You are on page 1of 8



The figure illustrates the process used by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to forecast the weather.

There are four stages in the process, beginning with the collection of information about the weather. This
information is then analysed, prepared for presentation, and finally broadcast to the public.

Looking at the first and second stages of the process, there are three ways of collecting weather data and
three ways of analysing it. Firstly, incoming information can be received by satellite and presented for
analysis as a satellite photo. The same data can also be passed to a radar station and presented on a radar
screen or synoptic chart. Secondly, incoming information may be collected directly by radar and analysed on
a radar screen or synoptic chart. Finally, drifting buoys also receive data which can be shown on a synoptic

At the third stage of the process, the weather broadcast is prepared on computers. Finally, it is delivered to
the public on television, on the radio, or as a recorded telephone announcement.

T2.Should wealthy nations be required to share their wealth among poorer nations by
providing such things as food and education? Or is it the responsibility of the
governments of poorer nations to look after their citizens themselves?

With the development of global economy, more and more people have a better life than decades ago.
However, in some areas of world, there are also poorer countries where people don't have sufficient food to
eat or any education. I think that, not only should wealthy countries help poor ones, but poor countries
should try their best to give their citizens a better quality of life.

Helping poorer countries is a moral requirement, but also there are many benefits from it. First of all,
providing assistance to these countries could save many lives from starvation, and keep them away from
diseases, therefore people in the poorer countries could enjoy a better life. Furthermore, this could help
them to have enough energy to develop their country, and then provide food and education for themselves.
Eventually, they would be able to cooperate with wealthy countries to benefit each other.

To poorer countries, besides being assisted by others, have to take responsibility for developing their own
country for a better quality for their citizens' life. However, some use the resources provided by others in a

wrong way, such as taking the money to buy weapons, food to support the war. They should stop doing
this, and to develop in peace. In addition, improving the stability of society, such as improving their laws,
providing job opportunities, developing technology, is an important task for them.

Therefore, it's wrong to say that one country should take the whole responsibility for that. Countries all over
the world should help each other for a better development, by doing this, countries can benefit from each
other also.

T1. The chart shows the amount of money per week spend on fast foods in Britain. Another graph
shows the trends in consumption of fast foods.

The graph shows the amount of money paid each week for junk food in Britain. The second one illustrates
the amount of fast food consumed over a 20 years period of time.

It can be seen that people with high income consumed considerably more fast foods than the other
income groups, spending more than double as much on hamburgers (43 pence per person per week) than
on fish and chips or pizza (both under 20 pence). On the other hand, those earning low on wage tend to
spend over 15 pence per week for fish and chips followed by hamburger and pizza (approximately less that
15 pence and 10 pence per week). Average income earners also favoured hamburgers, spending 33 pence
per person per week, followed by fish and chips at 24 pence, then pizza at 11 pence.

From the graph we can see that in 1970, fish and chips were twice as popular as burgers, pizza being at
that time the least popular fast food. The consumption of hamburgers and pizza has risen steadily over the
20 year period to 1990 while the consumption of fish and chips has been in decline over that same period
with a slight increase in popularity since 1985.

Overall, hamburger was the most consumed type of fast food among the group of people with high and
average income.

T2. News editors decide what to broadcast on television and what to print in newspapers. There
are two factors that influence their decisions.
It has often been said that. Good news is bad news. because it does not sell newspapers. A radio station
that once decided to present only good news soon found that it had gone out of business for lack of
listeners. Bad news on the other hand is so common that in order to cope with, we often simply ignore it.
We have become immune to bad news and the newspapers and radio stations are aware of this.
While newspapers and TV stations may aim to report world events accurately, be they natural or human
disasters, political events or the horrors of war, it is also true that their main objective is to sell newspapers
and attract listeners and viewers to their stations. For this reason TV and radio editors attempt to reflect the
flavour of their station by providing news broadcasts tailor-made to suit their
listeners’ preferences. Programmes specialising in pop music or TV soap operas focus more on local news,
home issues and up-to-date traffic reports. The more serious stations and newspapers like to provide .so
called. objective news reports with editorial comment aimed at analysing the situation.
If it is true, then, that newspapers and TV stations are tailoring their news to their readers. and viewers.
requirements, how can they possibly be reporting real world events in an honest and objective light? Many
radio and TV stations do, in fact, report items of good news but they no longer call this news. They refer to
these as human interest stories and package them in programmes specialising, for instance, in consumer
affairs or local issues. Good news now come to us in the form of documentaries like the fight against
children’s cancer or AIDS, or the latest developments in the fight to save the planet from environmental

T1. Chorleywood is a village near London whose population had increased steadily since the
middle of the 19th century. The map below shows the development of the village.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the development of the village.

The map shows the growth of a village called Chorleywood between 1868 and 1994.

It is clear that the village grew as transport infrastructure and it was improved. Four periods of development
are shown on the map, and each of the populated areas are near to the main roads, the railway or the

From 1868 to 1883, Chorleywood covered a small area next to one of the main roads. Chorleywood Park
and Golf Course are now located next to this original village area. The village grew along the main road to
the south between 1883 and 1922, and in 1909 a railway line was built crossing this area from west to east.
Chorleywood station is in this part of the village.

The expansion of Chorleywood continued to the east and west alongside the railway line until 1970. At that
time, a motorway was built to the east of the village, and from 1970 to 1994, further development of the
village took place around motorway intersections with the railway and one of the main roads.

T2. The idea of having a single career is becoming an old fashioned one. The new fashion will be
to have several careers or ways of earning money and further education will be something that
continues throughout life.

Recently it is becoming more and more popular to implement one’s abilities in several different professional
spheres. Nowadays people are not satisfied with only one career, so they try to find themselves in various
professions. I think that having more than one career throughout life is useful for everyone.
The first advantage of having many careers is the knowledge a person would acquire in the process of
specialization in a new unfamiliar field. For example, people engaged in one kind of work only throughout
their life are sometimes narrow-minded persons, this way they can liberalize.
Another benefit of different careers is that such kind of changes helps a person increasing their income. For
instance, by earning more money people can allow themselves better education, social and health services.
As a consequence, it leads into improvement of life quality.
And finaly, by improving their acquirements and skills people are able to compete successfully in severe
conditions of market economy. Thus people are more flexible to the changing economic situation. As a
result, they are always able to find a good job with a better payment.
However, having several careers has its disadvantages. Firstly, people who change their career too often
sometimes suffer from stress. Moreover, frequently they are not able to acquire deep knowledge in their
profession because of too little time spent on it.
Although it isn’t easy to have several careers it seems to me that it is very beneficial for people because in
such way people are able to better themselves, to earn more money and also get job satisfaction.

There's a trend to having several careers in the world of advance technology and luxury.

People find it difficult to cope with the going needs and lifestyle with a single career. Nowadays people tend
to persue new careers to achieve and progress in their lives to fullfill the growing demands. Some people try
to achieve careers with further education, and after finishing try to get good job or a promotion in their
existing jobs. Some people. however, try to find part-time jobs or try to pursue new careers in which they
are good at like painting, writing, photography or a disc jocky (dj) in order to earn the extra money apart
from the usual jobs.

In my opinion the trend will continue till the end as new technology and luxury progresses and the need to
get make more money continues.

T1. The charts below show the results of a survey of adult education. The firstchart shows the
reasons why adults decide to study. The pie chart showshow people think the costs of adult
education should be shared. Write a report for a university lecturer, describing the information
shown below.

The bar chart shows the various reasons people cite when deciding to study in adulthood, and the pie
chart indicates the results of a survey which asked people who should pay for such education.

The reasons for taking up further education fall into three groups. In the first and largest, students cite
interest and qualifications as reasons, each being mentioned by about 40%.

The second group of reasons, cited by similar percentages of respondents, contains three reasons.
Some people, 22%, feel further education will be helpful for their current jobs, others, slightly lower at
20%, feel it will increase their chances of promotion, and still others, again at 20%, simply feel they
would enjoy the chance to study more. The third group contains two reasons, namely the possibility of
changing jobs and the chance of making friends, being cited by 12% and 9% of students respectively.

The pie chart indicates that 40% of people think the cost of adult education should be met by students
themselves. A slightly smaller percentage deem that employers should foot the bill. It is intriguing,
however, to note that only 25% feel that taxpayers ought to pay.

T2. There are many different types of music in the world today. Why do we need music? It
the traditional music of a country more important than the international music that is heard
everywhere nowadays?

Music is a form of art and many people listen to it. In addition, many various types of music have appeared
in the world. In my opinion, traditional music in the past seemed to be more important than international
music but now the situation has changed.

Nowadays, the necessity of music is deserved to be a part of life. Firstly, music makes people relaxed. When
people get stress or sadness and anxiety, they listen to music. As that can be a therapy, in Korea some
people suffering of different diseases use music as a medicine. Futhermore, music can be a way to
communicate with other people. As people listen to music, they appeal their emotion through music. So
people who have music in common could communicate widely. Finally, music reflects one's culture, tradition
and history. In international events, Olympic and Worldcup, many countries play traditional music so others
may be able to understand their culture and history.

However, many youngsters listen to international music such as hip-hop, rock and pop. This is because
these days music accompanies some kind of trend like fashion and behaviour of famous stars. Eventually,
traditional music is declining for many people. Therefore, it is not reasonable because some singer or band
tries to keep the characteristics of traditional music. For this reason, international music is more important
than that music. Young people and many countries export their own music to other countries so as to
become international.
Having discussed the above, international music became more important part of our lives than traditional
music and also many countries try to let all people know their own music which can be a part of culture,
history and tradition.

Answer: We listen to various kinds of musics everywhere nowadays.

All of us need music to get relaxed and to be emotionally enriched with new ideas and thoughts.
In my opinion people should always be very open minded to accept different kinds of new ideas, new songs,
new musics which may be not traditional but Internationally well known very good and soothing for their
mental healths. And we all know that this is the purpose of a music.
I am always against of something new which is hazardous to our mental health
and creates irritations instead of giving us pleasures. So people should always be very choosy so that they
can differentiate between anything good and bad. I pesonally discourage those people who are always
confined to their own traditions.If somebody
feels that their tradional music is the best, then he/she can give preference to it but he/she must listen to
all the varieties of music.That is why nowadays musicians are very open to accept new types of music and
this helps them in composing new kinds of musics.

In my opinion people should be flexible in choosing musics.I believe any music giving me happiness and
nurture my emotions,is a good music and I'll give it more importance than a traditional irritating one.


T1. The table below shows the consumer durables (telephone, refrigerator, etc. ) owned in
Britain from 1972 to 1983. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information
shown below.

The chart shows that the percentage of British households with a range of consumer durables steadily
increased between 1972 and 1983. The greatest increase was in telephone ownership, rising from 42% in
1972 to 77% in 1983. Next came central-heating ownership with a growth of 27% in the referred decade.
The percentage of households with a refrigerator rose by 21% over the same period of time and of those
with a washing machine by 14%. Households with wacuum-cleaners, televisions and dishwashers increased
by 8%, 5% and 2% respectively. In 1983, the year of their introduction, 18% of the households had a video

The significant social changes reflected in the statistics are that over the period , the proportion of British
houses with central heating rose from one to two thuds, and of those with a phone from under a half to over
three-quarters. Together with the big increases in ownership of washing mashines and refrigerators, they
are evidence of both rising living standards and the trend to lifestyles based on comfort and convenience.

T2. Present a written argument or case to an educated reader with no knowledge of the
following topic.

“Fatherhood ought to be emphasized as much as motherhood. The idea that women are solely
responsible for deciding wheter or not to have babies leads on to the idea that they are also
responsible for bringing the children up”

I believe that child-rearing should be the responsibility of both parents and that, whilst the roles within
that partnership may be different, they are nevertheless equal in importance. In some societies, it has been
made easier over the years for single parents to raise children on their own. However, this does not mean
that the traditional family, with both parents providing emotional support and role-models for their children,
is not the most satisfactory way of bringing up children.

Of crucial importance, in my opinion, is how we define ‘responsible for bringing the children up’. at its
simpliest, it could mean giving the financial support necessary to provide a home, food and clothes and
making sure the child is safe and receives an adequate education. This would be the basic definition.

There is, however, another possible way of defining that part of the quotation. That would say it is not just
the father’s responsibility to provide the basics for his children, while his wife involves herself in the
everyday activity of bringing them up. Rather, he should share those daily duties, spend as much time as
his job allows with his children, play with them, read to them, help directly with their education, participate
very fully in their lives and encourage them to share his.

It is this second, fuller, concept of ‘fatherhood’ that I’m in favour of, although I also realize how difficult it is
to achieve sometimes. The economic and employment situation in many countries means that jobs are
getting more, not less, stressful, requiring long hours and perhaps long journeys to work as well. Therefore
it may remain for many a desirable ideal rather an achievable reality.

T1. The chart below shows the amount of leisure time enjoyed by men and women of different
employment status. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown

The chart shows the number of hours of leisure enjoyed by men and women in a typical week in 1998-9,
according to gender and employment status.

Among those employed full time, men on average had fifty hours of leisure, whereas women had
approximately thirty-seven hours. There were no figures given on male part-time workers, but female part-
time workers had fourty hours of leisure time only slightly more than women in full-time employment,
perhaps reflecting their work in the home.

In the unemployed and retired categories, leisure time showed an increase for both sexes. as might have
been expected. Here too, men enjoyed more leisure time – over eighty hours, compared to seventy hours
for women, perhaps once again reflecting the fact that women spend more time working in the home than

Lastly, housewives enjoyed approximately fifty-four hours of leisure, on average. There were no figures
given for househusbands! Overall, the chart demonstrates that in categories for which statistics on male
leisure time were available, men enjoyed at least ten hours of extra leisure time.

T2. Present a written argument or case to an educated reader with no specialist knowledge of
the following topic:

“Prevention is better than cure.

Out of a country health budget, a large proportion should be diverted from treatment to
spending on health education and preventative mesures”

To what extend do you agree or disagree with this statement

Of course it goes without saying that prevention is better than cure. That is why in recent years, there have
been a growing body of opinion in favour of putting more resources into health education and preventive
measures. The argument is that ignorance of, for instance, ignoring hygiene or the dangers of an unhealthy
diet or lifestyle needs to be combated by nation wide publicity campaigns, as well as longer-term health

Obviously, there is a strong human argument for catching any medical condition as early as possible. There
is also an economic argument for doing so. Statistics demonstrate the cost effectiveness of treating a
condition in the early stages, rather than delaying until more expensive and prolonged treatment is
necessary. Then there are social and economic costs, perhaps in terms of loss of earnings for the family
concerned or unemployed benefit paid by the state.

So far so good, but the difficulties start when we try to define what the ‘proportion of the budget’ should
be, particularly if the funds will be ‘diverted from treatment’. Decisions on exactly how much of the total
health budget should be spent in this way are not a matter for the non-specialist, but should be made on
the basis of an accepted health service model.

This is the point at which real problems occur- the formulation of the model. How do we accurately
measure which health education campaigns are effective in both medical and financial terms? how do we
agree about the medical efficacy of various screening programmes, for example, when the medical
establishment itself does not agree? A very rigorous process of evaluation is called for, so that we can make
informed decisions.

T1. The charts below show the number of Japanese tourists travelling abroad between 1985 and
1995 and Australia’s share of the Japanese tourist market.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. You should write
at least 150 words.

The first graph shows the total number of Japanese tourists who travelled abroad between 1985
and 1995. The total number rose from around 4 and a half million to around 14 and a half million, an
increase of over 200%. The rise was consistent over this period, with only one year, 1991, showing a fall
compared with the previous year. There was a slight bottoming out in the years 1992-1993 before another
sharp increase in 1994. The largest single annual increase was registered in 1995.
The second graph shows Australia’s share of Japan’s tourist market over roughly the same period
(1985-1994). This share tripled, from 2% in 1985 to 6% in 1994. There were two distinct periods of
dramatic growth, 1985-1988 and 1989-1993, interrupted by a significant fall in 1989. There was another
slight fall in 1994. It is interesting to note that 1989, which saw a drop of approximately half a percentage
point in Australia’s share did not see a drop in the total number of Japanese tourists travelling abroad.
Conversely, 1991, which saw a decline in the total number of Japanese tourists travelling abroad, also saw a
percentage increase in those travelling to Australia.

The chart below shows the levels of participation in education and science in developing
and industrialised countries in 1980 and 1990.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

The data shows the differences between developing and industrialised countries’ participation in
education and science.

In terms of numbers of years of schooling received, we see that the length of time people spend at
school in industrialized countries was much greater at 8.5 years in 1980, compared to 2.5 years in
developing countries. The gap was increased further more in 1990 when the figures rose to 10.5 years and
3.5 years respectively.

We can see a similar pattern in the second graph, which shows that the number of people working
as scientists and technicians in industrialized countries increased from 55 to 85 per 1000 people between
1980 and 1990, while the number in developing countries went form 12 to 20.

Finally, the figures for spending on research and development shows that industrialized countries
more than doubled their spending, from $200bn, to $420bn, whereas developing countries actually
decreased theirs, from 75bn down to 25bn.

Overall we can see that not only are there very large differences between the two economies but
that these gaps are widening.

The graph below gives information on wages of Somecountry over a ten-year period. Write
a report for a university tutor describing the information shown.

The linegraph describes the growth of wages in Somecountry from year 1993 to year 2003
The growth starts at two percent in 1993, but it doesn’t stay there very long before it rapidly doubles in
1994. Further on, the percentages decline to three percent in 1995, stays steady for a year, before it starts
to rise slowly and ends up just under four percent in 1997. 1998 is the best year when the wages peaked at
six percent value.
However, after 1998 the wages declined nearly every year. Only a year later , the percentage
droped by half, reaching well under three percent, and continued on roughly three percent untill 2000. In
2002 the wages reached the lowest point of just one percent growth. Luckily the percentage rised in 2003
reaching a value of 2 percent.
Overall, the growth rate in wages in some countries has shown striking changes through the
decade starting 1993.