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CAL

NOTES FOR AERONAUTICS

COMMITTEE

No.

\ "4

575

ESTIMATION

OF

MOM_NTS FROM

OF

INERTIA DATA

OF

AIRPLANRS

DESIGN

S i

Langley

By H. Memorial

I. Eiroch]_aum Aeronautical

Laboratory

i

,e

**-eEPROOUCEO e'f NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE
**

U. S. DEPARTMEHTOF COMMERCE SPRINGFIELD,VA. 22161

Washington July 1936

_ _ _ri_ _ .

THE MUCH INTEREST INFORMATION AGENCY. THAT IT OF PORTIONS RELEASED AVAILABLE POSSIBLE. ° .NOTICE THIS FROM THE IS ARE IN AS DOCUMENT THE BEST HAS COPY BEEN REPRODUCED US BY IT FURNISHED ALTHOUGH CERTAIN IS BEING MAKING AS sPONSORING RECOGNIZED ILLEGIBLE.

.

A complete modern airplane is a comparison between it is believed that ed within I0 percent ascertain the center-of-gravity with the calculations of set of data and calculations given to illustrate the calculated values and the moments of inertia by the use of this posimoments of for a procedure. therefore. The calculations combined with the calculations center of gravity of the the component parts of moments of inertia necessary to determine A complete set airplane. The and compu- tations required to tion are incorporated inertia. In some cases. furthermore. The method described makes of use of the design data on of are the of cal- the weights and the locations the airplane. 575 ESTIMATION OF MOMENTS FROM OF DESIGN INERTIA DATA OF AIRPLANES By H. Kirschbaum SUMMARY A airplane locations method from of of determining the moments of inertia of an design data the component pertaining parts is to the weights described. the moments of inertia of an airplane may be needed before its construction is actually completed. From measured values can be estimat- method. It is believed that a description of a method for making such calculations will prove useful. it is not always convenient or possible to measure the moments of inertia owing to lack of equipment even if the airplane is available. W. wherein it will be desirable to calculate the approximate moments of inertia from design data. A method for determinin_ the moments of inertia of airplanes experimentally is described in reference i.NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS TECHNICAL NOTE NO. . There may be frequent cases. however. INTRODUCTION A study of the forces and couples involved in the rotational motion of an airplane involves a knowledge of the moments of inertia.

of makin_ the a Such calculations complete set calculations is best illuspounds until of inertia are the final convert- by carryin_ through actual airplane. 575 actual airplane is given to illustrate This example shows how the calculations the cenof inand the with those required to determine and also how the principal moments angles between the principal axes can be determined. center-of-gravity the center of posigravity in the plane of symmetry so that the plane of is used as the X'Z' reference plane. These distances are designated as Zc. can be combined ter of gravity ertia and the airplane axes N. For convenience in making the calculations staEe ed to the units is reached. 5.A.g. Y'.C. . and 7 list items normally required for the computation of the center of gravity.6. Columns 8 and V give the moments of the elements relative to the reference planes. The X'. slu_-feet The trated for an method used are inches and when the moments squared. METHOD The mutually first step perpendicular in the calculations reference planes is to set up such as would three be required for calculations of the tion (fig. planes are the total x and c. S. and Z' reference axes are the intersections of these planes. The distances of the center of gravity aft and above the reference determined by dividing the total moments by weight. It is known that will lie symmetry venience. ity determination. I). respectively. Column 4. an Technical Note No. 2. and the summationof 6 and 7 gives the total moments relative to the Y'Z T and XIY l reference planes. Columns l. the distance of the element from the plane of symmetry.A. Column 1 shows the element considered and column 2 is its weight. of calculations are shown in table I. For conthe Y'Z' reference plane is placed ahead of the forward end of the airplane and the X'T' reference plane below the lowest part and parallel to the thrust line. The summation of column 2 gives the total weight. but is not required for the center-of-gravsince the center of gravity must lie it is needed for the calculations of the moments of inertia.g" .2 culations for the procedure. Column 3 shows the distances aft of the Y'Z' plane and column 5 shows the distances above the X'Y' plane. in thls plane.

= wy and wz are given in columns 8. about axis. an etc.A. w about w The the X moment X' kx .N. Many elements of the airplane are of such size that their masses may not be assumed to be concentrated at their centers of gravity. the precision required in the estimation is not very great taken. This latter moment of inertia must be estimated.C. 575 3 All subsequent calculations are determination of moments of inertia. 12. and neglected.2 = of y2 gyration + z2 to the X'Z' and X'Y' y and z are the distances planes. Technical Note No. its moment of inertia about an axis passing through its own center of gravity. For such elements it is necessary to add to the moment of inertia of the element. later. In general. however. I. table wy 2. moment parallel The to axes follows: airplane moments through reference of of the total passin_ inertia center airplane are relative found as its gravity . erence is made to the tablo. 2 = = wy 2 + + _z 2 wky. considered as a concentrated mass.A. and for lO of wx 2. inertia point _I are be is given of the centers The symaxis larger items about axes of gravity are shown in bol _I X indicates to the a their own and 13. respectively. The provided for many A further estimated that reasonably elements this discussion moments of pnssing columns of X' of small elements item can actually of this inertia through ll.2 required only Before further some additional for the refex- of inertia of a reference axis is concen- where but where reference kxl is the radius kx. planation is trated weight required. 2 2 2 Hence Similarly and wkx. wx _z 2 2 + 2 WX wk Z 2 Values 9.

this equation can be reduced substitution y = Zwx2 _ :Vxc. namely. _) where By to W is the total weight._. 575 the airplane about the The'total moments of inertia three reference axes are Ix .g. Technical Note of No._. 2 +z c.g. for Iy.C. lies and and in the X'Y' Zc.4 N.g '. = Zwx 2 + Zwz 2 + _AIy I Z' = Zwx2 + Zwy 2 + _I Z is The center of _ravity d_splaced from the Y'Z' designated as Xc.g.17 x $77" . = Zwy_ + Zwz _ + ZAI X Iy.A.W(x c. multiplying moments which by are the of inertia are in units of pound-lnches squared by then converted to slug-feet appropriate factors. about is the total moment of passin_ through inertia of the center the of airplane gravity I Y =I Y' . + Zwy e + ZAI Z These squared. the equations for the other Ix = Zwy 2 + [Zwz2 - Wzc. i i s2.e] + ZAI x and IZ -- Zwx2 - Wx c.A. 2 + Zwz _ _ Wzc.g" Y Since there is two axes reduce no term to YC .g. X'Z' planes plane but by dis- tances The axis respectively.g.

575 5 In axes.0- I Z 2H - tan I X _]= _ 2.0599 are as previously deter- 2"0 = the other quantities follows that . like the moments of inertia. If center tween the total of _ravity the principal product of is designated axes and inertia with respect to the by H. since mined. it .9996 0._. the an_le .05998 1° 43' The principal moments of inertia are given by I Xprln = IX cos2 _ + Iz sln2 "q- H sin 2_ I Yprin = iy Iz prln then since = IX sin 2 T] + IZ cos 2 7] + H sin 2_ .096 - 181 3._. it for each order to determine the locations of the principal wxz is necessary item as shown to find the product in column 14.N. The summation of column 14 represents reference the products of inertia with respect to planes so that it is necessary to subtract to obtain the product of inertia with the respect WXc. This quantity. Technical Note No. In of inertia these computa- tions it is permissible to neglect the products of inertia of the larKer elements about the axes passin_ through their own center of gravity.A.061 = 0. is in units of pound-lnches squared and is converted to slue-feet squared in the _ame manner.0300 0.Zc.A.0 = _ = I° 43' 0.0 bereference axes is _iven by tan 2. to the center of gravity.0 - _____X 9.C.0= sin cos sin and.

For many cases it is permissibla to neglect these items altogether but it should be appreciated that the error due to neglecting such items is cumulative. whereas errors due to erroneous estimates are probably random and te_ to nullify one another.0599 = 3. 575 I . (0.0300) 2 _ Xpri 181 x 0.C. .999 5)2 + 0. the moment of therefore A 50-percent inertia of the result in an en- must in_ the inertia a minimum. 3.9996) 2 + 9. it is apparent that reasonable care should be taken in making the estimate.056 = Iyprin 5. Judgment is required in determinin_ how much care be observed in subdividing the airplane and estimatthe moments of inertia of elements in order to keep errors due to incorrect estimates of the moments of of elements about their own centers of gravity to One large item that cannot conveniently be subinto desirably small parts is the engine.6 = n N.061 x Technical Note No.0300) 2 = + 9.096 X (0. Another portance is of elements In general. Thus.650 IZ prin = 3.061 181 X x (0.096 x (0. about their the accuracy about their the own moments centers withwhich own centers of of inertia gravity of inertia of depends primarily and disposition factor of some of are the of im- the moments of gravity of are inertia known.102 DISCUSSION The accuracy with which the moments airplane are determined by this method upon the accuracy with which the weight the various elements is known.0599 9. for an element as large as the engine. divided example its X ertia error gine of in about its would error of about i percent in the final result. In the the estimated moment of inertia of the engine about axis is about 2 percent of the total moment of inthe the airplane estimation X axis about of its X axis.A.A. the various elements small relative to the total moments of inertia of the airplane so that the accuracy of these items does not need to be very great.

Va. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.C. The airplane was available in disassembled form so that the weights of various major elements could be accurately determined and checked against weight estimates of small elements. N. The moment however.A.C. 575 7 ments tions of calculatin_ the moby making the calculathe moments of inertia were also determined by experiment. and 1 percent for the X..5.R. and Z values axes. The accuracy of of inertia was for an airplane Technical this method investigated for which Note No. It was found that the calculated values were lower than the experimental Y. Soule. R EF ER EN CE 1. moments of inertia does entrapped air.A. Thus the disagreement between calculated and experimental values in this case could be accounted for by a maximum error of 4 percent in the calculated values. 19S6.: of The ExperiInertia of 1933.. T. error in for the by 6.N. For the more general case in which the weights of elements or assemblies are obtained solely from estimates. some additional error might be incurred but kept it seems within reasonable i0 percent to expect that the without difficulty. would increase small amount that can safe- Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. No. Marvel of the Moments 467. 4. July 17. Miller. . Langley Field.A. the calculated values only by a ly be neglected.A.. respectively. and mental Determination Airplanes.5 percent (reference I). the experimental X axis for which moments of inertia it might amount is as The greatest to much as 2. P. error can be This method of calculating not take into consideration the of inertia of the entrapped air. Hartley A.

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g.536 1.982 116.053 55.940 2.164 48.1_ 2.00 1.0[170 70.800 148 i.143 63.000 17.0G 3. wx 2 1.000 8. cowll_ Cabin windshield Foot troughs Floor.598 184.300 15 151.073 2.586 9.955 l OF 9.076 148.80 4.480.394 5.950 375.182 136! 627 1.88! 1.794 10.159.8(3 1.470 I08.032 123.443 784 784 1.05 I ii0 141 28 253.160 28. _9.133 2.864 _0.6_ 57.152 6.agO 12.0] _0 16._8 18.824 524.0 i15 1.858 9.240.496 3.37_ 142.184 56.960 11.680 13.766.g_ I i .?26.381 _09.245 255. Wel_ht 3.A.423 3.890. i00 14.201 116.174 1.693 82. wXZ 632.394 120 1.000 15.875 5.065 2.4| 28.844.C.858 8.410 367.401 355 860 4.412 3.690 8. =_.584.898 2_9.8@ 5. rear Win_ fillets Bot£om side cowll_ and frames Tail-wheel pan.2%0 1.18 176.67 MOMENTS 2. Arrestln6 door etc.360 34.400 15.378 110.470 i06._00 321.800 172.88_ 713.985 25.185.s.5[ 80 2.81120 88.0 565 1.040 685 i.590.845 202.424 324.11367 514.01110 232.854 108.098 Center nose Center beam.000 157.573 2. y 5.166 6.434 ii.0[ 7] 3.N.76 125.747 1.405.482 5.570.215 2.060 26 253.500 9.026 928.71 1.6271 3.01176 40. wS 6.678 17.798 441.000 1.300 481 I.16 262.995 i 2.800 66.460 2.318 770 340 5.800 1.411.088 720 4.488 595.000 41.0[ 69 | 82.947 712.507 23.229 481.702 814.0_ 70.300 :.01102 81.0[156 12.181 2.07910.060 1.91195 4.71 264.706 1.478 178. Center ribs.576.01132 75.7| 80 1.01165 34.6_ 798.786 1.096 1.6| 35 52 ! 11.317 11.916 5.060.705 61.61222 4.137 160.086.560 3.160 864 8.200 5.844 48.51254 Ii.285.034 529.960 5.560 5.463 490.000 775.710 25.858 418.924 83. _I z 361.131._64 8.821 120.496 5.853 532. 4.%1172 51.61121 12. _Iy 55.224 5.855 657.91140 5.008 80.648 i.0] 90.267 9.478.184 57.938 36. wy 2 IN_TIA I0.890. L__IX c .01128 38. k" xc.787 12.430 12.521. dl X 261.36 283.760 1.731.072 1.1C 839.8_8 Pilot Observer Fuel 011 Very Pistol Smoke candles Float lights Radio Chart board.200 69.154 259.400 9.40 985.0|145 1.800 3. ¢ 6.1_ 147. Technical Mote 8o.760 3.960 10.7801 369 1.944 24.890.407 55.g.400 3.849.350 67.000 1.900 57.36 391.662 2. 575 TABLE COMPUTATIONS 1.0[ 56 26.800 175.248 41.288! 15.736 1.8.658 i0.000 103.900 4.53 892.091.200 12. 17.361 244. Flap Outer Outer Outer Ailerons Vertical Horizontal Fuselage ton Engine tail tail skelemou_t section assembly section etc.508 114.675 400.040 34.02 210.01136 1457.026 53.382 62.875 265.51160 22.598 184.709 154 1.028 677.47 4.656 1.8_ 857.701.768.g. Drlft sight First aid Life USEFUL TOT£LS CORR_TION raft LOAD _oo.38 194.514 274.300 533 30.34 18.888 i.86 554.67.589 i.390 176.584 - 15.300 Ii.213.300 _7.200 310.620.624 _04.137 etc 306 817.601 i0.400 800 70.51146 2.8| 165 15.008 32.005 838.090.2 L-WZc. Tall wheel 48.51142 27.5|585 12.509 120 1.805.713.401 1.41106 _00-01105 21.464 3.60 23. x 4.01184 9.240 3. we 2 553.681.980 7.805.656 50 7.695 ll.200 28.594 5.755.71178 3.4 552 87.160 864 4.868 63.632 410.184 15.575 293 384 648 12.424 _3.Olll5 412.986 346.051.52 61.378 31 1.394 115 1.51210 18.680 78.365.058 2.000 5.325 174.0]190 142.114 6. Item 2.64 199. 274 22.614 274.6.148.404 _8.tlons 1-2etaChassis (retracted) Retracting mechanlsm Wheels.157 612 289.g7 152.40 10.675 5.80 280.834 - * 23.800 448. etc.678 4.025 82 336 i.1_0 548 134 2_8 5.381.10 185.549 7.144 63.509 27.831 9.78 718._6 122.0] 70 2.048.899 I k2 .352 2.640 1. 320 3.600 624.490 346.008 65.200 26.852 1.875 81.6_ 123.150 i_.688 2.572 33.8_ 37.146 12.073.50 25.5_ 604.508 5._00 720 15. section etc.699 19.369.625 2. Ix l¥ IZ H WXc.631 1.8_ 356.858 - 23.962 89.0C 8.600 1.876 13.000 660.200 62.01140 go2 i005 :.g.138 18.308 7.024.800 141.876 18.145 2.129.385 285.044.iii. panel panel panel nose beam ribs I088 102 28.944 24.8_139 31.08 1. Side doors Ba_age door Fabric and dope Tall cone Cowllng.800 130.64 2.400 89.180 3.378 764.462 84.0[ 9 3?.600 7.472 128.545.376 8. 274 25.464 3.432 133.966 11.546 3.000 5.21146 22.800 35.0|254 7.121 685.229 481.764 35 314 400 108.01180 104.809.549.232 254.688 145.342.883 18.864 46.234 151.980 306 178.202 OF 8.491 664.03 86. 140 145.000 2.890 I00.56: 1.0.o12o5 780.C.451 _97 3.900 8_8.980.08 452.996.988.853 49.649.380 508.938 4.200 51.995.31284 17.861 I.840 253. wx 11.745 264.6 91.171 3.784 66.417.A.895 541.108 108.786.520 8Z_5 17.518 11.01360 L049.548.71128 690 70.A.869 78.800 _8.400 3.672 18.ec.757 204.01105 222.38 31.200 104.711 1.454 186.842 1.7_0 378.84 1.060 _6.i00 Turtleback (falrlng) Firewall Steps N.736 3.A.893._02 2.880 880 140 5.0 77 9.0_ 27.196 386?.799 10.298 135.900 547.478 158.385 761 736 1.390 176.55 926.i00 - Engine EnElne acceesoriee Engine controls Propeller 8tartlng eyJte= Lubricating eyetem Fuel system Instruments 8urfacetrois conFurnlshin_ _lectrical equli:aent Hoist AIRPLAJE sling _h_TY 177.617 4.362 _.155.800 8.8 105 155.

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I \ % % % \ \ \0> O \ / / / \ \ \ / / \ .A. 575 Fig.A. Technical Note"NQ.N.C.

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