44.50 4.94 49.45 4.94 54.39 4.94 59.34 4.94 64.28 4.94 69.23 4.94 74.17 4.94 79.12 4.94 84.06 4.94 89.01 4.94 93.95 4.94 98.90 4.94 103.84 4.94 108.79 4.94 113.73 4.94 118.68 4.94 123.62 4.94 128.57

1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 133.51 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 138.46

134

29.00 1330.00 1355.00 30.00 1280.00 1305.00 31.00 1230.00 1255.00 32.00 1180.00 1205.00 33.00 1130.00 1155.00 34.00 1080.00 1105.00 35.00 1030.00 1055.00 36.00 980.00 1005.00 37.00 930.00 955.00 38.00 880.00 905.00 39.00 830.00 855.00 40.00 780.00 805.00 41.00 730.00 755.00 42.00 680.00 705.00 43.00 630.00 655.00 44.00 580.00 605.00 45.00 530.00 555.00 46.00 480.00 505.00 47.00 430.00 455.00 48.00 380.00 405.00 49.00 330.00 355.00 50.00 280.00 305.00 51.00 230.00 255.00

1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 143.40 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 148.35 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 153.29 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 158.24 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 163.18 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 168.13 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 173.07 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 178.02 1.00 100.16 23.08 4.95 182.96 1.00 100.17 23.08 4.95 187.91 1.00 100.17 1.00 100.17 23.08 23.08 4.95 192.85 4.95 197.80 4.95 202.74 4.95 207.69 4.95 212.64 4.95 217.58 4.95 222.53 4.95 227.47 4.95 232.42 4.95 237.36 4.95 242.31 4.95 247.25 4.95 252.20

1.00 100.17 23.08 1.00 100.17 23.08 1.00 100.17 23.08 1.00 100.17 23.08 1.00 100.17 23.08 1.00 100.17 23.08 1.00 100.17 23.08 1.00 100.18 23.08 1.00 100.18 23.08 1.00 100.18 23.08 1.00 100.19 23.08

135

INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 100 STB/D)

St
150.00 175.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00 400.00

P3
1263.30 1010.52 757.75 252.25 -

136

CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 150 STB/D)

i

P3,I

P3,I

VFi

Vi

hi

∆Sti
5.00 5.00

Sti
5.00 9.99

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 2.00 2680.00 2705.00 3.00 2630.00 2655.00 4.00 2580.00 2605.00 5.00 2530.00 2555.00 6.00 2480.00 2505.00 7.00 2430.00 2455.00 8.00 2380.00 2405.00 9.00 2330.00 2355.00 10.00 2280.00 2305.00 11.00 2230.00 2255.00 12.00 2180.00 2205.00 13.00 2130.00 2155.00 14.00 2080.00 2105.00 15.00 2030.00 2055.00 16.00 1980.00 2005.00 17.00 1930.00 1955.00 18.00 1880.00 1905.00 19.00 1830.00 1855.00 20.00 1780.00 1805.00 21.00 1730.00 1755.00 22.00 1680.00 1705.00 23.00 1630.00 1655.00 24.00 1580.00 1605.00 25.00 1530.00 1555.00 26.00 1480.00 1505.00 27.00 1430.00 1455.00

1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84

5.00 14.99 5.00 19.99 5.00 24.99 5.00 29.98 5.00 34.98 5.00 39.98 5.00 44.97 5.00 49.97 5.00 54.97 5.00 59.96 5.00 64.96 5.00 69.96 5.00 74.96 5.00 79.95 5.00 84.95 5.00 89.95 5.00 94.94 5.00 99.94 5.00 104.94 5.00 109.94 5.00 114.93 5.00 119.93 5.00 124.93 5.00 129.92 5.00 134.92

137

28.00 1380.00 1405.00 29.00 1330.00 1355.00 30.00 1280.00 1305.00 31.00 1230.00 1255.00 32.00 1180.00 1205.00 33.00 1130.00 1155.00 34.00 1080.00 1105.00 35.00 1030.00 1055.00 36.00 980.00 1005.00 37.00 930.00 955.00 38.00 880.00 905.00 39.00 830.00 855.00 40.00 780.00 805.00 41.00 730.00 755.00 42.00 680.00 705.00 43.00 630.00 655.00 44.00 580.00 605.00 45.00 530.00 555.00 46.00 480.00 505.00 47.00 430.00 455.00 48.00 380.00 405.00 49.00 330.00 355.00 50.00 280.00 305.00 51.00 230.00 255.00

1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.24 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.25 22.84 1.00 150.26 22.84 1.00 150.26 22.84 1.00 150.26 22.84 1.00 150.26 22.84 1.00 150.27 22.84 1.00 150.28 22.84 1.00 150.28 22.84

5.00 139.92 5.00 144.92 5.00 149.91 5.00 154.91 5.00 159.91 5.00 164.91 5.00 169.90 5.00 174.90 5.00 179.90 5.00 184.89 5.00 189.89 5.00 194.89 5.00 199.89 5.00 204.88 5.00 209.88 5.00 214.88 5.00 219.88 5.00 224.87 5.00 229.87 5.00 234.87 5.00 239.87 5.00 244.87 5.00 249.86 5.00 254.86

138

INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 150 STB/D)

St
150.00 175.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00 400.00

P3
1279.14 1029.00 778.87 278.64 -

139

08 20.00 200.45 1.08 81.32 22.00 2330.00 14.00 1955.00 2055.00 200.00 200.00 2480.00 5.00 1505.00 200.00 2580.45 1.CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 200 STB/D) i P3.00 1480.00 1905.08 50.32 22.00 5.45 1.00 1930.45 1.08 15.00 200.32 22.00 200.00 1855.08 137.32 22.09 5.00 26.00 200.00 2030.08 71.67 5.08 Sti 5.45 1.00 4.00 1580.00 2630.08 101.00 2080.00 2530.17 5.00 200.00 2755.67 5.00 2430.32 22.00 200.00 1555.33 5.00 12.08 122.00 200.00 24.00 19.00 2730.45 1.32 22.00 1.45 1.00 200.45 1.45 1.08 66.08 35.00 15.08 25.33 22.75 5.00 2180.00 2680.00 200.00 17.00 20.08 1.00 2005.32 22.45 1.32 22.45 1.00 16.00 1630.83 5.17 5.33 5.00 2555.45 1.00 2305.00 2380.I VFi Vi hi ∆Sti 5.08 91.45 5.00 200.42 5.08 61.00 2355.00 6.00 21.45 1.00 2255.45 1.45 1.32 22.25 5.00 3.32 22.32 22.00 1530.00 1705.00 1755.32 22.32 22.00 200.00 2405.00 1605.32 22.00 2.08 86.00 8.00 1455.58 5.45 1.08 30.45 1.45 1.32 22.00 11.00 2655.00 200.00 200.00 200.58 5.45 1.00 2455.00 2505.08 96.08 132.08 106.32 22.00 7.75 5.08 10.00 18.45 1.00 1830.00 1730.00 2205.45 1.08 55.32 22.45 1.00 5.08 76.00 1655.83 5.00 13.00 200.50 5.32 22.00 2230.32 22.00 200.00 1980.32 22.08 40.32 22.00 22.92 5.00 2155.32 22.00 1780.00 1680.32 22.25 140 .08 111.00 9.45 1.00 1805.00 27.32 22.50 5.45 1.08 116.45 1.00 2605.00 10.32 22.00 2130.00 200.00 200.08 45.17 5.08 5.25 5.00 2280.00 200.45 1.42 5.00 1430.08 127.00 1880.00 23.00 200.00 200.I P3.00 200.00 25.00 2705.00 200.33 22.92 5.00 2105.00 200.

08 172.34 22.00 45.33 22.00 200.00 555.00 305.59 5.00 200.00 530.00 1280.00 680.00 1180.00 47.45 5.00 200.00 1405.08 167.00 505.00 200.09 5.25 5.92 5.00 200.01 5.93 5.00 230.08 203.00 40.00 200.00 705.00 430.45 1.45 1.00 35.33 22.00 30.00 200.84 5.00 1380.67 5.33 22.45 1.08 259.33 22.33 22.00 330.00 1305.00 1330.08 198.08 157.00 37.00 200.00 48.35 22.50 5.00 255.00 1255.00 1205.00 930.00 200.08 193.00 1130.76 5.35 22.00 36.08 233.00 1.00 1105.00 34.08 147.08 238.18 5.00 33.00 755.34 22.00 380.34 5.45 1.45 1.00 29.17 5.75 5.67 5.45 1.34 5.00 200.00 955.00 200.00 43.08 188.33 22.00 200.00 42.00 855.00 1355.42 5.00 200.36 22.00 1055.33 22.00 200.45 1.35 22.59 5.45 1.00 49.00 200.33 22.00 50.08 249.33 22.00 31.00 455.00 200.00 200.00 480.00 730.33 22.00 880.08 208.00 655.08 254.00 605.00 44.00 200.45 1.08 228.00 1155.00 41.45 1.45 1.00 200.00 580.45 1.00 200.42 5.33 22.00 1230.45 1.45 1.08 152.00 32.00 200.00 905.09 5.45 1.34 22.08 244.00 38.33 22.00 1030.08 162.00 830.51 5.34 22.00 39.00 805.33 22.00 630.08 213.00 5.45 1.45 1.00 200.33 22.00 280.00 1005.08 142.45 1.00 980.08 183.45 1.00 405.00 200.08 223.00 46.00 200.08 218.00 355.84 5.45 1.26 141 .38 22.00 780.08 177.45 1.00 1080.37 22.45 1.45 1.00 51.28.

00 350.00 P3 1305.00 200.12 1059.INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 200 STB/D) St 150.47 322.00 300.00 400.89 - 142 .00 813.00 175.00 250.

34 5.83 5.00 1530.21 1.00 19.00 10.00 1730.07 5.48 21.00 1.48 21.45 5.00 2705.96 5.00 1805.21 1.38 112.00 1980.38 75.00 4.00 300.00 1480.00 17.00 2155.48 21.00 300.90 5.65 5.00 9.49 21.00 16.00 24.00 300.00 12.48 21.49 21.00 2480.00 2055.00 300.48 21.00 2205.48 21.21 1.00 2405.00 300.00 1830.03 5.21 1.00 300.00 22.00 23.00 21.00 300.00 1680.I P3.21 1.38 86.48 5.00 1855.38 26.00 300.49 21.00 2080.00 300.38 96.00 1905.41 5.21 1.00 3.49 21.10 5.00 2130.00 2605.52 5.00 11.00 300.00 1555.00 1705.48 21.38 80.00 300.21 1.38 37.00 1605.58 5.72 5.48 21.48 21.48 21.17 5.20 5.21 1.79 5.21 1.38 123.00 2230.38 Sti 5.21 1.00 300.21 1.48 21.00 7.69 5.21 5.38 64.55 5.00 2355.00 300.31 5.00 13.00 2430.00 2580.38 59.21 1.00 1880.38 53.00 2755.00 1955.00 300.00 15.21 1.00 2655.00 2730.21 1.00 2255.00 2530.14 5.00 300.00 300.CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 300 STB/D) i P3.00 14.21 1.00 1505.00 300.00 1780.00 2380.21 1.00 2.49 21.21 1.I VFi Vi hi ∆Sti 5.00 300.76 5.00 2280.21 1.48 21.38 32.38 10.00 2505.00 18.00 2180.00 2630.00 300.48 21.00 8.49 21.00 1630.28 5.38 43.00 5.00 20.00 26.48 21.38 102.00 2555.00 2455.00 2030.38 16.00 1930.38 21.48 21.00 25.00 1580.38 107.00 1655.00 2680.21 1.00 300.21 1.38 129.00 300.38 1.38 91.00 2330.00 2305.00 1755.48 21.00 300.00 6.48 21.21 1.00 2005.00 300.38 139.38 48.00 300.00 300.38 118.48 21.21 1.93 5.38 69.00 300.00 2105.21 1.21 1.38 134.21 1.48 21.49 21.86 143 .

14 5.00 1455.35 144 .57 21.21 1.50 21.00 300.00 300.00 730.00 880.00 30.38 209.38 215.55 21.38 145.00 480.54 21.00 300.00 40.27.50 21.00 1405.49 21.27 5.00 530.00 1030.03 5.49 21.50 21.69 5.38 236.17 5.00 300.00 33.38 166.00 255.00 1430.38 182.00 430.21 1.21 1.50 21.00 35.00 300.49 21.52 5.00 1380.50 21.38 220.21 5.00 300.00 1180.21 1.00 300.00 380.49 21.38 193.38 252.00 1255.00 1205.21 1.00 930.21 1.38 268.00 555.00 32.83 5.00 300.00 300.07 5.00 1355.00 980.79 5.38 150.00 300.00 300.65 5.00 1155.00 300.76 5.00 1.00 1230.21 1.38 5.00 1280.21 1.38 204.00 300.24 5.51 21.00 36.00 300.21 1.00 300.21 1.00 280.89 5.52 21.49 21.00 29.00 300.00 230.00 455.21 1.00 34.49 21.00 43.49 21.21 1.41 5.21 1.00 1330.00 300.00 42.21 1.00 49.00 855.00 955.62 5.00 905.52 21.21 1.55 5.21 1.00 605.00 44.00 28.00 405.31 5.00 330.00 37.38 231.00 655.00 300.97 5.93 5.00 41.00 355.00 830.21 1.21 1.38 242.38 177.00 51.00 680.00 48.21 1.00 305.00 1105.53 21.00 630.21 1.51 21.38 225.38 188.00 5.00 805.50 21.00 705.38 274.38 263.00 1305.00 45.21 1.38 161.21 1.21 5.00 300.00 31.00 580.38 156.38 247.00 1005.51 21.21 1.00 300.59 5.00 38.49 21.00 755.00 505.00 1080.38 199.21 1.00 46.00 300.00 780.00 50.38 258.00 1130.00 1055.00 300.00 300.00 300.45 5.49 21.38 172.00 300.49 21.00 39.00 47.

00 300.98 - 145 .74 457.00 350.00 P3 1386.00 921.00 250.00 200.12 1154.00 175.INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 300 STB/D) St 150.00 400.

38 1.00 2630.38 1.00 1755.00 20.00 400.00 26.64 19.00 400.00 2505.00 3.38 1.00 17.89 5.00 2380.64 19.00 1880.00 5.89 153.38 5.33 5.89 Sti 5.64 19.00 1555.00 400.23 5.44 5.00 2105.89 11.00 400.38 1.64 19.11 5.89 100.65 19.00 2405.00 2455.00 24.00 400.65 19.00 400.22 5.00 400.00 1955.00 9.64 19.00 4.38 1.89 106.65 19.89 88.00 2730.00 16.00 2480.38 1.65 19.38 1.I P3.67 5.00 2030.00 2605.89 123.38 1.00 19.38 1.56 5.00 400.00 11.00 10.89 41.00 1805.00 8.00 1580.65 19.38 1.89 35.00 2280.00 7.64 19.64 19.67 5.89 129.00 400.00 1505.00 400.89 82.00 2.56 5.65 19.00 5.I VFi Vi  hi ∆Sti 5.00 2130.00 400.38 1.00 400.00 2680.00 2430.89 94.64 19.38 1.00 400.00 1605.45 5.00 25.00 1830.38 1.38 1.65 19.00 12.89 17.89 64.00 2205.33 5.00 400.65 19.00 13.00 400.38 1.11 146 .00 400.38 1.00 2305.00 2705.00 1905.89 141.00 15.00 6.64 19.64 19.38 1.00 23.00 1855.78 5.00 2155.00 2080.64 19.00 1930.00 2755.00 400.38 1.64 19.00 2255.00 1630.22 5.CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 400 STB/D) i P3.64 19.89 58.00 1655.00 1680.00 2230.00 400.00 5.56 5.00 400.11 5.89 117.00 400.34 5.00 1980.89 5.00 14.89 53.00 1780.38 1.89 47.38 1.00 2055.00 1480.00 21.89 135.00 400.89 23.00 1530.89 76.78 5.00 2005.78 5.89 111.64 19.38 1.00 2580.89 1.00 2530.00 2555.65 19.00 18.00 1.89 147.38 1.00 400.00 2355.45 5.38 1.38 1.89 29.00 400.00 400.00 2180.00 1705.00 2655.67 5.00 400.89 70.65 19.00 1730.64 19.65 19.00 2330.38 1.00 400.00 22.

00 1105.27.45 5.00 1080.00 1030.89 170.00 400.67 19.66 19.66 19.38 1.65 19.00 30.89 229.00 400.00 780.38 1.89 300.00 400.00 400.72 19.89 200.00 680.89 5.38 1.00 1130.00 1.38 1.00 400.78 5.56 5.65 19.00 400.00 5.00 400.12 5.70 19.01 5.00 49.00 400.00 1155.38 1.00 400.00 405.36 147 .00 400.00 45.00 38.00 630.38 1.00 48.00 1055.65 19.00 530.38 1.00 31.66 19.00 980.68 5.34 5.01 5.89 265.00 880.00 580.89 288.69 19.89 223.00 955.65 19.00 400.00 43.38 1.12 5.00 1205.67 5.89 282.00 1255.66 19.00 51.00 330.00 255.00 400.68 5.37 1.67 19.00 1355.89 176.37 5.00 830.00 705.00 33.00 1280.00 37.00 400.00 400.89 247.00 355.00 400.00 400.00 400.00 1405.00 1180.89 188.89 270.00 400.38 1.00 1230.89 253.66 19.79 5.38 1.89 235.68 19.00 50.89 164.00 855.00 455.89 212.00 1455.67 19.79 5.38 1.00 805.00 35.90 5.00 305.66 19.00 400.00 44.89 294.00 730.89 217.00 655.00 230.00 1330.00 605.00 29.65 19.70 19.38 1.90 5.38 1.38 1.00 41.38 1.00 930.00 34.75 19.00 40.45 5.00 400.38 1.00 28.65 19.00 46.00 505.00 32.74 19.00 380.89 182.89 241.38 1.37 1.89 276.00 755.23 5.00 400.38 1.89 194.38 1.00 400.00 555.57 5.00 42.00 430.00 36.00 400.68 19.00 905.00 1430.89 206.89 159.23 5.89 259.56 5.00 47.00 1305.38 1.00 1380.00 400.00 39.34 5.68 19.38 1.66 19.46 5.00 1005.38 1.00 280.00 480.00 400.

INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 400 STB/D) St 150.00 1082.47 658.00 P3 1507.00 200.18 233.00 350.00 250.00 175.32 1294.78 - 148 .00 400.00 300.

81 16.00 2030.00 1730.74 161.80 16.00 1780.00 24.81 16.00 2455.74 1.94 1.74 148.74 154.79 6.42 6.94 1.74 26.00 1655.94 1.81 16.00 1630.I VFi Vi  hi ∆Sti 6.00 1930.00 500.80 16.00 2430.74 134.80 16.00 500.00 2080.94 1.47 6.80 16.00 6.00 500.00 20.81 16.00 500.74 60.74 121.94 1.52 6.94 1.94 1.58 6.00 500.80 16.74 40.00 18.00 2305.94 1.95 6.00 500.00 11.00 6.74 33.81 16.00 1905.00 2555.42 149 .00 2380.80 16.00 10.00 1580.00 500.94 1.00 22.84 6.16 6.00 2280.00 19.94 1.00 500.81 16.80 16.81 16.00 500.00 500.00 2330.21 6.74 114.94 6.74 101.00 2630.CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 500 STB/D) i P3.00 2205.00 1755.00 2605.00 1880.80 16.94 1.94 1.74 80.00 2705.80 16.00 2405.74 Sti 6.00 2255.89 6.74 20.00 500.74 74.00 14.74 107.21 6.00 2055.00 17.00 16.10 6.74 128.00 2655.94 1.94 1.00 500.00 500.00 1955.00 3.00 2580.00 1705.00 500.00 25.00 500.00 23.00 1980.00 500.00 2.00 2730.74 53.74 141.94 1.00 2155.94 1.00 2680.47 6.00 15.94 1.73 6.31 6.00 2130.00 1605.81 16.00 5.74 67.68 6.94 1.00 1.81 16.37 6.74 94.00 500.00 1680.94 1.00 2755.80 16.94 1.I P3.00 9.00 500.95 6.81 16.00 7.00 1555.00 2480.00 500.81 16.74 13.74 47.00 12.68 6.94 1.00 21.00 500.26 6.00 1855.80 16.81 16.00 500.00 8.00 1530.74 87.81 16.00 500.00 1830.00 500.63 6.00 500.00 2355.74 168.00 2505.94 1.00 2530.00 13.00 2180.00 2105.00 2230.94 1.05 6.00 2005.81 16.94 1.00 1805.00 4.00 500.

00 730.60 150 .74 289.00 500.87 16.00 50.26.86 6.16 6.00 605.00 955.00 500.00 655.94 16.94 1.82 16.94 1.82 16.00 500.94 1.00 1430.00 500.00 255.58 6.74 269.84 16.53 6.00 1480.00 45.00 500.00 780.00 34.74 316.00 305.00 38.94 1.94 1.94 1.00 480.00 1455.93 1.74 336.00 355.00 500.94 1.82 16.79 6.94 1.90 16.00 1030.00 49.83 16.83 16.00 555.74 303.94 1.00 37.00 705.16 6.00 500.00 930.48 6.82 16.00 980.83 16.94 1.00 48.74 276.00 40.00 1055.10 6.00 405.00 44.74 188.00 380.00 500.00 1205.74 235.00 755.74 256.00 33.95 6.74 229.00 500.81 16.93 6.74 296.26 6.74 330.82 16.00 500.92 16.84 6.94 1.00 500.00 1255.00 580.81 16.84 16.00 500.00 880.00 630.94 1.00 500.00 805.00 500.00 1230.74 215.00 280.00 1330.00 47.84 16.00 230.00 1155.00 1305.00 1180.00 500.00 530.83 16.74 222.00 500.00 500.74 343.00 500.89 6.00 1505.74 175.00 42.74 323.00 1005.00 28.88 16.86 16.74 202.00 39.94 1.00 51.00 500.00 41.63 6.00 1.00 430.69 6.94 1.90 6.94 1.82 16.86 16.00 830.00 680.74 309.05 6.00 500.43 6.94 1.37 6.00 455.00 1280.74 249.00 500.00 30.85 16.94 1.00 505.94 1.32 6.00 1355.00 500.64 6.81 16.00 35.00 1080.00 1405.94 1.82 16.00 31.94 1.00 1105.94 1.00 29.94 1.94 1.00 1130.00 6.00 330.74 181.74 6.00 32.74 262.00 1380.00 500.00 500.74 282.38 6.00 46.00 27.00 36.21 6.00 855.00 43.00 500.12 6.00 500.94 1.74 242.82 16.00 905.74 208.74 195.

00 1296.00 175.00 200.INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 500 STB/D) St 150.48 554.00 P3 1667.18 - 151 .00 400.00 250.00 350.97 925.00 300.22 1481.

CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 600 STB/D)

i

P3,I

P3,I

VFi

Vi

 hi

∆Sti
8.21

Sti
8.21

1.00 2730.00 2755.00 2.00 2680.00 2705.00 3.00 2630.00 2655.00 4.00 2580.00 2605.00 5.00 2530.00 2555.00 6.00 2480.00 2505.00 7.00 2430.00 2455.00 8.00 2380.00 2405.00 9.00 2330.00 2355.00 10.00 2280.00 2305.00 11.00 2230.00 2255.00 12.00 2180.00 2205.00 13.00 2130.00 2155.00 14.00 2080.00 2105.00 15.00 2030.00 2055.00 16.00 1980.00 2005.00 17.00 1930.00 1955.00 18.00 1880.00 1905.00 19.00 1830.00 1855.00 20.00 1780.00 1805.00 21.00 1730.00 1755.00 22.00 1680.00 1705.00 23.00 1630.00 1655.00 24.00 1580.00 1605.00

1.00 600.96 13.90 1.00 600.96 13.90 1.00 600.96 13.90 1.00 600.96 13.90 1.00 600.96 13.90 1.00 600.96 13.90 1.00 600.96 13.90 1.00 600.96 13.90 1.00 600.96 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.97 13.90

8.21 16.42 8.21 24.63 8.21 32.84 8.21 41.05 8.21 49.26 8.21 57.47 8.21 65.68 8.21 73.89 8.21 82.10 8.21 90.31 8.21 98.52 8.21 106.73 8.21 114.95 8.21 123.16 8.21 131.37 8.21 139.58 8.21 147.79 8.21 156.00 8.21 164.21 8.21 172.42 8.21 180.63 8.21 188.84 8.21 197.05

152

25.00 1530.00 1555.00 26.00 1480.00 1505.00 27.00 1430.00 1455.00 28.00 1380.00 1405.00 29.00 1330.00 1355.00 30.00 1280.00 1305.00 31.00 1230.00 1255.00 32.00 1180.00 1205.00 33.00 1130.00 1155.00 34.00 1080.00 1105.00 35.00 1030.00 1055.00 36.00 980.00 1005.00 37.00 930.00 955.00 38.00 880.00 905.00 39.00 830.00 855.00 40.00 780.00 805.00 41.00 730.00 755.00 42.00 680.00 705.00 43.00 630.00 655.00 44.00 580.00 605.00 45.00 530.00 555.00 46.00 480.00 505.00 47.00 430.00 455.00 48.00 380.00 405.00 49.00 330.00 355.00 50.00 280.00 305.00 51.00 230.00 255.00

1.00 600.97 13.90 1.00 600.98 13.90 1.00 600.98 13.90 1.00 600.98 13.90 1.00 600.98 13.90 1.00 600.98 13.90 1.00 600.98 13.90 1.00 600.98 13.90 1.00 600.98 13.90 1.00 600.99 13.90 1.00 600.99 13.90 1.00 600.99 13.90 1.00 600.99 13.90 1.00 600.99 13.90 1.00 601.00 13.90 1.00 601.00 13.90 1.00 601.00 13.90 1.00 601.01 13.90 1.00 601.01 13.90 1.00 601.02 13.90 1.00 601.03 13.90 1.00 601.04 13.90 1.00 601.04 13.90 1.00 601.05 13.89 1.00 601.08 13.89 1.00 601.10 13.89 1.00 601.13 13.89

8.21 205.26 8.21 213.47 8.21 221.68 8.21 229.89 8.21 238.10 8.21 246.32 8.21 254.53 8.21 262.74 8.21 270.95 8.21 279.16 8.21 287.37 8.21 295.58 8.21 303.79 8.21 312.00 8.21 320.22 8.21 328.43 8.21 336.64 8.21 344.85 8.21 353.06 8.21 361.28 8.21 369.49 8.21 377.70 8.21 385.91 8.21 394.13 8.21 402.34 8.22 410.56 8.22 418.77

153

INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 600 STB/D)

St
150.00 175.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00 400.00

P3
1867.12 1714.30 1562.56 1258.12 953.28 649.45 345.74

154

12 10.13 267.00 1630.13 122.00 701.00 2705.26 11.13 10.00 1605.13 22.26 11.00 2005.12 10.26 11.13 166.26 11.00 2605.00 11.00 2355.13 200.00 2455.63 1.13 10.00 3.39 1.26 11.00 2505.14 10.00 1680.26 11.00 701.00 10.13 10.00 2405.38 1.13 10.00 2530.26 11.00 2055.00 2.00 2655.00 701.00 2630.26 11.00 1.00 701.27 1.13 189.00 701.00 2580.00 23.00 1805.13 10.00 4.00 2330.00 17.26 11.00 2280.00 701.00 701.26 11.00 2180.00 2030.00 701.00 8.00 701.00 701.00 2080.13 33.26 11.CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 700 STB/D) i P3.13 10.00 701.13 10.77 1.13 222.26 11.13 10.26 11.00 19.90 1.00 7.00 1855.00 14.00 701.00 701.13 10.00 701.13 233.13 133.00 6.13 1.13 10.00 12.00 9.50 1.00 2155.13 111.25 1.00 2105.26 11.88 1.00 22.13 10.26 11.00 13.26 11.00 2730.00 1905.26 1.51 1.00 1780.00 701.12 10.13 10.00 20.I P3.13 44.26 11.26 11.00 701.00 701.03 155 .00 1655.00 2205.26 11.89 1.00 2680.76 1.I VFi Vi  hi ∆Sti Sti 1.13 10.13 100.13 55.64 1.13 1.26 11.13 211.00 2480.26 11.12 10.00 1980.00 15.14 1.00 1830.01 1.00 1880.00 701.00 2130.78 1.00 2755.00 21.26 11.00 1580.12 10.00 1755.00 16.13 10.00 701.00 701.00 1955.13 244.00 2230.13 144.12 10.13 10.13 178.00 5.00 701.00 2255.00 18.40 1.00 1730.00 701.26 11.00 2555.13 11.65 1.13 89.00 701.02 1.00 701.00 2380.13 10.13 66.12 10.52 1.26 11.00 24.13 155.00 1930.00 2430.13 255.00 1705.00 2305.13 77.

13 344.00 555.00 780.00 701.17 10.00 1180.30 1.13 311.13 367.14 567.15 10.25 11.00 701.00 730.38 1.00 355.21 10.26 10.00 880.25 11.26 11.00 701.25 11.14 10.14 556.25 11.72 1.13 278.25 11.00 701.25 11.20 1.16 10.13 534.94 1.18 10.00 701.25 11.25 11.00 701.26 11.79 1.25 11.46 1.98 1.00 48.13 467.00 701.00 1105.00 1030.22 10.25 11.25 11.14 10.00 930.16 10.13 456.13 522.41 1.00 39.13 545.25 11.00 701.17 10.13 400.00 701.00 41.56 1.00 701.13 378.25 11.00 805.67 1.25.14 10.25 11.00 701.00 1330.00 701.00 505.00 1005.00 701.13 422.00 51.16 10.17 1.00 40.00 1230.00 1530.00 701.13 300.13 500.26 11.00 29.14 10.29 10.14 10.00 1080.00 31.13 356.00 701.33 1.00 680.25 11.13 445.00 701.00 1.00 43.26 11.43 1.00 701.00 46.00 455.11 1.00 1380.13 389.00 430.23 10.26 11.00 480.00 530.00 1480.20 10.00 1255.00 701.00 330.00 655.00 630.13 511.00 701.00 1205.00 38.00 1555.00 701.00 955.00 1455.54 1.92 1.16 1.00 855.15 10.00 1280.00 580.00 405.25 11.00 1355.25 11.00 28.00 305.00 34.00 701.00 26.00 27.00 1430.00 755.00 1505.05 1.85 1.13 478.26 11.13 289.00 605.00 380.00 980.00 1305.25 1.25 11.13 411.00 30.32 10.00 36.00 1405.28 1.25 11.81 1.00 905.00 701.00 705.00 701.59 1.15 10.13 322.00 230.14 10.13 433.00 830.00 701.00 701.00 45.13 333.00 50.14 10.13 489.00 35.15 10.00 49.00 701.25 11.00 47.19 10.00 255.00 33.00 280.00 701.00 37.69 1.00 32.52 156 .18 10.00 1055.00 1155.00 44.25 11.07 1.00 1130.00 42.15 10.

83 1432.00 250.00 200.INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 700 STB/D) St 150.00 300.00 P3 2106.16 1207.24 157 .22 1994.00 350.67 983.12 1657.00 175.00 400.70 1881.

00 2605.90 6.00 2330.00 801.98 417.00 6.28 1.00 8.01 18.00 23.82 6.00 1830.29 1.01 18.00 1.71 6.01 18.00 1730.98 56.00 2230.29 1.30 1.00 1905.00 10.98 227.00 2.98 208.75 6.00 2205.00 1980.98 436.00 801.00 22.00 2630.00 801.00 801.88 6.00 801.67 6.00 1855.00 17.55 158 .98 246.00 1955.98 284.28 1.00 2530.98 341.29 1.00 801.29 1.29 1.00 2155.00 2305.00 2080.79 6.73 6.29 1.98 322.00 801.00 801.01 18.59 6.00 801.77 6.00 21.28 1.86 6.29 1.01 18.00 2480.00 5.64 6.00 16.30 6.28 1.00 2380.98 265.01 18.96 6.00 801.01 18.98 189.00 2555.28 1.01 18.00 801.98 37.00 1755.00 4.00 2030.29 1.98 132.01 18.00 2505.00 2455.29 1.00 801.98 113.00 801.00 2255.98 379.00 1630.00 801.00 3.28 1.00 2355.CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 800 STB/D) i P3.98 75.00 801.00 2105.00 801.00 1605.I P3.29 1.00 2430.01 18.00 2180.00 1655.00 24.00 18.98 360.98 151.00 1880.98 94.69 6.01 18.00 12.01 18.00 2680.01 18.01 18.29 1.00 2580.00 7.00 1680.01 18.98 170.01 18.29 1.81 6.60 6.98 398.00 1930.98 455.00 2130.98 303.01 18.00 801.62 6.00 801.01 18.00 2055.00 15.29 1.00 1705.00 20.00 2730.98 18.00 801.01 18.00 801.29 1.00 801.98 6.00 2755.01 18.94 6.00 1580.01 18.00 1780.00 801.01 18.00 1805.01 18.00 11.01 18.00 2005.00 13.00 2705.I VFi Vi  hi ∆Sti Sti 1.29 1.00 801.00 9.00 19.84 6.00 801.00 14.57 6.00 2280.00 2405.92 6.00 2655.66 6.30 1.

52 6.00 305.00 801.00 1055.32 1.00 801.01 18.00 801.00 30.00 43.99 816.00 801.00 801.28 6.00 430.25.00 1005.00 855.00 955.01 19.27 6.39 6.00 380.00 801.00 32.00 28.00 230.00 49.00 1330.00 42.00 1280.98 607.00 1555.32 1.00 40.00 33.00 1080.00 330.30 6.00 1180.00 46.00 1505.00 801.00 555.00 605.00 1205.00 1155.98 531.50 6.31 1.00 255.30 1.34 1.01 18.01 18.00 1355.33 1.44 1.00 1380.99 740.00 892.01 18.01 18.00 705.32 1.41 6.38 1.44 6.99 835.00 1430.30 1.00 45.00 280.00 1230.27 6.99 854.30 1.99 797.00 1530.01 18.99 759.00 405.53 6.34 6.00 19.99 721.00 50.00 36.01 949.98 474.29 6.01 18.00 27.00 26.00 630.01 18.51 6.28 6.00 29.00 830.33 1.00 580.34 1.00 48.00 801.00 801.00 1130.00 905.00 1305.00 801.36 1.00 980.01 930.00 31.33 1.27 6.00 35.00 480.27 6.98 569.00 655.31 1.99 778.00 44.01 18.00 680.01 18.00 505.99 626.35 6.01 19.47 1.01 18.00 37.98 493.00 355.99 645.99 664.00 801.31 6.00 801.00 801.00 801.31 1.98 512.99 683.01 19.31 1.31 159 .01 18.99 702.35 1.00 805.29 6.00 1030.00 801.00 41.01 18.00 38.00 801.01 18.30 1.00 1255.00 801.00 873.00 780.38 6.42 6.00 19.00 1405.00 455.00 801.00 801.30 1.01 18.01 18.00 1105.29 6.00 801.47 6.98 550.40 1.00 730.00 801.00 911.00 34.00 1480.00 47.39 1.33 6.01 18.00 801.00 39.00 801.01 18.01 18.00 755.00 930.00 19.36 6.01 18.00 880.48 6.00 801.02 968.00 530.00 1455.31 1.37 1.01 18.00 801.00 801.45 6.00 1.00 51.00 801.98 588.

70 2253.16 1858.67 1726.00 P3 2385.00 300.00 350.INTAKE PRESSURES AT SELECTED PUMP STAGES FOR W-08 (Q = 800 STB/D) St 150.00 200.24 160 .00 250.83 1990.22 2319.12 2122.00 175.00 400.

qL . STB/D 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1263 1279 1305 1386 1507 1667 1867 2106 2385 1011 1029 1059 1154 1294 1481 1714 1994 2319 758 779 813 921 1082 1296 1562 1881 2253 252 279 322 457 658 925 1258 1657 2122 233 554 953 1432 1990 649 1207 1858 345 983 1726 161 .TABLED3 INTAKE PRESSURES AT ASSUMED RATES FOR W-08 P3 for Assumed Number of Stages Assumed Flow Rate.

3000 2500 2000 IP R Pwf (psi) 1500 1000 500 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 S ta g e = 1 5 0 175 200 250 300 350 400 q (B B L /D o r S T B /D ) Figure D2 Intake Curves for W-08 162 .

00 2555.00 11.00 2705.00 598.97 1.00 2405.14 13.14 13.00 598.14 13.00 12.00 598.00 598.00 2430. Stage = 150) i P3.00 1905.16 13.00 598.96 1.00 2730.00 598.32 3.00 598.14 13.14 13.00 18.00 14.16 22.14 13.97 1.00 598.96 0.63 5.00 2305.00 598.14 13.00 598.96 0.10 9.96 1.16 1.00 16.16 1.00 1880.00 2755.00 2605.37 1.74 1.96 0.96 0.00 2005.00 598.00 2180.16 1.14 13.00 2380.00 8.14 13.16 19.00 2230.00 2280.96 1.00 7.00 598.00 13.16 1.00 1980.16 11.96 0.16 12.00 19.52 1.00 598.00 1955.00 598.00 2255.96 0.00 2530.16 17.14 13.96 1.96 0.14 13.96 0.00 5.96 1.00 2355.96 0.00 163 .14 13.00 2630.CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08 (Qp = 598 stb/d.58 1.16 2.00 598.00 2105.00 2130.00 2580.00 17.16 16.14 13.16 1.00 6.96 0.96 1.00 2.96 0.96 1.00 2205.00 598.00 598.00 10.00 2030.05 1.47 4.00 2480.00 2655.00 2455.00 598.96 1.96 1.00 2505.42 1.14 13.26 1.96 0.96 0.96 1.00 9.00 4.89 1.00 2155.00 2080.16 18.00 1870.14 13.00 2055.I  P3.96 0.14 13.95 8.00 2680.00 598.97 0.96 0.96 1.16 20.00 1.00 1930.68 1.96 1.16 15.96 1.16 1.96 1.14 13.84 1.96 0.16 1.14 13.96 1.I VFi  Vi hpi hi ∆HPi 1.96 1.00 3.00 1875.00 15.16 HPi 1.79 6.16 10.21 1.96 0.96 1.96 0.00 2330.14 13.

14 12.83 0.01 1.28 25.01 1.83 0.00 2555.00 2655.00 7.00 632.02 1.00 16.00 632.96 1.00 4.00 2430.00 2030.00 1930.28 1.02 1.00 2180.00 5.28 14.00 15.00 2280.83 0.85 5.00 632.39 1.00 1880.00 632.00 632.14 12.83 0.01 1.00 2730.28 HPi 1.00 632.00 2480.00 2605.98 1.28 12.00 2380.00 2680.28 16.09 1.14 12.11 1. Stage = 175) i P3.01 1.83 0.37 1.83 0.00 632.00 632.28 10.00 14.00 632.00 17.14 12.14 12.14 12.00 1.02 1.00 1980.14 12.01 1.I P3.00 11.01 1.00 1905.28 11.00 2530.00 10.00 2080.14 12.28 1.41 7.00 13.28 21.00 2105.28 15.83 0.00 2305.14 12.14 12.01 1.00 632.00 8.00 3.83 0.00 632.14 12.00 2405.70 8.65 164 .83 0.00 632.00 2055.83 0.28 2.83 0.00 2505.00 632.02 1.14 12.02 1.83 1.14 12.28 17.28 1.83 0.68 1.00 2755.00 1955.CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08 (Qp = 631 stb/d.52 1.14 12.28 19.00 2630.00 632.28 1.28 1.01 1.00 2130.28 1.00 19.00 1855.14 12.00 9.83 0.00 2005.00 1830.00 632.02 1.00 2580.83 0.00 12.00 632.00 20.14 12.81 1.02 1.00 2230.00 2455.13 6.54 1.02 0.00 632.00 632.00 2355.01 1.14 12.00 632.00 2330.26 1.00 2255.00 2155.00 632.83 0.28 20.28 23.83 0.00 2.02 1.14 12.83 0.28 24.00 1792.57 3.00 2205.I VFi Vi hpi  hi ∆HPi 1.24 1.83 0.00 1811.02 1.00 18.00 2705.83 0.00 6.14 12.14 12.02 1.83 1.

06 1.86 0.07 0.00 659.14 11.00 2705.00 659.00 1955.86 0.00 22.00 2130.41 21.41 25.06 1.14 11.22 5.00 1855.41 30.14 11.00 2355.44 9.14 11.86 0.00 659.06 1.06 1.41 14.54 1.00 12.86 0.92 1.69 1.86 0.86 0.00 2530.14 11.86 0.00 2105.06 1.00 2405.07 1.06 1.14 11.00 659.00 17.00 2480.41 1.00 659.00 2330.06 1.00 4.00 2730.00 659.00 659.00 8.14 11.00 13.06 1.00 7.41 2.00 5.06 1.41 15.86 0.00 659.25 1.00 1755.00 659.14 11.00 2055.06 1.06 1.00 1980.I  P3.00 1805.00 659.00 10.00 659.00 2205.14 11.I VFi  Vi hpi hi ∆HPi 1.00 2380.32 1.29 1.86 0.00 2630.14 11.00 2555. Stage = 200) i P3.95 165 .86 0.86 0.14 11.03 8.00 1780.66 1.00 659.00 1727.00 2655.00 659.63 7.00 2305.CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08 (Qp = 658 stb/d.00 1930.06 1.41 23.06 1.41 1.41 1.00 2605.50 1.41 22.14 11.00 659.86 0.86 0.14 11.47 1.06 1.00 15.41 29.41 11.00 659.85 1.00 2430.00 1725.06 1.00 1905.00 1880.00 2180.00 2755.41 1.00 659.86 1.41 1.14 11.86 0.00 2005.06 1.41 12.06 1.14 11.00 2080.00 19.06 1.00 659.00 21.06 1.00 16.00 2030.86 0.00 1730.10 1.00 2255.00 1830.86 0.00 659.14 11.00 2680.14 11.00 659.14 1.14 11.41 26.00 2.00 2155.00 2280.86 0.00 659.86 0.14 11.14 11.73 1.86 0.00 659.06 1.00 659.88 1.14 11.41 HPi 1.00 11.86 0.00 2230.41 18.00 2455.00 2505.00 9.81 4.86 0.51 1.00 20.14 11.00 6.41 19.00 14.41 16.00 2580.41 28.00 18.41 1.06 1.00 3.

00 2455.00 1980.00 2755.15 10.62 1.00 6.49 0.12 1.62 11.12 1.00 695.00 695.00 19.16 166 .93 1.00 3.00 695.12 1.62 16.49 0.15 10.62 24.62 17.62 32.11 1.00 2380.62 27.62 29.49 0.00 695.00 17.11 1.00 2655.00 1905.00 23.15 10.15 10.49 0.15 10.49 0.00 695.00 10.15 10.11 1.00 695.49 0.00 695.00 2255.00 2580.15 10.15 10.32 1.00 2605.15 10.08 9.93 1.00 21.15 10.00 695.00 1930.00 695.CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08 (Qp = 694 stb/d.00 695.00 2705.00 7.00 1830.54 1.62 22.00 695.00 15.00 2730.12 0.46 8.00 2030.00 2530.62 HPi 1.01 1.00 2505.16 1.62 1.62 35.11 1.62 33.00 2205.00 2305.00 1632.00 2405.00 2180.00 8.00 1656.49 0.00 11.49 0.15 10.00 695.49 0.00 1955.00 12.12 1.49 0.00 695.47 1.15 10.00 1755.15 10.62 25.15 10.49 0.15 10.62 14.12 1.49 0.12 1.00 2630.85 6.00 13.62 30.39 1.23 4.00 695.00 2130.15 10.00 2430.49 0.49 0.62 19.11 1.00 695.62 1.12 1.00 695.15 10.85 1.62 37.62 21.00 1855.00 695.I  P3.00 2230.62 1.12 1.12 1.00 4.00 2555.00 1680.12 1.15 10.00 20.00 5.00 2680.77 1.00 22.00 1.00 2.00 1780.55 1.15 10.00 695.00 18.49 0.00 2480.00 2005.15 10.00 1805.00 2080.00 695.49 0.00 695.49 0.49 0.00 2355.15 10.12 1.15 10.70 1.49 0.00 9.08 1.62 3.00 2155. Stage = 250) i P3.12 1.12 1.12 1.00 2330.00 1880.62 1.I VFi Vi hpi  hi ∆HPi 1.12 1.00 14.00 695.00 2055.62 1.31 1.24 1.00 695.00 695.15 10.49 0.00 1730.12 1.00 16.49 0.69 1.00 1705.00 2280.11 1.00 2105.49 0.62 12.49 1.

17 1.50 1.00 13.81 14.00 2.45 9.00 721.81 16.45 9.00 2680.00 2730.00 721.81 41.00 2655.00 20.00 721.00 21.16 1.46 9.00 721.00 2030.81 43.00 721.46 9.00 2705.45 9.00 721.93 1.00 3.45 ∆HPi 1.16 1.15 0.00 721.81 10.00 2630.15 0.00 4.15 0.00 1605.46 9.00 1755.81 25.46 9.00 721.I  P3.00 15.00 2305.81 18.79 1.00 2180.00 2555.16 1.00 721.00 7.00 1630.16 1.16 1.49 1.16 1.16 1.I VFi Vi hpi 0.CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08 (Qp = 720 stb/d.46 9.00 721.15 1.15 0.15 0.36 1.15  hi 9.00 2530.00 9.00 1655.15 0.15 0.81 1.00 1855.00 721.00 1880.81 23.00 2605.00 10.00 721.46 9.15 0.00 721.00 11.00 2230.45 9.00 1980.00 721.47 1.00 2455.04 1.00 8.81 36.42 1.45 9.00 2080.16 1.61 1.15 0.16 1.00 1730.46 9.00 17.81 30.00 12.45 9.45 9.16 1.00 25.00 2155.16 1.16 1.00 721.81 21.00 2580.15 0.81 45.00 24.74 1.81 12.45 9.00 721.16 1.15 0.00 1680.15 0.15 0.00 22.15 0.00 2280.68 1.00 2480.16 1.81 28.00 2380.00 721.16 1.00 721.16 1.00 23.00 1559.87 1.17 1.15 1.00 721.00 2505.00 1805.15 0.45 9.00 16.45 9.46 9.81 1.25 9.00 2355.00 721.00 1705.15 0.15 0.98 1.66 1.00 2005.81 39.00 2055.15 0.15 0.29 .17 167 1.81 27.16 1. Stage = 300) i P3.43 7.00 18.81 HPi 1.00 1830.00 2255.00 1580.00 2755.00 2430.46 9.00 1955.46 9.00 1930.00 2205.16 1.17 1.00 1780.45 9.81 1.00 721.00 2405.00 1905.06 1.45 9.00 14.85 1.17 1.00 5.81 19.81 3.81 38.00 721.15 0.15 0.62 5.81 34.00 19.46 9.00 721.00 6.00 2330.81 1.23 1.81 32.15 0.00 721.17 1.30 1.00 2105.00 721.55 1.15 0.00 2130.15 0.46 9.11 1.00 1569.

00 743.28 2.02 36.55 8.00 19.00 1930.19 1.12 2.00 1655.00 743.02 38.02 30.00 743.20 1.15 0.00 743.34 2.02 14.55 8.00 2230.15 0.00 1730.36 2.44 2.00 2105.00 2405.00 24.00 2280.15 0.55 8.20 1.55 8.I VFi Vi hpi 0.02 4.10 2.CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08 (Qp = 742 stb/d.00 2580.00 2730.55 8.50 2.55 8.00 1830.00 1780.00 743.02 40.00 2255.15 0.00 1805.00 743.19 1.26 2.55 8.15 0.19 1.00 1705.02 20.00 1980.19 1.02 44.02 22.22 2.00 1955.00 8.20 2.00 2005.42 2.15 0.00 1513.55 8.00 23.18 2.46 2.20 1.00 16.00 2130.55 8.00 2.02 12.00 2155.00 2330.00 743.00 2205. Stage = 350) i P3.00 26.55 8.00 1680.08 1.00 1580.00 1855.00 743.00 6.20 1.02 34.19 1.02 32.00 743.24 2.00 1496.00 2455.14 2.00 7.00 5.55 8.15 0.15 0.00 2355.20 1.00 2705.55 8.02 26.00 743.00 743.02 18.00 2030.00 1605.15 0.15 0.55 8.00 2480.15 0.19 1.00 2430.48 2.19 1.00 2505.00 743.15 0.00 743.19 1.00 743.00 743.00 25.00 743.55 8.00 743.00 17.00 2630.00 9.00 743.00 1905.00 2530.00 2755.55 8.55 8.55 8.00 20.00 4.15 0.55 ∆HPi 2.02 HPi 2.02 2.20 1.20 1.40 2.16 2.04 6.00 2180.00 2305.00 11.20 1.15 0.00 1555.38 2.00 15.00 1530.15 0.00 14.00 2080.02 42.19 1.00 743.02 16.00 3.00 13.15 0.02 50.52 .02 28.15 0.20 1.00 743.00 2605.00 12.15  hi 8.02 48.55 8.00 743.00 743.06 8.00 2680.00 2380.00 1755.15 0.00 2655.00 2055.02 52.00 10.00 22.15 0.55 8.15 0.00 743.55 8.15 0.55 8.00 1.15 0.00 1880.00 743.15 0.02 2.55 8.55 8.32 2.02 2.20 1.02 46.55 8.20 1.30 2.15 0.00 743.00 21.02 24.00 2555.21 168 2.55 8.19 1.20 1.02 10.19 1.15 0.19 1.00 1630.I  P3.00 18.20 1.00 743.

23 22.00 2.00 11.00 2255.00 2180.00 761.00 21.00 10.00 1.00 1855.15 0.00 1705.22 1.15 0.00 2280.10 2.15 0.01 2.00 761.00 1930.23 29.00 761.00 2430.22 1.24 2.15 0.00 1580.78 7.00 2455.23 HPi 2.22 1.17 2.00 5.00 2505.22 1.23 46.15 0.00 761.22 1.78 7.23 1.00 761.00 9.23 1.78 7.78 7.I VFi Vi hpi 0.23 35.94 2.00 2105.00 2680.00 2205.15 0.64 2.23 49.22 1.00 1530.23 24.78 7.00 2355.23 44.00 2380.00 1780.78 7.00 761.23 1.23 1.00 25.09 2.23 55.23 17.23 37.00 1805.00 761. Stage = 400) i P3.78 7.78 ∆HPi 2.79 .22 1.23 1.00 4.15 0.15 0.00 761.00 2155.00 16.23 2.23 40.15 0.23 33.00 3.78 7.78 7.78 7.78 7.00 2730.55 2.22 1.00 761.15 0.00 20.23 1.00 1980.00 2655.15 0.00 761.87 2.16 2.00 761.00 1730.00 14.00 1830.00 1680.00 13.22 1.15 0.00 761.00 1555.00 761.78 7.00 2630.00 2705.78 7.62 2.23 31.00 761.CALCULATION OF HORSEPOWER FOR W-08 (Qp = 760 stb/d.00 1655.00 761.39 2.00 19.00 2230.23 169 2.00 2755.00 1905.00 2130.00 6.00 761.00 761.23 2.22 1.00 7.00 761.00 2055.78 2.00 23.78 7.32 2.15 0.78 7.23 51.00 2005.15 0.00 17.33 2.22 1.78 7.22 1.78 7.46 6.00 18.00 22.23 4.I  P3.00 24.00 1955.15  hi 7.00 12.85 2.23 2.15 0.23 20.71 2.00 2605.23 11.78 7.15 0.40 2.00 1605.23 53.23 26.23 1.23 1.00 2030.15 0.78 7.23 1.00 761.93 1.23 42.00 761.00 761.56 2.00 1755.15 0.70 8.00 15.00 761.15 0.00 2080.00 2480.00 2405.15 0.23 1.23 15.00 761.00 2305.15 0.00 1630.00 8.15 0.78 7.48 2.00 2580.00 761.00 2530.78 7.78 7.23 13.00 1880.78 7.15 0.00 2555.22 1.78 7.15 0.00 2330.22 1.00 761.

24 0.23 58.00 761.78 2.00 761.03 2.15 7.15 0.24 1.00 1443.26 170 .00 1461.23 60.78 7.26.00 1505.00 1480.50 1.00 27.

32 1.TABLE D4 HORSEPOWER REQUIREMENTS FOR POSSIBLE RATES FROM W-08 St 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 qp (STB/D) 598 631 658 694 720 742 760 P3 (psi) 1870 1792 1725 1632 1559 1496 1443 P2 (psi) 2780 2780 2780 2780 2780 2780 2780 HP 23 27 32 39 49 57 66 ∆qp/∆St 1.72 0.52 0.44 0.08 0.36 - 171 .

1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Stages Efficiency Range Suggested Stage Suggested HP HP Actual Value (St) Possible Rate (STB/D) Stages or Horsepower FIGURE D3 Possible Production Rate vs Stages and Horsepower for W-08 172 .

Pdischarge Pressure gain. Pintake Discharge Pressure. High production rates results in high-pressure losses. These parameters are directly proportional with discharge pressure Pressure gained by pump (Pdischarge. ∆Pgain Pressure loss ∆Ploss Production Rate. More the pump increases the pressure from intake to discharge value. more the pressure will be in the wellhead Assuming a constant discharge pressure . that means pump will gain more pressure but at the same time pump will require more horsepower High horsepower requirement means number of pump stages will be more and pressure gain will be high. q Number of Stages HP Required 173 . i.TABLE D5 Relation of Production Parameters With Each Other Comments A high wellhead pressure means a high pump discharge pressure. An increase in production rate results in increase in pressure loss due to friction and related to that increase in discharge pressure Also an increase in production rate decreases the pump head (per stage) which causes a decrease in intake pressure and thus a decrease in pressure gain by pump If number of pump stages will be increased then intake pressure will decrease.Pintake) increases with an increase in number of pump stage however in this case pump requires more horsepower Pressure loss in the tubing is directly related to production rate. Pwh Intake Pressure. and pressure in the wellhead. pump will increase the intake pressure to higher discharge pressure for lifting the fluid Wellhead Pressure. intake pressure increases with an increase in production rate and decreases with an increase in number of pump stages Discharge pressure is a function of production rate.e.

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