Chapter 3
Engineering Design
This chapter describes lbe principal design features of AWG numbered sizes represent the approximate reduction
bare uninsulated conductors; however much lbat applies in diameter associated with each successive step of wire
to hare conductors also pertains to lbe metaUic part of in drawing.
sulated or covered conductors which are considered in Fig. 31 shows typical fullsize crosssections, and
Section III. approximate relationships between the sizes.
Many types of bare conductors are in use depending on For wire sizes larger than 4/0 AWG, the size is desig
application requirements. They may differ in electrical and nated in circular mils. Wire sizes of 4/0 AWG and
physical properties, configuration, method of assembly, smaller also are often designated in cir mils. One cir mil
and corrosion resistance. Certain general physical prop is the area of a circle I mil (0.001 in.) diameter; that is, the
erties have been described in previous chapters. Detailed area in cir mils equals diameterinmils squared.
physical and electrical properties of lbe various com
mercial sizes of bare conductors are listed in Chapter 4. As one emil = "./4 sqmils (Eq.31)
For many years it has been the practice to employ code Expressing diameter of wire D, in inches
words to identify and precisely define specific conductor D = 1O'cmil"orcmil I()6D' (Eq.32)
3·1
some regular manner. In ellber case, the total cross TABLE 3·1
sectional area of all component conducting wires deter Strand Lengths VS Solid Conductor
mines the A WG or emil size of the assembled conductor. Lengths for ASTM B 231
Two layer, 0.593 in. 00 Similarly, the rated strength of ACSR is obtained by ap
19/.1185, (Class A) plying rating factors of 96, 93, 91, and 90 percent, re
spectively, to the strengths of the aluminum wires of con
ductors having one, two, three, or four layers of aluminum
19/w
wires, and adding 96 percent of the minimum stress in the
steel wires at 1.0 percent elongation for cables having one
Three layer, 0.594 in. 00 central wire or a single layer of steel wires, and adding 93
37/.0849, (Class B) percent of the minimum stress at 1.0 percent elongation if
there are two layers of steel wires.
37/w
All strengths are listed in pounds to three significant
Fig. 32. Typical Examples of Concentric Lay Conduc
conductors.
scale.}
32
engineering design
33
bare aluminum wire and cable
TABLE 33
Comparison of Properties of Typical ACSR Conductor With Those
of Similar AllAluminum and HardCrawn Copper Stranded Conductors'
! de Re !
Relative
sistance Weight Rated I
!
!
Ohms per Ib per Breaking
i
Size Strand Diam. 1000 fI 1000 Strength Strength Condue
emil Type ing In. at 20'C fI fb 0/0 tance
I
336.400 1350H19 : 19 0.666 0.0514 315.6 6,150 35.6 i 102.4
!
394,500 6201T81 19 0.721 0.0511 370.3 13,300 76.8 101.8
336,400 ACSR 30/7 0.741 0.0502 : 527.1 17,300 100.0 100.0
211,600 I HD Copper 7 !
0.522 0.0516 653.3 9,154 52.9 102.8
Resistances are based on IACS,% conductiVities of 61.2% for 135Q..H19; 8% for steel; 52.5% for 6201~T81; and 97.OCk for H.D. Copper. 5005
H19, although included in earli€r editions of this handbook, has been deleted from this edition because it is no longer commercially available,
in a wide range of steel contentfrom 7"1. by weight differs from that stated in Table 3\, and depends On type
for the 36/1 stranding to 40"10 for the 3017. Today, for the of stranding. The amount of increase also may be com
largerthanAWG sizes, the most used strandings are 18/1, puted according to a method described in ASTM B232.
4517, 7217. and 84/19. comprising a range of steel content Table V of B232 is reproduced on next page as Table 34A.
from II "10 to 18"10, and for the moderatelY higher strength A description of the method of computing rated break
ACSR 54/19, 54/7, and 2617 strandings are much used, ing strength of ACSR found in ASTM B 232 is abstracted
having steel content of 26"1•• 26"1. and 31 "I" respectively. in righthand column of page 32.
Typical stranding arrangements for ACSR and high ACSRlfW is a new design of ACSR composed of
strength ACSR are depicted in Fig. 34. The highstrength shaped aluminum wires (Trapezoidal) stranded around a
ACSR. 8/1, 1217 and 16/19 strandings, are used mostly standard steel core. It is fully described in ASTM B 779
for overhead ground wires, extra long spans, river cross and Tables 419 to 4·22.
ings. etc. Expanded ACSR, Fig. 36, is a conductor the
diameter of which has been increased or expanded by
aluminum skeletal wires between the steel core and the
outer aluminum layers. This type of cable is used for lines Aluminum Conductor Alloy
above 300 kV. Reinforced (ACAR)
The innercore wires of ACSR may be of zinccoated Another form of stranded composite conductor consists
(galvanized) steel, available in standard weight Class A of 1350H19 strands reinforced by a core or by otherwise
coating or heavier coatings of Class B or Class C thick distributed wires of higherstrength 620 1T81 alloy.
neSSes. Class B coatings are about twice the thickness of The ASTM approved method for determining ACAR
Class A and Class C coatings about three times as thick rated strength is described in ASTM B 524 as follows:
as Class A. The inner cores may also be of aluminum (The mentioned Table 4 is that of ASTM B 524.)
coated (aluminized) steel or aluminumclad steel. The
latter produces a conductor designated as ACSRI AW in
which the aluminum cladding comprises 25 percent of the "The rated strength of completed conductors shall be taken as
area of the wire, with a minimum coating thickness of the aggregate strength of the 1350 aluminum and aluminum alloy
10 percent of overall radius. The reinforcing wires may components calculated as follows. The strength contribution oftbe 1350
a.luminum wires shall be taken as that percentage according w the
be in a central core or distributed throughout the cable. number of layers of 1350 aluminum wires indicated in Table 4 of the
Galvanized or aluminized coats are thin, and are ap sum of tne strengths of the 1350HI9 wires, calculated from their
plied to reduce corrosion of the steel wires. The conduc· specified nominal wire diameter and the appropriate specified minimum
tivity of these thincoated core wires is about 8 percent average tensile strength given in ASTM Specification B 230. The
(lACS). The apparent conductivity of ACSRI AW rein strength contribution of the aluminum aHoy wires shall be taken as that
percentage, according to the number of layers of aluminum alloy
forcement wire is 20.3"1. (lACS). wires. indicated in Table 4 of the sum of the strength of the aluminum
The incremental increase for dc resistance over that of wires calculated from their specified nominal wire diameter and the
solid round conductors, because of stranding of ACSR, minimum stress as 1 percent extens.ion. This shall be considered. to be
3·4
engineering design
95 percent of the minimum average tensile strength specified for the
wire diameter in Table 2 of ASTM Specification B 398, Rated strength
and breaking strength values shall be roundedoff to three significant
@ @ figures in the final value only. , ."
Because the 6201T81 reinforcement wires in ACAR
6 AI!1 S. 7 AliI S.
may be used in the core and/or for replacement of some
~
5 AI!1 S.
®
8 AliI S.
of the J350H19 wires in the strands, almost any desired
ratio of reinforcement 1350H19 wires is achieved, thereby
obtaining a range of strengthconductance properties be
54 AI/19 S.
TABLE 34A
6 AI!7 S.
(Table 5, ASTM B 232)
% de i % de
Stranding Resistance Stranding Resistance
I
42 AI/19 S.
6/1 1.5 4217 2.5
7/1 15 4517 2.5
8/1 2.0 4817 2.5
18 AliI S. 36 AliI S. 18/1 2.0 5417 2.5
36/1 2.0 72/7 3.0
1217 2.5 16/19 2.5
2417 2.5 30/19 2.75
:
2617 2.5 54/19 3.0
30/7 2.75 76/19 3.0
84/19 3.0
i
The above resistance factors also are usuaUy taken into account In
tables of de resistance for ACSR.
38 AII19 S.
24 AI!7 S. 26 AI!7 S.
TABLE 34B
Strength Rating Factors
Extm.ct from ASTM Specification B 524 for
ConcentricLayStranded Aluminum Conductors.
Aluminum Alloy Reinforced (ACAR)
(Referenced in ASTM B 524 as Table 4)
Stranding
Rating Factor,.
30 AI/19 S.
Numbe r of Wires Number of Layers'" per <enl
54 AI17 S. 30 AI!7 S.
1350 6201·1'81 1350 620I·T81 1350 62011'81
4 3 I 96 %
15 4 2 93 %
12 7 % %
33 4 3 91 96
30 7 2 1 93 96
24 13 2 2 93 93
18 19 1 2 96 93
54 7 3 91 %
48 13 3 2 91 93
42 19 2 2 93 93
33 28 2 3 93 91
45 AI17S. 21 AIl37 S. 16 Ali19 S. 72 '9 3 2 9' 93
Fig. 34. Typical stranding arrangements of aluminum 63 28 3 3 91 91
cable steelreinforced (ACSR). The conductor size and 54 37 2 3 93 91
ampacity for any arrangement depends On the size of the ., For purposes of determining strength rating factors, mixed
ind,vidual wires. layers are considered to be full layers for each material.
35
bare aluminum wire and cable
KEY
o 1350H1g wire
~ 6201T81 wire
41350 31350
36201 46201 151350 121350
46201 76201
Fig. 35. Typical stranding arrangements of aluminum cable alloyreinforced (A CAR). Assuming the reinforcement is
6201 T81 alloy, and that individual wires are larger than 0.150 in. diameter the strengthweight ratios are as shown: (the
strengths are slightly higher ifsmaller wires are usedJ_ The strengthlwt_ ratios compare rated strength per ASTM B 524
and conductor weight in Iblft.
36
engineering design
3·7
bare aluminum wire and cable
TABLE 35
Volume Weight
Conductivity Volume Resistivity Resistivity
Alloy
percent Ohmemil Ohmmm 2 Ohmsin2 OhmsIb
lACS per ft per m per 1000 ft per mile2
1350·H19 61.2 16,946 0,02817 0,013310 435.13
6201·T81 52,5 19.754 0,03284 0,015515 507,24
Alumoweld 20,33 51,01 0,08481 0,04007 3191,2
Steel 8,0 129,64 0,21552 0,10182 9574,0
HD Copper 97,0 10,692 0,01777 0,0083974 902,27
•Abstracted and calculated from ASTM Standards.
For stranded conductors, resistance values obtained by use of these factors are to be increased by the strandingincrement
ratio, per Table 3·1 for all aluminum conductors, or per Table 34A for ACSR.
Example: Find de resistance at 20'C of one mile of Bluebell cable of 1,033,500 emil area of 1350 of 61,2% lACS con
ductivity, allowing 2% stranding increment,
AI ' ., 3R5280XI6.946xl,0200883
PP YlI'lg reSistivity factor from Table ·5, = =. ohms
1,033,500
It is customary to compute the conductor resistance Example: The 200C temperature coefficient 0:: $l for 1350 {6L2~o
from known resistance at 20¢C (68 ¢F), Some tables, lACS) alloy is 0.00404. What is it for 509 C?
however. specify resistance at 25°C which are related to Applying Eq, 3·6
lO'C values by the factors in footnote on page 37, or may 1
be read directly from Table 37, Temperature coefficients "'so =         O,QQ)6()
+(5020)
0,00404
Change of dc Resistance with Temperature For coefficients for other temperatures see Table ).7.
38
engineering design
TABLE 36
even number of layers of aluminum wires (2,4 etc.) may be
estimated from the curves of Fig. 38, provided To is the
Temperature Coefficients of dc
radius of the Core and r. is the external radius.' By this
Resistance of Wire Materials
method, no account is taken of the current in the steel
C( x 20"C (68' F)
core. Some tables include the effect of core conductance,
hence show a slight variation of ratio.
(Abstracted from ASTM Standards)
Conductivity Temperature Coefficlent oc ,
If the number of aluminum layers is odd (1,3, etc.),
Material Percent lACS at m"C per degree C the Roo/Rue ratio for ACSR conductors is affected by the
magnetic flux in the core, which occurs because there is
Aluminum an unbalance of mmf due to opposite spiraling of adjacent
1350H19 61.2 0,00404 layers. In such conductors the core flux varies with load
6201T61 52.5 0,00347 current, hence the R.,/R d , ratio will vary with current.
Copper (hd) 97.0 0,00361 The effect is considerable in onelayer conductors, mod
Alumoweid 20.33 0,00360
0,00320
erate in 3layer conductors, and it may be disregarded for
Steel 9.0
5layer conductors and more. This effect is further de
scribed and illustrated by Fig. 39 and Table 38A.
Example: The resistance of one mile of Bluebell stranded
conductor of 61.2% (lACS) 1350H19 at 20(>C ,is 0.0883 "I:he comparison at 75010 loading, shown in Table 38A
ohms. What i, it at 500C? illustrates the effe~ ,of core permeability in the onelayer
ACSR whereas it has no effect in 2layer ACSR. The
Applying coefficient from Table 3·6 onelayer ACSR may be less desirable electrically and it is
R50 =0;1lll83 [1 + 0.00404 (5020)1 =0.0990 ohms used mostly where high strength is required at the sacrifice
of conductance and for small sizes, 4/0 and under.
The Rae/Ru, ratios for onelayer ACSR are obtained
from tables or curves that show test results at various load
currents.
Threelayer ACSR, as stated, similarly has the R"/R",,
ratio affected by load current. However, the effect may
be allowed for by applying values from Fig. 39 which
center element is thus reduced with consequent reduction
shows the correction factor to be applied to tbe ratio
of current density.
with varying load.
The ratio of ac resistance to de resistance (R,,/Ru,) is
Example: A 54/7 ACSR conductor, Curlew of 1033.5 kcmll has
almost unity for small aUaluminum conductors at power an Ra~/R(l~ ratio of 1.025 at 25 0 C, 60 Hz, without regard to core
frequencies, regardless of load current. It increases to magnetic effect. What are the ratios for load currents of 200. 400,
about 1.04 for the 1113.5 kcmil size and to about 1.09 600, 800, and 1000 amp,· respectively? See also footnote under
in the 1590 kcmi! size. Table 38.
From the upper curve of Fig. 3·9, values are tabulated in
The ):>asic calcula\ions of R"/R,,, ratio have been made col. (3), and multiplying these values by the basic ratio provides
for round wires and tubes of solid material, and these the desired ratio in col. tS) of Table 38.
values can be obtained from curves based on such calcu
Calculation of skineffect ratios for composite designs
lations or tests. Fig. 38 shows R.,/Ru, ratios for solid
in which the steel reinforcement is located whoUy or partly
round or tubular conductors, and they also may be ap away from the central core, or in which the steel is sur
plied for stranded conductors by treating the stranded cro~
rounded by a thick aluminum coating is almost impos
section as if it were spHd.
sible except for the simplest configurations. Consequently
For use' of the curves of Fig. 38, R", is first obtained such values are taken from tables that represent test r....
and corrected for temperatore. Rae is then obtained from suits. Accepted catalog data for most commercial designs
the R.,/Rd , ratio read from the chart. are available.
Example: All·aluminum Bluebell stranded conductor of 1350H19
(61.2% lACS) has de resistance of 0.0188 ohms per 1000 II at Proximity Effect
5<fC. What is its approximate Ra;/Rd~ ratio for 60 Hz? When two conductors are spaced relatively close to one
Substituting in equation at bottom of Fig. 38 on basis of ohms another and carry alternating current, their mutual induc
per mile, and r,ir" = 0.00. tance affects the current distribution in each conductor.
Abscissa parameter;:; [60/(0.0188 x 5.28)]'/;1 "C 24.6 and R IRdI; ,. However, if the distance apart of the conductors exceeds
1.031. which compares with a value from pubJlshed tables of 1:ti30, ten times the diameter of a conductor the extra I'R loss
Skin Effect in SteelReinforced
Stranded Conductors (ACSR, etc.) ·As fo/rn equals ratio of diameters, it usually is more con~
venient to use diameters which ordinarily can be" read from
The R...IR",. ratio of ACSR conductors that have an conductor tables, see footnote, Table 3S.
39
bare aluminum wire and cable
TABLE 37
Alloy
1350H19 6201T81
Conductivity
61.2% lACS 52.5% lACS
30 .00389 .00335
40 .00374 .00324
50 .00361 .00314
60 .00348 .00305
70 .00336 .00296
80 .00325 .00287
90 .00315 .00279
100 .00306 .00272
Example: The resinanee of one mile of Bluebell stranded conductor of 1350Hl9 alloy at SOOC is measured at 0.0990 ohms.
What is it at 200c?
Applying the 5()0 coefficient from Table 37 in Eq. 35: R20 = 0.0990 [I + 0.00361 [20  SOli = 0.0883 ohms.
TABLE 38
caused by this crowding is less than I percent, hence ordi
Comparison of Basic and Corrected RaclRdc Curlew
narily can be neglected.
Conductor
310
engineering design
I ~=O.OO
II Tn I
1.14
'0
. I ;;;=010 I
I
~:::O.20
Tn
1
,
II I _0.30
To
Tn
I
1.11
. 11'
TO
t..
II /0~_0'01
1&1
V
Z
oct ,
,
~ )% I /V
/J V
1
ij f.= 050 1
t
III
III
Tn I I I r ) f.=OhO I
1&1
III:
1.08
CONDUCTOR
CROSS UCTION II /
II
V
1 f I !!!=0.70
Tn
I
Q
I I I I V
o 1.07
t I
'/ / / '/ =0.76
To
Tn
I
V
oct , // / I f
...
o I / ~=OBO I
Tn
o

i I I 1 / I
'f / / / =0.82
To
Tn
I
, 1)1 / / / I
/I, / / / II J ~=o.84 I
VI I I / V /
Tn
"
1// / /
fJ"I / /
/ /
/ / ~ f.""U I
'/ / / / / / / ./ , / ~=0.B81
Tn
'l '/. / / / / / / // ~
:..,.. ~ /~ /.....::
1.01
~
~::::
........
_
:::
~=O90
r I
.00
10
V
60 !Rdc
ao a.
D ~~=O921
Rdc in ohms per mile
Fig. 3·8. SkineDect factor for solidround or tubular conductor at 60 Hz.
H. B. Woght. "Skin £JIm in Tubu/wand Flllt Cf»fdu<t()l'J, "1923.
311
bare aluminum wire and cable
TABLE 3SA
Comparison of R..,IR•• Ratios for AllAluminum and ASCR,
266.S kcmi!, SingleLayer Conductors, and Equivalent 2Layer Conductor
Resistance value in ohms per mile
ble at usual power frequencies; it becomes important only of I'R loss in the conductors occurs because of them.
at radio and higher frequencies. Accordingly no method Inductance and capacitance, however, influence system
of estimating such loss is considered herein. stability in highvoltage lines to a greater extent than re
sistance.
Corona"
Only the reactances that are related to the conductors,
Corona oCcurs when the potential of the conductor is either as parts of a singlephase or a threephase circuit,
such that the dielectric strength of the surrounding air are considered herein. The total system reactance also In
is exceeded. The air becomes ionized and bluish illu
cludes many factors not related to the conductors; among
minated gaseous tufts or streamers appear around the
conductor, being more pronounced where there are them leakage reactance of apparatus, and the extent that
irregularities of the conductor surface. The discharge automatic tapchanging and power·factor control are used.
is accompanied by the odor of ozone, and there may These system conditions are taken into account as a part
be a hissing sound. of circuit analysis for which a high degree of electrical
Corona discharge from a bare conductor power line engineering skill is required, and their consideration is
may interfere with radio and TV reception, or adjacent beyond the scope of this book.
carrier and signal circuits.
Inductiye Reactance
Bundled conductors are frequently used to obtain lower
voltage stress on the air insulation for voltages above The inductance L of a circuit is a measure of the
3S0kV. number of interlinkages of unit electric current with
Inductive and Capacitive Reactance lines of magnetic flux produced by the current, both
expressed in absolute units. L also is defined by e = L
Variable current flow in an electrical conductor, either (dildt) in which dildt indicates the rate of change of
as alternating current or as a transient of any kind, gives current with time. L is the coefficient of proponionality,
rise to the parameters of inductance (usually expressed in and e is the momentary induced voltage.
millihenrys) and capacitance (usually expressed in micro
The quantity X=2"f L, in which I is frequency in Hz. is
farads) and their related properties of inductive and
the in.ductive reactance, expressed in ohms~ but in phasor
capacitive reactance, usually expressed as ohms per mile
and megohmniiles, respectively, No energy loss is asso notation the inductivereactance drop is perpendicular to
the resistllnce drop; that is, the current I in a conductor
ciated directly with these parameters, but the 90° outof
phase voltage and current must be supplied to sustain the having both resistance and inductive reactance, but negli
magnetic and electric fields created, so a slight increase gible capacitance, and at unity power factor is
I E/ (R + jX) in which; = Vector operator (1)'"
'For further information regarding corona, see Standard HandboQk (Eq.37)
for Electrical Engineers. McGrawHiH Company. Sec. 14 which alSo
contains references to the varioUs n:search paperS, An ex;;:eUem text E = Emf, volts, to neutral
on corona and EHV line design is the EPRI Transmission Line I = Current in conductor,
Reference Book. 345 i:V and above.
amp
X = Inductive reactance,
312 ohms
engineering design
1,04
1.03
/
..,.., .,.,.
~
V
/
/'" ,. ~,,+5/7 strandingl
•

rn
1.01
./
V
",
/
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
CURRENT DENSITY 60 HZ AMPERES PER MilLION eMil OF ALUMINUM AREA
Fig. 39. Resistance multiplying factors for tkteelayer ACSR for aluminum conductivity of 62%. Without significant error.
these ftlCtors also may be used for aluminum of 61.2% lACS conductivity. These data are used to reflect the increase in resistance
due to magnetizing effects of the core.
3·13
TABLE 3·9
Separation of Conductors
Inch..
feet 0 1 2 3 4 5 I 6 7 I 8 9 10 I 11
0
1
 0.3015 0.2174 0.1682 0.1333 0.1062 0.0841 0.0654 0.0492 0.0349 0.0221" 0.0106
0.0097 0.0187 0.0271 0.0349 0.0423 0.0492 0.0568 0.0620 0.0679 0.Q735 0.0789
0
2 0.0841 0.0891 0.0938 0.0984 0.1028 0.1071 0.1112 0.1152 0.1190 0.1227 0.1264 0.1299
3 0.1333 0.1366 0.1399 0.1430 0.1461 0.1491 0.1520 0.1549 0.1577 0.1604 0.1631 0.1657
4 0.1682 0.1707 0.1732 0.1756 0.1779 0.1802 0.1825 0.1847 0.1869 0.1891 0.1912 0.1933
5 0.1953 0.1973 0.1993 0.2012 0.2031 0.2050 0.2069 0.2087 0.2105 0.2123 0.2140 1 0.2157
6 0.2174 0.2191 0.2207 0.2224 0.2240 0.2256 0.2271 0.2287 0.2302 0.2317 0. 2332 1 0.2347
7 0.2361 0.2376 0.2390 0.2404 0.2418 0.2431 0.2445 0.2458 0.2472 0.2485 0.2498 0.2511
8 0.2523
9 0.2666
10 0.2794 From: Electrical Transmission and Distribu~
11 0.2910 tion Reference Book, Westinghouse Electric
12 0.3015 Corporation, 1964.
13 0.3112
14 0.3202 {I) From formula: at 60 Hz
15 0.3286 Xd ; 0.2794 10gl 0 d
16 0.3364 d = separation in feet 3phase arrangement of conductors A, e, and C with
17 0.3438 5 ft between A and e, 7 ft between Band C, and 12 ft
18 0.3507 between A and C, the reactance voltage drop from any
19 0.3573 conductor to neutral does not vary more rhan 2.2"!, from
20 0.3635 the voltage based on average D (A x B x C) A, Or 7.5 ft.
21 0.3694
22 0.3751 Xa and Geometric Mean Radius (GMR)
23 0.3805 The calculation of inductive reactance to a radius of
24 0.3856 1 ft (X.) is aided by the factor GMR, which represents
25 0.3906 the radius of an infinitely thin tube the inductance of
26 0.3953 which under the same current loading equals that of the
27 0.3999 conductor. For nonmagnetic materials,
28 0.4043
29 0.4086 j 1
30 0.4127 X. = 0.2194  loglo    (Eq.38)
31 • 0.4167 60 GMR
32 0.4205 in which
33 0.4243 X, = Inductive reactance to 1 ft radius, ohms/mile
34 0.4279
35 0.4314
I = Frequency, Hz
36 0.4348 GMR = Geometric mean radius, ft
37 0.4382
The GMR of a single solid round conductor is 0.1788r,
38 0.4414 in which r is radius of conductor in ft. Fig. 310 is a
39 0.4445
curve showing GMR for an annular ring.
40 0.4476
41 0.4506 The GMR of a stranded conductor without steel rein
42 0.4535 forcement or center voids is obtained by using the concept
43 0.4584 of concentric rings of solid round wires, each ring being
44 0.4592 a specified G MD apart. *
45 0.4619
46 0.4646 The GMR of a stranded multilayer ACSR or an ex
47 0.4672 panded allaluminum conductor with hollow center is
48 0.4697
49 0.4722 *FOr methods of calculation see reL at bottom of page 313.
3·14
engineering design
CONDUCTOR
,
/ GEOMETRY GMD
,
/
0.90
I d
GMR
r,
/
8
0.S5
/
I , / d
I ,
/ I
I
0.60
V
V
0.n68
0.75
o
E"""'"
,1 .2 .3 .4 .5 ,6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
r, A or B or C
r,
2= RATIO OF INSIDE; R:AOIUS TO OUTSIDE RADIUS
r,
Fig. 3·10. GMR of annular rings.
L F. WoQ</rttjJ. "Efe"Jlk Prr~r Trorlsmi;;si(jff (In(J Dt:Wribulrol'l, .. !yJ8, C
Right Triangle A C 1.122 A
315
bare aluminum wire and cable
X. = 0.2794 log,.
1
0.399 which checks table. The average X, of a phase is 1/3 (0.0492 0.0492 + +
0.0373 0.0492) = 0.0492 ohms per mile, in which X, for
1.5 ft is 0.0492 ohms per mile (see Table 39).
Comparison with solid round The reactance to I ft radius X~ for any group of 2 or 3
subconductors is
1.170 [(lIm) (X, : (ml) X)] where m is the number of sub
GMR = 0.7788 X 0.0380 ft conductors 10 each group.
2X12
1
For 4 subconductors. X: is
[(11m (X,  (rn!) X)] + X,  0.0105
X, = 0.2794 X 10glO 0.397
0.0380 Hence, for 3 subconductors
X; = [\13(0.399  (2)0.0492)] = 0.1002 ohms per mile.
A corresponding size of ACSR, Curlew, diam. 1.246 in.
is listed with X, of 0.385 and GMR of 0.0420 ft, thereby As the distance between groups is compara
showing the reduction of X, because of the hollowtube tively large, an approximation for X:
for a single group
is made by conSidering the interconductor distances d as
effect and increased diameter, as per Eq. 38.
20 ft, 20 ft, and 40 ft, respectively, whence from Table
The variation of X, for different cable constructions of
39,
the same size, according to standard tables of electrical
b 1
properties, is shown below for 266.8 kcmi! conductors: +
Xc =  (0.3635 0.3635 0.4476) = 0.3915 ohms
X. 3
Kind af Overall Ohms per per mile. The total inductive reactance of a single group
Cable Code Stranding diameter l<Aile
Allaluminum Daisy 1 0.586 in. 0.489 is thus X = X~
b
+ X: = 0.1002 + 0.3915 = 0.4917
AAC ohms per mile.
ACSRone
layer
Owl 617 0.633 0.55 @ 400 amps
0.50 @ 200 amps If a more accurate value of x:;
is desired (usually when
O.48@Damp' distances within a group are not small as compared with
phase distances), an average of all Xd values for all dis
ACSR two Partridge 2617 0.642 0.465 tances between individual conductors is obtained. Thus,
layer in the example there are 27 such distances. An X, value
The increased diameter of Partridge as compared with from Table 39 is obtained for each of these distances,
that of Daisy shows that X, is reduced 5%, but the one then totaled, and divided by 27 to obtain an average X~.
layer Owl has 18 % greater X. when fully loaded. ZeroSequence Resistance and Inductive Reactance
Zerosequence currents (/0) that occur under fault con
Inductive Reactance of Bundled Conductors ditions are all equal and in phase. Hence they move out
For increasing load stability and power capability in simultaneously through the phase conductors and return
highvoltage lines, each of the individual phase lines is either through the earth or a combination of earth and
sometimes subdivided into 2. 3, or 4 subconductors but groundwire return paths. Zerosequence currents are the
the distance between the conductors of a phase group is three components of unbalanced phase currents that are
small compared with the distance between centers of equal in magnitude and common in phase. Note that I.
the groups. The design of such a bundledconductor flows in each phase conductor. and 3 I. flows to ground.
circuit is beyond the scope of this book. However, for The influence of the earth return can be given by two
any such arrangement, the inductive reactances may be additional terms, an earth resistance and reactance, as
found as per the following example, provided the in follows:
dividual conductors are the same size. the same group
arrangement is used for all phases, and skin and proximity
effects are negligible.'
R, = 0.2858 (to) in ohms per mile (Eq. 39)
and
Example: Consider the arrangement below in which each conductor
is ACSR m kcmii, Code Drake. 2617 stranding, 6OHz.
X, = 0.4191 (to) log,. 77,760 (~) p. =
approx 2.888 ohms
"'1.5~ per mile at 60 Hz,
~'<J\
. ~r
; ..(....
':j
1~.20~1 ••
. • •
~1.~20~1~.~1
• •
. if p, is taken at 100
(see Table 311)
(Eq.31O)
• See also AlEE papers 5841 and 59897. ibid. p. 38 footnote.
3·16
engineering design
Resistivity (Pe )
Ohmmeter
All values
60Hz
Re
per mile
0.?8SS*
r15 1
t J5~
1 2.050 From Eq. 3~9 R~ = 0.2858, and X t = 2.888, ohms per mile
5 2.343 From tables, Rill:< 0.1370 ohms per milt at 75~C
10
50
100'
f 2.469
2.762
2.888
X.
X,
0.399 ohm, per mile
I
=  (0.3286
3
+ 0.3286 + 004127) = 0.3566
317
bare aluminum wire and cable
TABLE 312
Separation Component (X'd I of Capacitive Reactance
at 60 Hz III MegohmMiles Per Conductor
Separation of Conductors
=
inches
feet! 0 1 !
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11
10
0  0.0737 0.0532 0.0411 0.0326 0.0260 0.0206 0.0160 0.0120 0.0085 0.0054 0.0026
1 0 0.0024 0.0046 0.0066 0.0085 0.0103 0.0120 0.0136 0.0152 0.0166 0.0180 0.0193
2 0.0206 0.0218 0.0229 0.0241 0.0251 0.0262 0.0272 0.0282 0.0291 0.0300
0.0309 0.0318
3 0.0326 0.0334 0.0342 0.0350 0.0357 0.0365 0.0372 0.0379 0.0385 0.0392 0.0399 0.0405
4 0.0411 0.0417 0.0423 0.0429 0.0435 0.0441 0.0446 0.0452 0.0457 0.0467 0.0473
0.0462
5 0.0478 0.0482 0.0487 0.0492 0.0497 0.0501 0.0506 0.0510 0.0515 0.0519 0.0523 0.0527
6 0.0532 0.0536. 0.0540 0.0544 0.0548 0.0552 0.0555 0.0559 0.0563 0.0567 0.0570 0.0574
7 0.0577 0.0581 i 0.0584 0.0588 0.0591 0.0594 0.0598 0.0601 0.0604 0.0608 0.0611 0.0614
8 0.0617
9 0.0652
10 0.0683 From: Electrical Transmission and Distribu
11 0.0711 tion Reference Book, Westinghouse Electric
12 0.0737 Corporation, 1964.
13 0.0761 , 60 1 60
14 0.0783 (1) From formula: for 60 Hz
X, = 0.0683 loglO + 0.0683 10glO dab
15 0.0803 f rn I (Eq.313)
X'd = 0.06831 log lOd in which
16 0.0823
17 0.0841
d : : : Separation in feet X', =
Capacitive reactance in megohmmiles per COn
18 0.0858 ductor
19 0.0874 'n =Overall radius of conductor, It
20 0.0889 d" = Separation distance to return conductor, £t
21 0.0903
22 0.0917
f = Frequency, Hz
23 0.0930 The lefthand term of the above twoterm equation
24 0.0943 represents X'" the capacitive reactance lor 1 ft spacing
25 0.0955 (to Ift radius); the righthand term represents X'd' the
26 0.0967 separation component; both are in terms 01 megohmmiles.
27 0.0978 These two values have been tabulated lor 60 Hz. Those
28 0.0989 for X', are listed in the tables of electrical properties of
29 0.0999 conductors and those for X'd are in Table 312.
30 0.1009
31 0.1019 Example: For 795 kcmil Drake, Ra.dius of conductor 0,1)461 ft.
32 0.1028 6(} Hz. 20 rt spacing.
33 0.1037 Substituting in the termS of Eq. 3~ 13
34 0.1046 I
X'. = 0.0683 108"   = 0.0683 X 1.3365 = 0.0913
35 0.1055 0.0461
35 0.1063 megohm·miles
38 0.1079 megohmmiles
3·18
engineering design
The zerosequence capacitive reactance of one 3phase equals heat input the temperature remains steady, and the
circuit without ground wires in terms of megohmmiles current for such condition is the ampacity for that tempera
per conductor is ture under the stated conditions,
The factors of importance that affect ampacity for a
X'o ~ X', + X'd  2X', (Eq, 315) given temperature are wind velocity, conductor surface
in which the terms have previously been defined, emiSSivity, atmospheric pressure (which affects ampacity
at high altitudes), and of course the ambient temperature,
Capacitive Reactance of Bundlcd Conductors Neglecting sunshine heat input. the heat balance may be
The shunt capacitive reactance of bundled conductors expressed as
can be found from equations identical with those used in PRo,,, =0 (W.. ..;.. W,) A" both terms in watts/linear ft.
the numerical example relating to inductive reactance of (Eq.316)
bundled conductors (page 317), except a prime is added and in which
to each X, Thus (X',)b and (X',,)b may then be used in
W, Convection loss, watts/sq in. of conductor
place of X'" and X'" in the corresponding equations for
surface
positive or zerosequence inductive reactance,
W, = Radiation loss, watts/sq in. of conductor surface
Ampacity of Bare Conductors' A = Surface area of conductor per ft of length, sq in.
The major considerations involving the currentcarrying R"rr = Total effective resistance per ft of conductor,
capacity (ampacity) of overhead transmission conductors ohms, including the resistanceequivalent of
are the effect of conductor heating by the current and the pertinent components of loss under ac con
consequent reduction of tensile strength, Most aluminum ditions, (skin and proximity effects. reactance
transmission conductors are harddrawn and operate over components, etc,)
predetermined ranges of maximum sags and tensions,
which reduces to
Heating to relatively high temperatures for appreciable ~="'C":~.• ~~ .....
time periods anneals the metal. thus reducing the yield Xd(W,+W,)
= ~
strength and increasing elongation. Hence the ampacity (Eq,316a)
of such conductors is generally stated to be the current I R0ff
which under the assumed conditions of operation will not in which d = Outside diameter of conductor, in.
produce sufficient heating to affect significantly the tensile i = Current for balanced condition (the
properties of the conductor. ampacity), amp
Basic to the calculation is the establishment of an ambi The convection heat loss W" depends on wind velocity,
ent temperature level. Obviously the ampacity is related temperature risc, and atmospheric pressure (altitude), The
to temperature rise. and the amount of the latter depends radiation heat loss W, is considered to depend on tempera
on temperature of the outside air. ture rise and an emissivity constant , that expresses the
lisual practice is to assume an ambient temperature of ability of the conductor to radiate internal heat.
40'C for overhead conductors, and the tables and charts A perfect nonradiative surface would have, =: 0, and
herein are on that basis. However, lower ambients will be a body that radiates all heat would have, I. The emis
found in some applications, and the temperature rise for a sivity factor < for aluminum conductor surfaces depends
given operating temperature must be altered accordingly. on the degree of oxidation and discoloration of surface,
The usual maximum operating temperature for ten its roughness, and the stranding. Newly installed conduc
sioned bare conductors is 70° to 85'C, with 100'C and tors mav have, as low as 0.23. and mav be 0.90 after
ovcr permiSSlble only in limited emergencies. being ";elIblackened after year~ of servj~e. A value of
, = 0.5 provides a safety factor for the majority of ex
Hear Balance: posed conductors which have been installed for several
Temperature rise in a conductor ciepends on the bal years, This value (, "" 0.5) is used for the tables and
ance between heat input (FR loss plus heat received from curves herein, which also show values based on a cross
sunsbine) and heat output (due to radiation from the COn wind of 2 ft per sec (1. 36 miles per hr) as well as for
ductor surface, and transfer because of convection of air still but unconfined air (Figs. 311 et seq).
currents). The heat loss arising from metallic conduction The effect of sunlight and altitude as well as of varia
to supports is negligible, SO is ignored. When the tempera tions of emissivity constants are shown by small auxiliary
ture of the conductor rises to the point where heat output curves of Fig. 315.
The various factors entering the heat balance equations
* Conductor ampacity has been reported extensively by Schurig have been summarized by one conductor engineering
and Frick, W. H, McAdams. House and Tuttle and others, and group into the following:
their results checked by test programs, The brief treatment herein
is abstracted from many sources, principally the Alcoa Aluminum 1. Convection Heat Loss (W,,) for 2 ft/sec wind, at
Overhead Conductor Engineering Data book: Section 6. sea level for 60°C rise above 40°C ambient.
319
bare aluminum wire and cable
TABLE 313
! Current in Amperes
W, =
0.5388 (1.01 +
43.22 d V.•2) watts per ft of If the ambient temperature is less than 40°C, a small
length for d up to 1.6 in. diameter (£q.317) change in ampacity for a given temperature rise may be
W, = 22.15 dO·' watts per ft of length for d 1.6 in. obtained because the resistance of the conductor is less
diameter and over (Eq. 318) (because of its reduced temperature). However, at the
lower ambient and the same temperature rise, the radiated
2. Convection Heat Loss (W,) for still air, at sea level heat loss is less. The net result is that the current for a
W, (still) 0.072 d· 75 6 t,'·25 watts per ft of given temperature is little changed over a considerable
length in which 6 t. is temperature rise above range of ambient temperature.
ambient (Eq.319) Ampacity of 1350HJ9AIIAluminum ConduclOr
3. Radiation Heat Loss (W,) for 60 e C rise above and StandardStrengtit ACSR Conductors
40°C ambient Ampacity graphs for 1350 allaluminum conductors,

W, = 6.73 d watts per ft of length for < 0.5 (an
and StandardStrength ACSR are shown in Figs. 311,
12, 13, and 14 for still air and for 2fps wind at 4I)OC
average emissivity for weathered conductors) ambient for, =0.50 and 62.,. lACS aluminum without
(Eq.320) sunlight effect. For 61.2". lACS multiply by 0.994.
4. Sun Heat Gain (W,)to be subtracted from (W, Small graphs of mUltiplying factors for sunlight, altitude,
+ W,) in the above equations. and emissivity corrections are shown in Fig. 315. The
W, and W, values for 600C rise are from Eqs. 317, 18,
W, = 3.0 d watts per ft of length for mid latitudes and 20. The slope of the lines from the 60 0C values is
(Eq.321) based on experimental data.
3·20
engineering design
Ampacity of SingleLayer HighStrength extends downward from the designated size. It intersects
ACSR Conductors the 35'C rise horizontal at 835 amp, which is the am
pacity for the stated conditions.
Table 313 can be used for ampacity values for high
strength ACSR in largerthanA WG sizes for 10', 30', 2. For the cable of Example 1, what is ampacity if
and 60'C rise. Values for intermediate temperatures may altitude is 10,000 ft with sun, and with emissivity
be obtained by plotting tb,ese values on loglog paper simi factor reduced to 0.23?
lar to that used for Figs. 313 and 314.
Note: The multiplying factors of Fig. 3·15 are to be used. These
strktly are applicable only for lOO~C operating: temperature.
Ampacity of6201T81 and but inasmuch as the ampadty diagonals on Fig. 3~ 13 are almost
ACAR Conductors straight lines. it is satisfactory to apply the muitipJying factors
directly to the 35"'C rise ampadty of 835 amp.
Inasmuch as heat loss for a given temperature rise is
The altitude factor with sun is taken from the lefthand
proportional to conductor surface (or diameter) and heat
diagram of Fig. 3150 as being 0.83 (approx) for I.l in.
input is proportional to FR, the ampacity of any conductor
diam., and the emissivity factor taken from the righthand
of conductivity other than 62% lACS is found closely
diagram with sun for, = 0.23 is 0.90. The desired am
per the following example:
pacity is 835 X 0.83 X 0.90 = 630 amp.
Find ampacity in still air for 30'C rise of 394.5 kemil Note: If the multiplying factors are applied to the 60 Rise Q
(0.684 in. diam.) cable of 6201T81 of 52.5 % lACS cOn ampacity. for conditions stated in Example 1, the unadjusted
ductivity. ampacity is 1050 amperes. After applying the multiplying fac
tors, this reduces to 1050 X 0,83 X Q,!'X) = 785 amp. Entering
By interpolating in Fig. 311, the ampacity of 62"70 lACS Fig. 3·14 at intersection of 60"C rise and 785 amp, and fonowA
1350 conductor of same diameter (if it could be ob ing down an imaginary diagonal that is parallel to an adjacent
diagonal, it is noted that ~his intersects the 35"C line at 630
tained) would be 320 amp. Hence, the ampacity at amp. the same value as previously obtained.
52.5% lACS is 320 x (52.5/62.0)i!,; or 294 amp.'
For ACAR which has wires of two conductivities, the Emissivity Limitations for Figs. 311 10 314
equavalent conductivity value is used; thus, for 42119 An emissivity of < = 0.5 is the maximum assumed for
ACAR (1350 and 6201T81) of 1.165 in. outside diameter, weathering conditions at high altitudes (l0,000 ft). The
the "7. lACS conductivity of the ACAR conductor, if the maximum assumed emissivity for a fully weathered con
1350 wires are 61.2"1. lACS, is ductor in normal altitude is 0.91.
(42 X 61.2 + 19 X 52.5) 161 = 58.5"70 lACS
Examples of Ampacity Values Obtained from Figs. 311
Conductor Economics
to 15 Incl.
The high cost of energy and generation facilities has
The following typical examples illustrate the use of the made it very important that power losses be evaluated
various graphs: when selecting the correct conductor size to be used in
I. Cable size 795 kemil ACSR 26n stranding, E = a given project. Construction and energy costs have
0.50, diam. 1.1 in. approx., wind of 2 ft per sec. increased dramatically during the past decade, and this
What is ampacity for 35°C rise, or 75°C operating trend seems likely to continue. The Aluminum Associ
ation pUblication, "The Evaluation of Losses in CondUC
temperature?
tors." provides details on how such an economic analysis
At top of Graph Fig. 314 note the diagonal line that couId be done.
321
w g
•
~
..
to
'"
.,; " '"
.,; '"<i ",,,,
'" 0
" ro
.,... ......'" '" "... "'" a>'"'" ro '" ~ ., ., '" "'".
N M N 0)00
..,'""
N
DIAMeTER INCHES
ro M 0 '"
N
'"ci
N
N
'"'" ON
M
N Nf'..,.V}O"'f
N
M
to
'" "'
N N M
ci ci 0 0
M
0 0 '"0 0 '" 0
0 0 0 '" 0
0 NM", <0 N "''''
":N 0
::l
60 I II Q..
"0
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~
'1"~;r'~;r~~;t~~tt~Ll~I1;r~~~~~~~~
u
.,w
w
'"
,,30
::!i_
: J
I
Ii jI 'I rI' I I r' I' 'I ' I I"I j ,I"
T I I / I " rr
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iY •  1
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r·
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w
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~
",
l: 11I III I / l i l 'r j , A / II I ((I T
It ( i, I / .v I I¥ / V I( I I I (
j j j j II
10 I , I V II II I
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800900 1000 1500 2000
CURRENT 60 HZ AMPERES
Fig. 3·11. CurrentTemperatureRise Graph for Ampacity £!fBareAluminum Cable Stranded 1350H19 62% JACS Still Air, Ambient Temperature
4(f'C Emissivity (t) 0.5. For 61.2% JACS, multiply values by 0.994. No Sun~Sea Level.
For multiplying factors for various sun and emissivities, and for high a/tiludes, see Fig. 315, Chart A.
ro .
''"" '"'".., '"'"<i '"'" ""'" '" '" '"
SIZE AWG KCMIL
"
... N ~
N
~
M ..
i( <i
'" '"
N
<i
M 0
M
'" '" '"
'<tMNN~ 0
_
<f)I:"'1Qt...'0(h
00  N M
............ If')
~
0
0
0
N
0
a
00
00
l.f)'O>{')
N M M
'"0 '"'"<>
M
" N ro'"
" "''''
"'"0
ro M 0 N N N 0 '" 00 N N"" l(")O"<:t l.f) M
DIAMETERINCHES N N M M V)
'" " '"
'"0 "'''' 0
 NMM "'<;t
N
60
50
·
Q
w
"
'"w
,•!2•
8
::;: 301
III y' "
}
j I
f' I' ' I }'
J l •' "'I ' I ,'I I I " '1'1 " , ,... . , .. ' ,
«
::;201 • I t111/ I'I ,r
" L{' B 'I
~
...
w
0.. • III I ' II I
I' ' " )'
I
I
I
..
I'
I' i , I lli1 / Il I) d n ·rI
15 1 V I • I I (
1 j i ( II
I rI 1~ II JJ I'I II Jj r,
I YI I I' If'I If'I IJ II I I'I rI I
Yj ,
10' I I II>
50 60 70 eo 90 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1500 2000 3000 c5
~:
CURRENT 60 HZ AMPERES
Pig. 312. CurrentTemperatureRise Graph for Ampacity of Bare Alumillum Cable Stranded 1350H19 62% lACS Still Wind 2 fps. AmMent
Temperatu,e 4(J'C Emissivity (E) 0.5. For 61.2% lACS, multiply values by 0.994. No SunSea Leyel. "
<Q
.
I!.>
100)
I!.>
Por multiplying factors for various sun and emissivities, and for high altitudes, see Fig. 315, Chart B.
!
"
w
•
.,..
.,....., Q
N
.... 'Z 'Z ~
«'!~.
",,,, "" '"'" " ...,..01.1'10 '"vi
..0<> "'ItMNN 
0.." a <> '<> iil
"''''
1,1")
"..,
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SIZE AWG KCMIL
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00
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00 0
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II
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• j iJ '~~T· 'r~''
~...
. . N Q
'"
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n
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, II
, ,
l / I A
,
IIlll! II IV AI
, r £ A
.,..
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501 } ) I I } I{ } I
• • iii"
030'~[;j7rlf~~j~~~7r;;r:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~::~~~~
40 I ~
r rI 7' I I 'I II V I 1I
7 I r, ~ I
YJ I fI jI ,} £1 T
"fi l lq
T r
IVj /£y
.P ~ I
I,I I{ jI
u
'"or
UJ
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Cl
or II• v
L1I r
I I Jnl £I £} IIJ Ti'
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or
'"0::
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If H1 I f i l lI II
I
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Fig. 313. CurrentTemperatureRise Graph for Ampacity of Bare ASCR 62% lACS Still Air, Ambient Temperature 41l'C Emissivity rE)
0.5. For 61.2% lACS, multiply values by 0.994. No SunSea Level.
For multiplyingfaclOrs for various sun and emissivities, and for high altitudes, see Fig. 315, Chart C.
STRANDING  <s:O
"  _..............
~ <r
~ :0 
:0 c::,
0
""
:0:0 """
(O~:O <t " " " " " ~':;f~~~~
<s~;a~~ ..... .z:::.
~ ~  "",,r.. ..... '" '" "M
00
N (';I N N NN('H'fN \l")V)'<t'<t'lt'<t co 00 S'2
1
00 0 () V) 00 " N M M N "!f M to ,,OO,;,CO ooN<I"/"N N N V)
so
4011  1
u
'"ttl
\)3olrL
w
<:>
.'"
w
w
'"
::>
!;i20~~
'"
w
"
lIE
w
I
151~11 1/ I I I fIt
lOL..l I II .
40
CURRENT 60 HZ AMPERES
600 700 800 900 1000 1500 2000 3000 "
(Q
;;'
Fig. 314. CurrentTemperatureRise Graph for Ampacity of Bare ACSR 62% lACS Wind 2 fps, Ambient Temperature 40'C :rm
(Q
Emissivity (Ei 0.5. For 61.2% JACS, multiply values by 0.994. No SunSea Level.
...,w•
VI
For multiplying factors for various slIn and emissivities, and for high altitudes, see Fig. 3/5, Chart lJ.
i'"
bare aluminum wire and cable
Chart A Chart B
a,Altitude Effec1 b. EmissivityEHect c. Eminivity Effe(:t Q, Alti'ude EH~ct b,Emiuivity IHied ¢.EII1'nl",i ty Efhtd
......
w
2.5
10.000 f~et

no sun

with svn
b. sb ... 2.5
10000 feet

no SUfi
0..50.

"nth sun
r 50
IE
2.0.   i 2.0   I
$ ..
 '"
D ~t5  
. '"
Q
aU
t; !
WI! I. 5
1.0
Son
No



"x
aU
t;!to
No
Sun
 
:>
SOO 0.23 0..50. 91 (123 0..91 ~ 0..91 0.23 O.91
Q
0. 5  II  ~ 0.5
Sun\ 0..23

8 0.
\
.80. .90.
I I .85 U
0. .85 .95
I \ I I ~II
.90. 1.0.0. 1.10 1.20 .95 .95 1.0.5 1.15 ,90 1.0
.75 .65 ,95 .65 .95 1.05 1.1 5 .So. .90. 1.0 .80 ,90 1.00 ,90 1.00 1.10 .85 .95
CURRINT CURRENT
AFor stranded 1350 in still air. Fig. 311. BFor stranded 1350wind 2 jps. Fig. 312.
Chart C Chart D
Q, Altit'Ude fffec t b, Emissivity Effe<f c. Emi1sivity Effect O· Altitude Effect b. Emissivity Effect c· Emi$$ivity Effec I
10,000 feet no $lIn wah S\ln 10.000 feet no lun with Ivn
.
...
w
2. 5   0..50. ....
~
2. 5  0.50
II
~
0.50.
i 2. 0.   ~ 2))  
$ .. ~
'" ;
.. u
1. 5
No
  o
..o '" ~t 5
No
i
 
fz
t)  1. 0.
Sun
  t; !
U
1.0
Sun
 
:> :>
"z 0..5 S"  10·23 0..50. 0..91 0.23 0..9 I "
Z 0.5  0.23
,
0..91 ~
0.23 0.9
8
0. .80. .90.
I
.90
1.00 UO 120
I ,
I \ , 1\
.85 .95
8 SuJ
°S5 .95
I :95 l.OS
I l,5
II .90
ij
to
.75 .85 .95 .85 ,95 1.05 1.1.5 .SO ,90 to .80. .90 .90 1.00 i.10 .85 .95
CURRENT CURR£NT
CFor stranded ACSR in still air. Fig. 313. DFor stranded ACSRwind 2 jps. Fig. 314.
Fig. 3·15 (A, B, C, and D)Multiplying factor for various conditions of emissivity (,j, sun, and altitude.
Multiply the ampacity value obtained from Figs. 311 to 314 for 600C rise inclusive by the applicable foctor at bottom of diagram
corresponding to the associated ampacity CUlVe.
326