20

Hood and Ductwork Design

20.1 INTRODUCTION
The design of hoods and ductwork is often a very important part of air-pollution control. Hoods and the air exhausted must be adequate to prevent escape of contaminants to the atmosphere. On the other hand, the air exhausted through a hood must usually be treated to remove the contaminant. Therefore, to keep capital and operating costs of control equipment to a minimum, no more air should be exhausted than necessary for complete capture. By designing the hood with the minimum openings necessary, the air quantity to be exhausted can often be decreased. When an exhaust system must exhaust gases from a number of points, it is important that the ductwork sizing and layout be carefully engineered for the proper flow and velocity in all branches, both for conveying velocity and pressure drop. It is axiomatic that the pressure drop through each branch at its design flow must be the same from its intake to the point of common junction. If it is not, the flow will redistribute itself in operation to create the same pressure drop in each branch. When handling abrasive dusts, duct wear can be quite severe. Situations are known to have occurred where ¼-in.-thick elbows have been worn through in 2 weeks time in poorly designed exhaust systems. Therefore, when handling abrasive dusts, the duct routing should be as simple and direct as possible. Bends, where necessary, should be gradual with long radii. Velocity should be kept as low as possible, consistent with keeping the dust particles in suspension. Where bends in the ductwork are necessary and rapid wear is encountered, designs can be developed which employ easily replaceable wear pads on the bends. These pads can be thick metal, made of wear-resistant steel, castings, hard-surfaced with special abrasionresistant alloys such as stellite, or have thick rubber-coated linings. A number of good reference sources are available for the design of hoods and ductwork and should be consulted before design of an elaborate dust-collecting network of ducts. Among the better general references recommended are: Dalla Valle,1 Hemeon,2 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,3 ASHRAE Handbook,4 and Buonicore and Davis.5 A recent article by R. H. King6 describes the proper installation of fans for optimal system performance. A concise summary of exhaust system design was prepared by Brandt.7 While it is an excellent article on hood and duct design, it was written in 1945. Thus, it was written more from the standpoint of industrial ventilation rather than pollution control. The information presented is still accurate and useful. However, it must be understood that statements concerning control velocity

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which relate to capturing sufficient contaminants to prevent a worker health hazard, must now be interpreted as meaning capture of contaminants sufficient to prevent pollution of air. The principle in design of hoods and ducts is to choose a velocity that fits the situation. For both hoods and ducts, the velocity must be sufficient to overcome the pressure drop. For hoods, the material must be drawn up and into the duct. For ducts, the velocity must be sufficient to keep any particles suspended. Once the operating velocity is set, the flow is governed by the following law for volumetric flow. Q = AV (20.1)

Here Q is the volumetric flow rate, V is the velocity chosen, and A is the required area of flow. Once a velocity is chosen for a hood, the area required to cover the source from which the pollutant must be removed determines the flow rate. The flow rate needed in a duct sets the area of the duct.

20.2 HOOD DESIGN
The purpose of a hood is to collect contaminants from a workplace. Significant amounts of air are also drawn into the hood. The air flow is set by the distance between the source and the hood and by the pressure loss created by the air entering the duct. A sophisticated approach is given by Goodfellow.3 Brandt7 lists the following four major groups of hoods and designates the relationship governing the flow into the hood. 1. 2. 3. 4. Enclosing hoods Rectangular or round hoods Slot hoods Canopy hoods

In each case the minimum control velocity must first be selected. Table 20.1 is a guide for the selection of this control velocity.

20.2.1 FLOW RELATIONSHIP
20.2.1.1 Enclosing Hoods

FOR THE

VARIOUS TYPES

OF

HOODS

An enclosing hood completely shuts off the ineffective outside area. Paint booths and laboratory hoods are typical examples of an enclosing hood. Equation 20.1 describes this type of hood where the area, A, is the area of any opening into the hood. This opening is necessary to assure air flow. However, the area should be kept to a minimum for good performance. 20.2.1.2 Rectangular or Round Hoods This type of hood is used for welding, stone surfacing, cleaning and degreasing, and drilling. The shape of the velocity pattern in front of these hoods determines the
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TABLE 20.1 Minimum Recommended Control Velocities
Condition of Release of Contaminant Released with no significant velocity into quiet air Released with low initial velocity into moderately quiet air Released with considerable velocity or into zone of rapid air movement Released with high velocity or into zone of rapid air movement Example of Process or Operations Evaporation from open vessels Spray paint booths, welding, dumping of dry materials into containers Spray painting in small booths with high pressure, active barrel or container filling, conveyor loading Grinding, abrasive blasting, surfacing operations on rock Minimum Control Velocity (ft/min) 100 100–200 200–500

500–2000

velocity into the hood. The total air flow entering the hood is determined by a point at x distance from an imagined suction point. Thus the air velocity V is measured at a distance x from this suction point. The area A is essentially a spherical surface with area = 4πx2 = 12.57x2. Equation 20.1 then becomes, Q = 12.57x 2 V (20.2)

By experiment Dalla Valle1 noted that the contour shape actually changes and flattens slightly in front of the hood and, thus, he modified this theoretical relationship to the following, Q = 10 x 2 + a V

(

)

(20.3)

where x = distance in feet along hood centerline from the face of the hood to the point where the air velocity is V ft/min a = area in ft2 of the hood opening This equation is applied to the centerline or axial velocity and not to the velocity at any point. Consequently Dalla Valle1 or Brandt7 should be consulted before applying this equation. 20.2.1.3 Slot Hoods Slot hoods are lateral hoods recommended for ventilation at tanks used for degreasing, pickling, or plating. These hoods are an extreme form of rectangular hood with 50 ft or more of hood opening and are very narrow, with as little as 4 in. of height.
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The opening can be visualized as cylindrical surface with an area of 2πrL. Hence Equation 20.1 becomes Q = 2 πrL = 6.28rL (20.4)

where r = radius in ft or distance from source of suction to point where the air velocity is V L = length of cylinder in ft Brandt7 modifies this equation to account for the actual noncylindrical form of the cylinders. The modified expression is Q = kLWV (20.5)

where L = length of hood in ft W = tank width in ft (distance from hood to remotest source of contamination) k = constant k = 6.28 for a freely suspended slot hood with cylindrical contours k = 3.27 for freely suspended slot hoods k = 2.8 for slot hoods adjacent to tank tops k = 1.5 if slot hood has flanges or other restricting surfaces at right angles to each other so that air can enter from only one quadrant 20.2.1.4 Canopy Hoods Canopy hoods are a class of rectangular or round hoods. They are used for tanks and furnaces. They are more effective if the contaminate air is warmer than the surrounding air. In this case Brandt7 recommends that the area A be replaced by PY where, P = the perimeter of the hood face in ft Y = the perpendicular distance in ft from the hood face to the top of the tank Therefore, Q = PYV (20.6)

where V = the average velocity through the opening between the hood edge and the tank Della Valle1 found that for canopy hoods located between 3.5 and 4 ft above the source of contamination, the velocity at the top edge of the tank was about 0.7 of the average velocity. Equation 20.6 was then modified to Q = 1.4 PDV
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(20.7)

where V is now the minimum control velocity given in Table 20.1. Note that the constant could be as low as 1.0 if the canopy hood is close to the surface from which this contaminant source is coming. Also, the constant could be greater than 1.4 if the distance between the hood and the contaminant source is much greater than 4 ft.

20.3 DUCT DESIGN
Ducts have the purpose of carrying the contaminated air from a hood, a piece of process equipment, or another piece of control equipment to another piece of equipment or to the discharge stack. Ducts can be water cooled, refractory lined, or made of stainless steel or plain carbon steel. For corrosive materials in the air or temperatures in the range of 1150 to 1500°F, stainless steel is used. At lower temperature and noncorrosive materials in the air, plain carbon steel may be used.

20.3.1 SELECTION

OF

MINIMUM DUCT VELOCITY

The ductwork, if carrying particulates, must be designed to keep the particulates in suspension. This means that carrying velocities must be sufficiently high to prevent settling of the largest particles being conveyed. An empirical formula recommended by Brandt7 in use for estimating duct velocity required to prevent settling is S  V = 15, 700   S + 1 dP (20.8)

where V = duct velocity in feet per minute S = specific gravity of the particle d = diameter in inches of the largest particle to be conveyed The above equation has been developed for use with ambient air. While it considers the effect of density of the particle, it ignores the density of the conveying gas. Where the gas density is considerably different from sea level ambient air, the need to alter the equation could be anticipated. Although the velocity chosen by Equation 20.8 is to convey particulates, it is generally desirable in exhaust ductwork to avoid long horizontal runs where possible and to provide some slope to the essentially horizontal portions of the ductwork. In addition, moist and sticky particulates can produce duct buildup, and the velocities predicted by the above equation are not adequate to prevent duct-wall caking in such situations. Higher duct velocities, providing frequent duct cleanouts, and fluorocarbon-sheet lining of the duct are practices employed in such situations. Table 20.2 should be consulted for determining the minimum duct velocity. The area depends on the source of the air flow. If the duct work originates from a hood, the flow rate will be determined from that hood as suggested in Section 20.2.1 If the duct work originates from a piece of process equipment or another piece of control equipment, that equipment will set the flow rate. Knowing the flow rate from

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TABLE 20.2 Minimum Recommended Duct Velocities
Minimum Control Velocity (ft/min) 2000 3000 4000 5000 5000 and over

Nature of Contaminant Vapors, gases, smoke, fumes, very light dusts Medium density dry dusts Average industrial dust Heavy dust Large particles of heavy moist materials

Examples VOC, all smoke, acid gases Cotton, jute lint, wood, grain, rubber, polymers Wool, wood, sand blast, wood shavings Lead, foundry emissions, metal turnings Foundry dust, wet lead

either source and the desired velocity estimated from Table 20.2, for example, the area for flow can be determined from Equation 20.1. Then the duct work can be designed. Fluid flow in the duct is described by the mechanical energy balance presented in the next section.

20.3.2 THE MECHANICAL ENERGY BALANCE
The following equation comes from Chapter 8. Here the ∆ represents the difference between the output and input value of the variable.   ∆U 2 M  ∆H + + ∆z g g C  = Q + WS 2g C  

(8.6)

In this equation, written for turbulent flow where, α = 1.0, the fundamental equation for enthalpy with no phase change or chemical reaction can be written dH = TdS + vdP where S = entropy v = specific volume Then from the definition of entropy, this equation can be rewritten dH = dQ + vdP then
P2

∆H = Q +

∫ vdP
P1

(20.9)

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And then the mechanical energy balance results from substituting Equation 20.9 into Equation 8.6 above.
P2

WS =


P1

vdP +

∆U 2 + g g C ∆z 2g C

(20.10)

This equation applies strictly to a reversible idealized process. Because mechanical energy is dissipated into heat through friction, a term is added for friction. The equation then can be used to describe real situations of fluid flow. Equation 20.10 now becomes
P2

WS =


P1

vdP +

∆U 2 + g g C ∆z + F 2g C

(20.11)

where F is the added friction term. Furthermore, for incompressible fluids,
P2

∫ vdP = v∆P =
P1

∆P ρ

(20.12)

where ρ is the fluid density. Since WS is the shaft work done on a system, the equation can be rewritten to include the efficiency of the fan and motor used in this case. If η is the efficiency, then WS = ηW where W = the work done on the system by the fan whose efficiency is η Now the mechanical energy balance becomes ηW = ∆P ∆U 2 + + g g C ∆z + F ρ 2g C (20.14) (20.13)

The usual practice is to consider the velocity head U2, and the friction head, F, when making a calculation for the total pressure for a fan to encounter, discounting the potential energy loss due to change in elevation ∆z because it will be so small and the change in pressure ∆P will be small since the flow is nearly incompressible. 20.3.2.1 Velocity Head For the average velocity, U = V, the velocity head HV is HV =
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V2 (in ft of fluid) 2g

(20.15)

To convert to inches of H2O for the standard conditions of 70°F, 50% air humidity, and 1 atm pressure, this equation becomes

(VP) =  

V  4005 

2

(20.16)

The velocity head is now designated as the velocity pressure (VP) in inches of H2O. 20.3.2.2 Friction Head The static pressure is sometimes called the friction pressure or friction head. In ducts the friction pressure is due to skin friction generated by flow and energy losses. It is also generated due to turbulence in bends, fittings, obstructions, and sudden expansion and contractions. The friction loss in smooth circular pipes and ducts can be calculated from  L  V H f = 4f      D c   2g  where f = friction factor Dc = duct diameter McCabe et al.8 report that the friction factor, f, can be calculated from the von Karmen equation. 1 = 4.07 log10 N Re f − 0.60 f where NRe is the Reynolds Number, N Re = D C Vρ µ (20.19) (20.17)

(

)

(20.18)

A nomograph based on this type equation is given in Figure 20.1, friction losses for air in circular ducts. For noncircular, square ducts it is possible to use the hydraulic radius concept. rH ≡ S Lp (20.20)

where rH = hydraulic radius S = cross-sectional area of the channel LP = perimeter of the channel in contact with the fluid
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FIGURE 20.1 Friction losses for air in circular ducts — U.S. customary units. (Copyright 1985, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc., www.ashrae.org. Reprinted by permission from ASHRAE 1985 Handbook — Fundamentals.)
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FIGURE 20.2 Equivalent rectangular and circular ducts having equal pressure drop and flow rate. (With permission from Crawford, M., Air Pollution Control Theory, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1976.)

The diameter used in the Reynolds Number calculation is taken as four times the hydraulic radius. This concept is especially good for square ducts. It is better to use Figure 20.2, equivalent rectangular and circular ducts having equal pressure drop (Crawford9), for nonsquare, rectangular ducts. The effect of bends, fittings, obstructions, and sudden expansion and contractions can be accounted for through a relationship where the head loss is proportional to the velocity in the pipe section squared. H fx = K x V2 2g c (20.21)

where Kx = proportionality constant McCabe et al.8 list the following formulas for head loss due to a contraction HfC.  S  K C = 0.4 1 − D   SU  and the head loss due to an expansion, HfE,  S  K E = 1 − U  SD  
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(20.22)

2

(20.23)

where SU = upstream cross-sectional area SD = downstream cross-sectional area Cooper and Alley9 have adapted the fitting coefficients listed in Table 20.3 from Industrial Ventilation3 for head loss, HfF, in fittings and branches. For each of these cases where the friction head has been calculated, the head is reported in feet of fluid flowing. The conversion factor to in. of H2O is accomplished by making the following substitution with V in ft/min, which now becomes the velocity pressure VP(std) at standard conditions. VP(std ) = V2  V  = 2g  4005 
2

TABLE 20.3 Head Loss Constant for Fittings and Branches
Fitting Tee 90° elbow 60° elbow 45° elbow Branch into duct 30° angle 45° angle KfF 2.0 0.9 0.6 0.45 0.2 0.3

(20.24)

This velocity pressure, VP(std), is for air flowing at 70°F and 1.0 atm, where the air density is ρ = 0.075 lbm/ft3. A correction can be made for other temperatures as follows, VP(act ) ρ (act ) = VP(std ) ρ (std )

(20.25)

If the pressure is nearly atmospheric, which it most generally is, then the ideal gas law can be applied, and the density ratio can be replaced by the inverse temperature ratio VP(act ) ρ (act ) 530 = = VP(std ) ρ (std ) T (act )

(20.26)

20.4 EFFECT OF ENTRANCE INTO A HOOD
The hood static pressure, SPH, measured a short distance from the hood is a direct measurement of the energy required to accelerate the fluid from rest to the duct velocity and to account for the turbulence losses due to the shape of the hood structure. The hood entry losses, SPEH, can be expressed as a function of the velocity pressure as with the fittings. Thus, SPEH = K EH VP (20.27)

Goodfellow5 made a detailed presentation of this situation. Table 20.4 has been adapted from his work to apply to the hood types described above.
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TABLE 20.4 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Hoods
Type of Entrance Square entrance Round entrance Slot with bend Canopy KEH 0.7–1.25 0.5–0.9 1.6 0.5

The total effect is then the sum of the entry loss, SPHE, and the acceleration to get the air up to the duct velocity which is 1.0 VP. The total static pressure due to the entrance at the hood is then SPH = (1 + K HE ) VP(std ) (20.28)

20.5 TOTAL ENERGY LOSS
The static pressure is the same as the friction head. The total pressure, TP, is then the sum of the static pressure, SP, and the velocity pressure, VP. This can be expressed as the sum of duct, hood, and fittings losses. TP = f (D V) + (1 + K H ) + ΣK x Here f(D/V) for the duct is found from Figure 20.1 .

[

]

(20.29)

20.6 FAN POWER
In the case of ductwork requiring a fan, the operating cost is mostly related to the cost of operating the fan. The work of the fan can be calculated from Wf = K Q ∆Pf η (20.30)

where k = constant dependent on the units of the other parameters η = mechanical efficiency For Q in acfm, ∆Pf in inches of H2O, k = 0.0001575 HP ft 3 -in. of H 2 O

(

)

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FIGURE 20.3 Schematic of a hood-duct system.

and Wf is in HP. For Q in m3/s and ∆Pf in Pa, k = 1.0 and Wf is in J/s or watts. The fan static pressure is then ∆Pf = TPoutlet − TPinlet where TPi = SPi + VPi (20.32) (20.31)

20.7 HOOD-DUCT EXAMPLE
Figure 20.3 is a schematic of a hood-duct system to be installed in a chemical plant. One branch of the ductwork begins in a canopy hood. The other branch of the duct work begins in a flanged slot hood. The ductwork ends in an air-pollution-control apparatus. The pressure is 20 in. of H2O at this end of the ductwork due to the pressure drop through the control apparatus. The air is flowing at standard conditions of 1.0 atm and 70°F. The fan which is to be installed has a mechanical efficiency of 83%. Determine the horsepower of the motor required for the fan. Hood Information Hood 1: V = 100 fpm, Y = 3.0 ft, P = 40 ft, KH = 0.5 Q = PYV = 40 × 3 × 100 = 12,000 scfm Hood 2: V = 175 fpm, L = 18 ft, W = 5.33 ft, k = 1.5, KH = 1.0 Q = kLWV = 1.5 × 18 × 8 × 175 = 37,800 scfm Duct Information Duct Area: A = Q/V
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Duct Diameter: D = (4A/π)1/2

Determine duct velocity and calculate duct area. The ducts will all be sized as round ducts. Then calculate duct diameter. Round off diameter to the next highest or lowest whole number.
Flow (scfm) 12,000 37,800 49,800 49,800 Velocity (V in fpm) 2000 2000 2000 1000 Area (A in ft2) 6.0 18.9 24.9 49.8 D (ft) 2.76 4.91 5.63 7.96 Dact (ft) 3.0 5.0 5.0 8.0 Aact (fy2) 19.64 19.64 19.64 50.26 Vact (fpm) 1698 1925 2536 990

Duct A B C D

TP = f (D V) + (1 + K H ) + ΣK x Duct A: V = 1698 fpm L = 55 ft
2

[

]

1698  V(std ) =  = 0.18  4005  f (D V) = (2 in. 100 ft ) × 55 100 = 1.10 in. of H 2 O 1 + K H = 1 + 0.5 = 1.5 K x = 0.45 + 0.30 = 0.75
elbow branch

TP = (1.10 + 1.5 + 0.75) × 0.18 = 0.60 in. of H 2 O Duct B: V = 1925 fpm L = 51 ft
2

1925  V(std ) =  = 0.23  4005  f (D V) = (1.4 in. 100 ft ) × 51 100 = 0.71 in. of H 2 O 1 + K H = 1 + 1.0 = 2.0 K x = 0.0 TP = (0.71 + 2.0 + 0.0) × 0.23 = 0.62 in. of H 2 O The two branches are nearly balanced, therefore no more calculations are required.

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Duct C: V = 2536 fpm

L = 20 ft
2

2536  V(std ) =  = 0.40  4005  f (D V) = (2.6 in. 100 ft ) × 20 100 = 0.52 in. of H 2 O 1 + K H = 0.9 ( no hood ) K x = 0.0 ( no fittings) TP = (0.52 + 0.0 + 0.0) × 0.40 = 0.21 in. of H 2 O Total TP UP to fan: TP = –(0.62 + 0.21) = –0.83 in of H2O Duct D: V = 990 fpm
2

L = 25 ft

990  V(std ) =  = 0.06 ft  4005  f (D V) = (0.22 in. 100 ft ) × 25 100 = 0.055 in. of H 2 O 1 + K H = 0.0 ( no hood ) K x = expansion = (1 − 8 12) = 0.11
2

TP = (0.055 + 0.0 + 0.11) × 0.06 +
negligible

at entrance to control equipment

20.0

= 20.0 in. of H 2 O

FAN: Q = 49,800 scfm ∆P = 20 – (–0.83) ≈ 21 in. of H2O η = 0.83 Wf = 0.0001575 × 49, 800 × 21 ≈ 200 HP 0.83

REFERENCES
1. Dalla Valle, J. M., Exhaust Hoods, Industrial Press, New York, 1952. 2. Hemeon, W. E. L., Plant and Process Ventilation, Industrial Press, New York, 1954. 3. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Committee on Industrial Ventilation, Industrial Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended Practice, 9th ed., ACGIH, Lansing, MI, 1966.

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4. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, ASHRAE Handbook — Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems and Application, Atlanta, GA, 1987. 5. Goodfellow, H. D., Auxiliary equipment for local exhaust ventilation systems, in Air Pollution Engineering Manual, Buonicore, A. J. and Davis, W.T., Eds., Air and Waste Management Association, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1992, chap. 6. 6. King R. H., Chem. Eng. Progr., 60–69, May, 1997. 7. Brandt, A. D., reference section of Heating and Ventilating, May, 1945. 8. McCabe, W. L., Smith, J. C., and Harriott, P., Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1985. 9. Cooper, C. D. and Alley, F. C., Air Pollution Control, 2nd ed., Waveland Press, Inc., Prospect Heights, IL, 1994.

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