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Viscosity Measurement & Rheological behavior
Viscosity- An Introduction & Importance
The viscosity and consistency of the paint determine its capacity to level itself on the surface and not excessively flow, sag or run off during application. Therefore it is of great importance to study different rheological behavior to keep a balance in the formulation of paint with its desired performance properties. Viscosity is the measure of the internal friction of a fluid. This friction becomes apparent when a layer of fluid is made to move in relation to another layer. The greater the friction, the greater the amount of force required to cause this movement, which is called shear. Shearing occurs whenever the fluid is physically moved or distributed.
The behaviour of fluid between two very large plates
Here, two parallel planes of fluid of equal area A are separated by a distance dx, and the top plate is moving in the x direction with velocity u
sec. when applied to vertical surfaces.m-2. Newton assumed that the force required to maintain this difference in speed was proportional to the difference in speed through the liquid. Role of Rheology in Coatings performance: Sagging The sagging of a coating film.cm-2 and MKS unit is Newton. is a function of its rheological properties. The Newton’s Law of Viscosity is as follows: Where: τ (shear stress) = (F/A) = µ . There is another term called Kinematic Viscosity which is defined as: Where: µ : Dynamic Viscosity of the fluid. τ describes the shearing which the liquid experiences and is thus called the shearing stress µ is called the Dynamic Viscosity. v : Kinematic Viscosity.sec. or the velocity gradient.(dv/dy) µ (viscosity) = τ /(dv/dy) And (dv/dy)is the velocity gradient. Its CGS unit is Poise or dyne. ρ : Density of the fluid.(or v). . It is a measure of the change in speed at which the intermediate layers move with respect to each other and it has units of per second.
It is basically an extreme form of leveling i. One of which pertains to the rate of sagging i.e. There are two mathematical equations which gives an analysis of sagging. Poise (Centipoises) .” Viscosity Units: To express the viscosity of liquid materials following units are used readily: 1. A thin paint exhibits severe sagging problem when applied on a vertical wall but if we changes its rheological behavior by making it thixotropic then it does not flow on the other hand a very thick paint does not level on the surface properly but if we incorporate in it pseudo plasticity then it levels properly. a wet paint film flows excessively if it is too thin to stay/adhere at a particular area of application after leveling on a vertical wall. “Both Sagging and leveling depends on rheological behavior of coating material.e. V=ρGT2/2√ Where V: Velocity (Cm/Sec) Ρ: Density of coating material G: Gravitational constant T2: Film thickness (Cm) √: Viscosity The distance a wet film will sag in given length of time is: Distance=vt On doubling the film thickness change in volume of sagged will increase by eight times and given by the following equation: V=ρGT3/3√ Leveling Leveling is the ability of a brush out paint to flow out and obliterate the furrows left by the brush bristles.
5. Temperature dependency of Viscosity: Viscosity varies considerably on varying temperature. . viscosity decreases on increasing the temperature and vice versa. It is mandatory to mention the temp at which viscosity is being measured. Rheopectic Fluids Newtonian Fluids Fluids for which the shearing stress is linearly related to the rate of shearing are designed as Newtonian Fluids. A Newtonian fluid is represented graphically in the figure below.e. 4. Thixotropic fluids e. Different Rheological Behaviour We can classify the rheological behavior as follows: 1.2. Seconds Stokes (Centistokes) Krebs Unit (KU) Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) Below is the viscosity conversion chart which correlates these viscosity units with each other. Dilatant fluids d. Viscosity is indirectly proportional to the temperature i. Newtonian Fluids 2. 3. Pseudoplastic fluids c. Non-Newtonian Fluids a. Plastic fluids b.
The linear variation of shearing stress with rate of shearing strain The consistency of viscosity with varying shearing rate. What this means in practice is that at a given temperature the viscosity of a Newtonian fluid will remain constant regardless of which Viscometer model. . spindle or speed we use to measure it.
Dilatancy is also referred to as shear-thickening flow behavior. emulsions. Psuedoplastic Fluids This type of fluid will display a decreasing viscosity with an increasing shear rate. spindle. Probably the most common of the non-Newtonian fluids. This measured viscosity is called the apparent viscosity of the fluid and is accurate only at the same parameters. corn starch in water. such as clay slurries. the shear stress doesn't vary in the same proportion (or even necessarily in the same direction).Non-Newtonian Fluids Fluid for which the relationship τ/(du/dy) is not constant. as shown in the figure below. see the figure below. pseudo-plastics include paints. Thus. This type of flow behavior is sometimes called shear-thinning. when the shear rate is varied. the experimental parameters of Viscometer model. and dispersions of many types. candy compounds. and sand/water mixtures. Dilatant Fluids This type of fluid will display a increasing viscosity with an increasing shear rate. speed etc. dilatancy is frequently observed in fluids containing high levels of deflocculated solids. Although rarer than pseudoplasticity. all have an effect on the measured viscosity of a non-Newtonian fluid. . In other words.
the ketchup flows out of the bottle. Tomato ketchup is a good example of a plastic fluid. Once the yield value is exceeded and flow begins. this force is called the yield value.Plastic Fluids These type of fluids will behave as a solid under static conditions. plastic fluids may display Newtonian. After impact. A certain amount of force must be applied to the fluid before any flow is induced. Ideal plastic substance. pseudoplastic. its yield value will often make it refuse to pour from the bottle until the bottle is shaken or struck. . or dilatant flow characteristics.
So far we have only discussed the effect of shear rate on non-Newtonian fluids. a thixotropic fluid undergoes a decrease in viscosity with time. These are: Thixotropic Fluids As shown in the figure below. Some fluids will display a change in viscosity with time under conditions of constant shear rate. Rheopectic Fluids . while it is subjected to constant shearing.
is frequently observed in materials such as greases. while others may take up to several days. Both thixotropy and rheopexy may occur in combination with any of the previously discussed flow behaviours. and paints.Rheopectic behaviour is essentially the opposite of thixotropic behaviour. as shown in the figure. heavy printing inks. some fluids will reach their final viscosity value in a few seconds. Rheopectic fluids are rarely encountered. Viscometers A viscometer (also called viscosimeter) is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid. Types of Viscometers: “U-tube” Viscometers (Ostwald or Ubbelohde type) These viscometers are based on the measurement of the rate of flow of a definite volume of liquid through a capillary of definite bore. . These instruments can be used for the comparison of the viscosities of two liquids. Viscometers only measure the viscosity under a single flow condition. The time element is extremely variable. an instrument called a rheometer is used. or only at certain shear rates. For liquids with viscosities which vary with flow conditions. Thixotropy. in that the fluid's viscosity increases with time as it is sheared at a constant rate. under conditions of constant shear. however.
Various types of glass capillary viscometers. Rotational Viscometers .
The second type uses a precision servo motor to drive the shaft. or retarding force. . 'Cone and Plate' viscometers use a cone of very shallow angle in theoretical contact with a flat plate. The current required is proportional to the viscosity of the sample under test. A spring & pivot assembly rotates on the shaft. the amount of which varies with the speed of rotation. A rotating body experiences a viscous drag. Synchronous (Stepper) Motor / Spring 2. The chief advantages of these instruments are:• • • • They are simple to use. a graph of shear stress (torque) against shear rate (angular velocity) yields the viscosity. Rotational viscometers fall into two main types: 1. the torque required to achieve a certain rotational speed is measured. Servo Motor / Digital encoder The first type uses a stepper motor to drive the main shaft. The Spindle or rotor is attached directly to the shaft. High speed microprocessors measure the speed from a digital encoder and calculate the current required to drive the rotor at the test speed. Yield stresses can be determined. With this system the shear rate beneath the plate is constant to a modest degree of precision. known as either the "Couette" or "Searle" systems .Rotational viscometers use the idea that the force required to turn an object in a fluid. There are two classical geometries in "cup and bob" viscometers. The viscometer determines the required force for rotating a disk or bob in a fluid at known speed. 'Cup and bob' viscometers work by defining the exact volume of sample which is to be sheared within a test cell. The dependency of viscosity on time can be readily determined.distinguished by whether the cup or bob rotates. As the spindle rotates the spring is deflected by the viscosity of the sample under test. the viscosity is determined by measuring the drag on a spindle rotating in the material. Continuous measurements can be made at a given rate of shear or stress. In rotational viscometers. can indicate the viscosity of that fluid. The spindle or rotor hangs from this assembly.
Bohlin. Haake. .Examples are the Brookfield Synchro-Lectric. Rheometrics. MacMichael. and Brabender viscometers. Stormer.
. In practice. 1) Wear on the cone and plate. 6) Cone type .2P. 3) Time taken to allow the sample to stabilize on the plate before taking a reading. the cone’s setting to the plate and the speed of the instrument.Newtonian? high or low viscosity. e. Efflux Viscometers They usually consist of a metal cup with parallel sides and with an accurately machined orifice at the center of the base. accuracy of the cone’s angle. 5) Material Nature .g.lower range cones give higher accuracy. the accuracy between the 10% and 90% of the scale is normally ± 0. The achievable accuracy for a cone and plate viscometer across its scale is ± 2% of the full-scale range. 7) Shear Rate applied to sample. 4) Cleanliness of cone and plate. 2) Size of sample. 0-10P the accuracy should be within ± 0. particulate size.The time for the cup to empty through the orifice is noted and the results expressed in seconds.1P for a 10P scale. Cone & Plate Measurement of Viscosity (Accuracy) The accuracy of the cone and plate viscometer depends upon the instrument’s ability to hold temperature.“Cone & Plate” (Couette type) Viscometer Stormer Viscometer This viscometer employs a paddle that measures the viscosity of a fluid based on the resistance to flow while stirring. Other parameters also affect the accuracy and these are listed below.
Zahn cup Viscometer A Zahn cup is a viscosity measurement device widely used in the paint industry. this is the corresponding "efflux time".But these viscometers are unsuited to paints which possess any degree of thixotropy. To determine the viscosity of a liquid. labeled Zahn cup #x. There are five cup specifications. where x is the number from one through five. and low number cup sizes when viscosity is low. this rate of flow would be proportional to the kinematic viscosity (expressed in stokes and centistokes) that is dependent upon the specific gravity of the draining liquid. Large number cup sizes are used when viscosity is high. However. It is commonly a stainless steel cup with a tiny hole drilled in the center of the bottom of the cup. the cup is dipped and completely filled with the substance. After lifting the cup out of the substance the user measures the time until the liquid streaming out of it breaks up. Under ideal conditions. Ford Cup No#4 Viscometer The Ford viscosity cup is a simple gravity device that permits the timed flow of a known volume of liquid passing through an orifice located at the bottom of the cup. There is also a long handle attached to the sides. . the conditions in a simple flow cup are seldom ideal for making true measurements of viscosity.
and the density of the liquid. Stokes' law Where: F : frictional force. .8 * (t . Stokes' law can be used to calculate the viscosity of the fluid.5) 14.29) 3. Examples are the Hoeppler rolling-ball viscometer and the Gardner-Holdt comparative bubble tubes. Stokes' law is the basis of the falling sphere viscometer. If correctly selected.14) 11. which can be measured by the time it takes to pass two marks on the tube.7. the size and density of the sphere. in which the fluid is stationary in a vertical glass tube. It includes many different oils. r : radius of the spherical object. where t is the efflux time and ν is the kinematic viscosity.5 * (t . and polymeric liquid solutions. the time required for a sphere of some sort to pass through a liquid is measured. η : fluid viscosity. The sphere may be a falling ball or a rising bubble.1 * (t .Conversion: One can convert efflux time to kinematic viscosity (cSt) by using an equation for each cup specification number. A sphere of known size and density is allowed to descend through the liquid. and v : particle's velocity.7 * (t .5) 23 * t Falling Sphere and Bubble Rise Viscometers In these instruments. This method is particularly good for low-shear measurements. • • • • • Zahn Zahn Zahn Zahn Zahn Cup Cup Cup Cup Cup #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 : : : : : ν ν ν ν ν = = = = = 1. Electronic sensing can be used for opaque fluids. it reaches terminal velocity. Knowing the terminal velocity. The technique is used industrially to check the viscosity of fluids used in processes.
005 to 1. ρp : density of the particles (kg/m3). the lower the viscosity. The resulting settling velocity (or terminal velocity) is given by: Where: Vs: particles' settling velocity (m/s) (vertically downwards if ρp > ρf. is reached when this frictional force combined with the buoyant force exactly balances the gravitational force. then a terminal velocity. r: Stokes radius of the particle (m).If the particles are falling in the viscous fluid by their own weight. so the faster the bubble rises. and μ: (dynamic) fluid viscosity (Pa s). Bubble Tubes .000 stokes. A5 through Z10. Bubble viscometer Bubble viscometers are used to quickly determine kinematic viscosity of known liquids such as resins and varnishes. The time required for an air bubble to rise is directly proportional to the viscosity of the liquid. g: gravitational acceleration (m/s2). upwards if ρp < ρf). The Alphabetical Comparison Method used in the Gardner Tubes uses 4 sets of lettered reference tubes. also known as the settling velocity. of known viscosity to cover a viscosity range from 0. which may then be converted to stokes. The Direct Time Method uses a single 3-line times tube for determining the "bubble seconds". ρf : density of the fluid (kg/m3).
A bubble rising in a fluid. Saybolt Viscometers They are used to express the fluid’s viscosity. The following formulas may be used to convert centistokes (cSt units) to approximate Saybolt universal seconds (SUS units). expressed in centistokes. Like the Saybolt viscometer. The glass capillary viscometers. in Saybolt universal seconds or Saybolt furol seconds. For SUS values between 32 and 100: . This time is multiplied by the temperature constant of the viscometer in use to provide the viscosity. shown in the figure are examples of the second type of viscometer used. These viscometers are used to measure kinematic viscosity. the glass capillary measures the time in seconds required for the tested fluid to flow through the capillary.
It is used for those fluids which cannot be defined by a single value of viscosity and therefore require more parameters to be set and measured than is the case for a viscometer. Viscometers that can measure fluids with high viscosity or molten polymers are usually called rheometers or plastometers. It measures the rheology of the fluid. It can be of two types: Shear rheometers (apply shear stress) Pipe or Capillary Rheometers Rotational Cylinder Rheometers Cone and Plate Rheometers Extensional rheometers (apply extensional stress) Acoustic Rheometers Pulled string Rheometers Capillary Rheometers ***** .For SUS values greater than 100: Rheometers A Rheometer is a laboratory device used to measure the way in which a liquid. suspension or slurry flows in response to applied forces.
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