The Dice Have Been Thrown!

- Effects on Law Enforcement
- What’s New and Coming

- Problem Gambling

2010 Ohio Attorney General’s Law Enforcement Conference September 14th 10:30a.m. – 11:45a.m.

Casinos in Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania State Police, Gaming Control Board Agreement To Protect Integrity of Gaming • Through background investigations • Aggressive monitoring and enforcement • The State Police will assist the Gaming Control Board “to ensure that gaming operations in Pennsylvania comply with existing laws and regulations and meet the highest standards of integrity.”

Organization
• Captain • Two Lieutenants (one in Eastern other in the Western half of state) • Sergeant and 16 originally now 10 troopers assigned to each casino in state • Have original jurisdiction on all crimes committed within casino • Local Police / Sheriff’s Office responsible for law enforcement on grounds outside.

Organization
• Gaming Control handles conformity with the regulations • All crimes committed and arrests made are online on Pennsylvania State Police UCR webpage by casino • Act 71 of 2004 - Fourteen casino sites authorized • First casinos opened in 2006

Organization
• Gaming revenue is split between the operator (45%) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (55%), Slots use the funds for property tax relief, economic development and tourism, and the horse racing industry. • Revenue from table games goes to the state's general fund and the local government.

Problems
• Minimal amount of training on games and how cheats operate – On the job training – Minimal in service trading

Problems
• Increased problem with table games • Totally different demographic than slots
– Only one case involving cheating with slots (Meadows – still in litigation Washington County)

• Table games have just started (Mid 2010)

Problems
• Casinos within urban areas having walk in or access to public transportation have almost double the incidents • Rivers Casino opened August of 2009.

Problems
• Problem with vouchers
– If player leaves in the machine and another / next player keeps / uses it – theft – They have to investigate every complaint

Problems
• Problem with vouchers
– If suspect willing to return funds – will not arrest – work with casino security staff – surveillance and tracking cards

Classification Of Offenses 060-Larceny-Theft

Offenses Known 2010 YTD 23

Offenses Known 2009 YTD 28

Offenses Known Pct. Change -17.86

Actual Offenses 2010 YTD 23

Actual Offenses 2009 YTD 28

Actual Offenses Pct. Change -17.86

Total Part I

23

28

-17.86

23

28

-17.86

04E-Other Assaults - Not Aggravated

0

1

-100.00

0

1

-100.00

100-Forgery and Counterfeiting

6

0

N/A

6

0

N/A

140-Vandalism

0

1

-100.00

0

1

-100.00

18H-Drug Possession - Other

1

0

N/A

1

0

N/A

260-All Other Offenses (Except Traffic)

4

2

100.00

4

2

100.00

Total Part II

11

4

175.00

11

4

175.00

Total GAMING ENFORCEMENT - MEADOWS PSP

34

32

6.25

34

32

6.25

Classification Of Offenses 060-Larceny-Theft

Offenses Known 2010 YTD 46

Offenses Known 2009 YTD 0

Offenses Known Pct. Change N/A

Actual Offenses 2010 YTD 46

Actual Offenses 2009 YTD 0

Actual Offenses Pct. Change N/A

Total Part I

46

0

N/A

46

0

N/A

04E-Other Assaults - Not Aggravated

4

0

N/A

4

0

N/A

140-Vandalism

2

0

N/A

2

0

N/A

18E-Drug Possession - Opium - Cocaine

2

0

N/A

2

0

N/A

18F-Drug Possession - Marijuana

1

0

N/A

1

0

N/A

230-Drunkenness

1

0

N/A

1

0

N/A

240-Disorderly Conduct

1

0

N/A

1

0

N/A

260-All Other Offenses (Except Traffic)

1

0

N/A

1

0

N/A

Total Part II

12

0

N/A

12

0

N/A

Total GAMING ENFORCEMENT-GEO RIVERS PSP

58

0

N/A

58

0

N/A

Classification Of Offenses 060-Larceny-Theft

Offenses Known 2010 YTD 5

Offenses Known 2009 YTD 10

Offenses Known Pct. Change -50.00

Actual Offenses 2010 YTD 5

Actual Offenses 2009 YTD 8

Actual Offenses Pct. Change -37.50

Total Part I

5

10

-50.00

5

8

-37.50

04E-Other Assaults - Not Aggravated

0

1

-100.00

0

1

-100.00

100-Forgery and Counterfeiting

1

3

-66.67

1

3

-66.67

140-Vandalism

2

1

100.00

2

1

100.00

220-Liquor Law

0

1

-100.00

0

1

-100.00

230-Drunkenness

1

0

N/A

1

0

N/A

240-Disorderly Conduct

1

0

N/A

1

0

N/A

260-All Other Offenses (Except Traffic)

1

4

-75.00

1

4

-75.00

Total Part II

6

10

-40.00

6

10

-40.00

Total GAMING ENFORCEMENT - PRESQUE ISLE DOWNS PSP

11

20

-45.00

11

18

-38.89

State police may cut back on troopers at casinos
• HARRISBURG, Pa. (AP) -- State police officials say they may cut back on the number of troopers at each slot-machine casino after state budget negotiators deemed the costs to be excessive. As a result, troopers could end up patrolling casino floors for 16 hours a day rather than the current 24 hours, officials said. Troopers removed from the casinos would be reassigned to duties as part of the state's regular force, state police spokeswoman Cpl. Linette Quinn said Wednesday.
Pittsburgh Tribune- Review Nov 1, 2007

PA Gaming Control Board Key to Uncovering Alleged Slot Machine Cheating at The Meadows
• The diligent observation of an on-site Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board employee triggered the start of an investigation that led to the arrest of three men charged with the alleged theft of more than $420,000 from The Meadows Racetrack Casino in Washington County
PR Newsletter – October 7, 2010

The Meadows
210 Racetrack Rd Washington, PA 15301

The Meadows

More Legal

Meadows
• Opened in 2007 • Security has no arrest power – can detain • Have over 1,000 horsemen who use the track. • Have Gaming Control and Pennsylvania State Police Station on premise (16 Assigned) • Township and Washington County Sheriff make most arrests on grounds but not in casino

Meadows
• Arrest inside
– Intoxication – People trying to outwit dealers

• Traffic not a problem • Call volume has increased • County Prosecution cases
– Cheating on Slots – Thefts (felony level) from and in casino

Meadows
• Most arrests are misdemeanors
– Thefts from vehicles – Intoxication

• Most cases handled by Municipal courts / magistrates • Have noticed spill over problems in Mall
– Unsavory type – shop lifting credit card frauds – Robberies – close proximity to interstate

The River’s Edge
777 Casino Dr Pittsburgh, PA 15212

The Rivers Edge

The Rivers Casino
• Opened in August of 2009 • In close proximity to Heinz Field home of a professional (?) football team • Casino Garage is closer to the Stadium than many of the parking lots. • Have reached agreement with Steelers for 1,000 parking spaces (Season Ticket Holders) 750 for Panthers games.

The Rivers Casino
• 3,800 parking spaces • Casino originally charged on game days
– No longer charge – Reconsidering for Steelers games a charge of $25 will send free parking coupons to selected casino players

• Table Games have increased number of younger guests.

The Rivers Casino
• Becoming a destination for entertainment on Friday and Saturday Evenings. • Crime has not increase in area surrounding the casino

Heinz Field

• Heinz Field website lists Casino Parking Lot as one to be used on game days. • There is little the Casino can do - most people do not want to pay to park to go to the casino

Problems
• Because of ease of entrance / egress to the area – increased street crimes. • Thefts, Vehicle Break ins • Prostitution arrests in area • More incidents because of
– Transit access to area – Urban area

• Well “policed” area – especially on game days

Challenges
• This is first real test with table games – change of demographics • Game Days

Presque Isle
8199 Perry Highway Erie, PA 16509

Presque Isle Casino

Michigan

Michigan Gaming Control Board
• “ensures the conduct of fair and honest gaming to protect the interests of the citizens of the State of Michigan” • 1996 Michigan voters approved three licensed casinos in Detroit. • Wagering Tax of 24% of adjusted gross receipts (City collects 11.9% - state collects 12.1%)

Michigan Gaming Control Board
• Gaming Control Board has Offices in all three casinos. Their primary duty is regulatory. Have armed State Police in Casino for law enforcement duties. • Local Police handle misdemeanor arrests outside of the casinos but have on occasion made arrests in casino. • Have same voucher problem as Pennsylvania.

MGM Grand Detroit
177 Third Street Detroit, MI 48226

MGM Grand Detroit

What’s Coming!!

Backers withdraw petitions for fall slots vote
• A challenge to racetrack slot machines was pulled from November's ballot on Monday, and Gov. Ted Strickland moved swiftly toward getting the budget-saving gambling devices up and running. • Strickland promised to seek a declaratory judgment asking the courts to settle an outstanding legal question about the devices:
– Are video slots banned under anti-gambling constitutional language, or allowed as an extension of the state lottery?

Video Lottery Terminals
• Controlled by the Ohio Lottery • On site control by operators • Finite number of winners
– Similar to flare in break open tickets

• Set percentage of payout
– Set percentage of profit

• Stand alones / linked – in series

Ohio Race Tracks
• Beulah Park
(Thoroughbred / Quarter horse -- located in Grove City)

• Lebanon Raceway
(Harness -- located in Lebanon)

• Northfield Park
(Harness -- located in Northfield)

• Raceway Park
(Harness -- located in Toledo)

• River Downs
(Thoroughbred/quarter horse -- located in Cincinnati)

• Scioto Downs
(Harness -- located in Columbus)

• Thistledown
(Thoroughbred -- located in Cleveland)

What’s Next
• • • • Liquor Permit premises Restaurants not having liquor permits Convenient Stores Rules / Regulation
– Number per location – Hours of Operation – Pay Out Percentage

The More Legal the More Illegal

Area gas stations try hand at slots
• Reel Vegas Slots, the Flanders, N.J., company behind the games, converted real slot machines taken from Atlantic City. But unlike true slots that rely on a computer chip to decide when someone wins, players must manually stop three spinning reels on the prize line to win. • Thus, the skill aspect of the game.

Akron Beacon Journal By Rick Armon Staff writer Jan 29, 2010

Gambling Machines seized in Washington County, PA
By The Tribune-Review, Thursday, January 28, 2010

• Pennsylvania liquor control officers say criminal complaints are pending after a series of raids on bars and clubs throughout Washington County the past year netted 169 gambling devices that were confiscated. • The state police bureau of liquor enforcement said 45 licensed liquor establishments were searched during the investigation. Police said several thousand dollars in gambling proceeds were confiscated during the multiple raids

Creates more Illegal
Raids target Washington Co. bars - by Linda Metz, Staff writer 1/29/2010

• Forty-five bars, restaurants and clubs in Washington County were raided Wednesday by law enforcement officials in an illegal video gambling investigation.. • Officers seized 169 video gambling machines and more than $50,000.

Gaming Control Board puts three men on exclusion list
• The state Gaming Control Board has put three men charged with gambling-related crimes at the Meadows Racetrack & Casino on an "involuntary casino exclusion list," which prohibits them from entering or gambling at any casino in Pennsylvania. • The three, were charged in October in connection with an alleged theft scheme at the Washington County casino, the board said. • "They are accused of compromising a slot machine at the Meadows to fraudulently claim over $400,000 in winnings over a two-month period last year," the board said in a statement.
Monday, February 01, 2010 - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

Public servants are big fish in gambling blacklist net
• WELLSVILLE, MO — • For years, the crimes that barred gamblers from Missouri casinos read like Mafia movie plots. • Men with ties to Kansas City's notorious La Cosa Nostra ran illegal betting rings, threatened witnesses and skimmed money from Las Vegas casinos, according to FBI testimony. And the state, seeking a Mob-free gambling industry, banned each from Missouri's riverboats.

ST. LOUIS POST-DISPATCH BY DAVID HUNN Sunday, Mar. 07 2010

Public servants are big fish in gambling blacklist net
• But that was more than 10 years ago. The blacklist is dealing from a new deck, and blackballing a different kind of professional: the public servant.
– In the last year, four Missourians were barred from casinos for crimes of "moral turpitude," bringing the list to 17. Three were civil servants. Authorities say they fed gambling habits with embezzled tax dollars. – A St. Louis County school superintendent funneled district money to his personal life insurance fund, while often gambling 20 days or more a month.

Public servants are big fish in gambling blacklist net
– A Kansas City-area elected administrator siphoned at least $118,000 from disabled clients' Social Security accounts, then used it, authorities said, as "frequent customer of the area's casinos." – And a grandmother here in Wellsville stole from her community's only public school.

State cuts gambling addiction programs By Brent Walth, The Oregonian Saturday, March 27, 2010 11:10 AM PDT

Sweepstakes Machines
Sales of Internet Time or Phone Cards

Summit County looks at regulating gambling parlors
• Under the proposal, the businesses would be required to obtain an annual $2,000 license from the county's Office of Consumer Affairs, submit detailed paperwork identifying the owner and all workers, and pay a monthly fee of $200 per gambling machine. • They also would be prohibited from operating later than 11 p.m. and could open no earlier than 10 a.m. • No one under the age of 18 would be permitted inside.
By Rick Armon Akron Beacon Journal Apr 03, 2010

Summit County looks at regulating gambling parlors
• The legislation would affect any business with four or more machines. • The legislation would bar people convicted of ''gambling or other crime of moral turpitude within five years preceding the application'' from receiving a license • Seventy-five percent of the revenue generated would be set aside for the townships. The remainder would go to the consumer affairs office, which would be responsible for enforcement.
By Rick Armon Akron Beacon Journal Apr 03, 2010

Sides of Issue - Con
• Chad Hills of Focus on the Family says: "These machines have been shown to be extremely addictive. That's a huge concern, primarily for kids, because it's hard to keep them away." • Well, I certainly agree kids shouldn't gamble, and some people do wreck their lives. But why can't adults be left to do what we want to do? • Hills and Sen. Jon Kyl, R-Ariz., both eager to ban gambling, talk about "addiction" leading to bankruptcy, crime and suicide. • People are responsible for the consequences of their bad habits.

Sides of Issue - Pro
• Anyone who wants to gamble illegally has no trouble doing it. And let's not forget the official corruption that black markets encourage. Prevent Law-enforcement from taking bribes to look the other way. • The 1999 National Gambling Impact Study concluded that 15 million Americans are problem and pathological gamblers. "Ninety-nine percent of the American public has no problem with gambling," "They should have the freedom to gamble if they want to gamble online. There is no casino that is being forced into people's homes."

Sides of Issue - Pro
• For self-responsible adults, gambling can be fun and harmless. A free country is supposed to treats adults as though we are self-responsible. Government should let us learn from our mistakes rather than treat us like children. • While states outlaw private gambling (at least that which competes with the well-connected casino interests), it runs its own gambling operations: state lotteries. State lotteries take 50 percent of each bet.

Saturation
How Much Is Enough!

MTR Gaming posts $517,000 quarterly loss
• MTR Gaming Group Inc. reported a secondquarter loss of $517,000 Monday, blaming high unemployment and a weak economy, as well as growing competition for gamblers. • MTR owns Mountaineer Casino, Racetrack & Resort in Chester, Presque Isle Downs & Casino near Erie, Pa., and Scioto Downs in Columbus. • Net revenues were off 8 percent overall for the quarter, down from $121 million this time last year to about $112 million, the company said.
Associated Press – August 10, 2010

Follow the Money!!!
Off Casino Facility Proper Gambling Related (Street Robberies)

Show me the Money
• Gunmen with assault rifles get $11,000 from Cleveland (Ohio) poker game Wednesday, October 28, 2009. • Gunmen burst into the lunchroom at Allied Lighting Services, where $70,000 in poker stakes awaited them. (SOLON, Ohio) Tuesday August 10, 2010

Show me the Money!!
• In urban areas • Casino player takes cash with them ($100 and up) Steak in front of hungry dog scenario. • Prostitution in public area not controlled by casino

Problem Gambling

Embezzlement
• Embezzler deeply sorry for gambling $2.5 million • Former deputy treasurer admits taking Stark money. He faces 15 years in prison for fraud and conspiracy
By Kathy Antoniotti, Akron Beacon Journal staff writer, Published on Saturday, Jun 26, 2010

Embezzlement
• Vincent J. Frustaci, 38, was served with a twocount bill of information Friday charging him with falsifying bank statements and internal records to cover up the thefts. He admitted he supplied the altered records to county and state auditors.

Theft
NY cop gets up to 3 years for evidence room thefts
Greenwichtime.com January 22, 2010

HERKIMER, N.Y. (AP) — A former upstate New York village police investigator has been sentenced to from one to three years in prison for stealing thousands of dollars from a police department evidence room to support his gambling habit. Robert Risi, an 18-year-veteran

Theft / Embezzlement
SanduskyRegister.com Sunday, January 24, 2010 Police say officer's wife stole thousands from Bellevue supermarket By CORY FROLIK BELLEVUE

The wife of a Sandusky police officer says a gambling addiction led to allegations that she stole thousands of dollars from Bassett's Market. Jodi Gilliam, 52, Castalia, was fired from her job at the Bellevue business, where she worked part-time for three years, and charged with theft earlier this week, officials said.

Extortion to Pay For Gambling
• David Reilly is accused of using the Internet to extort money from a Wallingford woman in order to pay gambling debts. • According to an arrest warrant affidavit, Reilly threatened to send humiliating information about the woman's sex life to her employer and parents.

Detective blames crime on gambling addiction
• A New Haven detective who has admitted planting drug evidence and stealing money from a crime scene says his actions were motivated by a gambling addiction and the outrage of watching drug dealers avoid prosecution.
Boston. Com May 21, 2008

VLTs - Problem Gambling in Women
CBC News Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Researchers at the University of Manitoba published a study this week in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, they reviewed the gambling habits of Canadian women 15 years of age and older. Playing VLTs in bars and restaurants was associated with the highest odds of problem gambling among women, according to researchers.

Demographics - Sex
• Female gambling addicts are generally drawn to slot machines. They like the repetitive nature of interacting with the machine • Women tend to be “escape” gamblers, using their addiction to get away from stress, depression and loneliness.

Demographics - Sex
• Male gambling addicts are drawn to thrill seeking in card games and roulette. • Men are considered “action” gamblers, getting a rush from risking winning and losing a large amount of money.

Demographics
• Studies have found high rates of alcoholism, depression, anti-social personality disorder, mood disorder, and other conditions in pathological gamblers.

Demographics - Employment
• The "Profile of the American Casino Gambler" survey found that 46 percent of casino gamblers are white-collar workers, 26 percent are blue-collar workers and 26 percent are otherwise employed, such as military personnel and homemakers. Thirteen percent are retired. The statistics closely resemble those for the U.S. work force.

Demographics – Education
• Harrah's survey also found that 45 percent of casino gamblers have no college experience, 28 percent have some college experience, 17 percent are college graduates and 8 percent have postgraduate experience. The statistics closely match those for the education level of the U.S. population.

Demographics - Age
• The median age for casino goers is 47, while the U.S. median age is 45, according to the survey. About 54 percent of casino patrons are women.

Demographics - Income
• the average casino gambler has a median income of $53,204 -- 16 percent higher than the national average of $45,781.

Demographics - Race
• In Illinois minorities make up 10 percent of casino gamblers but account for 66 percent to 80 percent of bets placed.
National Coalition Against Legalized Gambling

Demographics - Sex
• a face-to-face survey of 100,000 adults conducted in 2002 found that 81 percent of women visiting casinos play the slot machines, compared with 67 percent of men, and that 78 percent of gamblers older than 65 play the slots.

Demographics - Sex
• "Men gravitate more toward games of skill and women have a tendency to gravitate towards games of chance," said Lizabeth C. White, deputy director of marketing for the West Virginia Lottery. • Victoria, Gamblers Anonymous reports that now 7 out of 10 callers are women, 90% of whom are addicted to electronic gaming machines

Demographics - Sex
• The average slot-machine gambler is a middle-aged, middle-class woman seeking to trade disposable income for escapist entertainment, according to gambling industry surveys and officials. • Gamblers Anonymous meetings often outnumber the men. Over 95% of the women treated at Charter Hospital in Las Vegas play only video poker.

Problem Gambling

Here are some signs that you or a loved one may have a gambling problem:
• increased preoccupation with gambling • needing to bet more money, or bet more frequently • withdrawal symptoms of restlessness or irritability when trying to stop • trying to win back losses • relies on others to relieve financial problems created by gambling • can’t control or stop gambling

Here are some signs that you or a loved one may have a gambling problem:
• gambles to escape problems or relieve negative mood • lies to conceal the extent of gambling • commits illegal acts to finance gambling • jeopardized or lost a significant relationship or job due to gambling • spending money for gambling that is needed for other expenses • has overdue bills, bill collectors calling, items repossessed

Here are some signs that you or a loved one may have a gambling problem:
• numerous unexplained cash advances or loans • misses work, long lunches or breaks, gambling calls or computer gambling at work • fails to finish projects • disappearance of cash • high risk investing • household or personal items sold or pawned

Here are some signs that parents should know:
• unexplained absences from school • dropping grades • increased family conflicts • family suspects alcohol or other drug use • asking/taking/stealing money from family, friends or strangers • has large amounts of money

Here are some signs that parents should know:
• gambling language and gambling topics an important conversational topic • shows off money, clothes and other possessions • unusual amounts of time on the computer (out of parents sight), closing down programs when adults enter room, reading sports pages and stats or reading about online poker sites • selling personal belongings • bragging about winning

Here are some signs that parents should know:
• lying, cheating, stealing in school • exhaustion from lack of sleep • plays sports but doesn’t perform to normal abilities (shaving points) • overt interest in how other school teams or certain athletes are performing

Pathological Gambling
• Pathological gambling became an ICD-9 disease code 312.31 (in 1980) in the United States, • No death certificate has listed gambling as the underlying cause of death. • A search of the Compressed Mortality dataset, which is maintained by the Centers for Disease Control on their CDC Wonder site, found 0 deaths for 312.3, the ICD-9 code for impulsecontrol disorder, which includes pathological gambling (312.31)

Pathological Gambling
• However, there have been many attempts to establish gambling as an indirect cause of death (linking gambling to suicide). • The difficulties associated with comorbidity often evident among pathological gamblers has contributed to these assessments of causality.

312 Disturbance of conduct, not elsewhere classified
• 312.3 Disorders of impulse control, not elsewhere classified: • 312.30 Impulse control disorder, unspecified • 312.31 Pathological gambling • 312.32 Kleptomania • 312.33 Pyromania

Diagnosis: PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING - ICD-9: 312.31
• Treatment:
– MEDICAL/PSYCHOTHERAPY

• CPT (Current Procedural Terminology): 90801-90807, 90810-90813, 9084690862, 90882, 90887, 96101, 99051, 99060,99201-99215, 99241-99255

Diagnosis: PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING - ICD-9: 312.31
• Treatment:
– MEDICAL/PSYCHOTHERAPY

• HCPCS (Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System): G0176, G0177, H0002, H0004, H0017, H0018, H0019, H0031, H0032, H0033, H0034, H0036, H0037,H0038, H0039, H0045,H2011, H2013, H2014, H2021, H2022, H2023,H2027, H2032, S5151, S9125, S9484, T1005, T1013, T1016, T1023

ICD -10 Codes
F63 Habit and impulse disorders: • F63.0 Pathological gambling • F63.1 Pathological fire-setting [pyromania] • F63.2 Pathological stealing [kleptomania] • F63.3 Trichotillomania • F63.8 Other habit and impulse disorders • F63.9 Habit and impulse disorder, unspecified

Pathological Gambling
• Pathological gambling was recognized as a psychiatric disorder in the DSM-III, but the criteria were significantly reworked based on large-scale studies and statistical methods for the DSM-IV. As defined by American Psychiatric Association, pathological gambling is an impulse control disorder that is a chronic and progressive mental illness.

Pathological Gambling Defined
According to DSM-IV, Pathological gambling is now defined as separate from a manic episode. Only when the gambling occurs independent of other impulsive, mood, or thought disorders is it considered its own diagnosis. In order to be diagnosed, an indiviudal must have at least 5 (or more) of the following symptoms: • Preoccupation. The subject has frequent thoughts about gambling experiences, whether past, future, or fantasy. • Tolerance. As with drug tolerance, the subject requires larger or more frequent wagers to experience the same "rush". • Withdrawal. Restlessness or irritability associated with attempts to cease or reduce gambling. • Escape. The subject gambles to improve mood or escape problems.

Pathological Gambling Defined
• Chasing. The subject tries to win back gambling losses with more gambling. • Lying. The subject tries to hide the extent of his or her gambling by lying to family, friends, or therapists. • Loss of control. The person has unsuccessfully attempted to reduce gambling. • Illegal acts. The person has broken the law in order to obtain gambling money or recover gambling losses. This may include acts of theft, embezzlement, fraud, or forgery.

Pathological Gambling Defined
• Risked significant relationship. The person gambles despite risking or losing a relationship, job, or other significant opportunity. • Bailout. The person turns to family, friends, or another third party for financial assistance as a result of gambling.

Effects
• As debts build up people turn to other sources of money such as theft, or the sale of drugs. A lot of this pressure comes from bookies or loan sharks that people rely on for capital to gamble with. Also, a gambler who does not receive treatment for pathological gambling when in his or her desperation phase may contemplate suicide. • Compulsive gambling is often very detrimental to personal relationships. – Abuse is also common in homes where pathological gambling is present. – Growing up in such a situation leads to improper emotional development and increased risk of falling prey to problem gambling behavior.

Tests for
• South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) developed by Lesieur and Blume (1987) at the South Oaks Hospital in New York City. • DSM-IV diagnostic criteria focuses on the psychological motivations underpinning problem gambling and was developed by the American Psychiatric Association. • National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS).
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

Canadians
• The Canadian Problem Gambling Inventory (CPGI) is another newer assessment measure. • The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) is composed of nine items from the longer CPGI. The PGSI focuses on the harms and consequences associated with problem gambling.

Drugs that May Cause
• Mirapex, which is used to treat Parkinson’s Disease and restless leg syndrome, has been associated with compulsive behavior, including gambling addiction. • The victims of Mirapex side effects had no prior history of obsessive or compulsive behaviors.

Medical Treatment
• Naltrexone, a drug frequently used in the treatment of alcohol and drug dependence, was found to help control the urge to gamble in nearly 40% of pathological gamblers receiving the treatment. • Gamblers were able to abstain from all gambling for a period of at least one month. Those receiving a placebo had an abstention rate of 10.5%.

Medical Treatment
• The study randomly assigned a daily dose of naltrexone to 58 men and women aged between 14 and 59 and a placebo to another 19 participants for a period of 18 weeks. • The study found that not only were gambling urges significantly decreased but that lower doses of the drug were equally as effective.

Questions???

William A. Riedthaler wriedthaler@enforcementguide.com (216) 813-6189 (Weeksdays) (330) 467-4057 (Evenings Weekends)

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