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Austrian Far-Right Musical Project on West Coast Tour

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Playing Support to Northwest Heavy Metal Act
“That is the power of an invisible order. Its members know that they are members. Those who are not
members are aware that they do not participate.”
-Romanian Legionary propagandist Ovidiu Gules, quoted by Gerhard Petak in interview 1

“If the mythical and irrational, as well as the desire for anti-Enlightenment introspection and living
transcendence, find a voice in youth culture, the aesthetic consensus of the West will be broken.”
-From the German New Right newspaper Junge Freiheit, 19962

“Folkish is today a dangerous word. Like the words home, roots, loyalty it is situated in the cross wires
of an omnipresent brainwashing. Those who use this word are pushed close to the Third Reich. But the
foreign policy of the Third Reich was not folkish at all. The principle that the peoples were different, but
equal of birth, was not taken into consideration.”
-Gerhard Petak, as quoted by the “Tasmanian National-Anarchists” 3

“Separate but equal.”
-Policy underlining Jim Crow laws in the American South

Allerseelen on Tour
This December, the Austrian far-Right “post-industrial” and martial music project Allerseelen is set to
give a series of performances on the US West Coast. Allerseelen is the project of Gerhard Petak (AKA
Kadmon and Gerhard Hallstatt) who also incorporates other performers into the act when playing live. 4
Several of the Allerseelen shows are scheduled to take place in larger venues supporting the prominent
Portland, Oregon “dark metal” group Agalloch, who will be touring to promote their new album. The
hitching of Allerseelen onto the tour of a larger heavy metal act will provide new outlets for Petak’s
extreme-Right messages. Agalloch, the group which Allerseelen will support, is at present crossing over
from underground cult status to something nearer the mainstream, the group’s latest album even being
promoted with a write-up and “exclusive first listen” on National Public Radio’s music webpage. 5 It is
troubling that the act Agalloch chose to expose to its growing audiences has a long history of far-Right
involvement and propaganda, and is attempting to make aspects of fascist discourse acceptable.
Agalloch’s decision to further link itself to Petak / Allerseelen by appearing on a new compilation CD
released by Petak’s label6 is likewise of concern to anti-fascists and is of similar poor judgment.

The dates of Allerseelen’s tour are:

Waldteufel + Allerseelen:
15 Dec 2010 Portland
16 Dec 2010 Salem (+ HELL, Barghest)

Agalloch + Allerseelen:
17 Dec 2010 Portland OR Berbati's Pan (+ Aerial Ruin)
18 Dec 2010 Seattle WA Neumo’s (+ Alda + Waldteufel)
21 Dec 2010 Los Angeles CA Ultra Violet Social Club (+ Winterthrall)
22 Dec 2010 San Francisco CA Great American Music Hall (+ Dispirit) 7
Petak’s Politics and Associations
Gerhard Petak has been releasing music under the name Allerseelen since the end of the 1980s. 8 During
the 1990s, the extreme-Right nature of Petak’s politics became increasingly evident, through his writing
and publishing as well as his musical releases. Before explaining how Petak promotes far-Right
discourses, we must first provide a thumbnail sketch of what his politics actually are. While Petak has had
contact with some people who could be fairly described as Nazis or neo-Nazis, Petak has also criticized
the Third Reich in print, and we do not describe him personally as a Nazi. We will discuss Petak’s
attitude towards historical Nazism later.

We place Petak’s viewpoints and advocacy on the terrain of neo-fascism and the far-Right, especially that
of the European New Right. Some other ideological influences will be discussed in passing. If at times
Petak’s viewpoints appear as a jumble of varied and even opposing influences, it is worth noting that
fascism has always been a syncretic ideological movement—one that attempts to fuse differing elements
into a single whole. Indeed, this syncretic nature has given rise to one of fascism’s primary qualities, that
of simultaneously being “A and not A” and often harboring diametrically opposed impulses, such as
attempting mass political mobilization while also vocalizing contempt for mass society. 9 These
contradictions unfortunately do not render fascism or fascist politics harmless.

The European New Right

As well as his own self-produced pamphlets, Petak’s thoughts have also been printed in publications of
the European New Right, such as Staatsbriefe and Junge Freiheit.10 An understanding of this European
New Right (ENR hereafter) is crucial for an understanding of Petak and Allerseelen. The European New
Right stems from an attempt to rethink fascist politics in light of the failure of its mid-20 th Century
manifestations. While the ENR now contains many voices, its primary ideologue is Alain de Benoist, who
had been a member of the French neo-fascist organizations Jeune Nation and its successor Europe-Action,
before founding the GRECE think tank in 1968 at the age of twenty-five. 11 (The French word “Grece”
means Greece, suggesting the glories of ancient Europe; the acronym GRECE stands for “Research and
Study Group for a European Civilization” as written in French.) In the words of one account, GRECE
“became the institutional pivot of the Nouvelle Droite (New Right), the name bestowed upon de Benoist’s
Paris-based circle by the French media.”12

One significant aspect of much ENR discourse, is its break from biological determinism and racism
phrased in such biological terms, which de Benoist in his younger years had argued for. In the place of
biological racism, the New Right began to present itself as a defender of cultural diversity and “ethno-
pluralism.” What this amounts to is a form of cultural racism expressed as difference: when cultures come
together, this apparently breeds homogeneity, and therefore the ENR argues for a plurality of cultures
precisely through separation and the cessation of pluralism within cultures. While renouncing at least in
theory any authoritarianism and conquest between different cultures, in practical terms New Right politics
would necessarily lead to neo-Apartheid and bloody Balkans-like carve-ups. (It is telling that Petak /
Allerseelen was “impressed” by Slobodan Milosevic. 13) Within the ENR framework, the United States
and the cultural Americanization of Europe are seen as primary opponents, as these are “melting pot”
efforts which the New Right sees as homogenizing (paradoxically because they are not homogenizing.)
The celebration of lack of difference within cultures, now defined as difference itself—and the imposition
of internal homogeneity, described as the “right to difference”—is typical of the transvaluation that
occurs within New Right discourse. Similarly, the New Right can even adopt the language of democracy
while arguing for purging internal difference: “Direct democracy need not be associated with a limited
number of people. It is primarily associated with the notion of a relatively homogenous people conscious
of what makes them a people.”14
Two other aspects of the European New Right are important to note, especially as they relate to
Allerseelen: the ENR’s pagan aspect and its stress on fighting a cultural war. In contrast to the American
New Right of the time, which was generally a Christian movement, the ENR’s identity was strongly
pagan and anti-Christian. Christianity is presented as an alien force that imposed itself on indigenous
European peoples; the universalist aspect of Christianity is seen as a major enemy. 15 The ENR also sees
the capitalist market as spreading the pathogen of universalism, and hence adopts a sort of fascist “anti-
capitalism.” In terms of strategy, the European New Right borrows from the Italian Communist leader
Gramsci, who argued that lasting political and economic change would have to be preceded by a major
shift on the cultural terrain. 16 The ENR therefore focuses on creating a cultural environment favorable to
their political ideas flourishing—especially culture that popularizes (imagined) “indigenous” European
cultural / ethnic identities and lashes out at universalism and Enlightenment values.

While Gerhard Petak does not generally reference de Benoist or GRECE—and it is possible that Petak
has theoretical quibbles with some of de Benoist, just as de Benoist himself does not like Petak’s musical
genre17—Petak’s ideas and output are nevertheless infused with ENR influence. This influence is already
apparent by Petak’s statements being carried in ENR journals, and the influence becomes especially clear
when examining Petak’s attitude towards the Third Reich. Some of this influence may have arrived
directly through Petak reading specific ENR theoreticians, while some may stem from the broader far-
Right cultural / political milieu which Petak works within. Even if he has never thought much of de
Benoist’s work, Petak has certainly been presented by third parties as having something to do with the
European New Right. In the second volume of the book-sized American “Radical Traditionalist” journal
Tyr: Myth-Culture-Tradition, an interview with Petak is one of the longest of the issue, only shorter than
the extensive interview with de Benoist. 18 There is also an Allerseelen track on the journal’s
accompanying CD; one of the editors of Tyr is Petak’s friend Michael Moynihan, more about whom later.

The Iron Guard (Romania)

Petak / Allerseelen contribute to the ultra-Right culture war through his attempts to circulate and
rehabilitate classical fascist ideas and imagery. Petak is especially keen on the Romanian fascist
movement the Legion of the Archangel Michael, also known as the Iron Guard. This movement, led by
Corneliu Codreanu (1899 – 1938) “displayed all the characteristics of fascism” 19 and “was an extremely
violent organization”20 noted for its anti-Semitism, aiming for “not just the purification of Romanian life
from Jewish influence but also the ‘moral rejuvenation’ of Romania on a Christian as well as a national
basis.” 21 While the Iron Guard’s outer embrace of Romanian Orthodox Christianity may appear as at odds
with Petak’s paganism, it is the esoteric and mystical elements of the movement that most fascinate Petak:
the Legionaries had their own mysticism and internal rites, including members of its death squads ritually
drinking each other’s blood. 22 Such a combination of violence, fascism, blood, and the occult is
irresistible to Petak, who claims that “The Iron Guard [still] exists, of course” in terms of an eternal ideal
and motivating myth. Petak then quotes with approval Ovidiu Gules, 23 who edited the Gazeta de Vest
publication that promoted the Legionary tradition. (This publication was further linked to the fascist
International Third Position organization.24) Gerhard Petak not only issued a pamphlet about Codreanu
and the Iron Guard in his Aorta pamphlet series,25 but also in 1998 issued a set of two 7” vinyl records of
Legionary music, with the fourth side containing a speech by Codreanu. 26
Petak’s release of Romanian Iron Guard music on his Aorta label, 1998.

The Nazis, Their Precursors, Third Reich Culture and Mysticism

Petak’s relationship to National Socialism and the Third Reich is expressed in a variety of approaches. On
occasion, his statements could be considered as historical revisionism and rehabilitation of the Nazi past.
At other times, Petak distances himself from Nazism, but on a basis that is still far-Right. Petak
furthermore has an abiding interest in the Conservative Revolutionary streams that fed into Nazi politics.
While Petak is not himself a neo-Nazi, his criticisms of Nazism—such as they are—betray broader far-
Right and fascist sympathies. Petak’s criticisms are generally little more than variations on ENR
positions surrounding these topics. It is worth taking one of Petak’s criticisms as an example. In an
interview on the Raunend post-industrial music site, Petak discusses the exterior of Haus Atlantis in
Bremen, Germany, which at the time of the Third Reich had on its facade “a large wooden sculpture
showing Odin surrounded by runes.” Petak used an image of this statue for the cover of his third CD,
“Sturmlieder.” Petak comments:

This was the strangest Odin statue I ever saw (unfortunately only on images) with its sad
expression. […] In the Third Reich, many Christian as well as pagan National Socialists hated
this statue because it was Odin or because it was an Odin some did not want to see. There were
also articles in SS magazines against this ‘ugly’ totemistic statue, calling it ‘Entartete Kunst’
[Degenerate Art]. So Allerseelen used some Entartete Kunst on Sturmlieder. Finally it was burnt
to ashes - but it were not National Socialists setting it on fire. It was burnt to ashes by British
bombers through air-raids in WWII which destroyed a huge part of Bremen. 27

Why is this story so important to Petak? Through his use of the Haus Atlantis image on the cover of
“Sturmlieder,” this statue is associated with the Allerseelen project and thus Petak—he sees himself in the
art. While the Haus Atlantis’ exterior was condemned by segments of the Nazis according to Petak’s
account, it also probably would not have been on public display at all without the general cultural
ambiance of pagan revival during the Third Reich. The burning of the building—which would be
properly understood as part of a military campaign to defeat the Third Reich—is instead through Petak’s
quick switch associated with campaigns against Degenerate Art and presumably Nazi book burnings. The
Allies become the harshest arbiters of taste. It is those fighting to overthrow the Reich, who thus seem to
be involved in “Nazism” of the most extreme kind. The point is underscored immediately afterwards
when Petak mentions his other “close and infamous connection” to Haus Atlantis (subsequently owned by
Hilton and possessing “another, quite boring facade now”). Having attempted to use the Haus as the
venue for an Allerseelen show, the far-Right connections of the project were exposed in the media and the
event got canceled. Criticism of Petak’s far-Right politics, is generally portrayed by Petak as the height of
real “Nazism,” as compared to the actual Nazism of the Third Reich, which warrants more tepid criticism.
In one statement, Petak even likens criticism of far-Right influence within the “darkwave” music scene to
oppression of Jewish people forced to wear the Yellow Star. 28 This is, needless to say, historical
revisionism on a grand scale.

Petak is highly inspired by the work of the “Conservative Revolutionaries” who came to prominence in
Germany following WWI, and who provided a large number of themes and ideas that were put to use by
the Nazis. When Petak describes himself as “conservative avant-garde,” the “conservative” in this
formulation refers to the Conservative Revolutionaries, according to the sympathetic assessment of
Petak / Allerseelen by Tyr co-editor Joshua Buckley.29 These Conservative Revolutionaries—two of their
most famous members being philosopher Oswald Spengler and writer Ernst Jünger—were also major
influences on the European New Right. The ENR has argued that the Third Reich never in practice
followed Conservative Revolutionary thought despite appropriating Conservative Revolutionary
intellectual efforts.30

The Conservative Revolutionary movement was characterized by fervent nationalism following the
German defeat in WWI; a view of the nation as an organic whole; glorification of hierarchy, militarism,
industrial mobilization, as well as “folk-community;” plus deep anti-liberalism and anti-egalitarianism.
While the Conservative Revolutionary movement provided many political, conceptual, and rhetorical
tools for the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP, or Nazi Party) to utilize,
Conservative Revolutionaries did not wholly approve of the Nazi regime. Several saw it as insufficiently
elitist, especially scorning its socialist elements. Furthermore, Conservative Revolutionaries did not tend
to stress biological racism in the strict manner of the Nazi Party. Some Conservative Revolutionaries
faced penalties for not wholly embracing Nazi orthodoxy, even though the worldview they spread had
helped the NSDAP to power; some Conservative Revolutionaries even ended up as plotters against the
regime, especially as WWII ceased going in Germany’s direction. On the other hand, many other
Conservative Revolutionaries found a more-or-less comfortable home for themselves within the Nazi
Party. Petak / Allerseelen has directly paid homage to the Conservative Revolutionaries Ernst Jünger (the
Allerseelen track “Käferlied” is a tribute to him 31) and Friedrich Hielscher (the compilation CD “Wir
Rufen Deine Wölfe” on Petak’s Aorta label, contains versions of Hielscher’s poem of the same name, set
to music by seventeen acts including Allerseelen. 32)

While the idea of “folk-community” (or Volksgemeinschaft) was important to the Conservative
Revolutionaries, it became an obsession for the Nazis. Yet just as the European New Right argued that the
Nazi regime misapplied or failed to implement Conservative Revolutionary principles, Gerhard Petak
criticizes the Third Reich not because of its völkisch obsession, but merely because the regime did not
enact völkisch principles properly within its foreign policy—Petak articulates a “different, but equal”
policy amongst different Völker. One should also note that it is pluralistic democracy that Petak accuses
of implementing “omnipresent brainwashing,” not the Third Reich. 33
Photograph of Leni Riefenstahlon cover of Allerseelen’s
“Alle Lust Will Ewigkeit” single.

Although Petak makes minor criticisms of the Third Reich, his work also references and portrays
positively several aspects of Nazi culture. Prime examples of this are Petak’s homages to Leni
Riefenstahl, the director of the infamous Nazi propaganda movie “Triumph of the Will” (Triumph des
Willens). Petak issued a pamphlet about Riefenstahl’s 1932 (pre-Third Reich) film “The Blue Light” (Das
Blaue Licht)34 and also released a music single paying tribute to her. 35 Petak’s evaluation of Riefenstahl
prior to her death was: “She was and still is a beautiful and powerful woman.”36 Zero criticism is made of
her talents being placed in the service of the Nazi regime. Indeed, when Petak discusses Riefenstahl
again, it is to return to his theme of intolerant non-fascists: “Leni Riefenstahl said that after World War
Two, everyone considered her a witch who had love affairs with Nazis and so on, and she definitely had a
hard life after the war.”37 Allerseelen also contributed to a Riefenstahl-themed CD compilation released in
1996 by the German Right-wing record label VAWS.38

Allerseelen recordings and Petak’s writings also reference and pay tribute to Nazi völkisch researchers
and explorers grouped around the Ahnenerbe (“Ancestral Heritage”) think tank. This think tank, founded
in the early 1930s, then formally integrated into the SS at the start of 1939 with the support of Heinrich
Himmler, aimed to research the achievements of the Nordic race that they believed once ruled the world.
The SS-Ahnenerbe also integrated a number of sideline projects, such as human experimentation at
Dachau. Friedrich Hielscher—the Conservative Revolutionary celebrated on one of Petak’s compilation
discs who did work for the Ahnenerbe—testified on behalf of Ahnenerbe Director Wolfram Sievers
during the Nuremberg Trials, claiming that Sievers had been active alongside him in opposition to Hitler.
Sievers was nevertheless found guilty of crimes against humanity and executed. Hielscher visited Sievers
in prison shortly before the execution, and they performed a farewell ritual together. 39

Another Ahnenerbe member favorably referenced by Petak is Otto Rahn, who was the topic of one of
Petak’s Aorta tracts.40 Rahn’s main contribution to the Nazi mysticism of the Ahnenerbe was through his
1937 book Luzifers Hofgesind (Lucifer's Court) which described his travels across Europe in search of a
hidden “Cathar-Visigothic tradition.”41 Even more important to Petak is Karl Maria Wiligut, another
Ahnenerbe member who had one of Petak’s Aorta pamphlets devoted to him.42 Wiligut was a Nazi
occultist and Ariosophist who performed pseudo-religious ceremonies for the SS, as well as designing the
death’s-head ring worn by SS members. Wiligut was also involved with the SS redesign of Wewelsburg
castle in Westphalia, intended to be made into the SS leadership hub as well as mystical center. 43 The
second Allerseelen CD, “Gotos=Kalanda” has as its cover the Sonnenrad (sunwheel / “Black Sun”)
mosaic on the floor of the SS Generals' Hall in the redesigned Wewelsburg castle. 44 This “Black Sun”
design has become a popular motif within far-Right and neo-Nazi circles, 45 and has been widely used by
Petak himself. The whole “Gotos=Kalanda” release is based on texts by Wiligut. 46 Petak also assisted the
publication of a book of texts by and about Wiligut in English, published by far-Rightist Michael
Moynihan’s Dominion Press.47

The Allerseelen CD “Neuschwabenland” (“New Swabia”) is also a Third Reich reference, referring to the
1938-1939 German Antarctic expedition, which named a section of the Antarctic as “New Swabia” (after
the German region of Swabia.) This expedition, despite its real strategic importance for the Nazi regime,
has, within sections of the extreme-Right, become the stuff of myth. Within such discourse, New Swabia
is the site of secret Nazi bases from which they launch their UFOs, a doctrine--for example--promoted by
the infamous Holocaust-denier Ernst Zündel.48 It is likely that Petak is at a minimum aware of this
association, as he has published his own tracts (in the Ahnstern successor to his Aorta series) about Viktor
Schauberger and Joseph Andreas Epp, both engineers discussed in the context of Nazi flying saucer
mythos.49 The site of New Swabia is also blended in Nazi esotericism to hollow earth theories and myths
of polar peoples. High technology and achievement in exploration are in this way combined with
mysticism and alleged ancient mysteries.

For Petak, a process of double-mirroring is at work when he displays such symbolism. Firstly, the mixture
of antiquated irrationality with a glorification of technical matters and industry is a central aspect of
Allerseelen’s “technosophical” project as a whole; secondly, this reflects in aesthetic terms the
simultaneous stress on both atavism and industrial productivity found within fascist regimes, even when
explicit references are absent. Through his clear and direct references to the Third Reich, however, Petak
portrays this regime—despite certain muted criticism—as a realm of achievement, mastery, and mystery.
The SS, especially through Petak’s focus on the Ahnenerbe, become seen mostly by reference to
mysticism and spirituality, not in regards to the massive crimes against humanity that were the true
practice of the organization.

Julius Evola

Petak celebrates another man who was attracted to the SS, the Italian “traditionalist” theorist Julius Evola
(1898 - 1974). While Evola had been published in Ahnenerbe publications, his theories on race clashed
with this organization (and with Third Reich orthodoxy), and it was to the “pan-Europeanist” elements of
the SS that Evola ended up being most connected. 50 During WWII, Evola worked for German
intelligence.51 Following the defeat of the Axis powers, Evola became an extremely influential figure to
the most intransigent of the Italian far-Right, and was a theoretical influence on the fascist bombers of the
1970s and early 80s in that country.52 Similarly to Petak, Evola had a romantic image of the SS and the
Iron Guard, seeing them as elite orders of warrior-mystics fighting to restore hierarchical values in a
world of inversion, corruption, and decay.

Evola’s ideas have had some influence within various sectors of the far-Right, including the European
New Right and various non-Hitlerian fascist organizations. Evola differed with the Third Reich’s racial
policies and their biological determinism, favoring instead a “spiritual” and elitist form of racism. Evola
argued that only members of an elite could properly be understood as having “race,” and that such race
could not only be understood in terms of biology. Such a view was still very much compatible with anti-
Semitism and racial bigotry, just not the official racial doctrines of the Third Reich. Evola’s opposition to
this policy of the Nazi Party was obviously not enough to prevent his collaboration with its regime.
Elitism is at the core of any of Evola’s criticisms of fascist governments. All were too plebian to earn his
complete approval, although some violent closed groups, such as the SS, held a great appeal to him.

Evola’s worldview was not primarily political, but rather his political engagements and thought were
outgrowths of his broader metaphysical ideas. Evola is a key author of the Traditionalist School, an anti-
modern intellectual movement with a focus on religious practice and initiation, and Evola also authored
several books on esoteric topics. In his later and most pessimistic work, Cavalcare la Tigre (Ride the
Tiger) Evola argued for “apoliteia”—detachment from the polity—as the world slid irreversibly into
decline. However, this “detachment” did not rule out such acts of mayhem as his adherents would later
put into practice in Italy, but instead served as justification for them. Acts of terror and extreme violence
became framed as spiritual affirmation by a spiritual warrior-elite still committed to ordering principles in
a corrupt and contemptible world. Evola’s aloof and “spiritual” aspects—and the fact that his thinking
was metaphysically based—are often used by Evola’s defenders in order to place him in a category
outside of fascist political thought. However, Evola’s own affiliations are a matter of record, and even his
later apoliteia is noteworthy mainly by reference to the fascist violence it inspired.

Gerhard Petak has explicitly tied Allerseelen to Julius Evola’s works and worldview, through frequent
mention of Evola in interviews, as well as the contribution of an Allerseelen track to the “Cavalcare La
Tigre - Julius Evola: Centenary” tribute CD. 53 Petak also contributed, under the name of “Kadmon,” an
article in “an issue of a conservative revolutionary French journal, Dualpha […] dedicated to Julius
Evola.”54 A split CD between Allerseelen and the American act Changes (see below) is entitled “Men
Among the Ruins,”55 a reference to Evola’s book of the same name that provided “Post-war Reflections of
a Radical Traditionalist” and which bemoaned opposition to fascism and totalitarianism.

Changes / Allerseelen split CD, 2006

Black Metal and Right-Wing Occultism

Petak’s involvement in esoteric fascism also extends to giving interviews to occult fascist journals, such
as the interview published in the second issue of The Nexus during the late 90s.56 The Nexus was
published by New Zealand resident Kerry Bolton, who was active in a series of occult organizations, and
was a co-founder of the New Zealand Fascist Union. Bolton’s organization “The Black Order” was an
attempt to synthesize his political and occult sympathies, and aimed to “revive the esoteric current of
national socialism.”57
Petak’s association with Bolton began prior to the Nexus interview. The twentieth pamphlet of Petak’s
mid-‘90s Aorta series lists a precursor to The Nexus named The Heretic in its contact addresses following
the main article.58 The central article of that issue gave Petak’s interpretation of the Norse cult of the
“wild hunt” or oskorei, attempting to portray the black metal music scene of the time as a return to the
same pagan impulses that were manifested in the old cult. Petak commends the black metal scene’s “fight
against Kristianity [sic] and partly also against Americanism afflicting all areas of European life today,” a
statement that echoes European New Right formulations. Petak then singles out the Norwegian black
metal musician Kristian “Varg” Vikernes and his Burzum solo project for special praise. The rest of the
pamphlet is devoted to a sympathetic interview with Vikernes, at the time imprisoned for the murder of a
rival black metal figurehead. Vikernes is a central figure in the far-Right and ideologically racist turn
made by a segment of the black metal scene. Petak’s attempts to popularize Vikernes probably played a
small part in this development.

Key Associate: Blood Axis / Michael Moynihan

Petak’s friend Michael Moynihan—an American far-Rightist who has his own fascist experimental music
project named Blood Axis—has played a much larger role than Petak in popularizing fascistic tendencies
within the black metal scene, through his book Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal
Underground.59 The central argument of this book, written by Moynihan and Norwegian co-author
Didrik Søderlind, is that subconscious archetypes and a “return of Wotan” may be behind the racism and
violence of individuals such as “Varg” Vikernes, thus absolving these black metal scene participants of
responsibility for their own fascist politics and instead imbuing their activity (murder, arsons etc.) with
otherworldly mystery.60 (We are not arguing that most black metal enthusiasts are racists or fascists,
merely those individuals such as Vikernes who easily fit within both categories, were largely excused by
Lords of Chaos and its archetype theories.) Unsurprisingly, as Petak’s “Oskorei” essay itself comes close
to describing the black metal phenomenon as a reawakening of racial archetypes, it was reprinted as an
appendix to Lords of Chaos.61 Other occult fascists such as Kerry Bolton are also provided with publicity
in the book.62

Moynihan’s affiliations are worth briefly examining, firstly because he for some time lived in Portland,
Oregon and influenced the milieu that is now hosting Allerseelen, and secondly because Moynihan often
tries to obscure his politics and pretend as though he is being unfairly maligned by antifascists. Ironically,
Moynihan criticizes similar behavior from others:

I’m sick of people saying they’re ‘not political,’ as I think this is a cop-out… If you’re going to
espouse ‘fascist’ ideas, then I believe you have to accept some of the responsibility for their
application in the real world; otherwise what is the point of espousing them in the first place? 63

In 1992, Moynihan published Siege: The Collected Writings of James Mason under his Siege imprint.
Mason, a neo-Nazi activist since his teens, for a while edited a publication of the National Socialist
Liberation Front, but in 1982 he separated the Siege journal from that organization, creating a new project
named the Universal Order which combined neo-Nazism with recognition of Charles Manson as a
movement leader.64 The name of Moynihan’s musical act also gives some not-so-subtle clues about his
politics: Blood as in “Blood and Soil,” plus Axis as in the Axis Powers. Moynihan has done much to
promote Julius Evola within the post-industrial scene, and has edited two Evola books for publication in
English, including Evola’s Men Among the Ruins: Post-War Reflections of a Radical Traditionalist.65
Moynihan is currently involved as a co-editor of Tyr: Myth-Culture-Tradition, a journal combining a
loosely Evolian outlook with the European New Right and racially-charged variants of Germanic neo-
paganism. Tyr does not describe itself as a fascist or Nazi publication, yet it is fixated on völkisch identity,
reproduces far-Right anti-modernity discourses, and has no problem publishing authors whose political
lineages trace back to classical fascism.
Gerhard Petak interviewed Blood Axis in an issue of his Aorta series;66 Petak was granted a major article
within Moynihan and Buckley’s Tyr a number of years later.67 There have been two spit releases between
Allerseelen and Blood Axis: a split single in 1994 68 and a second split single in 1998. 69 The first of these
releases is of particular interest, being the first release on Moynihan’s Storm Records label and therefore
signifying the deep connection between Moynihan and Petak. Allerseelen’s side of this release contains
lyrics from a poem by SS mystic Karl Maria Wiligut, and the song was later included on Allerseelen’s
“Gotos=Kalanda” release. Allerseelen’s liner notes contain the “Black Sun” image favored by Petak as a
design element (this of course being particularly important in a Wiligut-themed release.) The Blood Axis
side of this release is a cover version of Joy Division’s “Walked in Line,” the song transformed into an
unequivocal affirmation of fascist regimentation and violence.

Key Associate: Changes / Robert N. Taylor

Another important ally of Petak’s is Robert N. Taylor of the “folk noir” act Changes. Taylor has also
worked closely with Moynihan, and is active within ultra-Right neo-pagan circles alongside him.
Moynihan is also responsible for the first releases of Changes’ music, issued through his Storm label. 70
Changes and Allerseelen released a split CD in 2006, the album title taken straight from one of Julius
Evola’s books.71

In interviews, Robert Taylor has discussed his involvement with white, anti-Black rioting in Chicago
during his youth. Taylor went on to participate in the Minutemen, a Right-wing paramilitary group active
in the 1960s and early ‘70s (not to be confused with the anti-immigrant Minutemen Civil Defense Corps).
Taylor continues to have radical-Right views. He has discussed in an interview his vision for racial
separation in America, with people of color being relocated to specific regions in a plan that plan that
mirrors that of David Duke.72 Additionally, “Robert Wulfing” (Robert N. Taylor) sent lyrics and a
description of the Changes song “Waiting for the Fall” to the “musical terrorists” section of Folk & Faith,
a “national anarchist” website. While Taylor notes that the song is “a generic revolutionary song” with
“no mention of ideology,” he is certainly placing the song in a specifically far-Right context by sending
his words to Folk & Faith. 73 (National anarchism is an ideology with its origin in fascist politics; despite
the name, the tendency did not initially spring from the anarchist movement, and it is rejected by many
anarchists.74)

Allerseelen’s Support in Oregon

The current tour is not the first time that Allerseelen has been on the West Coast. A 2003 tour played
three West Coast dates, all with the Portland group Waldteufel, who are also playing several dates with
Allerseelen this year. Markus Wolff, the primary force behind Waldteufel, is a frequent collaborator with
Michael Moynihan, and supplies writings on German völkisch authors and pagan revivalists to Tyr and
similar publications. Wolff is also an Evola enthusiast who supported the Moynihan-edited English
edition of Men Among the Ruins.75 Wolff currently also edits Hex magazine, a “heathen” journal that has
published Petak (as Gerhard Hallstatt) in several issues. 76 Hex has some other interesting associations
with the far-Right; one of its founders and initial editors, Amie Rautmann (listed as “A. von Rautmann”
on the Hex website77) is an enthusiast of the Holocaust-denier David Irving, and attended Irving’s speech
in Portland on July 19, 2009.78 The Hex website also promotes Allerseelen’s current tour. 79

Allerseelen played in Portland on June 14, 2003, supported by Waldteufel and Sacrificial Totem. The
event took place at Optic Nerve Arts on Alberta Street. Michael Moynihan played with Allerseelen at this
show. Petak’s far-Right sympathies were further alluded to in Petak’s account of this tour, which cited
questions he had to answer in a form when entering the United States. The following are the only
questions cited by Petak:
Are you seeking entry to engage in criminal or immoral activities? Have you ever been or are you
now involved in espionage or sabotage; or in terrorist activities; or genocide; or between 1933
and 1945 were you involved in any way in persecutions associated with Nazi Germany or its
allies?80

Petak’s friend Markus Wolff further organized a show for Changes and Waldteufel that took place on
August 26th, 2005 at the Alberta Street Public House. The event was publicized in an update from
Soleilmoon, an experimental record label and music distribution also headquartered on Alberta Street. 81
While Soleilmoon distributes a variety of different musical styles and artists, it does carry releases by
Waldteufel, Changes, and Allerseelen. Soleilmoon is also a major US distributor for the fascist 82 neo-folk
act Death in June and its New European Recordings (NER) label.

A final Oregon ally of Petak is Tyler Davis of Jacksonville, Oregon, who runs The Ajna Offensive record
label and the Ajnabound Esoteric Books publishing company. Davis’ connection to Petak traces back to
the 1990s, when Davis helped with the black metal and experimental music ‘zine Descent alongside
editor Stephen O’Malley. (O’Malley is responsible for an article on the topic of black metal published by
the white supremacist Resistance magazine in 1995.83) Davis’ Ajna Offensive distributes a number of
Allerseelen titles, and Davis will be following along with the Allerseelen tour. 84 Davis is also planning to
issue a book of Petak’s collected tracts from the 1990s (issued as Gerhard Hallstatt) entitled Blutleuchte.85
While Tyler Davis is involved with issuing and distributing many titles that are not related to fascist
politics—many instead focusing on Satanism, evil, and the occult—he also seems to have no problem
with fascists. The Ajna Offensive, for example, reissued the album “Blodsband” (Blood Religion
Manifest) by white nationalists Sigrblot in 2005.86

Conclusion
Petak has frequently denied having any interest in politics, stating for example that “I do not believe in
economics or politics. I believe in the power of art.” 87 Yet Petak continually deploys imagery from fascist
movements, maintains associations with others on the far-Right, and puts forward politics that appear as a
combination of völkisch, Conservative Revolutionary, and European New Right influences. Allerseelen is
also promoted by publications and websites that stem from the fascist political tradition. As well as
Petak’s interview in Kerry Bolton’s The Nexus, Allerseelen was also interviewed in Lutte du peuple, a
publication of the French “national revolutionary” organization Nouvelle Résistance. 88 Allerseelen is also
promoted by in the far-Right culture war efforts of Richard Lawson’s Flux Europa site,89 and is reviewed
on national anarchist Troy Southgate’s RoseNoire website.90

What is the meaning of Petak’s denial of any politics or political motivation? While not referring
explicitly to Allerseelen, Anton Shekhovtsov’s article “Apoliteic music: Neo-Folk, Martial Industrial and
‘Metapolitical Fascism’” points to an answer by discussing Evola’s concept of apoliteia as well as
European New Right influence in relation to certain sectors of the post-industrial scene. 91 From a stance
of apoliteia, Petak is able to claim detachment from worldly politics, yet apoliteia far from the same as
pure political apathy. Rather, Petak appears to be active in a metapolitical “invisible order” engaged in
anti-Enlightenment culture wars, along the lines of the European New Right and its Right-Gramscian
project. While Petak does not dirty his hands in Right-wing Party-building, he nevertheless contributes to
a climate favorable to fascist politics, through fighting for the hearts and minds of countercultural
audiences. He knows what he is doing. As antifascists, we can only wonder whether Agalloch equally
knows what it is doing, by helping a fascist propagandist to access new audiences.

-Rose City Antifascists
December 13, 2010
1
Gules quoted in Allerseelen interview, Stigmata magazine (Belarus), No. 2 (August 2001),
<http://www.stigmata.name/allerseelen.php>.
2
Junge Freiheit article quoted in Shekhovtsov, Anton, “Apoliteic music: Neo-Folk, Martial Industrial
and ‘Metapolitical Fascism’,” Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 43 No. 5 (December 2009), 431-457,
<http://www.shekhovtsov.org/articles/Anton_Shekhovtsov-Apoliteic_Music.html>. (Shekhovtsov
gives his source for the Junge Freiheit quote as: Farin, Klaus: Die Gothics: Interviews, Fotografien
(Bad Tölz: Tilsner 2001), 15.)
3
Petak quoted in Tasmanian National Anarchists, “Dark Green Romanticism,” Tasmanian
Autonomous Zone: Heathen Anarchism in the Apple Isle website, February 24, 2010,
<http://tasna.wordpress.com/2010/02/24/dark-green-romanticism/>.
4
Allerseelen interview, Stigmata magazine, op. cit. (Note 1). (Petak:“I am the heart of
ALLERSEELEN. Usually I am only collaborating with other people on stage.”)
5
Gotrich, Lars, “First Listen: Agalloch, ‘Marrow Of The Spirit’,” National Public Radio website,
November 14, 2010, <http://www.npr.org/2010/12/02/131192147/first-listen-agalloch-marrow-of-
the-spirit>.
6
“Steinklang-Industries präsentieren: OAK FOLK – compilation,” Klang-Konsortium wordpress blog,
November 29, 2010, <http://klangkonsortium.wordpress.com/2010/11/29/steinklang-industries-
prasentieren-oak-folk-compilation/>.
7
Allerseelen, Myspace Music site, <http://www.myspace.com/allerseelen>. (Listing of “Allerseelen
Live Performances” on front page, accessed December 3, 2010.)
8
Allerseelen, Discogs website, <http://www.discogs.com/artist/Allerseelen>.
9
Passmore, Kevin, Fascism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press,
2002), 11. (Passmore attributes the phrase “A and not A” to Ortega y Gasset; the contrast
provided by Passmore himself, is that fascism “idealizes the people” while it shows contempt for
mass society.)
10
Bündnis gegen das Allerseelenkonzert (Rosenheim), “Nein zum Allerseelen Konzert in
Rosenheim,” April 2005,
<http://www.beepworld.de/members86/rechteskonzertstoppen/index.htm>. (“Coalition Against
the Allerseelen Concert” / “No to the Allerseelen Concert in Rosenheim.”)
11
Lee, Martin A., The Beast Reawakens (Boston / New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1997),
209-10.
12
Lee, op. cit. (Note 11), 210.
13
Allerseelen interview, Stigmata magazine, op. cit. (Note 1).
14
De Benoist, Alain, “Democracy Revisited,” Telos, No. 95 (Spring 1993), 63-75, 75. (Translation
from Démocratie: Le Problème (Paris: Le Labyrinthe, 1985) by Tomislav Sunic.)
15
Lee, op. cit. (Note 11), 211.
16
Lee, op. cit. (Note 11), 210.
17
Shekhovtsov, op. cit. (Note 2). (“For example, the leader of the French New Right, Alain de
Benoist, who actually enjoys folk music, finds it disturbing when folk artists […] add ‘elements of
Nazi subculture’ to their music, and considers them provocateurs.”)
18
Buckley, Joshua and Michael Moynihan, Eds., Tyr: Myth-Culture-Tradition No. 2 (Atlanta: Ultra
Publishing, 2004). (Alain de Benoist interview is at 77-109 following the publication of a de Benoist
essay at 65-76; the Allerseelen / Gerhard Petak interview is at 285-296.)
19
Passmore, op. cit. (Note 9), 83.
20
Passmore, op. cit. (Note 9), 84.
21
Sedgwick, Mark, Against the Modern World: Traditionalism and the Secret Intellectual History of
the Twentieth Century, (Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press , 2004), 113.
22
Passmore, op. cit. (Note 9), 84.
23
Allerseelen interview, Stigmata magazine, op. cit. (Note 1).
24
Ghetu, Dan, “Synthesis Editor Troy Southgate” (2001 interview), Synthesis: Journal du Cercle de
la Rose Noire website, <http://rosenoire.org/interviews/southgate2.php>. (Southgate, a
theoretician of the fascist “national anarchism” tendency, is a former member of International
Third Position, and names Gules’ Gazeta de Vest as “a thinly-disguised propaganda outlet for the
ITP.”)
25
Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas, Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity
(New York / London: New York University Press, 2002), 340-41, Note 46.
26
“No Artist - Eiserne Garde: Gardia De Fier,” Discogs website, <http://www.discogs.com/No-Artist-
Eiserne-Garde-Gardia-De-Fier/release/188905>.

Allerseelen interview, Raunend website (undated),
27

<http://www.raunend.com/interviste/allerseelen.htm>.
28
Bündnis gegen das Allerseelenkonzert (Rosenheim), op. cit. (Note 10). (Petak is quoted from the
scene publication Black 14 (1998): “Apparently every culture needs a witch's mark, a Yellow Star.
Today the accusation of fascism against industrial and dark wave music is a Yellow Star. The
Yellow Star looks different today, they are the Ariosophic nationalistic symbols, runes, Thor's
hammers, the Kruckenkreuz and the swastika.”)
29
Buckley, Joshua, “Musical Ammunition: An Interview with Allerseelen’s Gerhard,” Tyr: Myth-
Culture-Tradition No. 2, op. cit. (Note 18), 285-296, 286.
30
Lee, op. cit. (Note 11), 210.

“Allerseelen CD Strib und Werde” (reviews), Aorta blogspot site,
31

<http://allerseelen.blogspot.com/2006/01/allerseelen-cd-stirb-und-werde.html>.

“Wir rufen Deine Wölfe” (reviews), Aorta blogspot site,
32

<http://allerseelen.blogspot.com/2006/06/wir-rufen-deine-wlfe.html>.
33
Petak quoted in Tasmanian National Anarchists, “Dark Green Romanticism,” op. cit. (Note 3).
34
Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit. (Note 25), 340-41, Note 46.
“Allerseelen - Alle Lust Will Ewigkeit / Traumlied,” Discogs website,
35

<http://www.discogs.com/Allerseelen-Alle-Lust-Will-Ewigkeit-Traumlied/release/188347>.

Allerseelen interview, The Noiseist (France), No. 4 (2000),
36

<http://noiseist.free.fr/interview_ALLERSEELEN.html>.
37
Collins, Simon, “The Alchemy of Allerseelen,” Judas Kiss magazine website,
<http://monkeyhouse-recordings.co.uk/JK2CMS/index.php?
option=com_content&task=view&id=642&Itemid=38>. (Interview of May 20, 2006.)
38
“Various – Riefenstahl,” Discogs website, <http://www.discogs.com/Various-
Riefenstahl/release/1561157>.
39
Bahn, Peter, “The Friedrich Hielscher Legend: The Founding of a Twentieth-Century Pantheistic
‘Church’ and Its Subsequent Misinterpretations,” Tyr: Myth-Culture-Tradition No. 2, op. cit. (Note
18), 243-262, 249-250. (Translated from “Die Hielscher-Legende. Eine panentheistische ‘Kirchen’-
Gründung des 20. Jahrhunderts und ihre Fehldeutungen” (Gnostika No. 19, October 2001) by
Michael Moynihan and “Gerhard”—presumably Gerhard Petak.)
40
Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit. (Note 25), 340-41, Note 46.
41
Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit. (Note 25), 135.
42
Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit. (Note 25), 340-41, Note 46.
43
Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit. (Note 25), 135-36.

“Allerseelen - Gotos=Kalanda,” Discogs website, <http://www.discogs.com/Allerseelen-
44

GotosKalanda/release/182384>
45
Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit. (Note 25), 227. (Goodrick-Clarke writes of “the rapid internationalization
of this German neo-Nazi symbol.”)

Allerseelen interview, Descent magazine (Olympia, WA), No. 3 (Spring 1996),
46

<http://reocities.com/Athens/delphi/3921/allrsln.html>.
47
Flowers, Stephen E. (Trans.) and Michael Moynihan (Ed.), The Secret King: Karl Maria Wiligut,
Himmler's Lord of the Runes (Vermont / Texas: Dominion Press / Rûna-Raven Press, 2001),
Amazon Books “Look Inside!” result,
<http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0971204403/ref=sib_dp_pop_toc?ie=UTF8&p=S008#reader-
link>. (“Kadmon” listed as having “contributed to the eventual publication of this book” on
copyright page.)
48
Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit. (Note 25), 158-161.
49
Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit. (Note 25), 340-41, Note 46.
50
Coogan, Kevin, Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International
(New York: Autonomedia, 1999), 310.
51
Coogan, Kevin, Dreamer of the Day, op. cit. (Note 50), 315-316.
52
Sedgwick, Mark, Against the Modern World, op. cit. (Note 21), 179-186.
“Various - Cavalcare La Tigre - Julius Evola: Centenary,” Discogs website,
53

<http://www.discogs.com/Various-Cavalcare-La-Tigre/release/241423>.
54
François, Stephane, “The ‘Euro-Pagan’ Scene: Between Paganism and Radical Right,” Journal for
the Study of Radicalism, Vol. 1 No. 2 (2008), 35-54, <http://cnrs.academia.edu/stephanefran
%C3%A7ois/Papers/174473/The_Europagan_Music_Between_Radical_Right_and_Paganism>.
(Rather amazingly, in an article mentioning this association as well as Petak’s references to Wiligut
and his release of Legionary music, François states that Petak “has never had an ideologically
oriented message.”)

“Changes / Allerseelen - Men Among The Ruins,” Discogs website,
55

<http://www.discogs.com/Changes--Allerseelen-Men-Among-The-Ruins/release/916630>.
56
“The Nexus (journal),” SpiritusTemporis.com website, <http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/the-
nexus-journal-/issues.html>

Gardell, Mattias, Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism (Durham, NC:
57

Duke University Press, 2003), 294.
58
Petak, Gerhard (as “Kadmon”), Aorta No. 20 (1995).
59
Moynihan, Michael and Didrik Søderlind, Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal
Underground (Venice, CA: Feral House, 1998).
60
Morrow, Charles, “Resurgent Atavism? Resurgent Nazism, Or, Wotan Made Me Do It,” in
Burghart, Devin, Ed., Soundtracks to the White Revolution: White Supremacist Assaults on Youth
Music Subcultures (Chicago: Center for New Community, 1999), 68-70.
61
Petak, Gerhard (as “Kadmon”), “Oskorei,” in Moynihan and Søderlind, Lords of Chaos, op. cit.
(Note 59), 336-43.
62
Moynihan and Søderlind, Lords of Chaos, op. cit. (Note 59), 311-315.
63
Moynihan quoted in Coogan, Kevin, “How Black is Black Metal? Michael Moynihan, Lords of
Chaos and the ‘Countercultural Fascist’ Underground,” Hit List Vol. 1 No. 1 (February / March
1999), 32-49, 45. (Coogan quotes from a Momentum interview with Moynihan.)

“Michael Moynihan's Siege Mentality,” Who Makes the Nazis? blog, October 8, 2010,
64

<http://www.whomakesthenazis.com/2010/10/michael-moynihans-seige-mentality.htm>.
65
Evola, Julius, Men Among the Ruins: Post-War Reflections of a Radical Traditionalist (Rochester,
VT: Inner Traditions International, 2002).
66
Goodrick-Clarke, op. cit. (Note 25), 340-41, Note 46.
67
Buckley, Joshua, “Musical Ammunition: An Interview with Allerseelen’s Gerhard,” Tyr: Myth-
Culture-Tradition No. 2, op. cit. (Note 18), 285-296.

“Blood Axis / Allerseelen - Walked In Line / Ernting,” Discogs website,
68

<http://www.discogs.com/Blood-Axis-Allerseelen-Walked-In-Line-Ernting/release/244623>.

“Allerseelen / Blood Axis - Käferlied / Brian Boru,” Discogs website,
69

<http://www.discogs.com/Allerseelen--Blood-Axis-K%C3%A4ferlied-Brian-Boru/master/474>.
70
“Changes - Fire Of Life,” Discogs website, <http://www.discogs.com/Changes-Fire-Of-
Life/release/188694>. (The following year, Storm co-released the first Changes CD, also titled “Fire
of Life,” see: http://www.discogs.com/Changes-Fire-Of-Life/release/188162)
71
“Changes / Allerseelen - Men Among The Ruins,” Discogs, op. cit. (Note 55).
72
Lunsford, John, “Nazis, Noise and Nihilism: Infiltrating the Experimental Music Scene” in
Burghart, Devin, Ed., Soundtracks to the White Revolution, op. cit. (Note 60), 73-83, 82.

Wulfing, Robert (Robert N. Taylor), “Waiting for the Fall,” Folk & Faith website,
73

<http://www.folkandfaith.com/waiting.shtml>.
74
Sunshine, Spencer, “Rebranding Fascism: National-Anarchists,” The Public Eye Vol. 23 No. 4
(Winter 2008), <http://www.publiceye.org/magazine/v23n4/rebranding_fascism.html>.
75
Evola, Julius, Men Among the Ruins, op. cit. (Note 65), vi.
76
“Hex Contributors,” Hex Magazine website, <http://hexmagazine.com/hex-folk/contributors/>.
77
“Past Staff,” Hex Magazine website, <http://hexmagazine.com/hex-folk/hex-staff/>.
78
Registration list for July 29, 2009 David Irving event in Portland,
<http://media.portland.indymedia.org/media/2009/07/392910.pdf>. (Item leaked on internet
following event. Scott Rautmann purchased two tickets and is listed as “married to Amy” [sic].)

“Winternights/Samhain News 2010,” Hex Magazine website,
79

<http://hexmagazine.com/newsletter/winternightssamhain-news-2010/>

“2003 Allerseelen Pacific West Coast,” Aorta blogspot blog, November 14, 2005,
80

<http://allerseelen.blogspot.com/2005/11/2003-allerseelen-pacific-west-coast.html>.

“Updates,” Soleilmoon website, August 4, 2005,
81

<https://www.soleilmoon.com/store/updatesdetail.lasso?update=32856>.

Chicago Anti-Racist Action, “Death in June, Der Blutharsch, Changes,” Infoshop News website,
82

December 17 2003, <http://news.infoshop.org/article.php?story=03/12/17/8467619>.

O’Malley, Stephen, “Nordic Darkness...,” Resistance magazine (Fall 1995),
83

<http://www.fortunecity.com/rivendell/elfin/1025/resistance.htm>.
84
“Allerseelen - US dates,” The Ajna Offensive website,
<http://www.theajnaoffensive.com/index.php?
option=com_content&task=view&id=107&Itemid=41>.
85
“Gerhard Hallstatt: Blutleuchte,” Facebook page, <http://www.facebook.com/pages/Gerhard-
Hallstatt-Blutleuchte/143485609035823>.

“Sigrblot - Blodsband (Blood Religion Manifest),” Discogs website,
86

<http://www.discogs.com/Sigrblot-Blodsband-Blood-Religion-Manifest/release/588815>.
87
Allerseelen interview, Stigmata magazine, op. cit. (Note 1).
88
Bale, Jeffrey M., “‘National Revolutionary’ Groupuscules and the Resurgence of ‘Left-wing’
Fascism: the Case of France’s Nouvelle Résistance,” Patterns of Prejudice Vol. 36, No. 3 (2002),
25-49, 42-43 Note 46,
<http://www.miis.edu/media/view/18971/original/balenouvelleresarticle.pdf>.
89
“Allerseelen,” Flux Europa website, <http://www.fluxeuropa.com/allerseelen.htm>.

Southgate, Troy, “Allerseelen - Stirb und Werde,” Synthesis: Journal du Cercle de la Rose Noire
90

website, <http://www.rosenoire.org/reviews/allerseelen-stirb.php>.
91
Shekhovtsov, op. cit. (Note 2).