Should Se utiliza para dar consejos. Se indica que algo es bueno y por lo tanto se debería hacer.

Es una recomendación, no una obligación. If you feel bad you should go to the doctor También se utiliza para dar una orden pero de forma muy educada. Anyone who wants to enter the conference should show his credentials You should come with us. Tú deberías venir con nosotros I shouldstudy German. Yo debería estudiar alemán He shouldworkharder. El debería trabajar más duro Se diferencia, por tanto, de "must", ya que éste indica obligación: You must do your homework. Tú debes hacer tus deberes You should do your homework. Tú deberías hacer tus deberes También se utiliza "should" para indicar que algo es probable que ocurra en el futuro: She has studied so hard that she should pass Ella ha estudiado tanto que debería aprobar sus her exams. exámenes I should be at home by 10 o'clock. Yo debería estar en casa antes de las 10 Su forma negativa es "shouldnot" (o la abreviada "shouldn't"): Sheshouldn'tgoalone. Ella no debería ir sola You shouldn't be so disagreeable. Tú no deberías ser tan desagradable He shouldn't come back so late. El no debería volver tan tarde En el pasado se utiliza la forma "should + have + pastparticiple del verbo principal" para indicar lo que se debería haber hecho y no se hizo: You should have called me. Tú deberías haberme telefoneado She should have prepared her exams. Ella debería haber preparado sus exámenes My brother should have come. Mi hermano debería haber venido Se utiliza en pasado, presente y futuro. I should have finished my report yesterday (pasado) You should help me, I can not do it alone (presente) Tomorrow you should call your parents (futuro) Exercise. Choseshouldorshouldn't. 1. You _________be so selfish. 2. I don't think you _____smoke so much. 3. You ____________exercise more. 4. I think you _______try to speak to her. 5. You are overweight. You _ go on a diet. 6. Where___________ we park our car? 7. You ____never speak to your mother like this. 8. The kids ________________spend so much time in front of the TV. 9. ____________I tell her the truth or should I say nothing? 10. I think we ________ reserve our holiday in advance. 1 smoking. should I up give 2 her not? I or Should tell 3 easy. you it I think should take 4 I time come? should What 5 work shouldn't much. Jeff so 6 Anita job. accept don't this I think should 7 our We should umbrellas. take 8 sure do we you Are should it? 9 go do is should What home. you 10 Do I to you speak should the think police?

Must "Must" is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used t o express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form "have to." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ough t not" to dissuade rather than prohibit. Examples: This must be the right address! certainty Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. necessity You must take some medicine for that cough. strong recommendation Jenny, you must not play in the street! prohibition

Using "Must" in Present, Past, and Future
Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "must" behaves in different contexts. Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. That must be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair. 2. That must have been the right restaurant. There are no other restaurants on this street. 3. NO FUTURE FORM Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. That must not be Jerry. He is supposed to have red hair. 2. That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there is another one around here somewhere. 3. NO FUTURE FORM You must not swim in that river. It's full of crocodiles. You must not forget to take your malaria medication while your are in the tropics. Prohibition usually refer to the near future. 1. You must take some time off and get some rest. 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You should have taken some time off last week to get some rest. 3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" 1. You mustn't drink so much. It's not good for your health. 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You shouldn't have drunk so much. That caused the accident. 3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You can also use:

must certainty


mustnot prohibition

must strong recommendation (Americans prefer the form "should.")


You should take some time off next week to get some rest.

You shouldn't drink at the party. You are going to be the designated driver. 1. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We don't have to get a permit to enter the national park. 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We didn't have to get a permit to enter the national park. 3. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We won't have to get a permit to enter the national park.

must necessity (Americans prefer the form "have to.")

1. You must have a permit to enter the national park. 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We had to have a permit to enter the park. 3. We must get a permit to enter the park next week.


REMEMBER: "Must not" vs. "Do not have to" "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. Examples: You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed. You don't have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.

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