I. II. A motivation is a need or desire that serves to energize behavior and to direct it towards a goal. Instinct and Evolutionary Psychology A. Early in the twentieth century, the influence of Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory grew, because it became fashionable to classify all sorts of behaviors as instincts. B. An instinct is a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. Drives and Incentives A. Drive-reduction theory is the idea that a psychological need creates an aroused tension state (in drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy their drive, by say eating or drinking. B. With a few exceptions when the physiological need increases – so does the physiological drive (an aroused, motivated state).


IV. Homeostasis A. is a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of the body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. B. An example of it is our body’s temperature, which works like thermostat. If our body temperature cools, blood vessels constrict to reserve warmth, and we are forced t put on more clothes or seek a warmer environment. C. We are "pulled" by incentives – a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivate (lure or repel) behavior. D. Our internal needs energize and direct our behavior, but our external incentives do as well. The lure of money may energize us quite apart from any need-based drive. V. Optimum Arousal A. Our biological rhythms cycle through times of arousal. B. Far from reducing a physiological need or minimizing tension, some motivated behaviors increase arousal. C. Curiosity drives monkeys to monkey around trying to figure out how to unlock a latch that opens nothing, or how to open a window that allows them to see outside the room. D. Despite having our biological needs satisfied, we feel driven to experience stimulation., because we feel bored without it. VI. A Hierarchy of Motives Some needs take priority over others. A. Hierarchy of needs is Abraham Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then physiological needs to become active. Maslow’s hierarchy is somewhat arbitrary; the order of needs is not universally fixed.

Module 34: The Physiology of Hunger


World War II Experiment - Scientist Ancel Keys and his colleagues (1950) solicited volunteers whom they fed just enough to maintain their weight, and the for six month they cut this food level in half. A. As an effect, the men began conserving energy; they appeared listless and apathetic. Consistent with Maslow’s idea of need hierarchy, the men became obsessed with food.


The Physiology of hunger A. Keys’ semistarved subjects felt their hunger in response to a homeostatic system designed to maintain normal body weight and adequate nutrition supply. B. Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger. C. Some diets reduce this feeling of an empty stomach by filling the stomach with indigestible fibers that swell as they absorb water. D. When people with severe obesity undergo bypass surgery that seals off part of the stomach, the remaining stomach then produces much less ghrelin, hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach and appetite lessens. E. Tsang (1938) removed rats’ stomachs and attached their esophagi to their small intestines and yet the rats still felt hungry and ate food. Body Chemistry and the Brain


A. Glucose is the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides a major source of energy for body tissues. Glucose level in blood is maintained. When insulin decreases, glucose in blood makes us feel hungry. B-Glucose levels in our blood are monitored by the brain. Signals from the stomach, the intestines, and the liver (indicating whether glucose is being deposited or withdrawn) all signal the brain to motivate eating or not. Researchers located hunger controls within the hypothalamus, a small but complex neural traffic intersection buried deep in the brain. A. Activity along the sides of the hypothalamus is known as lateral hypothalamus – brings on hunger (stimulation); destroy it, and an animal has not interest in eating. Reduction of blood glucose stimulates orexin (hunger-triggering hormone). B. Lower middle of the hypothalamus – ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) depresses hunger stimulation. Destroy it and the animal eats excessively. C. Insulin – hormone secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose. D. Leptin – protein secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and increase hunger. E. Orexin – hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus. F. Ghrelin – hormone secreted by empty stomch; sends " I am hungry" signals to the brain. G. PYY – digestive tract hormone; sends "I’m not hungry" signals to the brain. H. Set point – the point at which an individual’s "weight thermostat is supposedly set. When the body falls below the weight, and increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. I. To maintain its set-point weight, your body adjusts not only food intake and energy output, but also its basal metabolic rate – the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure.


By the end of the World War II experiment, its participants became 3/4 h of their original weight.

Some researchers doubt that the body has certain set point that drives it to hunger. They believe that slow, sustained changes in body weight, for example, alter one’s set point. Psychological factors sometimes drive our feelings of hunger. Psychology of Hunger Our eagerness to eat is indeed pushed by our physiological state, yet there is more to hunger than meets the stomach. Taste Preference: Biology or Culture? As our hunger diminishes, our eating behavior changes Body chemistry and environment influence not only when we feel hungry, but also what we feel hungry for – our taste preference. Carbohydrates help boost levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which has calming affect. Our preferences for sweet and salty foods are genetic, and universal, but culture affects taste, too. We humans have a natural dislike for things that are unfamiliar to us. Countries with hot climates, in which food historically spoiled more quickly, feature recipes with more bacteria-inhibiting spices. Eating Disorders Psychological influences on eating behavior are strikingly evident when a motive for abnormal thinness overwhelms normal homeostatic pressure. Anorexia nervosa – an eating disorder in which normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve. Bulimia nervosa – an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise. Unlike anorexia, bulimia is marked by weight fluctuations within or above normal ranges, making the condition easy to hide. Researchers report that families of bulimia patients have a higher-than-usual incidence of alcoholism, obesity, and depression.

In contrast, anorexia patients come from families that are competitive, high-achieving and protective. Mothers of girls with eating disorders are themselves often focused on their own weight and their daughter’s weight and appearance. Facing a diet, a person’s body seems to revolt and overcomes the dieter’s willpower by demanding food to restore lost fat. People with eating disorders may also have abnormal supplies of neurotransmitters that put them at risk for anxiety and depression. Obesity: A disorder characterized by excessive eating. Obesity increases risk of health issues such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and back problems. Sexual abuse does not necessarily cause an eating disorder. Family habits and genetics do. An identical twin has a higher chance of also developing an eating disorder. Body image: Western culture tends to over-emphasize thin body image more than other cultures. Women with low self-esteem are particularly likely to have both, a negative body image and an eating disorder. Body ideals vary across culture and time. The complex recipe that produces eating disorders thus seems to include cultural pressure to be thin, added to low self-esteem and negative emotions (perhaps genetically predisposed), and mixed with a stressful life experience.

Module 35 Sexual motivation:
I. II. Sex is a part of life. The pleasure of sex is our genes’ way of preserving and spreading the species. sexual behavior A. Alfred Kinsey confidential interviews with a random sample of 18,000 people, had statisticsladen volumes became bestsellers. III. The physiology of sex A. Like hunger, sexual arousal depends on the interplay of internal and external stimuli. To understand sexual motivation, we must consider both.

IV. The sexual response cycle A. Sexual response cycle- the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson B. Excitement phase- the genital areas become engorged with blood, causing the man’s penis to become partially erect and the woman’s clitoris to swell and the inner lips covering her vagina to open up. Her vagina also expands and secretes lubricant, and her breasts and nipples may enlarge. C. Plateau phase- excitement peaks as breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates. D. Orgasm phase- a woman’s arousal and orgasm facilitate conception by helping propel semen from the penis, positioning the uterus to receive sperm, and drawing the sperm farther inward. E. Resolution Phase- the male enters a refractory period, lasting from a few minutes to a day or more, during which he is incapable of another orgasm. The female refractory period is not very long, which may make it possible for her to have another orgasm if re-stimulated during or soon after resolution. V. Refractory Period- a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm. VI. Sexual disorders- A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning. VII. Hormones and Sexual Behaviors A. Sex hormones have two effects: the direct the development of the male and female sex characteristics, and they activate sexual behavior. B. Estrogen- a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. C. Testosterone- The most important of the male sex hormones. D. At ovulation, woman’s sexual desire is only slightly higher than at other times. VIII. The psychology of sex A. External stimuli B. Many studies confirm that men become aroused when they see, hear, or read erotic material. C. Surprising to many is that most women-at least the less-inhibited women who volunteer to participate in such studies-report nearly as much arousal to the same stimuli. D. Sexual material can have adverse effects. Depictions of women being sexually coerced-and enjoying it-tend to increase the viewers’ acceptance of the false idea that woman enjoy rape and tend to increase males viewers willingness to hurt woman. Imagined Stimuli A. The brain is our most significant sex organ. B. Wide awake people become sexually aroused not only by memories of prior sexual activities but also by fantasies. C. About 95 percent of both men and women say they have sexual fantasies. Adolescent Sexuality Culture A. Our attitudes toward behaviors such as premarital sex and non marital childbearing vary widely across the planet. B. In the United States, about half of ninth to twelfth graders report having had a sexual intercourse, as do 42 percent of Canadian 16 year olds. C. Teen intercourse rates are higher in Western Europe but much lower in Arab and Asian countries and among North Americans of Asian decent. D. Sexual Orientation



1. Sexual Orientation- an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex or the other. 2. Gay men and lesbians often recall childhood play preferences like those of the other sex. 3. But most homosexual people report not becoming aware if same sex attraction until during or shortly after puberty. V. Sex and Human values

A. Recognizing values are both personal and cultural, most sex researchers and educators strive to keep their writings on sexuality value-free.

Module 36: Motivation at Work
A. The healthy life, said Freud, is filled by love and by work. For most of us, work is life’s biggest single waking activity. B. Most people have neither a single vacation nor a predictable career path. Work is indeed both a bane and a blessing – but more a blessing. C. Mihaly Csikszentminhalyi observed that people’s quality of life increases when they are purposefully engaged. D. Between the anxiety of being overwhelmed and stressed and the apathy of being overwhelmed and stressed lies a zone called the flow – a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of the self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills. E. Flow experience boosts our self-esteem, competence, and well-being. F. Industrial – organization (I/O) psychology – the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in a work place. G-Two subfields: Personnel psychology – focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development. Organizational psychology – examines organixational influence on worker’s satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change. G. Human factor psychology – explores how machines and environment can be optimally designed to fit one’s abilities and expectations. III. Personnel Psychology A. Psychologists help identify needed job skills, decide upon selection methods, recruit and evaluate applicants, introduce and train new employees, and appraise their performance. IV. Harnessing Strengths A. Personnel selections aim to match people’s strengths with work that enables them and their organization to flourish.

B. Today only 20 percent of the employees surveyed said that they get the opportunity to do what they can do best. C. Personnel managers use various tools to asses applicant’s strengths. V. Do Interviews Predict performance?

A. It takes only a few seconds to sense an applicant’s animation, extraversion, warmth, and speaking voice. VI. The Interviewer Illusion A. Given how quickly they form impressions, interviewers understandably feel confident in their ability to predict long-term job performance from unstructured, get-acquainted interview. B. Interviews disclose the interviewer’s good intentions, which are less revealing than habitual behaviors. C. Interviewers more often follow the career path of those they have hired, rather than the successful careers of those they have lost track of. D. Interviewers presume that people are what they seem to be in a given situation. E. Interviewers’ perceptions and moods color how they perceive interviewees’ responses. F. Gut feeling gleaned from someone’s interview is only modestly predictive. Structured Interviews A. Structured interviews – interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales. B. A personnel psychologist may analyze a job, script questions, and train interviewers. C. Unlike in unstructured interviews, in structured interviews pinpoint strengths and distinguish high performers in particular line of work. Appraising Performance A. Performance appraisal serves organizational purposes: It helps decide how appropriately reward and pay people. Its feedback affirms worker’s strengths and helps motivate needed improvements. B. Performance appraisal methods include: checklist on which supervisors simply check behaviors that describe the worker, graphic rating scales on which supervisors check the extent to which a worker is dependable, productive, and so forth, behavior rating scales on which supervisor checks behaviors that best describe worker’s performance. C. Halo errors occur when overall evaluation of an employee, or of a trait such as friendliness, biases rating of their specific work-related behaviors, such as reliability. D. Lenience and severity errors reflect evaluators’ tendencies to be either too easy or too harsh on everyone.



IX. Recency errors occur when rater’s focus on only easily remembered events. A. Organizational Psychology: Motivating Achievement B. Achievement motivation – a desire for significant accomplishments for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining high standard. C. Analysis of the life histories of great scientists, philosophers, political leaders, writers, and musicians confirm the importance of disciplined motivation. D. Great achievers, consumed by passion to perfect their gift, are often continuously productive from early age.

X. Satisfaction and Engagement A. Employee satisfaction is priority concern for I/O psychologists because work is a big part of life. B. Studies confirm the decreased job stress improve health. Engaged workers have what they need to do their work, no what’s expacted of C- them, feel fulfilled, have regular opportunities to do what they do best, perceive that they are part of something significant, and have an opportunity to grow and develop. XI. Managing Well

A. Effective leaders harness job-relevant strengths, set goals, and chose an appropriate leadership style. XII. Harnessing Job-Relevant Strengths

A. Positive psychology builds upon a basic principle of operant conditioning: To teach behavior, catch an organism doing something right and reinforce it. Great managers build upon their employees’ talents. XIII. Setting Specific Challenging Goals A. In study after study, people merely asked to do their best do not do so. But specific challenging goals to motivate higher achievement, especially when combined with progress reports. B. When people share in setting a goal, and find it challenging, yet attainable, reaching it boosts their self-evaluation. Choosing an Appropriate Leadership Style A. Leadership varies from boss-focused directive style, to democratic sty empowering workers. B. Task leadership – goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals. C. Social leadership – group-oriented leadership that builds team work, mediates conflict, and offers support. Effective leaders tend to exude "charisma". D. Theory X – assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above. E. Theory Y – assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are intrinsically motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity. F. Theory Y managers are more likely to give their employees control over work procedures, to welcome employee participation in decision making, and to have creative and satisfied subordinate. Achievement at work is more obviously driven by psychological factors, such as an intrinsic quest for mastery and external award of recognition.


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