This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
b) What is the effect of competition on Human Resource Management? Answer.1 (a) During the mid 1980s, the Congress Government headed by Rajiv Gandhi made a move to change the policies regarding business, licenses, and permits, as also its attitude towards multinational companies (MNCs) operating in India. However, it was only during the succeeding government of Narasimha Rao government that a strategy was actually formulated in this direction and marketed both in India and abroad. The strategy aimed to bring the Indian economy into the mainstream of the global economy, and at the same time allow a whiff of competition and growth to Indian business. This it was hoped would bring a new dimension to the concepts of quality, productivity, and growth. Inevitably, the winds of liberalization that swept through the nation opened a variable Pandora box, with far-reaching implications for human resources management. It bought in a new era of technology, quality consciousness and competition which compelled Indian business to wake up from its somnambulism and reassess its assumptions for dealing with the complete-or-perish’ situation. India has proven world that despite its chaotic political scenario, imbalance wealth distribution, redundant bureaucracy, past baggage of Nehruvian socialism, and its sundry other problem, it can implement sustainable economic restructuring in the world’s most populous democracy. India has the potential, but the strong economic performance of recent years requires continuing efforts to deepen it and make it work. Since foreign entrants in India have distinct advantage in terms of state-of—art technology R&D. Strong brand equity, Indian companies will be ringlet carefully quality system, capital and challenged to shape out. On the other hand, multinational companies (MNCs) have to settle down and be accepted by the domestic consumer, which is not always an easy process. Das gives guidelines to Indian companies for pursuing a winning strategy in the face of global competition. The after math of liberalization and globalization has made Indian companies conscious of competition and quality and acquire a totally global mindset. According to Gurucharan Das they need to: 1. Focus on a single area of competence and not haplessly diversity 2. Initially concentrate on the domestic market and then leverage their economies of scable overseas 3. Be able to capitalize on global trade 4. Not ignore quality even when they are pursuing a low cost strategy 5. Be able to overcome their historic phobia for investing in product development.
Human Resource Management Page 1 of 38
Synergy between industry and government in an emerging country such as India is a major requirement. Several factors from which private enterprise was barred, till the recent past, have been opened up. Simultaneously the domestic industry is reforming itself to meet the challenges of opportunity and competition from multinationals. The latter being a fresh entrant in Indian business has an advantage of designing its systems and procedure according to the challenged environment. Established Indian organizations however will have considerable baggage to carry, in terms of systems and also manpower. Although India has significantly progressed due to the structural adjustment program, a lot remains to be achieved. A free market economy demand a transparent set of laws and quick disposal of litigation-something that the archaic Indian judicial system is illequipped to cope with. The conflict between labor and capital had formed the basis of unionization in India. The unions demanded protection of labor against capital. With the introduction of technology and competition, the very existence of their jobs had become a major area of concern for the workers. Today due to restructuring programmed, in the short run job loss is quite significant in May industries. Liberalization has not liberated poor in villages from the clutches of the moneylender. The rural poor are now perhaps even more under the grip of corrupt petards than say years ago. Although there is little doubt that liberalization and globalization will generally lead to a buoyant economy, one needs to be watchful of the intense pain that change can cause to the affected sections of society during the crucial transition period. Answer 1 (b). Effects of competition on HRM As a result of domestic and international competition, human resource management is being given a key role. Some of the effects in HRM are highlighted below: • • • • • With manpower costs going up, and the need to bring product prices down to meet competition, manpower productivity has become a central issue in organizations. HR professionals will have to play a crucial role to fulfill this need. Another area of intervention would be in the case of joint ventures where professionals will have to predict and manage culture-fir policies. Companies are focusing on people with right profiles as also those who are capable. There is increasing emphasis on training and retraining to tap talent. Companies are showing increasing willingness to retain talent and redeploys manpower necessary. In some industry, India employees are being sought after abroad. This coupled with competition for employees among Indian companies, has led to an alarming attrition rate for some companies. To meet ambitious career aspirations and salary
Page 2 of 38
Human Resource Management
• • •
expectations, HR department are usually industry wise benchmarking for salary revisions. Employee compensation is being linked and programmers are becoming more focused, responsive and are also constantly reviewed against the external environment. Globalization has resulted in an influx of foreign managers to India. Corporate restructuring and redefining of roles are areas also focus
Human Resource Management
Page 3 of 38
The other terms used for performance appraisal are: performance rating. organization. The main purposes of employee assessment are: • To enable each employee to understand his role better and become more effective on the job • To understand his own strengths and weaknesses with respect to his role in the organization • To identify the development needs of each employee • To improve relationship between the superior and the subordinate through the realization that each is dependant on the other for good performance and success • To serve as mechanisms for improving communication between the superior and the subordinates. employee evaluation. Performance appraisal systems though widely used today. personnel appraisal. stored. and merit rating.Q. employee assessment. Human Resource Management Page 4 of 38 . related behaviors and outcomes to discover how and why the employee is presently performing on the job and how the employee can perform more effectively in future so that the employee. in some cases subject to failure especially in cases given below which impacts the effectiveness of the appraisal system. • • • Assessment of personality traits Need to identify the cause for a subordinate’s behavior A manager’s unwillingness to pass a negative judgment Objectives of Performance Appraisal: Data relating to performance assessment of employees are recorded. performance evaluation. and society all benefit”. and used for several purposes. A more comprehensive definition is: “Performance appraisal is a formal structured system of measuring and evaluation an employee’s job. in terms of contributions made towards achieving organizational objectives and / or their personal strengths and weaknesses and in terms of attributes and behaviors demonstrated for meeting whatever objectives the organization may consider relevant. it is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development.2 a) What is Performance Appraisal? What are the objectives of the Performance Appraisal System? Performance Appraisal: Performance Appraisal is a formal exercise in which an organization makes an evaluation form of its employees. employee performance review. A formal definition of performance appraisal is that. The subordinates come to know of the expectations of their superiors and are able to communicate to the superiors in case of difficulties in accomplishing assigned tasks. are.
competencies and its impact on others • Identification of developmental needs and preparing development plans more objectively to current or future roles and performance improvements for an individual or a group of individuals • Data generation to serve as a more objective basis for rewards and other personnel decisions • Reinforcement of other change management efforts and organization effectiveness directed interventions. internal customers. The assessment is made on questionnaire designed to measure behaviors considered critical for performance. values and goals. qualities. subordinates. traits. The appraisal is done anonymously by the concerned persons and the final assessment is collected by the HRD. and external customers. b) Explain the concept of 360-degree appraisal. A 360-degree appraisal helps in • Culture building • Leadership development • Potential appraisal and development • Career planning and development • Succession planning and development Human Resource Management Page 5 of 38 . The assessment is made on the questionnaire specially designed to measure behaviour considered critical to performance. • Basis for performance linked pay or performance rewards • Alignment of individuals and group goals with the organization vision. peers. where an individual (employee) is assessed by a number of assesses including superiors. activities. self evaluation and goal setting so that he remains on the path to development To enable every employee to internalize the norms and values of the organizations so that an organizational entity and commitment is developed throughout the organization To prepare employees for higher jobs by continuously reinforcing development of behavior and qualities for these higher level positions To be an instrument for creating a positive and healthy climate in the organization that moves people to give their best and enjoy doing so To help in a variety of personal decisions by generating relevant data on each employee periodically. styles.• • • • • To provide an opportunity to the employee for introspection. Objectives of a 360-degree feedback • Insights into the strong and weak areas of the candidate in terms of effective performance of roles. How is this concept used in industry to appraise the employees? Answer 2 (b) 360-degree appraisal is a Multi-Rater Appraisal and Feedback System.
subordinate and peer groups are calculated. rewards management and performance development etc It helps in focus on internal customer satisfaction It has the potential of pointing out the supervisory biases in the traditional appraisal systems It is a good tool for enhancing customer service and quality inputs and service to the internal customers It provides scope for the candidate to get multiple inputs to improve his role. peers etc. a. the superior. d. the rating given by self. and the number of people who are eligible to give feedback in each category – such as superiors.On receipt of questionnaires filled in.The receipt of filled up questionnaires are monitored and reminders are sent to those who haven’t yet sent in their questionnaires. Data feeding reports and analysis . It is more participative and enhances the quality of HR decisions It is suitable for new organizational culture being promoted by most worldclass organizations. the anonymity related to it. b. These advantages are not substitutes for those of traditional appraisals but in addition to them • • • • • • • • • • It is more objective than one person assessment of traits and qualities It adds objectivity and supplements the traditional appraisal system It provides normally more acceptable feedback to the employees It can serve all the purposes served by the traditional appraisal system like identifying the developmental needs. along with instructions for filling up the questionnaire. performance. subordinates. Questionnaire distribution .• • • Team building Planning internal customer satisfaction improvement measures Role clarity and increased accountabilities. Advantages of a 360-degree feedback A 360-degree feedback have certain advantages. Human Resource Management Page 6 of 38 . Workshop – A workshop is conducted wherein the feedback is given to the appraisee. Monitoring and Follow-up .The questionnaire is distributed the list of people whom the appraisee gives. 360-degree appraisal system involves 5 main phases to appraise the employees. e. the data is fed into a computer where for each question. c. styles and ideas and enhances the acceptability of the individual. Participants Orientation and modalities of the exercise – where participants are briefed on the exercise.
Here. confidence and openness is essential for effective counseling. The main purpose of counseling is employee development. openness and mutuality.Q. Phases in Performance Counselling The counselling process has three phases. tensions. warmth. The subordinate must be made to feel that he is wanted and that his superior is genuinely interested in his development Human Resource Management Page 7 of 38 . It essentially focuses on the analysis of performance and identification of training and development needs for bringing about further improvement. concerns and problems Conditions for effective counseling • • • A climate of trust. This involves building confidence in the employee to open up and frankly share his perceptions. • • • Rapport building Exploration Action planning I. concerns and feelings. It attempts to help the employee in • • • • • Understanding himself – his strengths and weaknesses Improving his professional and interpersonal competence by giving him feedback about his behaviour Setting goals and formulating action plans for further improvement Generating alternatives for dealing with various problems By providing a supportive and empathetic atmosphere in which the employee feels encouraged to discuss his aspirations. Counseling cannot be effective if the subordinate does not trust his boss It is necessary that the subordinate should feel free to participate. 3 a) What is Performance Counseling? Explain the process involved in performance Counseling. Rapport Building . the counselor attempts to establish a climate of acceptance. problems. Answer 3(a) Performance Counseling refers to the help provided by a manager to his subordinates in objectively analyzing their performances. without inhibition or fear in the process of review and feedback. conflicts. support.
III. the counselor should attempt to help the employee understand and appreciate his strengths and weaknesses. After the alternative solutions have been identified. Action Planning Counseling interviews should end with specific plans for action for the development of the employee. and leading questions which would indicate the kind of questions we would like to hear. reprimand or expose. b.II. which are designed to criticize. He should also understand his own situation. To assess an individual in terms of the highest level of work the individual will be able to handle comfortably and successfully in future without being overstretched. A leading question prevents free exploration and it forces the subordinate to think along the lines of the person asking the question. They help in gathering more information and stimulating thinking. To assist the organization in discharging its responsibility of selecting and developing managers for the future to ensure continuous growth of the organization. The objectives of potential appraisal are: a. b) What are the objectives of Potential Appraisal? Answer 3 (b) In making potential appraisal of managers. problems and needs. He should pay careful attention to the ideas and feelings of the subordinates. the superior should help the employee assess the advantages and disadvantages of each and assist the employee implement the agreed upon action plan. Exploration Besides listening to the employee and establishing a climate of openness. The primary responsibility for generating alternative solutions must however rest with the employee himself. The type of questions which may be directed towards a person who needs performance counselling could be critical. This requires both patience and skill on the part of the superior who is doing performance counseling. This could be by asking several open ended questions. Human Resource Management Page 8 of 38 . Questions play an important role in performance counselling. testing questions designed to evaluate how much a person knows. Counselling skill lies in making the employee discover these on his own. There are limits beyond which any individual employee will be overstretched and likely to succeed. Doing the present job exceedingly well is no guarantee that the same person will do a good job if given higher responsibilities. Promoting them without assessing their potential may be a lose-lose situation for the organization. The main contribution of the superior to this phase is in helping the employee think of alternative ways of dealing with a problem. the levels of talent and ambition have to be clearly identified. Process involved in performance counseling The superior should be an excellent listener.
Based on past experience and research. the following qualities determine the potential of an employee • • • • • Analytical power Creative imagination Sense of reality Capability of taking a holistic view from a detached position Effective leadership Human Resource Management Page 9 of 38 .
Management Commitment to quality: The commitment to implement TQM has to start at the top. Answer 4 (a) According to Ron Collard and Gill Sivyer TQM is a cost effective system for integrating the continuous quality improvement efforts of people at all levels in the organization to deliver products and services which ensure customer satisfaction. TQM requires managers to produce solutions instead of merely demanding results. 4 a) Define TQM. improvement. continuous improvement. TQM is a business philosophy based on customer satisfaction 2. and maintenance cycles while changing organizational culture. Total Quality Management is the culture of an organization committed to customer satisfaction through continuous improvement. TQM cannot be purchased and installed like other equipments It requires continuous care and improvements 4. Features of TQM The basic features of TQM approach are 1. TQM is the conformance to the requirements what the customers expect. It is about building quality rather than merely inspecting defects out. Elements involved in TQM The key concepts of TQM are 1. TQM believes that the quality reduces cost through reduced wastage. and breakthroughs with development. The commitment of the top level reflects the seriousness towards quality. Total Quality Management is a structured system for satisfying internal and external customers and suppliers by integrating the business environment. Human Resource Management Page 10 of 38 . 6. 5. 7. Examine the elements involved in TQM and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of TQM.e quality of design and quality of conformance to design 3. TQM aims at changing the system rather than bringing change within the system.Q. It consists of two strands i. TQM aims at improvements both in the business processes and functional processes. greater productivity and increased sales. For this the concern for short term profits must be reversed.
Focus on the customer: The TQM philosophy is based on customer focus. Value improvement: It is the ability to meet customer expectations while removing unnecessary costs. it seeks to reduce the inventories and improve the quality of the product. 6. 7. Universal quality responsibility: TQM is based on the precept that quality is not just the responsibility of the Quality Control department but a guiding philosophy that everyone shares in the organization. Customer satisfaction: TQM aims at producing goods and services in accordance with customer expectation. 4. Advantages and Disadvantages of TQM Advantages a. Prevention rather than detection of defects: This philosophy seeks to prevent poor quality rather than detecting and sorting out defects. Human Resource Management Page 11 of 38 . manageable steps. Training: This is one of the basic elements of TQM. The basic aim is to assure that customer needs and expectations are met and understood. This approach improves customer satisfaction.2. 5. Quality measurement: TQM believes that quality is a measurable commodity and in order to improve we need to know the current quality levels and what we need to aspire. 11. Inventory reduction: Also known as ‘Just in Time’ inventory management. This is done through tools such as statistical process control. This concept can be developed by encouraging continuous improvement for which training appears to be the basic and important tool. 8. Synergy of teams: The team concept is an important part of TQM philosophy. Continuous improvement: TQM strives for continuous improvement in all areas – aiming at ironing out process deficiencies pursued in small incremental. problem solving and systems failure analysis. continuous process improvement. Employees’ involvement and empowerment: This ensures that the employee is an active participant in the TQM process and provides employees with the necessary tools and authority to overcome obstacles to achieve goals. 9. 3. Root cause corrective action: The root cause of the problem or defect is identified and steps taken to take corrective action at that level. 10. 13. 12. Benchmarking: This element involves adopting the best practices of other organizations and use them as a yardstick for improvement performance and quality of products.
Reduction in Inventory: TQM aims at eliminating shortage in the supply of inputs. It stresses on things being done right the first time. Enhances competitiveness: TQM enables a company to face competition Disadvantages a. This small group carries on continuously as a part of company wide quality control activities self development and mutual development and improvement within the workshop. Productivity improves when the same output is attained at a lower cost or higher output is achieved at the same cost. f. e. Enhancing quality: TQM helps in manufacturing better quality products at a lower cost. Flexibility: TQM increases the flexibility in meeting market demands. i. continually improve and maintain the quality of products. Human Resource Management Page 12 of 38 . services. Answer 4 (b) Quality Circle is a small group to perform voluntarily quality control activities within the same workshop. processes. their expectations keep rising. Motivates Human Resource: TQM demands employee involvement and empowerment. c.b. b. Rising expectations: As people become more knowledgeable about what quality organization is. display creativity and make self development and mutual development. g. Improving Productivity: Productivity is the input output relationship. job and so on. h. and behavior. Reducing Product Developing time: TQM analyses and improves the basic business systems and subsystems to match customer requirements. Difficult in bringing change: TQM requires significant changes in methods. utilize the QC concept and technique and others. b) What are Quality Circles? Examine the process involved in Quality Circles and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of Quality Circles. This creates anxiety. d. This small group promotes the activity in such a way as to autonomously administer it. Reduction in waste: TQM seeks to prevent poor quality rather than detecting and correcting defects. attitudes. utilizing quality control techniques with all member participating. QC Circle is a small group in which people who work in the first line work place. It also ensures that the organization does not purchase excessive inventory. This realization not only takes time to set in but the change is painful.
Problem solution – A proper environment and group thinking together with expertise in work area generate appropriate solutions to problems. Facilitate the environment for the activity and continually. c. aiming at the participation by everybody and positioning the activity as important for human resources development and work place utilization. perform the self-actualization for QC Circle members. Process involved in Quality Circle The process of QCs involves: a. the mechanics of running a meeting and problem solving. Acceptance of the solution acts as a powerful motivator. . charts. The members usually meet once a week to discuss and solve the problems they face The circle members receive training in the rules of quality circle participation. . constitute and implement company wide TQM or similar one by themselves. Human Resource Management Page 13 of 38 . Problem collection – The creation of a problem bank is one of the primary tasks that the circle members perform. Characteristics of Quality Circles • • • • • • QCs are usually small groups between 4 and 15 members All members come from the same work area – giving the group an identity The members work under a supervisor who moderates discussions and promotes consensus. highlighting the benefits anticipated. Various alternative solutions are explored and the optimum solution is chosen. Management presentation – The solutions chosen by the circle members are presented to the management. b. contribute to improving the enterprises. Technical specialists and management consultants assist the circles with information and expertise when required. A good number of data collection tools. Each problem bank is given a priority number depending on its benefits and urgency.Enhance customer satisfaction and make a social contribution. Problem collection is an on-going process. Problem analysis – Problem analysis depends on facts and not on feelings.Develop their capability. d. make its work place full of brightness and vitality. and statistical technique to establish facts before proceeding to find solutions.The executives and the mangers in order to make QC Circle activities successful.These activity intents to: . conduct appropriate guidance and support based on the respect to humanity.
Opportunity to acquire knowledge: QC members have an opportunity to acquire new knowledge by sharing ideas. Disadvantages of Quality Circles 1. and follow-up – After getting the sanction of the management. which boosts their self confidence and gives them immense job satisfaction. Healthy work environment: QCs generate a tension-free environment which each members likes. Implementation. 5. review. If the recommendations cannot be accepted or if there is a delay in its implementation. reduction in waste and cost effectiveness. Advantages of Quality Circles 1. 8. 2. Prompt approval: The acceptable recommendations of the circle should be promptly approved to boost the enthusiasm of the members. Unconditional support: The top management should offer unconditional support to the QC movement. The support should be made visible by the top management participating frequently in the QC meetings. since every member can become a leader. 4. Long-term approach: The objectives intended to be achieved are on a long term basis. Job satisfaction: QCs encourage creativity by tapping the dormant intellectual skills of the people and perform activities different from the routine work. Social Development: QC is a participative and consultative program where each member interacts with others – thus fostering team spirit. understands and cooperates with others. 2. Potential leader: Every individual gets an opportunity to develop his leadership potential. 3. opinions and experience. Self Development: QCs facilitate self-development of individuals by bringing about attitudinal change. 3. better quality. 6. Improved communication skills: Frequent interaction among the members helps the members improve their communication skills. improving self-confidence and a sense of achievement. The results are constantly reviewed and follow-up action is taken if required. the circle members chalk out a schedule for the implementation of the solutions. sufficient explanation should be given to the members. Miracles cannot be achieved overnight regarding QC’s Human Resource Management Page 14 of 38 .e. Organizational benefits: The individual benefits generate a synergistic effect leading to higher productivity. 7.
The leader should take initiative. appreciate the objectives. 6. 5. Proper orientation: The QC philosophy should be appreciated by one and all. faith and respect is essential for QC’s to thrive. Effective leader: The success of a QC depends largely on the leader. Lack of understanding of objectives lead to diversity of interests and to misdirected goals. He should also take responsibility for all the actions of the Quality circles. The top level needs to take steps to dispel such fears. 7. motivate the members. becoming redundant or being exposed. 8. Dispel fears: The middle management often entertains fears like losing importance. Regular communication: All communication channels should be kept open to ensure the success of the QC. Identification of interests: Cooperation from the middle management and identifying the interests with the Quality circles is important. Proper environment: A proper environment with mutual trust. Human Resource Management Page 15 of 38 . and foster a feeling of oneness.4. 9. For this a proper orientation at all levels need to be undertaken.
Q. through performance appraisals. there lies an opportunity for developing existing manpower needs to fill the future openings through promotions. Anticipating manpower needs : For securing maximum motivation. Steps involved in Manpower Planning • • • • Anticipating manpower needs Planning job requirements and description Analyzing skills to determine the nature of manpower needs Selecting adequate source of recruitment I. Advantages of Manpower planning • • • Forecasting long term manpower requirements helps forecast the compensation costs involved. determining the weaknesses of the existing manpower so that corrective training could be incorporated. there are a few limitations of manpower planning as well. retain and efficiently distribute and channel employees both laterally and hierarchically through an organization. In essence manpower planners initially seek to estimate their current and future employment needs. it is always better to encourage existing employees. manpower planning has attempted to reconcile an organization’s need for human resources with the available supply of labour in the local and national labour market. Through planning. • • It is difficult to predict long range forecast accurately. doing things that result in both organization and the individual receiving maximum long run benefits. However. Changes in economic condition and technology in future. rather than going in for new recruitment. Anticipating manpower needs. Anticipating Manpower needs 1. Traditionally. Manpower planning enables. 5 a) What is Manpower Planning? Explain the various steps involved in the Manpower Planning. management strives to have the right time. as far as possible. Manpower planning is defined as the process by which the management determines how the organization should move from the current man power position to desired man power position. Answer 5 (a) Manpower planning attempt to recruit. tend to make long range forecasts unreliable. It is more effective to try and meet. manpower Human Resource Management Page 16 of 38 . According to Vetter.
Manpower planning thus seeks to ensure that the required personnel possessing the necessary skills are available at the right time. third year and so on and forecast the manpower required at the end of such period. 2.e requirements at the end of the first year. decide how these surpluses will be dealt with through early retirements. would indicate shortages or surpluses in manpower requirements. 3. In this way future vacancies can be anticipated. Planning job requirements and description Human Resource Management Page 17 of 38 . decide how shortages are to be met – whether through fresh recruitment or promotions and whether any training or developmental facilities would be required. This would give the manpower available from existing staff at the end of the period concerned. deduct the expected wastage through deaths. If surpluses are anticipated.requirements from the supplies existing within the organization. Expected loss and extra needs: While doing long term forecasts. transfer. second year. resignations. 2. Forecast must also be done to the number of additions to the organization because of anticipated growth of the organization. Manpower inventory: An inventory of existing personnel to compare what exists in stock with what can be expected in future with their job descriptions is necessary. Internal promotion can motivate employees and ensure their retention within the organization. retirements and discharges. This would indicate possible shortfalls in the organizational requirement and go in for recruitment if required. Determine the period of forecasting requirements of manpower in future i. and other causes such as death and disability. the expected loss situation needs to be evaluated in terms of retirement. From the number available at the commencement of the period. discharges or lay offs. i. In case of shortages. The four methods generally used to determine the requirements of personnel are • Annual estimate of vacancies • Long range estimate of vacancies • Fixed minimum manpower specification requirements • Specific position estimations Steps in Manpower planning Manpower planning can be done by observing the steps mentioned below 1. A comparison of figures arrived at in steps one and two. 3.
motivate and lead subordinates • Supervise.ability to motivate his subordinates and make use of effective delegation • Communication skills – effective communication can improve the managerial and leadership skills of an individual • Organizational and social skills – ability to view from an organizational perspective. salary structure according to the job grading and fair appraisals. Discussion with outside consultants and experts. Observation of employees while performing their work ii.It is important to collect the important parts of a job which identify it and distinguish it from other jobs. Desirable Managerial skills can be subdivided into • Decision making skills – ability to take correct decisions either intuitively or by making use of mathematical skills and concepts • Leadership skills . Skills Analysis The skills required in different jobs must be analysed in terms of job description following job analysis. A job analysis has first to be made to secure the relevant information about the job. responsibilities and conditions of the job. i. Job description . The methods which provide the required data are i. Job information helps in adequate recruitment to be done. Discussions with departmental head and/or supervisors v. iii. followup and appraise the performance of subordinates • Human Resource Management Page 18 of 38 . delegate duties appropriately and coordinate day to day activities • Appreciate changing conditions and trends affecting the work of his unit • Select appropriate personnel for specific assignments • Direct and guide the work of subordinates • Stimulate. • Job information .An important step in manpower planning consists of planning job requirements. Skills required by successful managers can be broadly divided into Desirable Managerial skills and Basic Managerial skills. adequate training to be given. Review of critical incidents iv. The requirements of a particular job must be clearly delineated through a minute study of the duties to be performed in that job. Basic Managerial skills can be classified as • To plan operations.This can be defined as a written record of duties. Study of specially maintained diaries.
The best employees can often be found within the organization itself. 3. a. Protection of weaker sections Human Resource Management Page 19 of 38 . skill demands. Selecting Adequate source or recruitment Recruitment can be done from two sources – Internal or External. number. External sources – External sources of recruitment include • Recruitment advertising – receiving applications by mail or personally in response to an advertisement by the company • Reference to employment exchanges • Recruitment from colleges • Study of central applications file maintained of past applicants • Use of specialized consultants for recruitment b) Explain what is meant by Human Resource Planning? Answer 5 (b) Human Resource Planning is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kinds of people. departmental announcements for eligible candidates to apply. markets. at the right place. Surplus or deficiency in staff strength is the result of the absence or due to deficiency planning. Coping with change HRP enables an organization to cope with changes in competitive forces. b. Vacancies in the organization are advertised in the notice boards. and government regulations. The HR manager uses his/ her ingenuity to attract and retain qualified and skilled personnel. products. Technology changes will often upgrade some jobs and degrade others. 2.i. 4. Future personnel needs Planning is helps in determining future personnel needs. and type of personnel. technology. Creating highly talented personnel Jobs are becoming highly intellectual and incumbents are getting vastly professionalized. Internal sources . capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall objectives. bulletin boards. Such changes generate changes in job content. Many organizations give preference to people within the company – either through promotions or through inter-departmental transfers. Roles of HRP 1. at the right time.
7. The department’s ability to fill key jobs with foreign nationals and the re-assignment of employees from within or across national borders is a major challenge facing international business. An employee who gradually develops his skills and abilities becomes a more valuable resource. Human Resource Management Page 20 of 38 . 8. promotions. physically handicapped. selection. as will the need to integrate more closely HRP into the organization’s strategic plan. Increasing investments in Human Resources Another compelling reason for HRP is the investment an organization makes in its human resources. layoffs). Resistance to change and move There is a growing resistance among employees to change and move. the need for HRP will grow. International strategies International expansion strategies depend upon HRP. and development. as opposed to physical assets. children of the socially and politically oppressed and backward class citizens. training. personnel movement (transfers. Human assets. 6. There is also growing emphasis on self-evaluation and on evaluation of loyalty and dedication to the organization. sufficient representation needs to be given to SC/ ST candidates.In matters of employment and promotions. 5. can increase in value. Foundation for personnel functions Manpower planning provides essential information for designing and implementing personnel functions such as recruitment. With the growing trend towards global operation.
Lay off. Shortage Recruitment and selections Human Resource Management Page 21 of 38 . etc.The HRP Process Environment Organizational Objectives and Policies HR needs forecast HR supply forecast HR programming HRP implementation Control and evaluation of programme Surplus Restricted hiring Reduced hours VRS.
Training needs can be identified through the following: • Interview with job-holders: This is one of the most commonly used method whereby a manager. in the work situation. knowledge. • Interview with managers and supervisors: Alternatively a personnel manager or senior manager can interview the immediate supervisors of the job.a) Q. Human Resource Management Page 22 of 38 . • Performance objectives: The aim of increased quality will require performance objectives to be laid down. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. • Analysis of competencies: An analysis of competency requirements could be useful to match certain set standards which are considered relevant to the various jobs involved. Answer 6 (a) Training can be defined as a planned process to modify attitude. • Personal profiles: Increasingly used in organizations and useful for training needs analysis are personal profile records which also include information concerning career aspirations of employees which may well be of significance in creating training initiatives. Training need = Standard performance – Actual performance Training programmes. is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization A formal definition of training is it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning. Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behavior. The individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation needed to learn to do the job better and 3. Its purpose. The need for training is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency. The deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform. or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. usually by changing the employee’s attitudes or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. 2. In doing so assessment must take place as to whether current employees need training to reach these objectives. help remove performance deficiencies in employees. • Performance appraisal: A good appraisal can reveal much about the strengths and weaknesses of individuals in terms of their performance. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. This is particularly true when 1. 6 Explain how the training needs can be identified. supervisor or member of the personnel department interviews the current job-holder about the duties and functions of the job. Trained employees tend to stay with the organization for longer period.
Human Resource Management Page 23 of 38 . psychometric tests.• Assessment center techniques: Using a variety of methods including indepth interviews and re-interviews. • Identify training needs through survey: This is another effective means of ascertaining the training needs of various groups and departments. • Global review and training audits: The most wide-ranging method of training needs analysis is to undertake a global review or more modestly a training audit. Implementation of new systems will be much easier if the individuals / groups concerned are explained in advance of what they can expect from the new system. it requires training. • Introduction of new systems: When new systems and procedures are introduced. team performance simulation exercises and other techniques a detailed profile of employees can be constructed useful for analyzing training needs.
This can be informal or formal. Answer 6 (b) A programme of training is important as it lends stability and flexibility to an organization. • Interviews of trainees post course or instruction period. • Structured exercises and case studies are opportunities to apply learned skills and techniques under the observation of tutors and evaluators. • Tutor reports. which provide a certificate. It is important to have the opinions of those who deliver the training. • Projects are initially seen as learning methods but they can also provide valuable information to instructors.The Training Process Organizational Objectives and Strategies Assessment of training needs Establishment of training goals Devising training programme Implementation of training programme Evaluation of results b) Explain how the results of training can be evaluated. besides contributing to its capacity to grow. Human Resource Management Page 24 of 38 . Various methods can be adopted to evaluate the training results: • Questionnaires (Feedback forms) or ‘happiness sheets’ are a common way of eliciting trainee responses to courses and programmers • Tests or examinations are common on formal courses. This gives a valuable assessment from a different perspective. individual or group or by telephone.
• Observation of courses and training by those devising training strategies in the training department is very useful and information from these observations can be compared with trainee responses. Human Resource Management Page 25 of 38 . • Participation and discussion during training needs people who are adept at interpreting responses. For complicated training evaluations it is recommended that a combination of these approaches be used. as this can be highly subjective.
Answer 7 (a) In conjunction with reward and appraisal systems. counseling and coaching. careful consideration needs to be given to career paths and progression. Elements of Succession Planning can be viewed as follows: • Management Staffing plans – these plans should be prepared on an individual basis for all anticipated needs in the immediate year ahead and for key positions the intermediate and long-range future. • Preparation of management resource inventory – Management Resource Inventory should include personal data. • Appraisals – Appraisal and analysis of results achieved should provide an organization with essential feedback in the performance of managers. especially for younger managers. career goals. the whole exercise will have to be repeated.Q. performance planning. potential. and placement of candidates from outside. Development of managerial personnel should be ensured through approaches such as formal training. planned job rotation. performance. The potential forecasts and overall manpower market forecasts should be reviewed and considered. Economic Forecasts Human Resources Forecasts Staffing Plans Organization Plans Manpower Market Forecasts Business Plans • Staffing and Development – Staffing includes recruitment. and appraisal. selection. This requires a wellprepared human resource plan that looks to the future. both within the organization and outside. career plans. as well as selection and movement of present employees through promotion and transfer. In case the nominated successor quits. • Creation of congenial environment – The organizational environment should ensure the retention of the most desirable employees. skills. Human Resource Management Page 26 of 38 . 7 a) Examine the elements of Succession Planning. The business plans should be reviewed to determine their effect on managerial needs. It links development to succession planning where managers are ‘penciled into’ positions vacated by those who retire or when employees leave and organization growth create new opportunities.
which remains stagnant. top managers always think of bringing some body from outside. There are several impacts on the organization. Answer 7 (b) Familiarity breeds contempt. the managers are not losing faith in the fairness of top management. Everybody gets gained except the poor organization. It helps to avoid gang war with oust the outsider.b) Explain the advantages of promoting employee from within the organization rather than employing outside persons. Its growth gets stifled. It is so true in the corporate sector. It helps to see their future in this organization. Further leading to be trapped in mediocrity and its long-term growth and prosperity are hampered. Some of the following are: • • • • • • • • Firstly. It helps to avoid a state where fewer suitable candidates applying for jobs in the organization. Whenever a vacancy comes up because of some manager retiring or resigning. Many managers directly affected by the induction of a manager from outside decide to separate from organization leading to further training & recruitment cost. Human Resource Management Page 27 of 38 . Productivity is not suffering. Gets to retain the talented people which may be lost due to lot of above reasons or insecurity The best can be received from all the employees if succession planning and congenial environment is maintained. as they are disturbed by the information of someone from outside is taken to succeed.
the problem is one of alignment. 8 a) Explain the importance of Career Planning in industry. these career paths do provide the hope to achieve success. special assignment. Certainly this growth should be accompanied by development. It takes place around the age of 40. Some suggested measures to deal with such employees are: • Mentors should be assigned measures to deal with such employees are: Depending on the maturity of such mentors. A systematic choice of development techniques like training. As every employee wishes to see bright future for himself. When employees have assessed their career needs and have become aware of organizational career opportunities. organization should chart different career paths. It involves effort on the part of employees to clearly think through and decided areas in which they would like to make a career for themselves. These should b made known to all employees. Assisting them to choose a new career. Giving them importance by assigning them to some important task force or committee. These exercises with some assistance from HRD Managers should help in career need assessment. The other side of the coin is the role of employees in career planning. Some organizations assist their plateau executives to start their own business. The crucial role has to be played by HRD in ensuring this alignment to build up morale in the organization. Realizing that employees have definite career needs. counseling and rotational assignments should be made to ensure this alignment. This phenomenon is called plateauing. good results can be achieved in assuaging the hurt feelings of plateaued employees Additional career ladders could be established to retain some valuable resource. Career path models developed by a large public sector undertaking: This organization has developed career paths models for the major discipline • Sales • Technical services • Operations • Engineering Human Resource Management Page 28 of 38 . There are a number of evaluation instruments available to determine basic aptitudes. Employees are often uncertain as to the type of work that would suit them best. Answer 8 (a) Career planning involves efforts on the part of the organizations to provide avenues for growth to its employees.Q. Human Resource Development Managers should be able to guide employees by administering these instruments on them. Employees should also find out whether they are loners or socially active. At certain stage the upward mobility stops for many employees. This is inescapable in view of pyramid organizations structure.
With globalization and liberalization. decision-making was increasingly being handled at the group level. • A flatter organizational structure had resulted in fewer levels of hierarchy and enhanced empowerment. led to companies looking at the HR policies. • In security level among employees had diminished and their sense of responsibility had increased. No training and induction on work is provided continuously keep the gaps closed for all employees. from shop floor workers to managers had facilitated decision-making. flexibility. • There was emphasis on openness and transparency. and trust. Market is open and vast in India and lot of professionally managed companies are entering the market.• • • • Aviation LPG Finance Personnel b) “Career Planning and Succession Planning are very vital to meet the challenges thrown by the forces of globalization and liberalization. Lot of recruitment and training cost is incurred due to lack or poor planning of career. working hours and freedom to employees in their work. This had led to improved employee involvement and motivation. giving people a lot of scope in enhancing the career with very good and managed companies. People do not see their career drafted and planned by organizations. Talent and knowledge of personnel needs to be kept alive. On the other hand. empowerment to all categories. HR only worries about the present state. Competition in the market to get best suitable candidates keep the HR to retain and curve a need career for the employee. • People at the middle levels of management were becoming more participated and result-oriented. The survey recorded the most important changes in human resources in the different companies from 1991-96. Retention is the need of the hour. • Virtually all companies starting placing emphasis on the up gradation of managerial and professional skills. Answer 8 (b) Career planning and succession planning is very vital to meet the challenges due to globalization and liberalization. No longer a hierarchical an autocratic organizations where no career planning and succession planning is performed. Corporate environment and congenial atmosphere keeps employees motivated to do work.” Explain. An improvement in the communication channels within organization had resulted in better interpersonal Human Resource Management Page 29 of 38 .
managerial. Human Resource Management Page 30 of 38 . and academic background.• Change in recruitment policy had led to the induction of professional with diverse technical.
Also. Being a very simple and not expensive method. Job Ranking – This method is widely used in small organizations. training. • It enables the company to get data or incorporation in local wage surveys to establish job classification. the highest and lowest jobs are determined. It requires considerable planning at all stages. 9 a) What is Job evaluation? Explain the various methods used in conducting Job Evaluation Studies. efforts required for individual jobs. Job evaluation is not directly concerned with the quantitative and qualitative aspects of output or at the speed at which the operations or workers perform a job. • Being a systematic process. the support of the employees and the trade unions also is important. It lays down the foundation for a rational wage structure. Various method used in conducting job evaluation studies are as follows: 1. The Job evaluation program must receive its unqualified and unstinted support from the top management. The most widely used system is the point method. All forms of job evaluation are designed to enable the management to determine how much one job should be paid compared to the others. all systems of job evaluation can be classified under two categories: 1. Job evaluation attempts to measure skills needed. job evaluation fixes the wage rate for each job • It is considered to be simple and easily understood by all • It establishes equal wage rate for all jobs. For job evaluation to succeed. Before actual ranking. Job evaluation is only concerned with the evaluation of jobs and not the men performing them. placement requirement. Basically. In the beginning of the process. Simple ranking and grading are placed in the non quantitative while point system and factor comparison methods fall in the quantitative category.Q. Techniques of Job evaluation Many techniques are used in the measurement of jobs. selection and long range manpower planning always follows job evaluation. which serve as the bench mark for the ranking of the others. job descriptions which are prepared as part of the process can be used for writing up job specifications which then can be used for purposes of recruitment. Answer 9 (a) Job evaluation is the process to determine in a systematic and analytical manner the comparative worth of job with an organization. The end product of this method is like this Human Resource Management Page 31 of 38 . according to the requirements • Company training programs. Non quantitative 2. Quantitative. A properly developed structure based on job evaluation will tend to reduce grievances relating to wages and improve industrial relations. A welldesigned job evaluation helps business in more ways than one. it consumes less time and promises enough potential in its usefulness. responsibilities involved. promotion. brief job descriptions of all the jobs are taken. transfer and job evaluation.
Designing. Eg if a person occupies a position as a supervisor. By broadly generalizing jobs. adjusting and operating the wage structure 4.Rank 1 2 3 4 5 Job A B C D E Here the main assumption is that the difference between A and B is equal to that of between B and C. key jobs are selected and plotted on the graph against the money value of these jobs. this suffers from some defects. Select job factors or features – A job factor is defined as a specific requirement levied upon the jobholder that he must endure. there are chances of dissatisfaction among the certain groups of employees. responsibility and working conditions and there could be many subdivisions within these factors. Job grades are determined for a category of jobs. Point Rating System – This system is widely used in job evaluation. the grade descriptions are prepared which should be broad enough to include several jobs. Such grade descriptions cover job description as well. It is quantifying. Human Resource Management Page 32 of 38 . When the yardstick is established. To avoid this limitation. Evaluation of all other jobs g. Selection of key jobs c. skill. Allocation of correct rate to each key job f. Ranking key jobs under each job factor e. the next step is to read out job description. The other jobs are relatively compared with the key jobs and the money worth of these jobs are determined. Job Grading – In this approach. A scale of values consisting of grades and grade description is prepared. job factors approach is not considered. The jobs falling under the same grade get the same wage scale. 2. Determination of correct rates of key jobs d. It consists of the following steps a. Jobs are rather measured as whole. From this. which always does not hold good. Selection of job characteristics b. Factor Comparison System – Improved method of ranking system is known as factor comparison system where job factors are compared rather than the whole job. he is expected to supervise and motivate the employees. 3. Also the grading system requires multiple systems – since grading of clerical jobs may be quite different from grading of operative jobs. analytical and detailed approach hammered out to derive a balanced wage structure with least dispute among employees. Job factors are generally grouped under effort. However good this method is. This method consists of the following steps a. the grade description and allocation of jobs to one particular grade.
economic condition. similar jobs are grouped and treated as a job class. adjust and operate the wage structure . 3 years from now and one year from now? Here the nature of core competencies and skills at various levels in the organization are identified which needs to be developed in the long term / medium term and short term. This is the point when rated jobs are translated into monetary values.b. two types of sample are needed. e. The main purpose of a wage survey is to find out the fair rate for various jobs in order to establish the entire wage structure. d. b) What is meant by HRD Audit? Answer 9 (b) HRD audit is a comprehensive evaluation of the current HRD strategies. All jobs which come under that job class are paid the same wage. Adding up all the points give the points worth of that job. responsibility and working conditions is to be decided. The job content and available data are carefully analysed and averaged out and this way the rupee values of job are prepared and plotted on the chart. HRD Audit starts with an understanding of the future business plans and corporate strategies. Prepare yardstick of value for each factor – the construction of yardstick is done by deciding the total points assigned or to be utilised in a system. In the point system. It attempts to find out the future HRD needs of the company after assessing the current HRD activities and inputs. Build a wage survey for selected key jobs – once the job has been summed up. The process consists of reading the job specification carefully and comparing the information with the degree on the yardsticks and placing it accordingly. Design. For the wage survey. systems. Decide the value of all jobs against the predetermined yardstick -Evaluation of the job demands the construction of reliable yardsticks and detailed job specification. it is most effective as a tool when the organization already has such a long term plans. suppose 120-150 points make a job class. structure. c. Human Resource Management Page 33 of 38 . styles and skills in the context of the short and long term business plans of a company. wage structure of other firms and adjustment and operation of the wage structure also affect the designing of the wage structure. While HRD audit can be done even in organizations that lack well formulated future plans and strategies. HRD audit starts off by asking questions like • Where does the company want to be in 10 years from now. One the sample of key jobs and two a sample of firms in the job market.Here. The proportion of total points to be allocated to skill. effort. all jobs which fetch total points between 120 and 150 will be having the same compensation. However there are other factors such as labour market conditions. the next step is placing all evaluated jobs according to points in terms of money.
Change of leadership Role of HRD audit in business improvement 1. job descriptions. 3. diversifying and entering into fast growth phases 3. HRD audit attempts linkages with other systems such as Quality Management. To make HR function business driven 2. This could be in terms of developing new competencies. HRD audit is business driven – always keeping business goals in focus. Role clarity of HRD department and the role of line managers in HRD – HRD audit has brought about a better role clarity of the HRD department and the HRD Human Resource Management Page 34 of 38 . strengthening the existing systems etc. In keeping with the business focus. and long term goals. Need for HRD Audit Companies go in for HRD audit for the following reasons. It can get the top management to thin in terms of strategic and long term business plans – HRD audit has in some cases forced top management to share their long term plans thus resulting in increase involvement and commitment from the employees 2. Multinationals want to know the reasons for lower labour productivity and for improving the HRD strategies in the Indian context 5. To take stock of things and to improve HRD for expanding. HRD audit attempts to evaluate HRD strategy. immediate. strategic planning etc and evaluate HRD strategy. training programs of the existing set of employees are analysed. Companies use HRD audit as a tool for growth and diversification 6. structure and make suggestions on the basis of the evaluation. structure. What is the current level of effectiveness of these systems in developing people and ensure human competencies are available at adequate levels in the company Is the existing HRD structure adequate enough to manage the HRD in the company Are the top management and senior manager styles of managing people in tune with the learning culture ? Once this is done. What are the HRD subsystems available today to help the organization build its competency base for the present. personnel policies. 1. system. For promoting professionalism among employees and to switch over to professional management 4.• • • • • What is the current skill base of the employees in the company vis-à-vis the roles and role requirements – The qualification. staff and style and their appropriateness. Changes in the style of management – HRD audit provides subtle feedback to the top management and initiating a change process in their working styles. It attempts to bring in professionalism in HRD.
5. role clarity. Better recruitment policies and more professional staff 7. Human Resource Management Page 35 of 38 . Experience has shown that HRD audit has tremendous impact on business in areas of strategic planning. structure. 6. Its main objective is to align the HR function with the business goals. More planning and more cost effective training 8. However. Increased focus on human resources and human competencies . Enhances the ROI of HR function – by eliminating non-value-adding HR systems and sharpen the focus of HRD to get better results. streamlining practices.function resulting in increased understanding of line managers about their HRD role and results of HRD audit. systems and styles and skills in the context of short and long term business plans of the company. Thus we see that HRD audit is a comprehensive evaluation of the current HRD strategies.HRD audit focuses on new knowledge. 4. Strengthening accountability through appraisal systems and other mechanisms 9. better policies and improvement in HRD systems. attitudes and skills required by the employees. It provides inputs required to assess all aspects of HRD and assign the HRD score for the company on a number of dimensions. Streamlining of other management practices 10. Improvements in HRD systems – HRD audit has helped most organizations in measuring the effectiveness of the HRD systems and designing or re-designing the systems. it must be noted that proper implementation and top management support are crucial for its success.
Examine its nature and scope. This is necessary to ensure a continuous flow of qualified persons for the changed job. performance appraisals etc 4. develop an organizational culture in which the supervisor-subordinate relationships. “HRD is matching the organisation’s needs for human resource with the individual need for personal career growth and development” HRD is a process by which employees of an organization are helped. Its function is not merely to cope with the needs of the organization but to anticipate them and act them in advance in a continuous and planned manner. The concept of HRD has been gaining prominence and focus in management during the last two decades. in a continuous. It considers informal organization. capabilities. HRD has given us a diagnostic and problem solving capability and a more committed work force. Human resources is considered to be the center of all development processes of the economy. to: acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles. HRD emphasizes a lot on the need to motivate people. develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potential for their own and/ or organizational development purposes.Q. participative management as motivating forces 5. “HRD is the process of increasing knowledge. HRD emphasizes on building the right work culture in the organization. According to Schlem. HRD considers the better utilization of the human resources leads to improved performance. 10 a) Explain the nature of Human Resource Development. HRD is a proactive function. The work culture should identify. It must take into account its linkage with other parts of the organization 2. Human Resource Management Page 36 of 38 . job enrichment. 3. nurture and use the capabilities of the people. and collaboration among subunits are strong and contribute to the professional well being. rewards and punishment. Nature and scope of HRD The dynamic environment in which an organization function demands regular updating of job requirements. planned way. This in turn results in improved job satisfaction and morale. and positive work attitudes of all people working at all levels in a business undertaking”. motivation and pride of employees. HRD is a system made up of mutually dependant parts. 1. teamwork. HRD aims at developing the capabilities of all line managers so that they can increasingly handle functions like industrial relations. Therefore the design of the system cannot be considered in isolation. 6. Answer 10 a) According to MM Khan.
vision-mission Human Resource Management Page 37 of 38 . and information to highly sophisticated and complex ones. or any two people who transact organization-related activities. total quality management (TQM) interventions. It gives a sense of pride and identity to individuals and teams. influence commitment. and habits also become competencies though they more often deal with patterns of working. involvement. For example. technology. organization and management. processes. Commitment building and its management are very much an HR function. Competencies may also relate to a team or a group on individuals. This includes departments. and activities contribute to developing commitment among employees. They may include a variety of skills and abilities ranging from simple awareness. a rule. The practice can take the form of a system. the boss and her/ his subordinate. a norm. They can also relate to pairs of individuals. Often. the work unit. two departmental heads. management style. the behavior of seniors towards their juniors. Developing commitment has a lot to do with motivation and work habits. two managers. it is easy to lose commitment. At the more visible level. Commitment building should be at the level of individuals. Commitment is indicated by work effort. and enjoyment of the work or the job. dyads. They may also deal with various areas and functions. while even higher compensation increases may not cut much ice on another occasion. or just a way of doing things. zeal. A strong culture can have a lasting effect and provide sustenance to an organization. Commitment should be continuous and become part of life. teams and other formal and informal groups and/ or teams that may come into existence from time to time on a temporary. values. and culture building can be considered as Good HR Practices. a process. though it can be as easily gained. However. Competencies are not merely related to a single individual. and also contributes to commitment. etc. an individual does not respond to all interventions in the same way in terms of commitment. which once developed are difficult to lose. and similar interventions can lead to greater commitment and motivation. Various HR systems. behavioral. Thus. knowledge. etc. and the entire organization. rewards. the culture and values associated with an organization need to be appropriate and well articulated. Competencies may also be related to the organization as a whole. At the less visible level. commitments. an accepted or expected habit. conceptual. salary increases may have a high motivational value at one time. The instruments of culture building include organizational climate surveys. permanent. It enhances predictability. reduces transactional costs. an activity. Attitude. task forces.b) What constitutes Good HR Practices? What is its impact on the organizational performance Answer. 10 (b) Any practice that deals with enhancing competencies. Unlike competencies. recognition. work culture. Management of commitment should go beyond incentives and rewards. or semipermanent basis. value-clarification exercises.
Good HR Practices are those that contribute to one or more of the three C’s described above. reviewing and revising them from time to time to enhance their effectiveness and appropriateness. • Financial incentives for excellent performance • Work organization practice that motivate employee effort and capture the benefits to know-how and skill • Rigorous selection and selectivity in recruiting • Higher than average wages • Employee share-ownership plans • Extensive information sharing • Decentralization of decision making and empowerment • Work organization based on self-managing teams • High investment in training and skill development • Having people to do multiple jobs and job rotation • Elimination of status symbols • Promotions from within • A long-term perspective • Measurement of HR practices and policy implementation • A coherent view of employment relation • A more compressed distribution of salaries across and within levels Impact on organization performance By following good HR practices companies have benefited in the long term. HRD as a tool to initiate and manage changes 5. 1. Ability to adjust to the changes due to liberalization and exploiting opportunities to their advantage 3. organizational-renewal exercises.workshops. Ability to cope well with leadership changes 2. and various other organizational development interventions. They need to be identified and implemented cost-effectively. The researches indicate the following HR practices that effective firms adopt. Investment in training 6. Integration with HRD and personnel departments Human Resource Management Page 38 of 38 . Demonstrate as a changing and learning organization 4.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.