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Federalists to the DemocraticRepublicans. In his popular inaugural address, he stated: “ We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists” By the end of 1816, the Federalists were no longer a political party. Under Jefferson and his close friend James Madison, the nation experienced peaceful political change, expanded territorially, survived another war, and strengthened its democratic and nationalistic spirit. Unfortunately, the nation still had its problems with slavery, the treatment of Native Americans, and loyalty to local interests.
Jefferson’s Presidency During his first term, Jefferson tried to win favor with Federalists by: 1. Maintaining Hamilton’s plan 2. Carried on neutrality policies of Washington and Adams He also retained Republican loyalty by: 1. Limiting the role of central gov’t 2. Reduced the size of the military, eliminated a number of federal jobs ,repealed excise taxes (whiskey), and lowered the national debt Jefferson’s presidency (first four years) ran rather smooth and the most important achievement was the Louisiana Purchase & its consequences- The purchase of a very large territory from France for $15 million, or $23 million when interest is included. It created a lot controversy about whether it was constitutional or not, weakened the federalists and almost made New England leave the Union. Constitutional problem with Louisiana Purchase- Jefferson followed a strict interpretation of the Constitution, so many thought he was being hypocritical for siding with the purchase. Lewis and Clark Expedition- Expedtioon to explore the Louisiana Territory. They traveled from Saint Charles to the Pacific Ocean and back. John Marshall and the Supreme Court Even though the Federalists lost power in the executive and legislative branches of government, they still held power in the judiciary branch with having Federalist judges. John Marshall- He served under presidents including Jefferson and others for 34 years. He shaped the American
legal tradition more than any other person.
Marbury v. Madison- James Madison, the new secretary of state, had cut judge Marbury's salary; Marbury sued
James Madison for his pay; Marbury ended up getting his pay but the decision showed that the Supreme Court had the final authority in determining the meaning of the Constitution.
Judicial Impeachments• • • • Jefferson tried other methods for overturning past Federalist measures and appointments: Suspended the Alien and Sedition Acts and released anyone convicted from jail One judge in a federal court was found mentally unbalanced and was impeached The house impeached Supreme Court Justice, but the senate acquitted him after finding no evidence of high crimes.
Samuel Chase- supreme court justice of whom the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate. Jefferson’s Reelection- reelected in 1804, capturing 162 electoral votes, while his Federalist opponent (Charles
Pinckney) only received 14 votes.
Aaron Burr & his trial for treason- Jefferson's first-term vice president; Duel between Burr and Hamilton-Burr joined a group of extremist Federalists who plotted the secession of New England and New York; Alexander Hamilton uncovered the plot. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and Hamilton accepted. Hamilton refused to shoot and he was shot and killed by Burr. Foreign problems Barbary Pirates-Muslims pirates that captured slaves from Europe and even North America, causing the U.S. to first bribe them, and then to form a navy to fight against them. Napoleonic Wars & challenges to U.S. neutrality- The U.S tried to stay neutral while Europe was at war, despite French attacking U.S ships.
Chesapeake-Leopard affair- The leopard, a British ship, attacked the Chesapeake when it was refused the right to search it for deserters. The Chesapeake surrendered, and the entire affair angered the U.S.
Embargo Act 1807- It banned the exportation of any goods to any countries. James Madison’s Presidency
Jefferson believed strongly in the tradition established by Washington of voluntary retiring from presidency after a second term. For his party’s nomination for president, he supported close friend, Secretary of State James Madison. Madison was a brilliant thinker and statesman, and nicknamed “Father of the Constitution”; however, he was a weak public speaker, had a stubborn temperament, and lacked Jefferson’s political skills. Foreign problems Madison was still dealing with the Napoleonic Wars with the diplomacy and economic pressure: Nonintercourse Act of 1809- It opened up trade to every country except France and Britain.
Macon’s bill No.2- It reopened American trade with the entire world
Upon hearing of his action, Napoleon announced his intention of revoking decrees that violated U.S. neutrality; however it soon became apparent that Napoleon was not going to keep his word. Despite his pledge the French continued to seize U.S. ships. In the meantime, the U.S. had stopped trade with the England according to Macon No.2. War of 1812 -Napoleon responded to Macon’s Bill No.2-remember the U.S. would prohibit trade with that nation’s foe/enemy (Britain) -Neither Britain or the U.S. wanted their dispute to end in war, yet was manages to break out in 1812 Causes of War of 1812 Trade issues- both France and Britain wanted the U.S . to trade with them but not the other, and violated U.S. neutrality.
Western Land Issues- War against several Indian tribes at the same time as the war with Britain.
War Hawks- members of Congress that supported war against Britain as punishment for their violations of U.S neutrality. Overall, U.S. demands over neutral rights combined with political pressures, Madison declares war against Britain; ironically Britain suspended the naval blockade; however war was already declared!
A Divided Nation -Congress nor the people were united for war. PA and Vermont joined the southern and western states to provide a majority for war declaration -NY, NJ and the rest of New England voted against a war Election of 1812- Madison is reelected president despite opposition by DeWitt Clinton.
Mr. Madison’s War and Opposition, Different Group Opinion New England merchants-
“Old Republicans”- Group of Democratic-Republicans that broke off from the main party and favored a stricter interpretation of the Constitution.
Military defeats and Naval Victories -Madison’s strategy was twofold- - to depend on Napoleon’s continued success in Europe and a U.S. land campaign against Canada Invasion of Canada Three part invasion -Start out from Detroit, Niagra and Lake Champlain Effective Naval Battles
Lake Erie Battle 1813- Battle between nine American had six British ships. The U.S victory gave the U.S control of the lake and allowed the recovery of Detroit, among other things.
Battle of Thames River- Battle in which Tecumseh, an Indian chief, was killed, and the U.S regained control of the Northwest frontier.
U.S. warship Constitution- One of the first ships made for the U.S. navy it won several battles against British ships during the war.
Chesapeake Campaign Incident at the White House 1814Fort McHenry and ‘The Star-Spangles Banner’-British tried to capture the fort, and Francis Scott Key wrote the poem that would become the anthem. Southern Campaign Battle at Horseshoe Bend 1814-Final battle in Alabama against the Red Sticks, on Indian tribe, General Andrew Jackson won the battle, ending the war.
Battle of New Orleans- Final battle of the War of 1812 where on invading British army tried to capture New Orleans but was defeated by Andrew Jackson. Treaty of Ghent 1814 Provisions- the treaty returned captured lands to their owners and ensured peaceful relations between U.S and Britain. All slaves and prisoners were returned. The Hartford Convention Before the war ended, the New England states came close to seceding from the Union. To consider these matters, a convention was held in Hartford Connecticut, in December 1814.Secession was rejected, but no limit the growing power of the Republicans in the South and West, they adopted a numbers of proposals. One of them called for a 2/3 vote of both houses for any future declaration of war. Shortly afterwards, news came of both Jackson’s victory at New Orleans and the Treaty of Ghent. The events resulted in an ended criticism about the war and a weakening of the Federalist Party.
The War Legacy The U.S. won 2 wars against Britain now and gained international respect The U.S. accepted Canada as its neighbor and a part of Britain The Federalist Party died The South would later threaten to succession leading to the Civil War (like New England) Native Americans were forced to surrender large amounts of land to the U.S. U.S. factories were built to make up for unavailable European goods making us more independent Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison were war heroes who would become political leaders Nationalism Grew!
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