CFD ANALYSIS OF PZEV EXHAUST MANIFOLDS

Srikanth Ranganathan
CFD Section Analytical Powertrain Ford Motor Company Dearborn, Michigan

6/4/2003

FLUENT UGM 2003

OBJECTIVE
• To demonstrate a FLUENT based technique for evaluating a PZEV exhaust manifold for PETA effectiveness Exhaust Valves PETA Tube PETA Air Inlets Substrate

Cylinders

PZEV – Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle PETA – Ported Electric Thermactor Air

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PETA Exhaust - Introduction
• During the initial 20-30 seconds after engine start the air-fuel mixture is run extra rich. • Prior to the catalyst brick, fresh air is injected from the PETA tube directly into the exhaust gases. • The partially combusted fuel laden exhaust gas that is hot but depleted of oxygen is spontaneously combusted again in the manifold volume leading to increase in gas temperature. • Early elevation of substrate temperatures ensures an early conversion of exhaust gases in the catalytic converter and thus lowered emissions • PETA Effectiveness is measured by temperature increase of exhaust gases from port to CAT face
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PETA Exhaust Flow Regime
• Transient (Engine Cycle) a • Moving boundaries (Exhaust Valves) r • Compressible r • Multi-species mixing (Exhaust gases + Air) a • Combustion (Fuel + O2 → Products + Heat) a

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Analysis Procedure
Physical Model (TGRID)
Ports + Manifold + Converter + PETA

Transient Inlet Mass Flux
1-D Tool (GT-Power)

Chemistry Model (PrePDF)
Species, Composition, Stoichiometry, Streams, PDF, Heat Transfer, Rates

CFD Model (FLUENT)

Engine Cycle Simulation (3-5 Cycles)
No Yes

Convergence

Flow Temperature Increase

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Model & Data
• I4 PZEV Exhaust @ 1500 Engine RPM (Time Period = 0.08s) • Non-Premixed Combustion: 1 Fuel + 1 Oxidizer Stream 4 Fuel Inlet: 923K [0.9N2 + 0.1CH4] 1 Oxidizer Inlet: 300K [0.79N2 + 0.21O2] • Flame Sheet Model (Infinite rates, Mixed-Is-Burned) • Reaction Stoichiometry: CxHy + (x+y/4)O2 → xCO2 + (y/2)H2O CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O • Outlet: Atmospheric • Adiabatic Walls
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I4 PZEV - Results
• Engine Cycle Averaged: Exhaust Manifold Inlet Temperature = 923K CAT Face Temperature = 1050 K • Temperature Growth = 127K

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CH4 on Core

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CH4 on C/S

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O2 on Core

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O2 on C/S

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Temperature on Core

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Temperature on C/S

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Advantages
• Relatively quicker turn around time than full fledged combustion model; Crucial as an optimization tool • PDF approach to turbulence and flow induced mixing/combustion • Energy equation is not solved; Temperature determined from scalar distribution

Disadvantages
• Reaction rates do not play a role • No intermediate species simulation • Risk of combustion/temperature over prediction
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Conclusion
• Demonstrated a simple and quick FLUENT based CFD method for evaluation of PETA effectiveness • Suitable for optimization studies of PETA/Exhaust Manifold design A/F ratio PETA air flow rate Air injection location and angles Manifold core shape

6/4/2003

FLUENT UGM 2003

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